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The Life and Philosophy of Pythagoras

 

WHILE Mnesarchus, the father of Pythagoras, was in the city of Delphi on matters pertaining to his business as a merchant, he and his wife, Parthenis, decided to consult the oracle of Delphi as to whether the Fates were favorable for their return voyage to Syria. When the Pythoness (prophetess of Apollo) seated herself on the golden tripod over the yawning vent of the oracle, she did not answer the question they had asked, but told Mnesarchus that his wife was then with child and would give birth to a son who was destined to surpass all men in beauty and wisdom, and who throughout the course of his life would contribute much to the benefit of mankind. Mnesarchus was so deeply impressed by the prophecy that he changed his wife’s name to Pythasis, in honor of the Pythian priestess. When the child was born at Sidon in Phœnicia, it was–as the oracle had said–a son. Mnesarchus and Pythasis named the child Pythagoras, for they believed that he had been predestined by the oracle.

Many strange legends have been preserved concerning the birth of Pythagoras. Some maintained that he was no mortal man: that he was one of the gods who had taken a human body to enable him to come into the world and instruct the human race. Pythagoras was one of the many sages and saviors of antiquity for whom an immaculate conception is asserted. In his Anacalypsis, Godfrey Higgins writes: “The first striking circumstance in which the history of Pythagoras agrees with the history of Jesus is, that they were natives of nearly the same country; the former being born at Sidon, the latter at Bethlehem, both in Syria. The father of Pythagoras, as well as the father of Jesus, was prophetically informed that his wife should bring forth a son, who should be a benefactor to mankind. They were both born when their mothers were from home on journeys, Joseph and his wife having gone up to Bethlehem to be taxed, and the father of Pythagoras having travelled from Samos, his residence, to Sidon, about his mercantile concerns. Pythais [Pythasis], the mother of Pythagoras, had a connexion with an Apolloniacal spectre, or ghost, of the God Apollo, or God Sol, (of course this must have been a holy ghost, and here we have the Holy Ghost) which afterward appeared to her husband, and told him that he must have no connexion with his wife during her pregnancy–a story evidently the same as that relating to Joseph and Mary. From these peculiar circumstances, Pythagoras was known by the same title as Jesus, namely, the son of God; and was supposed by the multitude to be under the influence of Divine inspiration.”

This most famous philosopher was born sometime between 600 and 590 B.C., and the length of his life has been estimated at nearly one hundred years.

The teachings of Pythagoras indicate that he was thoroughly conversant with the precepts of Oriental and Occidental esotericism. He traveled among the Jews and was instructed by the Rabbins concerning the secret traditions of Moses, the lawgiver of Israel. Later the School of the Essenes was conducted chiefly for the purpose of interpreting the Pythagorean symbols. Pythagoras was initiated into the Egyptian, Babylonian, and Chaldean Mysteries. Although it is believed by some that he was a disciple of Zoroaster, it is doubtful whether his instructor of that name was the God-man now revered by the Parsees. While accounts of his travels differ, historians agree that he visited many countries and studied at the feet of many masters.

“After having acquired all which it was possible for him to learn of the Greek philosophers and, presumably, become an initiate in the Eleusinian mysteries, he went to Egypt, and after many rebuffs and refusals, finally succeeded in securing initiation in the Mysteries of Isis, at the hands of the priests of Thebes. Then this intrepid ‘joiner’ wended his way into Phoenicia and Syria where the Mysteries of Adonis were conferred upon him, and crossing to the valley of the Euphrates he tarried long enough to become versed in, the secret lore of the Chaldeans, who still dwelt in the vicinity of Babylon. Finally, he made his greatest and most historic venture through Media and Persia into Hindustan where he remained several years as a pupil and initiate of the learned Brahmins of Elephanta and Ellora.” (See Ancient Freemasonry, by Frank C. Higgins, 32°.) The same author adds that the name of Pythagoras is still preserved in the records of the Brahmins as Yavancharya, the Ionian Teacher.

Pythagoras was said to have been the first man to call himself a philosopher; in fact, the world is indebted to him for the word philosopher. Before that time the wise men had called themselves sages, which was interpreted to mean those who know. Pythagoras was more modest. He coined the word philosopher, which he defined as one who is attempting to find out.

After returning from his wanderings, Pythagoras established a school, or as it has been sometimes called, a university, at Crotona, a Dorian colony in Southern Italy. Upon his arrival at Crotona he was regarded askance, but after a short time those holding important positions in the surrounding colonies sought his counsel in matters of great moment. He gathered around him a small group of sincere disciples whom he instructed in the secret wisdom which had been revealed to him, and also in the fundamentals of occult mathematics, music, and astronomy, which he considered to be the triangular foundation of all the arts and sciences.

When he was about sixty years old, Pythagoras married one of his disciples, and seven children resulted from the union. His wife was a remarkably able woman, who not only inspired him during the years of his life but after his assassination continued to promulgate his doctrines.

As is so often the case with genius, Pythagoras by his outspokenness incurred both political and personal enmity. Among those who came for initiation was one who, because Pythagoras refused to admit him, determined to destroy both the man and his philosophy. By means of false propaganda, this disgruntled one turned the minds of the common people against the philosopher. Without warning, a band of murderers descended upon the little group of buildings where the great teacher and his disciples dwelt, burned the structures and killed Pythagoras.

Accounts of the philosopher’s death do not agree. Some say that he was murdered with his disciples; others that, on escaping from Crotona with a small band of followers, he was trapped and burned alive by his enemies in a little house where the band had decided to rest for the night. Another account states that, finding themselves trapped in the burning structure, the disciples threw themselves into the flames, making of their own bodies a bridge over which Pythagoras escaped, only to die of a broken heart a short time afterwards as the result of grieving over the apparent fruitlessness of his efforts to serve and illuminate mankind.

His surviving disciples attempted to perpetuate his doctrines, but they were persecuted on every hand and very little remains today as a testimonial to the greatness of this philosopher. It is said that the disciples of Pythagoras never addressed him or referred to him by his own name, but always as The Master or That Man. This may have been because of the fact that the name Pythagoras was believed to consist of a certain number of specially arranged letters with great sacred significance. The Word magazine has printed an article by T. R. Prater, showing that Pythagoras initiated his candidates by means of a certain formula concealed within

 

PYTHAGORAS, THE FIRST PHILOSOPHER.

From Historia Deorum Fatidicorum.

During his youth, Pythagoras was a disciple of Pherecydes and Hermodamas, and while in his teens became renowned for the clarity of his philosophic concepts. In height he exceeded six feet; his body was as perfectly formed as that of Apollo. Pythagoras was the personification of majesty and power, and in his presence a felt humble and afraid. As he grew older, his physical power increased rather than waned, so that as he approached the century mark he was actually in the prime of life. The influence of this great soul over those about him was such that a word of praise from Pythagoras filled his disciples with ecstasy, while one committed suicide because the Master became momentarily irritate over something he had dome. Pythagoras was so impressed by this tragedy that he never again spoke unkindly to or about anyone.

the letters of his own name. This may explain why the word Pythagoras was so highly revered.

