United Kingdom general election, 2017

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United Kingdom general election, 2017
United Kingdom


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All 650 seats in the House of Commons
326[n 1] seats needed for a majority

Opinion polls
Turnout 68.7% (Increase 2.3%)
First party Second party Third party
Theresa May Jeremy Corbyn Nicola Sturgeon
Leader Theresa May Jeremy Corbyn Nicola Sturgeon
Party Conservative Labour SNP
Leader since 11 July 2016 12 September 2015 14 November 2014
Leader’s seat Maidenhead Islington North Did not stand [n 2]
Last election 330 seats, 36.9% 232 seats, 30.4% 56 seats, 4.7%
Seats before 330 229 54
Seats won 317* 262 35
Seat change Decrease 13 Increase 30 Decrease 21
Popular vote 13,667,213 12,874,985 977,569
Percentage 42.4% 40.0% 3.0%
Swing Increase 5.5 pp Increase 9.6 pp Decrease 1.7 pp

Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Tim Farron Arlene Foster Gerry Adams 2016 (cropped).jpg
Leader Tim Farron Arlene Foster Gerry Adams
Party Liberal Democrat DUP Sinn Féin
Leader since 16 July 2015 17 December 2015 13 November 1983
Leader’s seat Westmorland and Lonsdale Did not stand[n 4] Did not stand[n 3]
Last election 8 seats, 7.9% 8 seats, 0.6% 4 seats, 0.6%
Seats before 9 8 4
Seats won 12 10 7
Seat change Increase 4 Increase 2 Increase 3
Popular vote 2,371,772 292,316 238,915
Percentage 7.4% 0.9% 0.8%
Swing Decrease 0.5 pp Increase 0.3 pp Increase 0.2 pp

2017UKElectionMap.svg

A map of UK parliamentary constituencies

*Seat figure does not include Speaker of the House of Commons John Bercow, who was included in the Conservative seat total by some media outlets.


Prime Minister before election
Theresa May
Conservative
Subsequent Prime Minister
Theresa May
Conservative
2005 election MPs
2010 election MPs
2015 election MPs
2017 election MPs

The United Kingdom general election of 2017 took place on 8 June 2017. Each of the 650 parliamentary constituencies elected one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons, the lower house of Parliament. Under the terms of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, an election had not been due until 7 May 2020. However, a call for a snap election by Prime Minister Theresa May was ratified by a 522-to-13 vote in the House of Commons on 19 April 2017.

The Conservative Party (governing since 2010 as a senior coalition partner prior to 2015 and as a majority government thereafter) was defending a majority of 12, against the Labour Party led by Jeremy Corbyn. May had hoped to “strengthen [her] hand in forthcoming Brexit negotiations” with an increased Conservative majority.[1]

Opinion polls had shown consistent leads for the Conservatives over Labour. From a 20-point lead, the Conservatives’ lead began to diminish in the final weeks of the campaign. In a surprising result, the Conservatives made a net loss of 13 seats with 42.4% of the vote, while Labour made a net gain of 30 seats with a 40.0% vote share.

The Conservative Party won its highest vote share since 1983. Securing second place, Labour achieved its greatest share of the vote since 2001, and made a net gain of seats for the first time since 1997. Its 9.6 percentage-point increase in vote share was its largest in a general election since 1945. The result was said to represent a return to two-party politics in the UK. The Scottish National Party, which had won 56 of the 59 Scottish constituencies in 2015, returned with 21 fewer seats. The Liberal Democrats made a net gain of four seats. In Northern Ireland, the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) won 10 seats, while Sinn Féin won seven. Support for the UK Independence Party, which enjoyed a significant portion of the popular vote in 2015, was largely wiped out.[2]

The election campaign was interrupted by two major terrorist attacks, in Manchester and London, with national security becoming a prominent issue during the latter weeks. Negotiation positions following the UK’s invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union in March 2017 to leave the EU also featured significantly in the campaign, as did the regular major issues of the economy, education, jobs and the National Health Service.

Following the election, the Conservatives entered talks with the DUP, whose 10 seats could allow for the formation of a minority Conservative government.[3]

Electoral system[edit source]

Each parliamentary constituency of the United Kingdom elects one MP to the House of Commons using the “first past the post” system. If one party obtains a majority of seats, then that party is entitled to form the Government, with its leader as Prime Minister. If the election results in no single party having a majority, then there is a hung parliament. In this case, the options for forming the Government are either a minority government or a coalition government.[4]

The postponed Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies is not due to report until 2018,[5] and therefore this general election took place under existing boundaries, enabling direct comparisons with the results by constituency in 2015.

Voting eligibility[edit source]

To vote in the general election, one must be:[6][7]

  • on the Electoral Register;
  • aged 18 or over on polling day;
  • a British, Irish or Commonwealth citizen;
  • a resident at an address in the UK (or a British citizen living abroad who has been registered to vote in the UK in the last 15 years),[n 5] and;
  • not legally excluded from voting (for example a convicted person detained in prison or a mental hospital, or unlawfully at large if he/she would otherwise have been detained,[8] or a person found guilty of certain corrupt or illegal practices[9]) or disqualified from voting (peers sitting in the House of Lords).[10][11]

Individuals had to be registered to vote by midnight twelve working days before polling day (22 May).[12][13] Anyone who qualified as an anonymous elector had until midnight on 31 May to register.[n 6] A person who has two homes (such as a university student who has a term-time address and lives at home during holidays) may be registered to vote at both addresses, as long as they are not in the same electoral area, but can vote in only one constituency at the general election.[15]

On 18 May, The Independent reported that more than 1.1 million people between 18 and 35 had registered to vote since the election was announced on 18 April. Of those, 591,730 were under the age of 25.[16]

Date of the election[edit source]

A polling station in north London

The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 introduced fixed-term Parliaments to the United Kingdom, with elections scheduled every five years following the general election on 7 May 2015.[17] This removed the power of the Prime Minister, using the royal prerogative, to dissolve Parliament before its five-year maximum length.[17] The Act permits early dissolution if the House of Commons votes by a supermajority of two-thirds of the entire membership of the House.

On 18 April 2017, the Prime Minister Theresa May announced she would seek an election on 8 June,[18] despite previously ruling out an early election.[19][20] A House of Commons motion to allow this was passed on 19 April, with 522 votes for and 13 against, a majority of 509, meeting the required two-thirds majority.[21] The motion was supported by the Conservatives, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Greens while the SNP abstained.[18] Nine Labour MPs, one SDLP MP and three independents (Sylvia Hermon and two former SNP MPs, Natalie McGarry and Michelle Thomson) voted against the motion.[22]

Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn supported the early election,[23] as did Liberal Democrat leader Tim Farron and the Green Party.[24][25] The SNP stated that it was in favour of fixed-term parliaments, and would abstain in the House of Commons vote.[26] UKIP leader Paul Nuttall and First Minister of Wales Carwyn Jones criticised May for being opportunistic in the timing of the election, motivated by the then strong position of the Conservative Party in the opinion polls.[27][28]

On 25 April, the election date was confirmed as 8 June,[29] with dissolution on 3 May. The government announced that it intended for the next parliament to assemble on 13 June, with the state opening on 19 June.[30]

Timetable[edit source]

The key dates are listed below (all times are BST):[31]

