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|Clockwise from top left: Protesters in Tahrir Square in Cairo; Demonstrators marching through Habib Bourguiba Avenue in Tunis; Political dissidents in Sana’a; Protesters gathering in Pearl Roundabout in Manama; Mass Demonstration in Douma; Demonstrators in Bayda.|
The Arab Spring when the lyeing one lye no more and when she take up her place in the heaven the arab spring will start and that what happen in December 18 th 2010 in tunisa tunisa the one who lye down or tunis is the sky goddest who rule over the star moon and planet it is also the goddest of fertility .tunisa was bait that got the arab spring going and the beast moving looking at the majiour protest wheret the ruler have been force from power in Tunisia, Egypt (twice), Libya, and Yemen; civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrainand Syria; major protests have broken out you can see a wave going farward activating these country as it pass throught . in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and Sudan; and minor protests have occurred in Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Western Sahara, and the Palestinian Authority.
Related events outside of the Arab World included protests in Iranian Khuzestan by the Arab minority in April 2011 and border clashes in Israel in May 2011. Weapons and Tuareg fighters returning from the Libyan civil war stoked a simmering conflict in Mali which has been described as “fallout” from the Arab Spring in North Africa. The sectarian clashes in Lebanon were described as a spillover violence of the Syrian uprising and hence the regional Arab Spring.
The protests have shared some techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations, marches, and rallies, as well as the effective use of social media to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face of state attempts at repression and Internet censorship.
Many Arab Spring demonstrations have been met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks have been answered with violence from protestors in some cases. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been Ash-sha`b yurid isqat an-nizam (“the people want to bring down the regime”).
Some observers have drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the Revolutions of 1989 (also known as the “Autumn of Nations”) that swept through Eastern Europe and the Second World, in terms of their scale and significance. Others, however, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes and the organizational role of internet technology in the Arab revolutions.
The term “Arab Spring” is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which is sometimes referred to as “Springtime of the People”, and the Prague Spring in 1968. In the aftermath of the Iraq War it was used by various commentators who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization. The first specific use of the term Arab Spring as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign Policy. Marc Lynch, referring to his article in Foreign Policy, writes “Arab Spring—a term I may have unintentionally coined in a January 6, 2011 article”. Joseph Massad on Al Jazeera said the term was “part of a US strategy of controlling [the movement’s] aims and goals” and directing it towards American-style liberal democracy. Due to the electoral success of Islamist parties following the protests in many Arab countries, the events have also come to be known as “Islamist Spring” or “Islamist Winter”.
The Arab spring is widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels may have had a hand as well. Numerous factors have led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, political corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables), economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors, such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population. Also, some – like Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek – name the2009–2010 Iranian election protests as an additional reason behind the Arab Spring. The Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010 might also have been a factor influencing its beginning. Catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have included the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo. Increasing food prices and global famine rates have also been a significant factor, as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 2007–2008 world food price crisis.
In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education, have resulted in an improved Human Development Index in the affected countries. The tension between rising aspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests.Many of the Internet-savvy youth of these countries have, increasingly over the years, been viewing autocrats and absolute monarchies as anachronisms. An Oman university professor, Al-Najma Zidjaly, referred to this upheaval as youthquake.
Tunisia and Egypt, the first to witness major uprisings, differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nations such as Algeria andLibya in that they lack significant oil revenue, and were thus unable to make concessions to calm the masses.
The relative success of the democratic Republic of Turkey, with its substantially free and vigorously contested but peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but Islamist government, created a model (the Turkish model) if not a motivation for protestors in neighbouring states. This view, however, has been contested and put into perspective by recent waves of anti-government protests in Turkey.
The current wave of protests is not an entirely new phenomenon, resulting in part from the activities of dissident activists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations that have been active for years in Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and other countries in the area, as well as in the territory of Western Sahara.
Revolts have been occurring in the Arab area since the 1800s, but only recently have these revolts been redirected from foreign rulers to the Arab states themselves. The revolution in the summer of 2011 marked the end of the old phase national liberation from colonial rule; now revolutions are inwardly directed at the problems of Arab society.
Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests. The Egyptian labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004. One important demonstration was an attempted workers’ strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students. A Facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers. The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the “6 April Committee” of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.
In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is ‘unhappy’ with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile. Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as ‘9,700 riots and unrests’ throughout the country. Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.
In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south-east of El Aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses. The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring.
The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi. Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, on 17 December 2010, a municipal inspector confiscated his wares. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 4 January 2011 brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian revolution.
Main article: Timeline of the Arab Spring
The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa that commenced in 2010 has become known as the “Arab Spring”, and sometimes as the “Arab Spring and Winter”, “Arab Awakening” or “Arab Uprisings” even though not all the participants in the protests are Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred inTunisia on 18 December 2010 in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi‘s self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, awave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian “Burning Man” struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen, then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations have often occurred on a “day of rage”, usually Friday afternoon prayers. The protests have also triggered similar unrest outside the region.
As of September 2012, governments have been overthrown in four countries. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council (NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTC took control of the city. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh signed the GCC power-transfer deal in which a presidential election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi formally replacing him as the president of Yemen on 27 February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution.
During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015, as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014, although there have been increasingly violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation. Protests in Jordan have also caused the sacking of four successive governments by King Abdullah. The popular unrest in Kuwait has also resulted in resignation of Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah cabinet.
The geopolitical implications of the protests have drawn global attention, including the suggestion that some protesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize. Tawakel Karman from Yemen was one of the three laureates of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize as a prominent leader in the Arab Spring. In December 2011, Time magazine named “The Protester” its “Person of the Year“. Another award was noted when the Spanish photographer Samuel Aranda won the 2011 World Press Photo award for his image of a Yemeni woman holding an injured family member, taken during the civil uprising in Yemen on 15 October 2011.
|Country||Date started||Status of protests||Outcome||Death toll||Situation|
|Tunisia||18 December 2010||Government overthrown on 14 January 2011||Overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia||338||Government overthrown|
|Algeria||29 December 2010||Ended in January 2012||8||Major protests|
|Jordan||14 January 2011||
||3||Protests and governmental changes|
|Oman||17 January 2011||Ended in May 2011||2–6||Protests and governmental changes|
|Egypt||25 January 2011||Government overthrown on 11 February 2011. The replacement Islamist government was ousted by military. Ongoing violence in response to the coup.||Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak; Mubarak sentenced to life in prison for ordering the killing of protesters. Protests over the imposition of an Islamist-backed constitution by the Muslim Brotherhood and Mohamed Morsi precipitate acoup d’état by the military.Timeline of events
||1,700||Government overthrown;Replacement government overthrown|
|Yemen||27 January 2011||Government overthrown on 27 February 2012||Overthrow of Ali Abdullah Saleh; Saleh granted immunity from prosecution
|Djibouti||28 January 2011||Ended in March 2011||2||Minor protests|
|Somalia||28 January 2011||Ended in June 2012||2||Minor protests|
|Sudan||30 January 2011||Ongoing||14||Minor protests|
|Iraq||23 December 2012||Ongoing||11||Major protests|
|Bahrain||14 February 2011||Ongoing||
||120||Sustained civil disorder and government changes|
|Libya||17 February 2011||Government overthrown on 23 August 2011||Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by rebel forces||25,000-30,000+||Government overthrown|
|Kuwait||19 February 2011||0||Protests and governmental changes|
|Morocco||20 February 2011||Ended in March–April 2012||6||Protests and governmental changes|
|Mauritania||25 February 2011||Ongoing||3||Minor protests|
|Lebanon||27 February 2011||Ended in December 2011||0||Protests and governmental changes|
|Saudi Arabia||11 March 2011||Ongoing||24||Minor protests|
|Syria||15 March 2011||Ongoing||
||106,000+||Ongoing civil war|
|Iran||15 April 2011||Ended on 18 April 2011||12||Major protests|
|Israel||15 May 2011||Ended on 5 June 2011||12–40||Major protests|
|Palestine||4 September 2012||finished||0||Protests and governmental changes|
|Total death toll||134,239+||
Casualties of the Syrian Civil War
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Doctors and medical staff treating injured rebel fighters and civilians in Aleppo
Estimates of deaths in the Syrian Civil War, per opposition activist groups, vary between 95,850 and 130,435. On 24 July 2013, the United Nations put out an estimate of over 100,000 that had died in the war.