After the death of Pythagoras his school gradually disintegrated, but those who had benefited by its teachings revered the memory of the great philosopher, as during his life they had reverenced the man himself. As time went on, Pythagoras came to be regarded as a god rather than a man, and his scattered disciples were bound together by their common admiration for the transcendent genius of their teacher. Edouard Schure, in his Pythagoras and the Delphic Mysteries, relates the following incident as illustrative of the bond of fellowship uniting the members of the Pythagorean School:

“One of them who had fallen upon sickness and poverty was kindly taken in by an innkeeper. Before dying he traced a few mysterious signs (the pentagram, no doubt) on the door of the inn and said to the host, ‘Do not be uneasy, one of my brothers will pay my debts.’ A year afterwards, as a stranger was passing by this inn he saw the signs and said to the host, ‘I am a Pythagorean; one of my brothers died here; tell me what I owe you on his account.'”

Frank C. Higgins, 32°, gives an excellent compendium of the Pythagorean tenets in the following outline:

“Pythagoras’ teachings are of the most transcendental importance to Masons, inasmuch as they are the necessary fruit of his contact with the leading philosophers of the whole civilized world of his own day, and must represent that in which all were agreed, shorn of all weeds of controversy. Thus, the determined stand made by Pythagoras, in defense of pure monotheism, is sufficient evidence that the tradition to the effect that the unity of God was the supreme secret of all the ancient initiations is substantially correct. The philosophical school of Pythagoras was, in a measure, also a series of initiations, for he caused his pupils to pass through a series of degrees and never permitted them personal contact with himself until they had reached the higher grades. According to his biographers, his degrees were three in number. The first, that of ‘Mathematicus,’ assuring his pupils proficiency in mathematics and geometry, which was then, as it would be now if Masonry were properly inculcated, the basis upon which all other knowledge was erected. Secondly, the degree of ‘Theoreticus,’ which dealt with superficial applications of the exact sciences, and, lastly, the degree of ‘Electus,’ which entitled the candidate to pass forward into the light of the fullest illumination which he was capable of absorbing. The pupils of the Pythagorean school were divided into ‘exoterici,’ or pupils in the outer grades, and ‘esoterici,’ after they had passed the third degree of initiation and were entitled to the secret wisdom. Silence, secrecy and unconditional obedience were cardinal principles of this great order.” (See Ancient Freemasonry.)

PYTHAGORIC FUNDAMENTALS

The study of geometry, music, and astronomy was considered essential to a rational understanding of God, man, or Nature, and no one could accompany Pythagoras as a disciple who was not thoroughly familiar with these sciences. Many came seeking admission to his school. Each applicant was tested on these three subjects, and if found ignorant, was summarily dismissed.

Pythagoras was not an extremist. He taught moderation in all things rather than excess in anything, for he believed that an excess of virtue was in itself a vice. One of his favorite statements was: “We must avoid with our utmost endeavor, and amputate with fire and sword, and by all other means, from the body, sickness; from the soul, ignorance; from the belly, luxury; from a city, sedition; from a family, discord; and from all things, excess.” Pythagoras also believed that there was no crime equal to that of anarchy.

All men know what they want, but few know what they need. Pythagoras warned his disciples that when they prayed they should not pray for themselves; that when they asked things of the gods they should not ask things for themselves, because no man knows what is good for him and it is for this reason undesirable to ask for things which, if obtained, would only prove to be injurious.

The God of Pythagoras was the Monad, or the One that is Everything. He described God as the Supreme Mind distributed throughout all parts of the universe–the Cause of all things, the Intelligence of all things, and the Power within all things. He further declared the motion of God to be circular, the body of God to be composed of the substance of light, and the nature of God to be composed of the substance of truth.

Pythagoras declared that the eating of meat clouded the reasoning faculties. While he did not condemn its use or totally abstain therefrom himself, he declared that judges should refrain from eating meat before a trial, in order that those who appeared before them might receive the most honest and astute decisions. When Pythagoras decided (as he often did) to retire into the temple of God for an extended period of time to meditate and pray, he took with his supply of specially prepared food and drink. The food consisted of equal parts of the seeds of poppy and sesame, the skin of the sea onion from which the juice had been thoroughly extracted, the flower of daffodil, the leaves of mallows, and a paste of barley and peas. These he compounded together with the addition of wild honey. For a beverage he took the seeds of cucumbers, dried raisins (with seeds removed), the flowers of coriander, the seeds of mallows and purslane, scraped cheese, meal, and cream, mixed together and sweetened with wild honey. Pythagoras claimed that this was the diet of Hercules while wandering in the Libyan desert and was according to the formula given to that hero by the goddess Ceres herself.

The favorite method of healing among the Pythagoreans was by the aid of poultices. These people also knew the magic properties of vast numbers of plants. Pythagoras highly esteemed the medicinal properties of the sea onion, and he is said to have written an entire volume on the subject. Such a work, however, is not known at the present time. Pythagoras discovered that music had great therapeutic power and he prepared special harmonies for various diseases. He apparently experimented also with color, attaining considerable success. One of his unique curative processes resulted from his discovery of the healing value of certain verses from the Odyssey and the Iliad of Homer. These he caused to be read to persons suffering from certain ailments. He was opposed to surgery in all its forms and also objected to cauterizing. He would not permit the disfigurement of the human body, for such, in his estimation, was a sacrilege against the dwelling place of the gods.

Pythagoras taught that friendship was the truest and nearest perfect of all relationships. He declared that in Nature there was a friendship of all for all; of gods for men; of doctrines one for another; of the soul for the body; of the rational part for the irrational part; of philosophy for its theory; of men for one another; of countrymen for one another; that friendship also existed between strangers, between a man and his wife, his children, and his servants. All bonds without friendship were shackles, and there was no virtue in their maintenance. Pythagoras believed that relationships were essentially mental rather than physical, and that a stranger of sympathetic intellect was closer to him than a blood relation whose viewpoint was at variance with his own. Pythagoras defined knowledge as the fruitage of mental accumulation. He believed that it would be obtained in many ways, but principally through observation. Wisdom was the understanding of the source or cause of all things, and this could be secured only by raising the intellect to a point where it intuitively cognized the invisible manifesting outwardly through the visible, and thus became capable of bringing itself en rapport with the spirit of things rather than with their forms. The ultimate source that wisdom could cognize was the Monad, the mysterious permanent atom of the Pythagoreans.

Pythagoras taught that both man and the universe were made in the image of God; that both being made in the same image, the understanding of one predicated the knowledge of the other. He further taught that there was a constant interplay between the Grand Man (the universe) and man (the little universe).

Pythagoras believed that all the sidereal bodies were alive and that the forms of the planets and stars were merely bodies encasing souls, minds, and spirits in the same manner that the visible human form is but the encasing vehicle for an invisible spiritual organism which is, in reality, the conscious individual. Pythagoras regarded the planets as magnificent deities, worthy of the adoration and respect of man. All these deities, however, he considered subservient to the One First Cause within whom they all existed temporarily, as mortality exists in the midst of immortality.