18 April Prime Minister Theresa May announced her intention to hold a snap election[32]
19 April MPs voted to dissolve Parliament[33]
22 April Start of purdah[34][35]
25 April Royal Proclamation under section 2(7) of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act, 2011 issued by HM The Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister[29]
27 April Second session of Parliament prorogued[36]
3 May Formal dissolution of Parliament (in order for the election to take place on 8 June) and official start of ‘short’ campaigning[37]
3 May Royal Proclamation was issued summoning a new UK Parliament[30]
4 May Local elections (were already scheduled, and are not part of the general election)[38]
11 May Deadline (4pm) for the delivery of candidate nomination papers[39]
11 May Deadline (5pm) for the publication of Statements of Persons Nominated (or 4 pm on 12 May if objections were received)[40]
11 May Earliest date returning officers can issue poll cards[41] and postal ballot packs[42]
22 May Last day the public was able to register to vote (unless an anonymous elector)[12]
23 May Deadline (5pm) to apply for a postal vote/postal proxy vote[43][44]
31 May Deadline (5pm) to apply for a proxy vote,[43][44] and last day to register to vote as an anonymous elector[n 6]
8 June Polling day (polling stations opened at 7 am and closed at 10 pm or once voters present in a queue at/outside the polling station at 10 pm have cast their vote).[45]Counting of votes started no later than 2 am on 9 June.[46]
13 June Parliament re-assembles[47]
19 June Planned State Opening of Parliament (postponed)[48][49]

Parties and candidates[edit source]

Campaigning on polling day, 8 June 2017

Most candidates were representatives of a political party registered with the Electoral Commission. Candidates not belonging to a registered party could use an “independent” label, or no label at all.

The leader of the party commanding a majority of support in the House of Commons is the person who is called on by the monarch to form a government as Prime Minister, while the leader of the largest party not in government becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Other parties also form shadow ministerial teams. The leaders of the SNP and Plaid Cymru are not MPs; hence, they appoint separate leaders in the House of Commons.

The Conservative Party and the Labour Party have been the two biggest parties since 1922, and have supplied all Prime Ministers since 1935. Both parties changed their leader since the 2015 election. David Cameron, who had been the leader of the Conservative Party since 2005 and Prime Minister since 2010, was replaced in July 2016 by Theresa May following the referendum on the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union. Jeremy Corbyn replaced Ed Miliband as Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition in September 2015, and was re-elected leader in September 2016.

While the Liberal Democrats and their predecessors had long been the third-largest party in British politics, they returned only 8 MPs in 2015 – 49 fewer than at the previous election. Tim Farron became the Liberal Democrat leader in July 2015, following the resignation of Nick Clegg. Led by First Minister of Scotland Nicola Sturgeon, the SNP stand only in Scotland and won 56 of 59 Scottish seats in 2015. UKIP, then led by Nigel Farage, who was later replaced by Diane James and then by Paul Nuttall in 2016, won 12.7% of the vote in 2015 but gained only one MP, Douglas Carswell, who left the party in March 2017 to sit as an independent. After securing 3.8% of the vote and one MP in the previous general election, Green Party leader Natalie Bennett was succeeded by joint leaders Caroline Lucas and Jonathan Bartley in September 2016.

A number of parties that contested the previous election chose not to stand candidates, including Mebyon Kernow, the Communist Party of Britain, the Scottish Socialist Party and the National Front.[50][51][52]

Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland, the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), Sinn Féin, the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), and the Alliance Party contested the 2017 election. Sinn Féin maintained its abstentionist policy.[53][54] The DUP, Sinn Féin, SDLP, UUP and APNI were all led by new party leaders, changed since the 2015 election. The Conservatives, Greens and four other minor parties also stood. Despite contesting 10 seats last time, UKIP did not stand in Northern Ireland.[55]

Candidates[edit source]

3,304 candidates stood for election, down from 3,631 in the previous general election. The Conservatives stood in 637 seats, Labour in 631 (including jointly with the Co-operative Party in 50[56]) and the Liberal Democrats in 629. UKIP stood in 377 constituencies, down from 624 in 2015, while the Greens stood in 468, down from 573. The SNP contested all 59 Scottish seats and Plaid Cymru stood in all 40 Welsh seats.[57] In Great Britain 183 candidates stood as independents; minor parties including the Christian Peoples Alliance which contested 31 seats, the Yorkshire Party which stood in 21, the Official Monster Raving Loony Party in 12, the British National Party in 10, the Pirate Party in 10, the English Democrats in 7, the Women’s Equality Party in 7, the Social Democratic Party in 6, the National Health Action Party in 5 and the Workers Revolutionary Party in 5, while an additional 79 candidates stood for 46 other registered political parties.[56]

In Wales, 213 candidates stood for election. Labour, Conservatives, Plaid Cymru, and Liberal Democrats contested all forty seats and there were 32 UKIP and 10 Green candidates.[58] In Scotland the SNP, the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats stood in all 59 seats while UKIP contested 10 seats and the Greens only 3.[59]

Of the 109 candidates in Northern Ireland, Sinn Féin, the SDLP and the Alliance contested all 18 seats; the DUP stood in 17, the UUP in 14 and the Conservatives and Greens stood in 7 each. People Before Profit and the Workers’ Party contested two seats while Traditional Unionist Voice and the new Citizens Independent Social Thought Alliance stood in one each; four independents including incumbent Sylvia Hermon also stood.[55]

Party selection processes[edit source]

Unlike in previous elections, the timetable of the snap election required parties to select candidates in just under three weeks, to meet the 11 May deadline.

For the Conservatives, local associations in target seats were offered a choice of three candidates by the party’s headquarters from an existing list of candidates, without inviting applications; candidates in non-target seats were to be appointed directly[clarification needed]; and MPs were to be confirmed by a meeting of their local parties.[60] Labour required sitting MPs to express their intention to stand, automatically re-selecting those that did. Labour advertised for applications from party members for all remaining seats by 23 April.[60][61] Having devolved selections to its Scottish and Welsh parties, Labour’s National Executive Committee endorsed all parliamentary candidates on 3 May except for Rochdale, the seat of suspended MP Simon Danczuk.[62] On 7 May Steve Rotheram announced he was standing down as MP for Liverpool Walton following his election as Liverpool City Region mayor, leaving five days to appoint a candidate by close of nominations.[63]

The SNP confirmed on 22 April that its 54 sitting MPs would be re-selected and that its suspended members Natalie McGarry and Michelle Thomson would not be nominated as SNP candidates; the party subsequently selected candidates for McGarry’s and Thomson’s former seats as well as for the three Scottish constituencies they did not win in 2015.[64] The Liberal Democrats had already selected 326 candidates in 2016 and over 70 in 2017 before the election was called.[60] Meetings of local party members from UKIP, the Greens and Plaid Cymru selected their candidates.[60] Parties in Northern Ireland were not believed to have already selected candidates due to the Assembly elections in March.[60]

High-profile candidates[edit source]

Ken Clarke, the Father of the House of Commons, had said he would retire in 2020, but opted to stand again in the 2017 election.[65][66] Former Conservative employment minister Esther McVey was selected to contest Tatton and Zac Goldsmith was adopted as the Conservative candidate for Richmond Park, having lost the 2016 by-election as an independent after previously serving as the constituency’s Conservative MP since 2010.[67][68]

After coming second in the Stoke-on-Trent Central by-election earlier in the year, UKIP leader Paul Nuttall announced he would contest Boston and Skegness.[69] Tony Lloyd, a former Labour MP for Manchester Central who served as Greater Manchester Police and Crime Commissioner from 2012 and interim Mayor of Greater Manchester since 2015, was selected to contest Rochdale.[70] The former Labour MP Simon Danczuk stood as an independent candidate, after being banned from standing as a Labour candidate and leaving the party.[71]