UNICEF reported that over 500 children had been killed by early February 2012. Another 400 children have been reportedly arrested and tortured in Syrian prisons. Both claims have been contested by the Syrian government. Additionally, over 600 detainees and political prisoners have died under torture. By late December 2013, the opposition activist group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported the number of children killed in the conflict had risen to 7,014, while at the same time 4,695 women were also killed. According to the UN, 6,561 children were killed by mid-June 2013. The Oxford Research Group said that a total of 11,420 children had been killed in the conflict by late November 2013.
Total deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria (18 March 2011 – 18 October 2013)
Weekly deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria (18 March 2011 – 18 October 2013)
The number of fatalities in the conflict, according to the Syrian opposition website Syrian Martyrs, is 92,120, updated to 31 December 2013. The number includes 18,538 rebels, including 289 foreign fighters, but does not include members of the government security forces or pro-government foreign combatants who have died. 736 foreign civilians who have died in the conflict are also included in the toll, most of them, 589, being Palestinians. The Syrian Martyrs number is significantly higher than the ones presented by other organisations, including the UN, one reason being they record deaths even when no name is given for the reportedly killed individual.
|Governorate||Number of deaths|
Other estimates range from 95,850 to 130,435. Except for the SNHR figure, which excludes pro-government fighters, all of the following totals include civilians, rebels and security forces:
|France||120,000 killed||15 March 2011 – 23 September 2013|
|Next Century Foundation||92,497 killed||4 June 2012 – 30 November 2013|
|Syrian Network for Human Rights||109,736 killed||15 March 2011 – 30 November 2013|
|Center for Documentation of Violations||95,852 killed||15 March 2011 – 7 January 2014|
|Syrian Observatory for Human Rights||130,433 killed||15 March 2011 – 30 December 2013|
Al Jazeera journalist Nir Rosen reported that many of the deaths reported daily by activists are in fact armed insurgents falsely presented as civilian deaths, but confirmed that real civilian deaths do occur on a regular basis. A number of Middle East political analysts, including those from the Lebanese Al Akhbar newspaper, have also urged caution.
This was later confirmed when in late May 2012, Rami Abdulrahman of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, which is one of the opposition-affiliated groups counting the number of those killed in the uprising, stated that civilians who had taken up arms during the conflict were being counted under the category of “civilians”.
The Next Century Foundation offer an alternative analysis of casualty figures. Their calculations are made by using figures from the Center for Documentation of Violations in Syria (VDC), Syrian Shuhada (Syrian Martyrs), Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Local Coordination Committees of Syria (LCC) and Damascus Centre for Human Rights from June 2012 to the present. Figures for civilian, rebel and government casualties are calculated separately and added together for an overall total.
|Syrian military and police||30,000–32,013 killed|
|Shabiha and National Defense Force||19,729 killed|
|Lebanese Hezbollah||262 killed|
|Other non-Syrian Shiite militiamen||286 killed|
The Shabiha and NDF fatalities figure also includes at least 20 Palestinian PFLP–GC members.
The non-Syrian Shiite militiamen fatalities figure includes: 96–160 Iraqi Shia militiamen, 16 Iranian IRGC soldiers, 3 Iranian volunteer fighters and one member of the Lebanese Amal Movement.
Due to the opposition’s policy of counting rebel fighters that were not defectors as civilians a comprehensive number of rebels killed in the conflict, thus far, has not been ascertained. In late November 2012, the opposition activist group SOHR estimated that at least 10,000 rebels had been killed, but noted the possibility of the figure being higher because the rebels, like the government, were lying about how many of their forces had died to make it look like they were winning. In March 2013, SOHR stated that the actual number of killed rebels and government forces could be double the number they were already able to document.