The famous Pythagorean Υ signified the power of choice and was used in the Mysteries as emblematic of the Forking of the Ways. The central stem separated into two parts, one branching to

 

THE SYMMETRICAL GEOMETRIC SOLIDS.

To the five symmetrical solids of the ancients is added the sphere (1), the most perfect of all created forms. The five Pythagorean solids are: the tetrahedron (2) with four equilateral triangles as faces; the cube (3) with six squares as faces; the octahedron (4) with eight equilateral triangles as faces; the icosahedron (5) with twenty equilateral triangles as faces; and the dodecahedron (6) with twelve regular pentagons as faces.

the right and the other to the left. The branch to the right was called Divine Wisdom and the one to the left Earthly Wisdom. Youth, personified by the candidate, walking the Path of Life, symbolized by the central stem of the Υ, reaches the point where the Path divides. The neophyte must then choose whether he will take the left-hand path and, following the dictates of his lower nature, enter upon a span of folly and thoughtlessness which will inevitably result in his undoing, or whether he will take the right-hand road and through integrity, industry, and sincerity ultimately regain union with the immortals in the superior spheres.

It is probable that Pythagoras obtained his concept of the Υ from the Egyptians, who included in certain of their initiatory rituals a scene in which the candidate was confronted by two female figures. One of them, veiled with the white robes of the temple, urged the neophyte to enter into the halls of learning; the other, bedecked with jewels, symbolizing earthly treasures, and bearing in her hands a tray loaded with grapes (emblematic of false light), sought to lure him into the chambers of dissipation. This symbol is still preserved among the Tarot cards, where it is called The Forking of the Ways. The forked stick has been the symbol of life among many nations, and it was placed in the desert to indicate the presence of water.

Concerning the theory of transmigration as disseminated by Pythagoras, there are differences of opinion. According to one view, he taught that mortals who during their earthly existence had by their actions become like certain animals, returned to earth again in the form of the beasts which they had grown to resemble. Thus, a timid person would return in the form of a rabbit or a deer; a cruel person in the form of a wolf or other ferocious animal; and a cunning person in the guise of a fox. This concept, however, does not fit into the general Pythagorean scheme, and it is far more likely that it was given in an allegorical rather than a literal sense. It was intended to convey the idea that human beings become bestial when they allow themselves to be dominated by their own lower desires and destructive tendencies. It is probable that the term transmigration is to be understood as what is more commonly called reincarnation, a doctrine which Pythagoras must have contacted directly or indirectly in India and Egypt.

The fact that Pythagoras accepted the theory of successive reappearances of the spiritual nature in human form is found in a footnote to Levi’s History of Magic: “He was an important champion of what used to be called the doctrine of metempsychosis, understood as the soul’s transmigration into successive bodies. He himself had been (a) Aethalides, a son of Mercury; (b) Euphorbus, son of Panthus, who perished at the hands of Menelaus in the Trojan war; (c) Hermotimus, a prophet of Clazomenae, a city of Ionia; (d) a humble fisherman; and finally (e) the philosopher of Samos.”

Pythagoras also taught that each species of creatures had what he termed a seal, given to it by God, and that the physical form of each was the impression of this seal upon the wax of physical substance. Thus each body was stamped with the dignity of its divinely given pattern. Pythagoras believed that ultimately man would reach a state where he would cast off his gross nature and function in a body of spiritualized ether which would be in juxtaposition to his physical form at all times and which might be the eighth sphere, or Antichthon. From this he would ascend into the realm of the immortals, where by divine birthright he belonged.

Pythagoras taught that everything in nature was divisible into three parts and that no one could become truly wise who did not view every problem as being diagrammatically triangular. He said, “Establish the triangle and the problem is two-thirds solved”; further, “All things consist of three.” In conformity with this viewpoint, Pythagoras divided the universe into three parts, which he called the Supreme World, the Superior World, and the Inferior World. The highest, or Supreme World, was a subtle, interpenetrative spiritual essence pervading all things and therefore the true plane of the Supreme Deity itself, the Deity being in every sense omnipresent, omniactive, omnipotent, and omniscient. Both of the lower worlds existed within the nature of this supreme sphere.

The Superior World was the home of the immortals. It was also the dwelling place of the archetypes, or the seals; their natures in no manner partook of the material of earthiness, but they, casting their shadows upon the deep (the Inferior World), were cognizable only through their shadows. The third, or Inferior World, was the home of those creatures who partook of material substance or were engaged in labor with or upon material substance. Hence, this sphere was the home of the mortal gods, the Demiurgi, the angels who labor with men; also the dæmons who partake of the nature of the earth; and finally mankind and the lower kingdoms, those temporarily of the earth but capable of rising above that sphere by reason and philosophy.

The digits 1 and 2 are not considered numbers by the Pythagoreans, because they typify the two supermundane spheres. The Pythagorean numbers, therefore, begin with 3, the triangle, and 4, the square. These added to the 1 and the 2, produce the 10, the great number of all things, the archetype of the universe. The three worlds were called receptacles. The first was the receptacle of principles, the second was the receptacle of intelligences, and the third, or lowest, was the receptacle of quantities.

“The symmetrical solids were regarded by Pythagoras, and by the Greek thinkers after him, as of the greatest importance. To be perfectly symmetrical or regular, a solid must have an equal number of faces meeting at each of its angles, and these faces must be equal regular polygons, i. e., figures whose sides and angles are all equal. Pythagoras, perhaps, may be credited with the great discovery that there are only five such solids.* * *

‘Now, the Greeks believed the world [material universe] to be composed of four elements–earth, air, fire, water–and to the Greek mind the conclusion was inevitable that the shapes of the particles of the elements were those of the regular solids. Earth-particles were cubical, the cube being the regular solid possessed of greatest stability; fire-particles were tetrahedral, the tetrahedron being the simplest and, hence, lightest solid. Water-particles were icosahedral for exactly the reverse reason, whilst air-particles, as intermediate between the two latter, were octahedral. The dodecahedron was, to these ancient mathematicians, the most mysterious of the solids; it was by far the most difficult to construct, the accurate drawing of the regular pentagon necessitating a rather elaborate application of Pythagoras’ great theorem. Hence the conclusion, as Plato put it, that ‘this (the regular dodecahedron) the Deity employed in tracing the plan of the Universe.’ (H. Stanley Redgrove, in Bygone Beliefs.)

Mr. Redgrove has not mentioned the fifth element of the ancient Mysteries, that which would make the analogy between the symmetrical solids and the elements complete. This fifth element, or ether, was called by the Hindus akasa. It was closely correlated with the hypothetical ether of modern science, and was the interpenetrative substance permeating all of the other elements and acting as a common solvent and common denominator of them. The twelve-faced solid also subtly referred to the Twelve Immortals who surfaced the universe, and also to the twelve convolutions of the human brain–the vehicles of those Immortals in the nature of man.