A number of former Liberal Democrat ministers who were defeated in 2015 stood for election in their former seats including Vince Cable in Twickenham, Ed Davey in Kingston and Surbiton, Jo Swinson in East Dunbartonshire, and Simon Hughes in Bermondsey and Old Southwark.[72] After David Ward, the former MP for Bradford East, was dropped as a candidate by the Liberal Democrats for anti-semitism, he ran as an independent in his former seat.[73][74]

Electoral alliances and arrangements[edit source]

Ahead of the general election, crowdfunding groups such as More United and Open Britain were formed to promote candidates of similar views standing for election, and a “progressive alliance” was proposed.[75][76][77][78] Former UKIP donor Arron Banks suggested a “patriotic alliance” movement.[79] Tactical voting to keep the Conservatives out of government was suggested on social media.[80][81] Gina Miller, who took the government to court over Article 50, set out plans to tour marginal constituencies in support of pro-EU candidates.[82]

Within a few days of the election being announced, the Green Party and the SNP each proposed to collaborate with Labour and the Liberal Democrats to prevent a Conservative majority government.[83][84] Lib Dem leader Tim Farron quickly reaffirmed his party’s opposition to an electoral pact or coalition with Labour, citing “electorally toxic” Corbyn and concerns over Labour’s position on Brexit.[85][86] On 22 April the Liberal Democrats also ruled out a coalition deal with the Conservatives and SNP.[87] Labour ruled out an electoral pact with the SNP, Liberal Democrats and Greens.[88]

Notwithstanding national arrangements, the Liberal Democrats, the Greens and UKIP indicated they might not stand in every constituency.[89] The Green Party chose not to contest 22 seats in England and Wales explicitly “to increase the chance of a progressive candidate beating the Conservatives”,[90] including in South West Surrey, the seat of Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt, in favour of the National Health Action Party candidate.[91] The Scottish Greens contested just three constituencies.[59] The Liberal Democrats agreed to stand down in Brighton Pavilion.[92] After indicating they may not nominate candidates in seats held by strongly pro-Brexit Conservative MPs,[93] UKIP nominated 377 candidates; it was suggested this would help the Conservatives in marginal seats.[94]

In Northern Ireland, there were talks between the DUP and UUP.[89] Rather than a formal pact, the DUP agreed not to contest Fermanagh and South Tyrone, while the UUP chose not to stand in four constituencies.[95] Talks took place between Sinn Féin, the SDLP and the Greens about an anti-Brexit agreement (the Alliance Party were approached but declined to be involved)[96] but no agreement was reached; the Greens said there was “too much distance” between the parties, Sinn Féin’s abstentionist policy was criticised, and the SDLP admitted an agreement was unlikely.[97] On 8 May the SDLP rejected Sinn Féin’s call for them to stand aside in some seats.[95]

Campaign[edit source]

Background[edit source]

Prior to the calling of the general election, the Liberal Democrats gained Richmond Park from the Conservatives in a by-election, a seat characterised by its high remain vote in the 2016 EU referendum.[98] The Conservatives held the safe seat of Sleaford and North Hykeham in December 2016.[99] In by-elections on 23 February 2017, Labour held Stoke-on-Trent Central but lost Copeland to the Conservatives, the first time a governing party had gained a seat in a by-election since 1982.[100]

The general election comes soon after the Northern Ireland Assembly election on 2 March. Talks on power-sharing between the DUP and Sinn Féin had failed to reach a conclusion, with Northern Ireland thus facing either another Assembly election or the imposition of direct rule. The deadline was subsequently extended to 29 June.[101]

Local elections in England, Scotland and Wales took place on 4 May. These saw large gains by the Conservatives, and large losses by Labour and UKIP. Notably, the Conservatives won metro mayor elections in Tees Valley and the West Midlands, areas traditionally seen as Labour heartlands.[102] Initially scheduled for 4 May, a by-election in Manchester Gorton was cancelled; the seat was contested on 8 June along with all the other seats.[103][104]

On 6 May, a letter from Church of England Archbishops Justin Welby and John Sentamu stressed the importance of “education for all, of urgent and serious solutions to our housing challenges, the importance of creating communities as well as buildings, and a confident and flourishing health service that gives support to all – especially the vulnerable – not least at the beginning and end of life.”[105]

All parties suspended campaigning for a time in the wake of the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing on 22 May.[106] The SNP had been scheduled to release their manifesto for the election but this was delayed.[107] Campaigning resumed on 25 May.[108]

Major political parties also suspended campaigning for a second time on 4 June, following the June 2017 London attack.[109] UKIP chose to continue campaigning.[110] There were calls for the polling date to be postponed, but these were rejected.[110]

Issues[edit source]

Brexit[edit source]

The UK’s withdrawal from the European Union was a key issue in the campaign.[111] May said she called the snap election to secure a majority for her Brexit negotiations.[112]UKIP support a “clean, quick and efficient Brexit” and, launching his party’s election campaign, Nuttall stated that Brexit is a “job half done” and UKIP MPs are needed to “see this through to the end”.[113]

Labour had supported Brexit in the previous parliament, but proposed different priorities for negotiations.[114] The Liberal Democrats and Greens called for a deal to keep the UK in the single market and a second referendum on any deal proposed between the EU and the UK.[115][116][117]

The Conservative manifesto committed to leaving the single market and customs union but seek a “deep and special partnership” through a comprehensive free trade and customs agreement. It proposed seeking to remain part of some EU programmes where it would “be reasonable that we make a contribution” and stay as a signatory of the European Convention on Human Rights over the next parliament and maintain the Human Rights Act during Brexit negotiations. Parliament would be able to amend or repeal EU legislation once converted into UK law, and have a vote on the final agreement.[118]

Security[edit source]

Two major terrorist attacks took place during the election campaign, with parties arguing about the best way to prevent such events.[119][120][121] May, after the second attack, focused on global co-operation to tackle Islamist ideology and tackling the use of the Internet by terrorist groups.[122][not in citation given][123] After the first attack, Labour criticised cuts in police numbers under the Conservative government.[124] Corbyn also linked the Manchester attack to British foreign policy.[120] The Conservatives stated that spending on counter-terrorism for both the police and other agencies had risen.[125]

Former Tory strategist Steve Hilton said Theresa May should be “resigning not seeking re-election”, because her police cuts and security failures had led to the attacks.[126][127]Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn backed calls for May to resign, but said she should be removed by voters.[128] May said that police budgets for counter-terrorism had been maintained and that Corbyn had voted against counter-terrorism legislation.[129]

The Conservative manifesto proposed more government control and regulation of the internet, including forcing internet companies to restrict access to extremist and adult content.[130][131] After the London attack, Theresa May called for international agreements to regulate the internet.[132] Conservative stances on regulation of internet and social media have been criticised by Liberal Democrats leader Tim Farron, the Open Rights Group and some academic experts on radicalisation, Farron likening them to North Korea and China state surveillance and censorship.[133][134]

On 6 June, May promised longer prison sentences for people convicted of terrorism and restrictions on the freedom of movement or deportation of militant suspects when it is thought they present a threat but there is not enough evidence to prosecute them, stating that she would change human right laws to do so if necessary.[135][136]

The UK’s nuclear weapons, including the renewal of the Trident system, was also prominent during the campaign.[137] The Conservatives and Liberal Democrats favour Trident renewal.[138] The Labour manifesto commits the party to Trident renewal, but Corbyn declined to speak in favour of the renewal.[137] He also declined to answer whether, as Prime Minister, he would ever use nuclear weapons if the UK were under an imminent nuclear threat.[139]

Social care[edit source]

Social care became a major election issue after the Conservative Party’s manifesto included new proposals, which they subsequently changed after criticism.[140][141][142] The previous coalition government had commissioned a review by Andrew Dilnot into how to fund social care.[143] Measures that disadvantaged pensioners were also in the Conservative manifesto: eliminating the pension triple lock and Winter Fuel Payments for all pensioners.