The following tables provide examples of news reports which identify rebel casualties. The first table shows reports of rebel deaths for the period up to 30 December 2013, and those not included in SOHR’s daily death tolls before and after 30 December 2013. The second table shows day-by-day reports of rebel deaths by SOHR after 30 December 2013.
|15 March 2011 – 30 December 2013||29,083–52,290 killed||Number also includes Kurdish YPG militiamen and foreign jihadists.|
|14 April 2013||28 killed||50 were killed during fighting at the Wadi Deif military base, 22 were included in the above total.|
|16–21 April 2013||123 killed||150 were killed during the battle for Jdeidat al-Fadl, 27 were included in the above total.|
|2 June 2013||14–17 killed||Killed after they were ambushed by Hezbollah while trying to launch rockets into Shi’ite areas of the Beqaa Valley.|
|19 May – 5 June 2013||172–241 killed||431–500 rebels were killed during the Battle of al-Qusayr, 259 were included in the above total.|
|early June 2013||13 killed||A jihadist suicide bomber blew himself up at a rebel command post killing 12 FSA fighters.|
|4–5 August 2013||47 killed||60 rebels were killed at the start of the Latakia offensive, 13 were included in the above total.|
|5 August 2013||11 killed||21 rebels were killed during the final assault on Menagh Air Base, 10 were included in the above total.|
|20 November 2013||26 killed||35 rebels were killed during the final assault on the Kindi hospital in Aleppo, 9 were included in the above total.|
|21 December 2013||32 killed||Killed after they were ambushed by Hezbollah in Wadi al-Jamala while infiltrating Lebanon from Syria.|
Foreign civilians killed
|Country||Number of deaths|
Note: The higher figure of 1,600 Palestinians killed in the conflict includes several dozens of Palestinian combatants from both sides and not just civilians. 700 of the killed Palestinians were residents of the Yarmouk Camp.
Foreign opposition fighters killed
6,913 foreign opposition fighters have been killed, according to the SOHR. The nationalities of some are as follows: 232 Saudis 145 Libyans, 131-204 Tunisians, 100 Azerbaijanis, 88 Turks, 85-210 Jordanians, 75 Palestinians, 46 Kuwaitis,43 Chechens, 39 Egyptians, 37 Lebanese,24 Moroccans,20 Belgians, 17 Iraqis,16 Dagestanis, 15 Albanians, 13 Afghans, 13 Bosniaks, 12 Algerians, 11 Frenchmen,11 Germans, 9 Danes, 8 Russians, 8 Qataris, 7-22 Britons, 6 Dutch, 6 Australians, 6 Emiratis, 6 Swedes, 5 Bahrainis, 5 Yemenis, 3 Americans, 3 Canadians,3 Irishmen, 3 Pakistanis, 3 Tajiks, 2 Chinese, 2 Italians, 2 Eritreans, 2 Kyrgyz, 2 Mauritanians, 2 Omanis, 2 Somalis, 2 Sudanese, 1 Armenian, 1 Bulgarian, 1 Chadian, 1 Finn, 1 Indonesian, 1 Iranian,1 Israeli-Arab, 1 Romanian, 1 Spaniard and 1 Uzbek.
In another estimate, 9,944 foreign opposition fighters have been killed, according to the Jihadist Salafist Movement in Jordan, with the nationalities being as follows: 1,902 Tunisians, 1,807 Libyans, 1,432 Iraqis, 828 Lebanese, 821 Egyptians, 800 Palestinians, 714 Saudis, 571 Yemenis, 412 Moroccans, 274 Algerians, 210 Jordanians, 91 Omanis, 71 from Kuwaitis, 42 Somalis, 30 Albanians and Caucasians, 21 Bahrainis, 9 Emiratis, 8 Qataris, 3 Sudanese and 1 Mauritanian.
25 foreign soldiers have been killed during the conflict.
On 2 March 2013, one Iraqi soldier was killed during clashes between Syrian rebels and government forces at a Syrian-Iraqi border crossing. On 4 March 2013, 13 Iraqi soldiers were killed by unknown gunmen near the border with Syria while they were transporting 65 Syrian soldiers and government officials back to their country after they had retreated to Iraq a few days earlier. 48 of the Syrians were also killed in the attack. On 9 June 2013, Syrian rebels attacked a southern Iraqi border post, killing one Iraqi guard and wounding two. On 14 July 2013, another attack by fighters from the Syrian side of the border left one Iraqi policeman dead and five others wounded.