While Pythagoras, in accordance with others of his day, practiced divination (possibly arithmomancy), there is no accurate information concerning the methods which he used. He is believed to have had a remarkable wheel by means of which he could predict future events, and to have learned hydromancy from the Egyptians. He believed that brass had oracular powers, because even when everything was perfectly still there was always a rumbling sound in brass bowls. He once addressed a prayer to the spirit of a river and out of the water arose a voice, “Pythagoras, I greet thee.” It is claimed for him that he was able to cause dæmons to enter into water and disturb its surface, and by means of the agitations certain things were predicted.

After having drunk from a certain spring one day, one of the Masters of Pythagoras announced that the spirit of the water had just predicted that a great earthquake would occur the next day–a prophecy which was fulfilled. It is highly probable that Pythagoras possessed hypnotic power, not only over man but also over animals. He caused a bird to change the course of its flight, a bear to cease its ravages upon a community, and a bull to change its diet, by the exercise of mental influence. He was also gifted with second sight, being able to see things at a distance and accurately describe incidents that had not yet come to pass.

THE SYMBOLIC APHORISMS OF PYTHAGORAS

Iamblichus gathered thirty-nine of the symbolic sayings of Pythagoras and interpreted them. These have been translated from the Greek by Thomas Taylor. Aphorismic statement was one of the favorite methods of instruction used in the Pythagorean university of Crotona. Ten of the most representative of these aphorisms are reproduced below with a brief elucidation of their concealed meanings.

  1. Declining from the public ways, walk in unfrequented paths. By this it is to be understood that those who desire wisdom must seek it in solitude.

 

NUMBER RELATED TO FORM.

Pythagoras taught that the dot symbolized the power of the number 1, the line the power of the number 2, the surface the power of the number 3, and the solid the power of the number 4.

  1. Govern your tongue before all other things, following the gods. This aphorism warns man that his words, instead of representing him, misrepresent him, and that when in doubt as to what he should say, he should always be silent.

III. The wind blowing, adore the sound. Pythagoras here reminds his disciples that the fiat of God is heard in the voice of the elements, and that all things in Nature manifest through harmony, rhythm, order, or procedure the attributes of the Deity.

  1. Assist a man in raising a burden; but do not assist him in laying it down. The student is instructed to aid the diligent but never to assist those who seek to evade their responsibilities, for it is a great sin to encourage indolence.
  2. Speak not about Pythagoric concerns without light. The world is herein warned that it should not attempt to interpret the mysteries of God and the secrets of the sciences without spiritual and intellectual illumination.
  3. Having departed from your house, turn not back, for the furies will be your attendants. Pythagoras here warns his followers that any who begin the search for truth and, after having learned part of the mystery, become discouraged and attempt to return again to their former ways of vice and ignorance, will suffer exceedingly; for it is better to know nothing about Divinity than to learn a little and then stop without learning all.

VII. Nourish a cock, but sacrifice it not; for it is sacred to the sun and moon. Two great lessons are concealed in this aphorism. The first is a warning against the sacrifice of living things to the gods, because life is sacred and man should not destroy it even as an offering to the Deity. The second warns man that the human body here referred to as a cock is sacred to the sun (God) and the moon (Nature), and should be guarded and preserved as man’s most precious medium of expression. Pythagoras also warned his disciples against suicide.

VIII. Receive not a swallow into your house. This warns the seeker after truth not to allow drifting thoughts to come into his mind nor shiftless persons to enter into his life. He must ever surround himself with rationally inspired thinkers and with conscientious workers.

  1. Offer not your right hand easily to anyone. This warns the disciple to keep his own counsel and not offer wisdom and knowledge (his right hand) to such as are incapable of appreciating them. The hand here represents Truth, which raises those who have fallen because of ignorance; but as many of the unregenerate do not desire wisdom they will cut off the hand that is extended in kindness to them. Time alone can effect the redemption of the ignorant masses
  2. When rising from the bedclothes, roll them together, and obliterate the impression of the body. Pythagoras directed his disciples who had awakened from the sleep of ignorance into the waking state of intelligence to eliminate from their recollection all memory of their former spiritual darkness; for a wise man in passing leaves no form behind him which others less intelligent, seeing, shall use as a mold for the casting of idols.

The most famous of the Pythagorean fragments are the Golden Verses, ascribed to Pythagoras himself, but concerning whose authorship there is an element of doubt. The Golden Verses contain a brief summary of the entire system of philosophy forming the basis of the educational doctrines of Crotona, or, as it is more commonly known, the Italic School. These verses open by counseling the reader to love God, venerate the great heroes, and respect the dæmons and elemental inhabitants. They then urge man to think carefully and industriously concerning his daily life, and to prefer the treasures of the mind and soul to accumulations of earthly goods. The verses also promise man that if he will rise above his lower material nature and cultivate self-control, he will ultimately be acceptable in the sight of the gods, be reunited with them, and partake of their immortality. (It is rather significant to note that Plato paid a great price for some of the manuscripts of Pythagoras which had been saved from the destruction of Crotona. See Historia Deorum Fatidicorum, Geneva, 1675.)

PYTHAGOREAN ASTRONOMY

According to Pythagoras, the position of each body in the universe was determined by the essential dignity of that body. The popular concept of his day was that the earth occupied the center of the solar system; that the planets, including the sun and moon, moved about the earth; and that the earth itself was flat and square. Contrary to this concept, and regardless of criticism, Pythagoras declared that fire was the most important of all the elements; that the center was the most important part of every body; and that, just as Vesta’s fire was in the midst of every home, so in the midst of the universe was a flaming sphere of celestial radiance. This central globe he called the Tower of Jupiter, the Globe of Unity, the Grand Monad, and the Altar of Vesta. As the sacred number 10 symbolized the sum of all parts and the completeness of all things, it was only natural for Pythagoras to divide the universe into ten spheres, symbolized by ten concentric circles. These circles began at the center with the globe of Divine Fire; then came the seven planers, the earth, and another mysterious planet, called Antichthon, which was never visible.

Opinions differ as to the nature of Antichthon. Clement of Alexandria believed that it represented the mass of the heavens; others held the opinion that it was the moon. More probably it was the mysterious eighth sphere of the ancients, the dark planet which moved in the same orbit as the earth but which was always concealed from the earth by the body of the sun, being in exact opposition to the earth at all times. Is this the mysterious Lilith concerning which astrologers have speculated so long?

Isaac Myer has stated:

“The Pythagoreans held that each star was a world having its own atmosphere, with an immense extent surrounding it, of aether.” (See The Qabbalah.)