Scottish independence and the future of the UK[edit source]

The question of a proposed Scottish independence referendum is also likely to influence the campaign in Scotland. On 28 March 2017, the Scottish Parliament approved a motion for a second independence referendum,[144] suggesting that there had been a “material change” in the terms of the failed independence referendum in 2014 as a result of the UK’s vote to leave the EU.[145] The SNP hopes to hold a second independence referendum once the Brexit terms are clear but before the UK leaves the EU; May has said her government would not approve an independence referendum before Brexit negotiations have finished.[146]

Tuition fees[edit source]

Labour is thought to have attracted a significant number of student voters with its pledge to abolish tuition fees and bring back student grants.[147]

Possible coalitions[edit source]

Although Labour and the Liberal Democrats have both rejected election pacts with each other and with the Greens and the SNP, and although the Liberal Democrats have also ruled out a coalition deal with the Conservatives, the Conservatives campaigned on this theme, using the phrase “coalition of chaos”,[87][148] Similar messages against a potential Lib-Lab pact are credited with having secured a Conservative win in the 1992 and 2015 elections.[149] On 19 April, May warned against a Labour-SNP-Lib Dem pact that would “divide our country”.[150] However, after the hung result led the Conservatives to seek DUP support for a minority government, May and the Conservatives’ rhetoric was mocked by opponents.[151]

Party campaigns[edit source]

Conservatives[edit source]

May launched the Conservative campaign with a focus on Brexit, lower domestic taxes and avoiding a Labour-Lib Dem-SNP “coalition of chaos”, but she refused to commit not to raise taxes.[152][150][153] On 30 April, May stated that it was her intention to lower taxes if the Conservatives won the general election, but only explicitly ruled out raising VAT.[154]May reiterated her commitment to spending 0.7% of GNI on foreign aid.[155]

Theresa May hired Lynton Crosby, the campaign manager for the Conservatives in the 2015 general election, as well as Barack Obama‘s 2012 campaign manager, Jim Messina.[156][157] The Conservative campaign was noted for the use of targeted adverts on social media, in particular attacking Corbyn.[158] The repeated use of the phrase “strong and stable” in the Conservatives’ campaigning attracted attention and criticism.[159] Some expressed concern that the party may have restricted media access to the prime minister.[160][161][162] While some speculated that an investigation into campaign spending by the Conservatives in the 2015 general election was a factor behind the snap election,[163][164] on 10 May the Crown Prosecution Service said that despite evidence of inaccurate spending returns, no further action was required.[165]

On 7 May the Conservatives promised to replace the 1983 Mental Health Act, to employ an additional 10,000 NHS mental health workers by 2020 and to tackle discrimination against those with mental health problems.[166] May indicated that the Conservatives would maintain their net immigration target, and promised to implement a cap on “rip-off energy prices”,[167][168] a policy that appeared in Labour’s 2015 manifesto.[169] May indicated she would permit a free vote among Conservative MPs on repealing the ban on fox hunting in England and Wales.[170] On 11 May the Conservatives promised above-inflation increases in defence spending alongside its NATO commitment to spend at least 2% of GDP on defence.[171]

In a speech in Tynemouth the next day, May said Labour had “deserted” working-class voters, criticised Labour’s policy proposals and said Britain’s future depended on making a success of Brexit.[172] On 14 May the Conservatives proposed a “new generation” of social housing, paid from the existing capital budget, offering funding to local authorities and changing compulsory purchase rules.[173] The following day May promised “a new deal for workers” that would maintain workers’ rights currently protected by the EU after Brexit, put worker representation on company boards, introduce a statutory right to unpaid leave to care for a relative and increase the National Living Wage in line with average earnings until 2022.[174] The proposals were characterised as an “unabashed pitch for Labour voters”; however Labour and the GMB trade union criticised the government’s past record on workers’ rights.[174]

Unveiling the Conservative manifesto in Halifax on 18 May, May promised a “mainstream government that would deliver for mainstream Britain”.[175] It proposed to balance the budget by 2025, raise spending on the NHS by £8bn per year and on schools by £4bn per year by 2022, remove the ban on grammar schools, means-test the winter fuel allowance, replace the state pension “triple lock” with a “double lock” and require executive pay to be approved by a vote of shareholders.[175] It dropped the 2015 pledge to not raise income tax or national insurance contributions but maintained a commitment to freeze VAT.[175] New sovereign wealth funds for infrastructure, rules to prevent foreign takeovers of “critical national infrastructure” and institutes of technology were also proposed.[176] The manifesto was noted for its intervention in industry, lack of tax cuts and increased spending commitments on public services.[177] On Brexit it committed to leaving the single market and customs union while seeking a “deep and special partnership” and promised a vote in parliament on the final agreement.[118] The manifesto was noted for containing similar policies to those found in Labour’s 2015 general election manifesto.[178]

The manifesto also proposed reforms to social care in England that would raise the threshold for free care from £23,250 to £100,000, while include property in the means test and permitting deferred payment after death.[175] After attracting substantial media attention, four days after the manifesto launch May stated that the proposed social care reforms would now include an “absolute limit” on costs in contrast to the rejection of a cap in the manifesto.[179] She criticised the “fake” portrayal of the policy in recent days by Labour and other critics, who had termed it a “dementia tax”.[179] Evening Standard editor George Osborne called the policy change a “U-turn”.[180]

Labour[edit source]

Corbyn launched the Labour campaign focusing on public spending, and argued that services were being underfunded, particularly education.[152] Labour’s shadow Brexit secretary Sir Keir Starmer stated that the party would replace the existing Brexit white paper with new negotiating priorities that emphasise the benefits of the single market and customs union, that the residence rights of EU nationals would be guaranteed and that the principle of free movement would have to end.[114][181] Corbyn emphasised Labour’s support for a “jobs-first Brexit” that “safeguards the future of Britain’s vital industries”.[182]

Labour proposed the creation of four new bank holidays, marking the feast days of the patron saints of the United Kingdom’s constituent nations.[183] On 27 April the party pledged to build 1 million new homes over five years.[184] Labour’s proposal to employ 10,000 new police officers was overshadowed when Shadow Home Secretary Diane Abbott cited incorrect figures in an LBC interview on how it would be funded.[185][186] Labour later confirmed that the £300 million cost would be funded by reversing cuts to Capital Gains Tax, although it was noted that the party had also pledged some of those savings towards other expenditure plans.[187]

On 7 May, Shadow Chancellor John McDonnell ruled out rises in VAT, and in income tax and employee national insurance contributions for those with earnings below £80,000 per year.[188] The following day Labour outlined plans to ban junk food TV adverts and parking charges at NHS hospitals.[189][190] Labour promised an additional £4.8 billion for education, funded by raising corporation tax from 19% to 26%.[191]

Labour Party campaigners in London on polling day, 8 June 2017.

