List of active separatist movements in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of active separatist movements in Europe. Red names indicate regions with movements that only claim greater autonomy within the actual state. Black names indicate regions with important secessionist movements, although both categories include moderate movements. The nations highlighted in colors are the territories claimed by the local nationalist groups, including areas out of the state’s borders and cases of annexation to other states (click to enlarge).

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.

Albania Albania

Northern Epirus

Azerbaijan Azerbaijan

Belgium Belgium

Further information: Partition of Belgium

 Brussels-Capital Region

 Flemish Region or the Flemish Community (the latter includes Brussels)

German-speaking Community of Belgium

 Walloon Region

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina

 Republika Srpska

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia

Croatia Croatia

Istria

Rijeka

Cyprus Cyprus

Breakaway state:

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic Czech Republic

 Moravia

Czech Silesia

Denmark Denmark

For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.

 Bornholm

 Faroe Islands

Finland Finland

 Åland

Sápmi (area) Sápmi

France France

Some of the claimed nations and/or regions – 1. Brittany, 2. France proper (excluding Wallonia), 3. Occitania, 4.Lorraine which is sometimes part of France proper, 5. Alsace, 6. Basque Country, 7. Catalonia and 8. Corsica.

Secessionist movements
Gradual and eventual secession
Autonomist movements

Georgia (country) Georgia

Breakaway states:

 South Ossetia

Proposed autonomous movements:

Armenia Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti

Azerbaijan Borchali Azerbaijanis

Germany Germany

Bavaria

East Frisia

Franconia

Lusatia

Schleswig-Holstein

Italy Italy

Sardinia

South Tyrol

Veneto

Kosovo Kosovo

See: International recognition of Kosovo

Serbia North Kosovo

Latvia Latvia

Latgale flag.JPG Latgale

 Moldova

Breakaway state:

 Transnistria

Proposed independent and autonomous movements:

 Gagauzia

Taraclia[26]

Netherlands Netherlands

Frisia

  • Ethnic group: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous region: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[27]

Norway Norway

 Sápmi

Kvenland

Poland Poland

Upper Silesia

Kashubia

  • Ethnic group: Kashubians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Kashubia
    • An association of people: Kaszëbskô Jednota who want to actively participate in the life of the Kashubian nation and who recognize its right to cultural autonomy and self-identity within the multi-ethnic society.

Romania Romania

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania

Székely Land, Transylvania, Banat, Partium

Szekler National Council,[37] Hungarian National Council of Transylvania, Liga Pro Europa, a Romanian-Hungarian regionalist NGO.,[36] Provincia, a group of intellectuals promoting regionalization of Romania,[36] Autonomy for Transylvania (AFT) campaign, it demands autonomy for Transylvania.[38] Democratic League of Transylvania (Liga Transilvania Democrată), a regionalist NGO,[39] an active supporter of the “Autonomy for Transylvania” campaign,[40] League of Banat (Liga Banateana), a regionalist NGO.[41][42]

Russia Russia

Russia’s North Caucasus

Russia’s other European regions[edit]

Serbia Serbia

Vojvodina Vojvodina

Sandžak

Preševo Valley

Breakaway state:

Kosovo Republic of Kosovo

Slovakia Slovakia

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia

Autonomist movements:

  • Political parties: Party of the Hungarian Community,[48] In 2010, the party renewed their demand for autonomy.[49]
    • Goals: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.[50]

Spain Spain

Areas in Spain with separatist movements.

The disputed territory of Olivenza.

 Canary Islands (Main article: Canarian nationalism)

 Andalusia (Main article: Andalusian nationalism)

 Aragon

Asturias Asturias (Main article: Asturian nationalism)

Balearic Islands Balearic Islands

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community) (Main article: Basque nationalism)

Cantabria Cantabria

Catalonia Catalonia (Catalan independence)

 Castile

Galicia (Main article: Galician nationalism)

Bandera del País Leonés.svg Leonese Country (Main article: Leonesismo)

Sweden Sweden

Sápmi (area) Sapmi

Scania

Switzerland Switzerland

Geneva

  • Regional group: Genevan
    • Proposed state: La République de Genève” or “Free State of Geneva”

Jura

Flag of Canton of Tessin.svg Ticino

Turkey Turkey

Flag of Kurdistan.svg Northern Kurdistan[53]

Ukraine Ukraine

Breakaway state:

Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak

Federal State of Novorossiya Novorossiya

Disputed status:

 Republic of Crimea

City of Sevastopol

Proposed autonomous regions:

 Crimea

Subcarpathian Ruthenia

United Kingdom United Kingdom and its dependencies

The United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and the Republic of Ireland (click to enlarge)

Constituent countries of the United Kingdom

See also: Home Nations

England

 Cornwall (possibly including the ScillonianCross.svg Isles of Scilly)

 England

Ceremonial counties in Southern England[64]

 Yorkshire (historical county)

Northern Ireland

 Ulster

Reunification of Northern Ireland with Ireland

Scotland

 Scotland

Northern Isles ( Orkney and  Shetland)

Western Isles Council Flag.svg Outer Hebrides (Western Isles)

Wales

 Wales

Crown dependencies

Channel Islands[edit]

 Bailiwick of Guernsey (including  Alderney,  Sark and other smaller islands and rocks)

 Bailiwick of Jersey (including smaller islands and rocks)

Isle of Man

Overseas Territories

For movements in other British Overseas Territories, see the List of active separatist movements in North America.

 Gibraltar

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s