The disciples of Pythagoras also highly revered the planet Venus, because it was the only planet bright enough to cast a shadow. As the morning star, Venus is visible before sunrise, and as the evening star it shines forth immediately after sunset. Because of these qualities, a number of names have been given to it by the ancients. Being visible in the sky at sunset, it was called vesper, and as it arose before the sun, it was called the false light, the star of the morning, or Lucifer, which means the light-bearer. Because of this relation to the sun, the planet was also referred to as Venus, Astarte, Aphrodite, Isis, and The Mother of the Gods. It is possible that: at some seasons of the year in certain latitudes the fact that Venus was a crescent could be detected without the aid of a telescope. This would account for the crescent which is often seen in connection with the goddesses of antiquity, the stories of which do not agree with the phases of the moon. The accurate knowledge which Pythagoras possessed concerning astronomy he undoubtedly secured in the Egyptian temples, for their priests understood the true relationship of the heavenly bodies many thousands of years before that knowledge was revealed to the uninitiated world. The fact that the knowledge he acquired in the temples enabled him to make assertions requiring two thousand years to check proves why Plato and Aristotle so highly esteemed the profundity of the ancient Mysteries. In the midst of comparative scientific ignorance, and without the aid of any modern instruments, the priest-philosophers had discovered the true fundamentals of universal dynamics.

An interesting application of the Pythagorean doctrine of geometric solids as expounded by Plato is found in The Canon.

“Nearly all the old philosophers,” says its anonymous author, “devised an harmonic theory with respect to the universe, and the practice continued till the old mode of philosophizing died out. Kepler (1596), in order to demonstrate the Platonic doctrine, that the universe was formed of the five regular solids, proposed the following rule. ‘The earth is a circle, the measurer of all. Round it describe a dodecahedron; the circle inclosing this will be Mars. Round Mars describe a tetrahedron; the sphere inclosing this will be Jupiter. Describe a cube round Jupiter; the sphere containing this will be Saturn. Now inscribe in the earth an icosahedron; the circle inscribed in it will be Venus. Inscribe an octahedron in Venus; the circle inscribed in it will be Mercury’ (Mysterium Cosmographicum, 1596). This rule cannot be taken seriously as a real statement of the proportions of the cosmos, fox it bears no real resemblance to the ratios published by Copernicus in the beginning of the sixteenth century. Yet Kepler was very proud of his formula, and said he valued it more than the Electorate of Saxony. It was also approved by those two eminent authorities, Tycho and Galileo, who evidently understood it. Kepler himself never gives the least hint of how his precious rule is to be interpreted.”

Platonic astronomy was not concerned with the material constitution or arrangement of the heavenly bodies, but considered the stars and planers primarily as focal points of Divine intelligence. Physical astronomy was regarded as the science of “shadows,” philosophical astronomy the science of “realities.”

 

THE TETRACTYS.

Theon of Smyrna declares that the ten dots, or tetractys of Pythagoras, was a symbol of the greatest importance, for to the discerning mind it revealed the mystery of universal nature. The Pythagoreans bound themselves by the following oath: “By Him who gave to our soul the tetractys, which hath the fountain and root of ever-springing nature.”

 

THE CUBE AND THE STAR.

By connecting the ten dots of the tetractys, nine triangles are formed. Six of these are involved in the forming of the cube. The same triangles, when lines are properly drawn between them, also reveal the six-pointed star with a dot in the center. Only seven dots are used in forming the cube and the star. Qabbalistically, the three unused corner dots represent the threefold, invisible causal nature of the universe, while the seven dots involved in the cube and the star are the Elohim–the Spirits of the seven creative periods. The Sabbath, or seventh day, is the central dot.

 

Pythagorean Mathematics

CONCERNING the secret significance of numbers there has been much speculation. Though many interesting discoveries have been made, it may be safely said that with the death of Pythagoras the great key to this science was lost. For nearly 2500 years philosophers of all nations have attempted to unravel the Pythagorean skein, but apparently none has been successful. Notwithstanding attempts made to obliterate all records of the teachings of Pythagoras, fragments have survived which give clues to some of the simpler parts of his philosophy. The major secrets were never committed to writing, but were communicated orally to a few chosen disciples. These apparently dated not divulge their secrets to the profane, the result being that when death sealed their lips the arcana died with diem.

Certain of the secret schools in the world today are perpetuations of the ancient Mysteries, and although it is quite possible that they may possess some of the original numerical formulæ, there is no evidence of it in the voluminous writings which have issued from these groups during the last five hundred years. These writings, while frequently discussing Pythagoras, show no indication of a more complete knowledge of his intricate doctrines than the post-Pythagorean Greek speculators had, who talked much, wrote little, knew less, and concealed their ignorance under a series of mysterious hints and promises. Here and there among the literary products of early writers are found enigmatic statements which they made no effort: to interpret. The following example is quoted from Plutarch:

“The Pythagoreans indeed go farther than this, and honour even numbers and geometrical diagrams with the names and titles of the gods. Thus they call the equilateral triangle head-born Minerva and Tritogenia, because it may be equally divided by three perpendiculars drawn from each of the angles. So the unit they term Apollo, as to the number two they have affixed the name of strife and audaciousness, and to that of three, justice. For, as doing an injury is an extreme on the one side, and suffering one is an extreme on the on the one side, and suffering in the middle between them. In like manner the number thirty-six, their Tetractys, or sacred Quaternion, being composed of the first four odd numbers added to the first four even ones, as is commonly reported, is looked upon by them as the most solemn oath they can take, and called Kosmos.” (Isis and Osiris.)

Earlier in the same work, Plutarch also notes:

“For as the power of the triangle is expressive of the nature of Pluto, Bacchus, and Mars; and the properties of the square of Rhea, Venus, Ceres, Vesta, and Juno; of the Dodecahedron of Jupiter; so, as we are informed by Eudoxus, is the figure of fifty-six angles expressive of the nature of Typhon.” Plutarch did not pretend to explain the inner significance of the symbols, but believed that the relationship which Pythagoras established between the geometrical solids and the gods was the result of images the great sage had seen in the Egyptian temples.

Albert Pike, the great Masonic symbolist, admitted that there were many points concerning which he could secure no reliable information. In hisSymbolism, for the 32° and 33°, he wrote: “I do not understand why the 7 should be called Minerva, or the cube, Neptune.” Further on he added: “Undoubtedly the names given by the Pythagoreans to the different numbers were themselves enigmatical and symbolic-and there is little doubt that in the time of Plutarch the meanings these names concealed were lost. Pythagoras had succeeded too well in concealing his symbols with a veil that was from the first impenetrable, without his oral explanation * * *.”

This uncertainty shared by all true students of the subject proves conclusively that it is unwise to make definite statements founded on the indefinite and fragmentary information available concerning the Pythagorean system of mathematical philosophy. The material which follows represents an effort to collect a few salient points from the scattered records preserved by disciples of Pythagoras and others who have since contacted his philosophy.

METHOD OF SECURING THE NUMERICAL POWER OF WORDS

The first step in obtaining the numerical value of a word is to resolve it back into its original tongue. Only words of Greek or Hebrew derivation can be successfully analyzed by this method, and all words must be spelled in their most ancient and complete forms. Old Testament words and names, therefore, must be translated back into the early Hebrew characters and New Testament words into the Greek. Two examples will help to clarify this principle.