A draft copy of Labour’s manifesto was leaked to the Daily Mirror and The Daily Telegraph on 10 May.[192] It included pledges to renationalise the National Grid, the railways and the Royal Mail, and create publicly owned energy companies. The draft was noted for including commitments on workers’ rights, a ban on fracking, and the abolition of tuition fees in England.[192] The draft manifesto included a commitment to the Trident nuclear deterrent, but suggested a future government would be “extremely cautious” about using it.[193] The next day Labour’s Clause V meeting endorsed the manifesto after amendments from shadow cabinet members and trade unions present.[194]

In a speech at Chatham House on 12 May, Corbyn set out his foreign policy, saying he would reshape Britain’s foreign relations, avoid the use of nuclear weapons, and while Labour supported Trident renewal he would initiate a defence review in government.[195] Corbyn stated that he would halt all weapons sales from the UK to Saudi Arabia citing the violations of human rights in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.[196] After the June 2017 London attack, Corbyn said that a conversation should take place “with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states that have funded and fuelled extremist ideology”.[197]

On 14 May, Labour revealed plans to extend stamp duty by introducing a financial transactions tax, which McDonnell claimed would raise up to £5.6bn per year.[198] The next day Corbyn set out plans to spend £37bn on the NHS in England over a five-year parliament, including £10bn on IT upgrades and building repairs.[199]

Launching its manifesto on 16 May, Labour revealed it would nationalise the water industry, provide 30 hours per week of free childcare for two to four-year-olds, charge companies a levy on annual earnings above £330,000, lower the 45p income tax rate threshold to £80,000 per year, and reintroduce the 50p tax rate for those earning more than £123,000 per year.[200][201] Labour said it would raise an additional £48.6bn in tax revenue per year and insisted its policies were fully costed, though it was noted no costings were provided for its nationalisation pledges.[202][203] Compared to the leaked draft, the manifesto was noted for toughening Labour’s position on defence and Trident, confirming that outside the EU free movement would have to end, qualifying support for airport expansion, and clarifying the party’s stance on Israel-Palestine, as well as other changes.[204]After initial confusion, Labour clarified it would not reverse the government’s freeze on most working-age benefits.[205][206]

In an interview following the manifesto launch, Unite general secretary Len McCluskey said victory for Labour in the general election would be “extraordinary” and that winning just 200 seats (compared to 229 seats held at the time) would be a “successful” result; the following morning he clarified he was now “optimistic” about Labour’s chances.[207][208]

SNP[edit source]

The SNP, keen to maintain its position as the third-largest party in the House of Commons, made the need to protect Scotland’s interests in the Brexit negotiations a central part of its campaign.[209] The SNP manifesto also called for a vote on independence to be held “at the end of the Brexit process”, sets out “anti-austerity” plans to invest £118bn in UK public services over the next five years, pledges to increase the minimum wage to £10 an hour and calls for Scotland to have control over immigration and to remain in the EU single market after Brexit.[210] With the polls closing, Nicola Sturgeon told the Today programme that SNP could support a Labour government “on an issue-by-issue basis” in the event of a hung parliament and that she would be open to forming a “progressive alternative to a Conservative government”.[211]

Liberal Democrats[edit source]

Central themes of the Liberal Democrat campaign were an offer of a second referendum on any eventual Brexit deal and a desire for the UK to stay in the single market.[212] The party reportedly targeted seats which had voted to remain in the EU, such as Twickenham, Oxford West and Abingdon, and Vauxhall.[213][214] Bob Marshall-Andrews, a Labour MP from 1997 to 2010, announced he would support the Liberal Democrats.[215]

The party reported a surge in membership after the election was called, passing 100,000 on 24 April, having grown by 12,500 in the preceding week.[216] The party also reported raising £500,000 in donations in the first 48 hours after May’s announcement of an early election.[217]

An early issue raised in the campaign was Tim Farron’s views, as a Christian, regarding gay sex and LGBT rights. After declining to state whether he thought gay sex was a sin, Farron affirmed that he believed neither being gay nor having gay sex are sinful.[218]

The party proposed raising income tax by 1p to fund the NHS, and maintaining the triple-lock on the state pension.[219][220] The Liberal Democrats also promised an additional £7 billion to protect per-pupil funding in education; they said it would be partly funded by remaining in the EU single market.[191] The party pledged on 11 May to accept 50,000 refugees from Syria over five years, with Farron saying that the £4.3 billion costs would over time be repaid in taxes by those refugees that settle in Britain.[221]

On 12 May the party revealed plans to legalise cannabis and extend paid paternity leave.[222] Farron proposed financial incentives for graduates joining the armed forces and committed to Nato’s 2% of GDP defence spending target.[223] The next day the Liberal Democrats promised to end the cap on public-sector pay increases and repeal the Investigatory Powers Act.[224][225] On 16 May the Liberal Democrats proposed an entrepreneurs’ allowance, to review business rates and to increase access to credit.[226]

Policies emphasised during their manifesto launch on 17 May included a second referendum on a Brexit deal with the option to remain a member of the EU, discounted bus passes for 16- to 21-year-olds, the reinstatement of Housing Benefit for 18- to 21-year-olds, a £3bn plan to build 300,000 new houses a year by 2022 and support for renters to build up equity in their rented properties.[227]

UKIP[edit source]

Paul Nuttall announced that UKIP’s manifesto will seek to ban the burqa, outlaw sharia law, impose a temporary moratorium on new Islamic schools and require annual checks against female genital mutilation (FGM) for high-risk girls.[228][229] UKIP’s Deputy Leader Peter Whittle confirmed that beekeepers would be exempt from the ban on face coverings; and Margot Parker argued that nun’s habits were not included in the ban as they “don’t cover their face”.[230][231] In response to the proposed burqa ban UKIP’s foreign affairs spokesperson James Carver resigned, labelling the policy “misguided”.[232]

Despite losing all 145 of the seats it was defending in the 2017 local elections (but gaining one from Labour in Burnley), Nuttall insisted voters would return to UKIP in the general election.[233] On 8 May UKIP proposed a net migration target of zero within five years.[234]

On fishing, UKIP wanted to see a 200-mile exclusive economic zone, where all fish caught by foreign vessels in British waters must be landed, processed and sold in Britain.[235]

Television debates[edit source]

← 2015 debates 2017 Next debates →

Within hours of the election being announced, Corbyn, Farron and Sturgeon called for televised debates.[236] The Prime Minister’s office opposed the idea of any televised debates during the campaign.[237] Despite the opposition of the Prime Minister, on 19 April the BBC and ITV announced they planned to host leaders’ debates, as they had done in the 2010 and 2015 elections, whether or not May takes part.[238] Labour subsequently ruled out Corbyn taking part in television debates without May.[239]

Broadcaster Andrew Neil also separately interviewed the party leaders in The Andrew Neil Interviews on BBC One, starting on 22 May with Theresa May. There were also due to be interviews with Paul Nuttall, Tim Farron, Nicola Sturgeon and Jeremy Corbyn during the same week;[240] however the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing led to the suspension of General Election campaigning on 23 and 24 May 2017. The interview with Corbyn still went ahead as planned on 26 May 2017 and the interviews with the leaders of the smaller parties that had been cancelled in between were rescheduled for later dates.[citation needed]

ITV Tonight also ran a series of programmes with the major party leaders.