The Demiurgus of the Jews is called in English Jehovah, but when seeking the numerical value of the name Jehovah it is necessary to resolve the name into its Hebrew letters. It becomes יהוה, and is read from right to left. The Hebrew letters are: ה, He; ו, Vau; ה, He; י, Yod; and when reversed into the English order from left to right read: Yod-He-Vau-He. By consulting the foregoing table of letter values, it is found that the four characters of this sacred name have the following numerical significance: Yod equals 10. He equals 5, Vau equals 6, and the second He equals 5. Therefore, 10+5+6+5=26, a synonym of Jehovah. If the English letters were used, the answer obviously would not be correct.

The second example is the mysterious Gnostic pantheos Abraxas. For this name the Greek table is used. Abraxas in Greek is Ἀβραξας. Α = 1, β = 2, ρ = 100, α = 1, ξ =60, α = 1, ς = 200, the sum being 365, the number of days in the year. This number furnishes the key to the mystery of Abraxas, who is symbolic of the 365 Æons, or Spirits of the Days, gathered together in one composite personality. Abraxas is symbolic of five creatures, and as the circle of the year actually consists of 360 degrees, each of the emanating deities is one-fifth of this power, or 72, one of the most sacred numbers in the Old Testament of the Jews and in their Qabbalistic system. This same method is used in finding the numerical value of the names of the gods and goddesses of the Greeks and Jews.

All higher numbers can be reduced to one of the original ten numerals, and the 10 itself to 1. Therefore, all groups of numbers resulting from the translation of names of deities into their numerical equivalents have a basis in one of the first ten numbers. By this system, in which the digits are added together, 666 becomes 6+6+6 or 18, and this, in turn, becomes 1+8 or 9. According to Revelation, 144,000 are to be saved. This number becomes 1+4+4+0+0+0, which equals 9, thus proving that both the Beast of Babylon and the number of the saved refer to man himself, whose symbol is the number 9. This system can be used successfully with both Greek and Hebrew letter values.

The original Pythagorean system of numerical philosophy contains nothing to justify the practice now in vogue of changing the given name or surname in the hope of improving the temperament or financial condition by altering the name vibrations.

There is also a system of calculation in vogue for the English language, but its accuracy is a matter of legitimate dispute. It is comparatively modern and has no relationship either to the Hebrew Qabbalistic system or to the Greek procedure. The claim made by some that it is Pythagorean is not supported by any tangible evidence, and there are many reasons why such a contention is untenable. The fact that Pythagoras used 10 as the basis of calculation, while this system uses 9–an imperfect number–is in itself almost conclusive. Furthermore, the arrangement of the Greek and Hebrew letters does not agree closely enough with the English to permit the application of the number sequences of one language to the number sequences of the others.

 

THE NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE HEBREW, GREEK, AND SAMARITAN ALPHABETS.

From Higgins’ Celtic Druids.

Column
1 Names of the Hebrew letters.
2 Samaritan Letters.
3 Hebrew and Chaldean letters.
4 Numerical equivalents of the letters.
5 Capital and small Greek letters.
6 The letters marked with asterisks are those brought to Greece from Phœnicia by Cadmus.
7 Name of the Greek letters.
8 Nearest English equivalents to the Hebrew, Greek, and Samaritan Letters.

NOTE. When used at the end of a word, the Hebrew Tau has the numerical value 440, Caph 500, Mem 600, Nun 700, Pe 800, Tzadi 900. A dotted Alpha and a dashed Aleph have the value of 1,000.

Further experimentation with the system may prove profitable, but it is without basis in antiquity. The arrangement of the letters and numbers is as follows:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
A B C D E F G H I
J K L M N O P Q R
S T U V W X Y Z

The letters under each of the numbers have the value of the figure at: the top of the column. Thus, in the word man, M = 4, A = 1, N = 5: a total of 10. The values of the numbers are practically the same as those given by the Pythagorean system.

 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PYTHAGOREAN THEORY OF NUMBERS

(The following outline of Pythagorean mathematics is a paraphrase of the opening chapters of Thomas Taylor’s Theoretic Arithmetic, the rarest and most important compilation of Pythagorean mathematical fragments extant.)

The Pythagoreans declared arithmetic to be the mother of the mathematical sciences. This is proved by the fact that geometry, music, and astronomy are dependent upon it but it is not dependent upon them. Thus, geometry may be removed but arithmetic will remain; but if arithmetic be removed, geometry is eliminated. In the same manner music depends upon arithmetic, but the elimination of music affects arithmetic only by limiting one of its expressions. The Pythagoreans also demonstrated arithmetic to be prior to astronomy, for the latter is dependent upon both geometry and music. The size, form, and motion of the celestial bodies is determined by the use of geometry; their harmony and rhythm by the use of music. If astronomy be removed, neither geometry nor music is injured; but if geometry and music be eliminated, astronomy is destroyed. The priority of both geometry and music to astronomy is therefore established. Arithmetic, however, is prior to all; it is primary and fundamental.

Pythagoras instructed his disciples that the science of mathematics is divided into two major parts. The first is concerned with the multitude, or the constituent parts of a thing, and the second with the magnitude, or the relative size or density of a thing.

Magnitude is divided into two parts–magnitude which is stationary and magnitude which is movable, the stationary pare having priority. Multitude is also divided into two parts, for it is related both to itself and to other things, the first relationship having priority. Pythagoras assigned the science of arithmetic to multitude related to itself, and the art of music to multitude related to other things. Geometry likewise was assigned to stationary magnitude, and spherics (used partly in the sense of astronomy) to movable magnitude. Both multitude and magnitude were circumscribed by the circumference of mind. The atomic theory has proved size to be the result of number, for a mass is made up of minute units though mistaken by the uninformed for a single simple substance.

Owing to the fragmentary condition of existing Pythagorean records, it is difficult to arrive at exact definitions of terms. Before it is possible, however, to unfold the subject further some light must he cast upon the meanings of the words number, monad, and one.

The monad signifies (a) the all-including ONE. The Pythagoreans called the monad the “noble number, Sire of Gods and men.” The monad also signifies (b) the sum of any combination of numbers considered as a whole. Thus, the universe is considered as a monad, but the individual parts of the universe (such as the planets and elements) are monads in relation to the parts of which they themselves are composed, though they, in turn, are parts of the greater monad formed of their sum. The monad may also be likened (c) to the seed of a tree which, when it has grown, has many branches (the numbers). In other words, the numbers are to the monad what the branches of the tree are to the seed of the tree. From the study of the mysterious Pythagorean monad, Leibnitz evolved his magnificent theory of the world atoms–a theory in perfect accord with the ancient teachings of the Mysteries, for Leibnitz himself was an initiate of a secret school. By some Pythagoreans the monad is also considered (d) synonymous with the one.

Number is the term applied to all numerals and their combinations. (A strict interpretation of the term number by certain of the Pythagoreans excludes 1 and 2.) Pythagoras defines number to be the extension and energy of the spermatic reasons contained in the monad. The followers of Hippasus declared number to be the first pattern used by the Demiurgus in the formation of the universe.

The one was defined by the Platonists as “the summit of the many.” The one differs from the monad in that the term monad is used to designate the sum of the parts considered as a unit, whereas the one is the term applied to each of its integral parts.

There are two orders of number: odd and even. Because unity, or 1, always remains indivisible, the odd number cannot be divided equally. Thus, 9 is 4+1+4, the unity in the center being indivisible. Furthermore, if any odd number be divided into two parts, one part will always be odd and the other even. Thus, 9 may be 5+4, 3+6, 7+2, or 8+1. The Pythagoreans considered the odd number–of which the monad was the prototype–to be definite and masculine. They were not all agreed, however, as to the nature of unity, or 1. Some declared it to be positive, because if added to an even (negative) number, it produces an odd (positive) number. Others demonstrated that if unity be added to an odd number, the latter becomes even, thereby making the masculine to be feminine. Unity, or 1, therefore, was considered an androgynous number, partaking of both the masculine and the feminine attributes; consequently both odd and even. For this reason the Pythagoreans called it evenly-odd. It was customary for the Pythagoreans to offer sacrifices of an uneven number of objects to the superior gods, while to the goddesses and subterranean spirits an even number was offered.

Any even number may be divided into two equal parts, which are always either both odd or both even. Thus, 10 by equal division gives 5+5, both odd numbers. The same principle holds true if the 10 be unequally divided. For example, in 6+4, both parts are even; in 7+3, both parts are odd; in 8+2, both parts are again even; and in 9+1, both parts are again odd. Thus, in the even number, however it may be divided, the parts will always be both odd or both even. The Pythagoreans considered the even number-of which the duad was the prototype–to be indefinite and feminine.

The odd numbers are divided by a mathematical contrivance–called “the Sieve of Eratosthenes”–into three general classes: incomposite, composite, andincomposite-composite.

The incomposite numbers are those which have no divisor other than themselves and unity, such as 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, and so forth. For example, 7 is divisible only by 7, which goes into itself once, and unity, which goes into 7 seven times.

The composite numbers are those which are divisible not only by themselves and unity but also by some other number, such as 9, 15, 21, 25, 27, 33, 39, 45, 51, 57, and so forth. For example, 21 is divisible not only by itself and by unity, but also by 3 and by 7.

The incomposite-composite numbers are those which have no common divisor, although each of itself is capable of division, such as 9 and 25. For example, 9 is divisible by 3 and 25 by 5, but neither is divisible by the divisor of the other; thus they have no common divisor. Because they have individual divisors, they are called composite; and because they have no common divisor, they are called in, composite. Accordingly, the term incomposite-composite was created to describe their properties.

Even numbers are divided into three classes: evenly-even, evenly-odd, and oddly-odd.

The evenly-even numbers are all in duple ratio from unity; thus: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1,024. The proof of the perfect evenly-even number is that it can be halved and the halves again halved back to unity, as 1/2 of 64 = 32; 1/2 of 32 = 16; 1/2 of 16 = 8; 1/2 of 8 = 4; 1/2 of 4 = 2; 1/2 of 2 = 1; beyond unity it is impossible to go.

The evenly-even numbers possess certain unique properties. The sum of any number of terms but the last term is always equal to the last term minus one. For example: the sum of the first and second terms (1+2) equals the third term (4) minus one; or, the sum of the first, second, third, and fourth terms (1+2+4+8) equals the fifth term (16) minus one.

In a series of evenly-even numbers, the first multiplied by the last equals the last, the second multiplied by the second from the last equals the last, and so on until in an odd series one number remains, which multiplied by itself equals the last number of the series; or, in an even series two numbers remain, which multiplied by each other give the last number of the series. For example: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 is an odd series. The first number (1) multiplied by the last number (16) equals the last number (16). The second number (2) multiplied by the second from the last number (8) equals the last number (16). Being an odd series, the 4 is left in the center, and this multiplied by itself also equals the last number (16).

The evenly-odd numbers are those which, when halved, are incapable of further division by halving. They are formed by taking the odd numbers in sequential order and multiplying them by 2. By this process the odd numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 produce the evenly-odd numbers, 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22. Thus, every fourth number is evenly-odd. Each of the even-odd numbers may be divided once, as 2, which becomes two 1’s and cannot be divided further; or 6, which becomes two 3’s and cannot be divided further.

Another peculiarity of the evenly-odd numbers is that if the divisor be odd the quotient is always even, and if the divisor be even the quotient is always odd. For example: if 18 be divided by 2 (an even divisor) the quotient is 9 (an odd number); if 18 be divided by 3 (an odd divisor) the quotient is 6 (an even number).

The evenly-odd numbers are also remarkable in that each term is one-half of the sum of the terms on either side of it. For example:

 

THE SIEVE OF ERATOSTHENES.

Redrawn from Taylor’s Theoretic Arithmetic.

This sieve is a mathematical device originated by Eratosthenes about 230 B.C. far the purpose of segregating the composite and incomposite odd numbers. Its use is extremely simple after the theory has once been mastered. All the odd numbers are first arranged in their natural order as shown in the second panel from the bottom, designated Odd Numbers. It will then be seen that every third number (beginning with 3) is divisible by 3, every fifth number (beginning with 5;) is divisible by 5, every seventh number (beginning with 7) is divisible by 7, every ninth number (beginning with 9) is divisible by 9, every eleventh number (beginning with 11) is divisible by 11, and so on to infinity. This system finally sifts out what the Pythagoreans called the “incomposite” numbers, or those having no divisor other than themselves and unity. These will be found in the lowest panel, designated Primary and Incomposite Numbers. In his History of Mathematics, David Eugene Smith states that Eratosthenes was one of the greatest scholars of Alexandria and was called by his admirers “the second Plato.” Eratosthenes was educated at Athens, and is renowned not only for his sieve but for having computed, by a very ingenious method, the circumference and diameter of the earth. His estimate of the earth’s diameter was only 50 miles less than the polar diameter accepted by modern scientists. This and other mathematical achievements of Eratosthenes, are indisputable evidence that in the third century before Christ the Greeks not only knew the earth to be spherical in farm but could also approximate, with amazing accuracy, its actual size and distance from both the sun and the moon. Aristarchus of Samos, another great Greek astronomer and mathematician, who lived about 250 B.C., established by philosophical deduction and a few simple scientific instruments that the earth revolved around the sun. While Copernicus actually believed himself to be the discoverer of this fact, he but restated the findings advanced by Aristarchus seventeen hundred years earlier.

__________________________

10 is one-half of the sum of 6 and 14; 18 is one-half the sum of 14 and 22; and 6 is one-half the sum of 2 and 10.