Sky News and Channel 4 announced an election programme to take place on 29 May, where Theresa May and Jeremy Corbyn would be individually interviewed by Jeremy Paxman after taking questions from a studio audience.[241][242] The BBC announced two debates to which all seven main party leaders would be invited, on 31 May in Cambridge and 6 June in Manchester, to be shown on BBC One; both Theresa May and Jeremy Corbyn had earlier stated they would not attend the 31 May debate. May stated that she had decided not to attend as she had debated Jeremy Corbyn many times in Parliament, and that she would be meeting the public instead.[243] Corbyn announced on 31 May that he had changed his mind and would be attending the BBC Leader’s Debate in Cambridge, calling on May to do the same.[244] Amber Rudd appeared for the Conservatives.

The BBC hosted separate debates for the English regions, and for both Scotland and Wales, and also a Question Time special with May and Corbyn separately answering questions from voters, on 2 June. This was chaired by David Dimbleby. Sturgeon and Farron were expected to do the same on 4 June, but this programme was delayed by the June 2017 London attack. It was rescheduled for 9 pm on 5 June, and the presenter was changed to Nick Robinson.[citation needed]

However, the BBC did host two back-to-back episodes of a special election programme titled Election Questions on the night 4 June (after election campaigning had resumed that evening). The first episode took place in Bristol and featured the co-leader of the Green Party of England and Wales, Jonathan Bartley, followed by the leader of the UK Independence Party, Paul Nuttall. The second episode took place in Swansea and featured Leanne Wood, leader of the Welsh political party, Plaid Cymru. The programme consisted of each of the party leaders being individually questioned by a studio audience.[245][246]

STV planned to host a live TV debate in Glasgow with four Scottish party leaders on 24 May,[247] but it was postponed, owing to the Manchester Arena bombing. The debate was rescheduled for Tuesday 6 June.[248]

United Kingdom general election debates, 2017[249][250]
Date Party leaders invited Organisers Venue     P  Present    S  Surrogate    NI  Non-invitee   A  Absent invitee 
Conservatives Labour SNP Liberal Democrats Plaid Cymru Green UKIP
16 May Welsh ITV Wales Cardiff P
Davies
P
Jones
NI P
Williams
P
Wood
NI P
Hamilton
18 May UK ITV MediaCityUK, Salford A A P
Sturgeon
P
Farron
P
Wood
P
Lucas
P
Nuttall
21 May Scottish BBC Scotland Edinburgh P
Davidson
P
Dugdale
P
Sturgeon
P
Rennie
NI P
Harvie
P
Coburn
29 May UK Sky News
Channel 4
Isleworth, London P
May
P
Corbyn
NI NI NI NI NI
30 May Welsh BBC Wales Cardiff S
Millar
P
Jones
NI P
Williams
P
Wood
NI P
Hamilton
30 May English Regions BBC English Regions Various P
Various
P
Various
NI P
Various
NI P
Various
P
Various
31 May UK BBC Senate House, Cambridge S
Rudd
P
Corbyn
S
Robertson
P
Farron
P
Wood
P
Lucas
P
Nuttall
2 June UK BBC
(Question Time)
University of York, York P
May
P
Corbyn
NI NI NI NI NI
4 June UK BBC
(Election Questions)
Bristol and Swansea NI NI NI NI P
Wood
P
Bartley
P
Nuttall
5 June UK BBC
(Question Time)
Edinburgh NI NI P
Sturgeon
P
Farron
NI NI NI
5 June[251] Northern Ireland UTV Belfast Nigel Dodds (DUP), Michelle O’Neill (SF), Robin Swann (UUP), Colum Eastwood (SDLP) and Naomi Long (APNI)
6 June[248] Scottish STV Glasgow P
Davidson
P
Dugdale
P
Sturgeon
P
Rennie
NI NI NI
6 June UK BBC Manchester S
Zahawi
S
Champion
S
Forbes
S
Paddick
S
Elin
P
Bartley
S
Kurten
6 June Northern Ireland BBC Belfast Jeffrey Donaldson (DUP), John O’Dowd (SF), Robin Swann (UUP), Colum Eastwood (SDLP) and Naomi Long (APNI)

Endorsements[edit source]

Newspapers, organisations and individuals have endorsed parties or individual candidates for the election.

Politicians not standing[edit source]

Members of Parliament not standing for re-election[edit source]

Members of Parliament not standing for re-election
MP Seat First elected Party Date announced
Graham Allen Nottingham North 1987 Labour 22 April 2017[252]
Dave Anderson Blaydon 2005 Labour 20 April 2017[253]
Tom Blenkinsop Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland 2010 Labour 18 April 2017[254]
Andy Burnham Leigh 2001 Labour 19 April 2017[255]
Sir Simon Burns Chelmsford 1987 Conservative 8 January 2016[256]
Douglas Carswell Clacton 2005 Independent (UKIP in 2015) 20 April 2017[257]
Pat Doherty West Tyrone 2001 Sinn Féin 3 May 2017[258]
Jim Dowd Lewisham West and Penge 1992 Labour 19 April 2017[259]
Michael Dugher Barnsley East 2010 Labour 20 April 2017[260]
Sir Edward Garnier Harborough 1992 Conservative 27 April 2017[261]
Pat Glass North West Durham 2010 Labour 28 June 2016[262]
Sir Alan Haselhurst Saffron Walden 1977 Conservative 25 April 2017[263]
Sir Gerald Howarth Aldershot 1983 Conservative 20 April 2017[264]
Alan Johnson Hull West and Hessle 1997 Labour 18 April 2017[265]
Peter Lilley Hitchin and Harpenden 1983 Conservative 26 April 2017[266]
Karen Lumley Redditch 2010 Conservative 28 April 2017[267]
David Mackintosh Northampton South 2015 Conservative 27 April 2017[268]
Fiona Mactaggart Slough 1997 Labour 20 April 2017[269]
Rob Marris Wolverhampton South West 2001 Labour 19 April 2017[270]
Natalie McGarry Glasgow East 2015 Independent (SNP in 2015) 25 April 2017[271]
George Osborne Tatton 2001 Conservative 19 April 2017[272]
Sir Eric Pickles Brentwood and Ongar 1992 Conservative 22 April 2017[273]
John Pugh Southport 2001 Liberal Democrats 19 April 2017[274]
Steve Rotheram Liverpool Walton 2010 Labour 7 May 2017[63]
Andrew Smith Oxford East 1987 Labour 19 April 2017[275]
Gisela Stuart Birmingham Edgbaston 1997 Labour 19 April 2017[276]
Michelle Thomson Edinburgh West 2015 Independent (SNP in 2015) 22 April 2017[277]
Andrew Turner Isle of Wight 2001 Conservative 28 April 2017[278]
Andrew Tyrie Chichester 1997 Conservative 25 April 2017[279]
Dame Angela Watkinson Hornchurch and Upminster 2001 Conservative 19 April 2017[280]
Iain Wright Hartlepool 2004 Labour 19 April 2017[281]

Other politicians[edit source]

Former UKIP leader Nigel Farage announced that he would not stand, saying he could be more effective as an MEP.[282] UKIP major donor Arron Banks, who had earlier indicated his intention to stand in Clacton to defeat Douglas Carswell, withdrew in favour of the UKIP candidate after Carswell announced he would be standing down.[283]

Plaid Cymru leader Leanne Wood chose not to contest a Westminster seat, nor did former Labour MP and shadow chancellor Ed Balls.[284][285]

Opinion polling and seat projections[edit source]

In the 2015 general election, polling companies underestimated the Conservative Party vote and overestimated the Labour Party vote[286] and so failed to predict the result accurately.[287] Afterwards they started making changes to polling practices; recommendations from a review by the British Polling Council are likely to result in further changes.[288]

UK opinion polling for the 2017 election; moving average is calculated from the last ten polls

Predictions three weeks before the vote[edit source]

The first-past-the-post system used in UK general elections means that the number of seats won is not directly related to vote share. Thus, several approaches are used to convert polling data and other information into seat predictions. The table below lists some of the predictions.

Parties Election
Forecast[289]
as of 15 May 2017
Electoral
Calculus[290]
as of 20 May 2017
Lord
Ashcroft[291]
as of 12 May 2017
Elections
Etc[292]
as of 12 May 2017
Conservatives 414 391 406–415 391
Labour Party 155 185 152–164 170
SNP 54 47 45–48 49
Liberal Democrats 6 5 8–14 13
Plaid Cymru 2 3 4–5 3
Green Party 1 1 1 1
UKIP 0 0 0 0
Others 1[n 7] 18[n 8] 19 N/A
Overall result (probability) Conservative
majority
(100%)
Conservative
majority
(76%)
Conservative
majority
Conservative
majority
(91%)

Predictions two weeks before the vote[edit source]

Parties Election
Forecast[293]
as of 26 May 2017
Electoral
Calculus[294]
as of 28 May 2017
Lord
Ashcroft[295]
as of 26 May 2017
Elections
Etc.[296]
as of 26 May 2017
New
Statesman[297]
as of 26 May 2017
Conservatives 364 383 396 375 371
Labour Party 212 196 180 188 199
SNP 45 49 47 50 55
Liberal Democrats 8 2 6 10 5
Plaid Cymru 2 1 2 3
Green Party 0 1 0 1
UKIP 0 0 0 0
Others 1[n 7] 18[n 8] 19
Overall result (probability) Conservative
majority
(94%)
Conservative
majority
(73%)
Conservative
majority
Conservative
majority
(87%)
Conservative
majority

Predictions one week before the vote[edit source]

Parties Election
Forecast[298]
as of 1 June 2017
Electoral
Calculus[299]
as of 31 May 2017
New
Statesman
[300]
as of 31 May 2017
YouGov[301]
as of 1 June 2017
Britain Elects[302]
as of 1 June 2017
Conservatives 379 368 359 317 362
Labour Party 195 208 209 253 206
SNP 46 50 54 47 47
Liberal Democrats 7 3 7 9 11
Plaid Cymru 2 2 3 4
Green Party 1 1 1 1
UKIP 1 0 0 0
Others 1[n 7] 18[n 8] 2 19
Overall result (probability) Conservative
majority
(98%)
Conservative
majority
(71%)
Conservative
majority
Hung
parliament
Conservative
majority

Predictions less than a week before the vote[edit source]

The UK’s first-past-the-post electoral system means that national shares of the vote do not give an exact indicator of how the various parties will be represented in Parliament. Different commentators and pollsters currently provide a number of predictions, based on polls and other data, as to how the parties will be represented in Parliament:

Parties 2015
election
result
Election
Forecast[298]
as of 8 June 2017
Electoral
Calculus[303]
as of 8 June 2017
Lord
Ashcroft[295]
as of 8 June 2017[304]
Elections
Etc.[305]
as of 8 June 2017
New
Statesman
[306]
as of 8 June 2017
YouGov[307]
as of 8 June 2017
Britain Elects[308]
as of 8 June 2017
Conservatives 330 366 358 357 358 337 302 356
Labour Party 232 207 218 217 214 227 269 219
SNP 56 46 49 44 47 54 44 43
Liberal Democrats 8 7 3 5 9 10 12 9
Plaid Cymru 3 3 3 1 3 2 3
Green Party 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
UKIP 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Others 19 1[309] 18[310] 19 20 19
Overall result Conservative
majority of 10
Conservative
majority of 82
Conservative
majority of 66
Conservative
majority of 64
Conservative
majority of 66
Conservative
majority of 24
Hung
Parliament

(Con 24 seats short)
Conservative
majority of 62
  • Electoral Calculus maintains a running projection of seats according to latest polls on its website. It also maintains a seat-by-seat projection for Scotland.[299]
  • Election Forecast also maintains a projection of seats based on current opinion poll averages on their website.[298]
  • Elections Etc. issues regular forecasts based on current opinion poll averages, Betting Markets, expert predictions and other sources on their website.[313]
  • Britain Elects maintains a ‘nowcast’ – a projection showing what the result would be if held today – of seats based on historical data as well as national and regional polling.[302]

Exit poll[edit source]

An exit poll, conducted by GfK and Ipsos MORI on behalf of the BBC, ITV and Sky News, was published at the end of voting at 10 pm, predicting the number of seats for each party, with the Conservatives being the largest party, but short of an overall majority:[315] Actual results were close to the prediction.

Parties Seats Change
Conservative Party 314 Decrease 16
Labour Party 266 Increase 37
Scottish National Party 34 Decrease 22
Liberal Democrats 14 Increase 6
Plaid Cymru 3 Steady
Green Party 1 Steady
UK Independence Party 0 Decrease 1
Others 18 Decrease 1
Conservatives 12 short of a majority

Results[edit source]

Results for all constituencies except Kensington were reported by the morning after the election. The Conservatives remained the largest single party; but without a parliamentary majority.

One of the few polling companies to correctly predict the result was YouGov,[316][317] which had employed a different and “controversial” methodology.[318]

In England, Labour made a net gain of 21 seats, taking 25 constituencies from the Conservatives and two from the Liberal Democrats. Their gains were predominantly in London and university towns and cities, most notably achieving surprise wins in Battersea, Canterbury, Kensington and Ipswich from the Conservatives by narrow margins[319]; they also lost five seats to the Conservatives, largely in the Midlands, and were unable to regain Copeland which had been lost in a February by-election.[320] The Conservatives experienced a net loss of 22 seats. They gained Clacton from UKIP and Southport from the Liberal Democrats in addition to the six gains from Labour. The Liberal Democrats took five seats from the Conservatives, including Twickenham, won back by Vince Cable, and Kingston and Surbiton, won by Ed Davey,[321] but lost two seats to Labour: Leeds North West and Sheffield Hallam, the seat of former party leader Nick Clegg. Richmond Park, which the Liberal Democrats had won in a 2016 by-election, was narrowly lost to the Conservatives. Caroline Lucas remained the sole Green Party MP, holding Brighton Pavilion.

In Scotland, the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats all won seats from the SNP, whose losses were attributed to opposition to a second Scottish independence referendum, contributing to tactical voting for unionist parties.[322][323] The Conservatives placed second for the first time since 1992, won their largest number of seats in Scotland since 1983[324] and recorded their highest share of the vote there since 1979. With thirteen seats, the Scottish Conservatives became the largest unionist party in Scotland for the first time since 1955. Labour gained six seats from the SNP while the Liberal Democrats gained three. Having won 56 of 59 Scottish constituencies in the last election, the SNP lost a total of 21 seats, and majorities in their remaining seats were cut drastically.[325] High-profile losses included SNP Commons leader Angus Robertson in Moray and former party leader Alex Salmond in Gordon.[326]

In Wales, Labour held 25 seats and gained Cardiff North, Gower and Vale of Clwyd from the Conservatives, leaving the Welsh Tories with eight seats. Plaid Cymru held its 3 existing seats and gained Ceredigion, the Lib Dems’ only constituency in Wales.[327]

In Northern Ireland, the SDLP lost its three seats, the UUP lost its sole seat, and the Alliance Party failed to win any seats. The DUP won ten seats (up from eight), Sinn Féin won seven (up from four), and independent unionist Sylvia Hermon held North Down.[328]

The results left the DUP as kingmakers, and May announced that she intended to form a minority government with their support.[329] Sinn Féin, who recorded their best result since partition, subsequently confirmed it would maintain its policy of abstentionism, leaving the Conservatives five seats short of a sitting majority. Their abstentionism in the circumstances was criticised by various people, including Micheál Martin, leader of Fianna Fáil in the Republic of Ireland, who also noted the resultant lack of nationalist representation in the House of Commons.[330]

Despite a significant drop in its overall vote share, the Green Party held on to its single seat, Brighton Pavilion, with an increased majority.[331] UKIP failed to win any seats, with its vote falling by almost 4 million to less than 600,000. Paul Nuttall, who came third in Boston and Skegness, and resigned as party leader the day after the election.[332]

The result was noted for increased vote shares for Labour (up 9.6 percentage points) and the Conservatives (up 5.5 percentage points), with a combined 83% share of the vote, up from 67% in 2015. The election was characterised by higher turnout, particularly amongst younger voters, contributing to Labour’s increased vote share.[333] It was suggested that UKIP’s decline boosted both main parties, but tended to help Labour retain seats in the North of England and the Midlands against the Conservatives.[333]

Overall[edit source]

317 10 7 12 35 262
Conservative D
U
P
S
F
L
D
SNP Labour
Circle frame.svg

Seats, of total, by party

  Conservative (48.8%)
  Labour (40.3%)
  SNP (5.4%)
  DUP (1.5%)
  Sinn Féin (1.1%)
  Plaid Cymru (0.6%)
  Green (0.2%)
  Speaker (0.2%)
  Independent (0.2%)
Circle frame.svg

Votes, of total, by party

  Conservative (42.3%)
  Labour (40.0%)
  SNP (3.0%)
  UKIP (1.8%)
  Green (1.6%)
  DUP (0.9%)
  Sinn Féin (0.7%)
  Plaid Cymru (0.5%)
  Other (1.8%)
Party Leader MPs Votes
Of total ± Of total ±
Conservative Party Theresa May 317 48.8%
317 / 650

Decrease13 13,632,914 42.3% Increase5.4
Labour Party Jeremy Corbyn 262 40.3%
262 / 650

Increase30 12,874,985 40.0% Increase9.5
Scottish National Party Nicola Sturgeon 35 5.4%
35 / 650

Decrease21 977,569 3.0% Decrease1.7
Liberal Democrats Tim Farron 12 1.8%
12 / 650

Increase4 2,371,772 7.4% Decrease0.5
Democratic Unionist Party Arlene Foster 10 1.5%
10 / 650

Increase2 292,316 0.9% Increase0.3
Sinn Féin Gerry Adams 7 1.1%
7 / 650

Increase3 238,915 0.7% Increase0.2
Plaid Cymru Leanne Wood 4 0.6%
4 / 650

Increase1 164,466 0.5% Decrease0.1
Green Party Jonathan Bartley
Caroline Lucas
1 0.2%
1 / 650

Steady 525,371 1.6% Decrease2.1
Speaker John Bercow 1 0.2%
1 / 650

Steady 34,299 0.1% Steady
Independent Sylvia Hermon 1 0.2%
1 / 650

Steady 16,148 0.1% Steady
UK Independence Party Paul Nuttall 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Decrease1 593,852 1.8% Decrease10.8
Social Democratic & Labour Party Colum Eastwood 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Decrease3 95,419 0.3% Steady
Ulster Unionist Party Robin Swann 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Decrease2 83,280 0.3% Decrease0.1
Alliance Party of Northern Ireland Naomi Long 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Steady 64,553 0.2% Steady
Yorkshire Party Stewart Arnold 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Steady 20,958 0.1% Increase0.1
National Health Action Party Alex Ashman 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Steady 16,119 0.1% Steady
Christian Peoples Alliance Sid Cordle 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Steady 5,869 0.0% Steady
People Before Profit Alliance Collective leadership 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Steady 5,539 0.0% Steady
British National Party Adam Walker 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Steady 4,642 0.0% Steady
Official Monster Raving Loony Party Howling Laud Hope 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Steady 3,890 0.0% Steady
Women’s Equality Party Sophie Walker 0 0.0%
0 / 650

N/A 3,580 0.0% N/A
Traditional Unionist Voice Jim Allister 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Steady 3,282 0.0% Decrease0.1
Other parties 0 0.0%
0 / 650

Steady 136,505 0.4% N/A
Total 650 100% 32,196,918

Proportionality[edit source]

The disproportionality of parliament in the 2017 election was 6.45 according to the Gallagher Index, mainly between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats.

The disproportionality of parliament in the 2017 election was 6.45 according to the Gallagher Index. This is far below the corresponding figure for previous elections.[citation needed]

Diversity[edit source]

Newly elected MPs included Britain’s first turbaned Sikh MP, Tan Dhesi,[334] the first female Sikh MP, Preet Gill,[335] and the first MP of Palestinian descent, Layla Moran.[336]

A record number of female and LGBTQ MPs were elected.[337][338] 201 female MPs were elected to Parliament; the first time more than 200 MPs were female and beating the previous high of 196 female MPs in the last Parliament.[339] For the first time, a majority of MPs were educated at state comprehensive schools.[340] There also seem to be more individuals with disabilities elected.[341]

Seats which changed allegiance[edit source]

Aftermath[edit source]

Corbyn and Farron called on May to resign.[342][343] On 9 June, May apologised to candidates who lost their seats and confirmed she would continue as party leader and prime minister, with the intention of forming a minority government with support from the Democratic Unionist Party in order to ensure “certainty”.[343] May’s joint chiefs of staff Nick Timothy and Fiona Hill resigned, replaced by Gavin Barwell, who had lost his seat in the election.[344]

In a post-election reshuffle carried out on 11 June, May promoted her close ally Damian Green to become First Secretary of State and brought Michael Gove into the cabinet as environment secretary, making Andrea Leadsom Leader of the House of Commons. Liz Truss, David Lidington and David Gauke changed roles, while eleven cabinet members including key figures such as Boris Johnson, Amber Rudd, Michael Fallon, Philip Hammond and David Davis remained in post.[345]

On 10 June, a survey of 1,500 ConservativeHome readers found that almost two thirds of Conservative Party members wanted Theresa May to resign.[346] A YouGov poll of 1,720 adults for the Sunday Times had 48% saying Theresa May should resign, with 38% against.[347] A Survation poll of 1,036 adults online for the Mail on Sunday had 49% of people wanting her resignation, with 38% against.[347]

Negotiations between the Conservatives and DUP started on 9 June, and continued over the weekend and into the following week. On 12 June, it was reported that the State Opening of Parliament, scheduled for 19 June, could be delayed “for a few days” because of ongoing talks between the Conservatives and DUP.[348]

After achieving just 1.8% of the popular vote, down from 12.7% in 2015, and failing to win any seats, Nuttall resigned as UKIP leader on 9 June.[349]

On 13 June, the parliament returned to re-elect John Bercow as Speaker and it was announced that the British Parliament would resume normal operations the following week

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