The oddly-odd, or unevenly-even, numbers are a compromise between the evenly-even and the evenly-odd numbers. Unlike the evenly-even, they cannot be halved back to unity; and unlike the evenly-odd, they are capable of more than one division by halving. The oddly-odd numbers are formed by multiplying the evenly-even numbers above 2 by the odd numbers above one. The odd numbers above one are 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and so forth. The evenly-even numbers above 2 are 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and soon. The first odd number of the series (3) multiplied by 4 (the first evenly-even number of the series) gives 12, the first oddly-odd number. By multiplying 5, 7, 9, 11, and so forth, by 4, oddly-odd numbers are found. The other oddly-odd numbers are produced by multiplying 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and so forth, in turn, by the other evenly-even numbers (8, 16, 32, 64, and so forth). An example of the halving of the oddly-odd number is as follows: 1/2 of 12 = 6; 1/2 of 6 = 3, which cannot be halved further because the Pythagoreans did not divide unity.

Even numbers are also divided into three other classes: superperfect, deficient, and perfect.

Superperfect or superabundant numbers are such as have the sum of their fractional parts greater than themselves. For example: 1/2 of 24 = 12; 1/4 = 6; 1/3 = 8; 1/6 = 4; 1/12 = 2; and 1/24 = 1. The sum of these parts (12+6+8+4+2+1) is 33, which is in excess of 24, the original number.

Deficient numbers are such as have the sum of their fractional parts less than themselves. For example: 1/2 of 14 = 7; 1/7 = 2; and 1/14 = 1. The sum of these parts (7+2+1) is 10, which is less than 14, the original number.

Perfect numbers are such as have the sum of their fractional parts equal to themselves. For example: 1/2 of 28 = 14; 1/4 = 7; 1/7 = 4; 1/14 = 2; and 1/28 = 1. The sum of these parts (14+7+4+2+1) is equal to 28.

The perfect numbers are extremely rare. There is only one between 1 and 10, namely, 6; one between 10 and 100, namely, 28; one between 100 and 1,000, namely, 496; and one between 1,000 and 10,000, namely, 8,128. The perfect numbers are found by the following rule: The first number of the evenly-even series of numbers (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and so forth) is added to the second number of the series, and if an incomposite number results it is multiplied by the last number of the series of evenly-even numbers whose sum produced it. The product is the first perfect number. For example: the first and second evenly-even numbers are 1 and 2. Their sum is 3, an incomposite number. If 3 be multiplied by 2, the last number of the series of evenly-even numbers used to produce it, the product is 6, the first perfect number. If the addition of the evenly-even numbers does not result in an incomposite number, the next evenly-even number of the series must be added until an incomposite number results. The second perfect number is found in the following manner: The sum of the evenly-even numbers 1, 2, and 4 is 7, an incomposite number. If 7 be multiplied by 4 (the last of the series of evenly-even numbers used to produce it) the product is 28, the second perfect number. This method of calculation may be continued to infinity.

Perfect numbers when multiplied by 2 produce superabundant numbers, and when divided by 2 produce deficient numbers.

The Pythagoreans evolved their philosophy from the science of numbers. The following quotation from Theoretic Arithmetic is an excellent example of this practice:

“Perfect numbers, therefore, are beautiful images of the virtues which are certain media between excess and defect, and are not summits, as by some of the ancients they were supposed to be. And evil indeed is opposed to evil, but both are opposed to one good. Good, however, is never opposed to good, but to two evils at one and the same time. Thus timidity is opposed to audacity, to both [of] which the want of true courage is common; but both timidity and audacity are opposed to fortitude. Craft also is opposed to fatuity, to both [of] which the want of intellect is common; and both these are opposed to prudence. Thus, too, profusion is opposed to avarice, to both [of] which illiberality is common; and both these are opposed to liberality. And in a similar manner in the other virtues; by all [of] which it is evident that perfect numbers have a great similitude to the virtues. But they also resemble the virtues on another account; for they are rarely found, as being few, and they are generated in a very constant order. On the contrary, an infinite multitude of superabundant and diminished numbers may be found, nor are they disposed in any orderly series, nor generated from any certain end; and hence they have a great similitude to the vices, which are numerous, inordinate, and indefinite.”

THE TABLE OF THE TEN NUMBERS

(The following outline of the Pythagorean numbers is a paraphrase of the writings of Nicomachus, Theon of Smyrna, Proclus, Porphyry, Plutarch, Clement of Alexandria, Aristotle, and other early authorities.)

Monad–1–is so called because it remains always in the same condition–that is, separate from multitude. Its attributes are as follows: It is called mind, because the mind is stable and has preeminence; hermaphrodism, because it is both male and female; odd and even, for being added to the even it makes odd, and to the odd, even; God, because it is the beginning and end of all, but itself has neither beginning nor end; good, for such is the nature of God; the receptacle of matter, because it produces the duad, which is essentially material.

By the Pythagoreans monad was called chaos, obscurity, chasm, Tartarus, Styx, abyss, Lethe, Atlas, Axis, Morpho (a name for Venus), and Tower or Throne of Jupiter, because of the great power which abides in the center of the universe and controls the circular motion of the planers about itself. Monad is also called germinal reason, because it is the origin of all the thoughts in the universe. Other names given to it were: Apollo, because of its relation to the sun; Prometheus, because he brought man light; Pyralios, one who exists in fire; geniture, because without it no number can exist; substance, because substance is primary; cause of truth; and constitution of symphony: all these because it is the primordial one.

Between greater and lesser the monad is equal; between intention and remission it is middle; in multitude it is mean; and in time it is now, because eternity knows neither past nor future. It is called Jupiter, because he is Father and head of the gods; Vesta, the fire of the home, because it is located in the midst of the universe and remains there inclining to no side as a dot in a circle; form, because it circumscribes, comprehends, and terminates; love, concord, and piety, because it is indivisible. Other symbolic names for the monad are ship, chariot, Proteus (a god capable of changing his form), Mnemosyne, and Polyonymous (having many names).

The following symbolic names were given to the duad–2–because it has been divided, and is two rather than one; and when there are two, each is opposed to the other: genius, evil, darkness, inequality, instability, movability, boldness, fortitude, contention, matter, dissimilarity, partition between multitude and monad, defect, shapelessness, indefiniteness, indeterminate ness, harmony, tolerance, root, feet of fountain-abounding idea, top, Phanes, opinion, fallacy, alterity, diffidence, impulse, death, motion, generation, mutation, division, longitude, augmentation, composition, communion, misfortune, sustentation, imposition, marriage, soul, and science.

In his book, Numbers, W. Wynn Westcott says of the duad: “it was called ‘Audacity,’ from its being the earliest number to separate itself from the Divine One; from the ‘Adytum of God-nourished Silence,’ as the Chaldean oracles say.”

As the monad is the father, so the duad is the mother; therefore, the duad has certain points in common with the goddesses Isis, Rhea (Jove’s mother), Phrygia, Lydia, Dindymene (Cybele), and Ceres; Erato (one of the Muses); Diana, because the moon is forked; Dictynna, Venus, Dione, Cytherea; Juno, because she is both wife and sister of Jupiter; and Maia, the mother of Mercury.

While the monad is the symbol of wisdom, the duad is the symbol of ignorance, for in it exists the sense of separateness–which sense is the beginning of ignorance. The duad, however, is also the mother of wisdom, for ignorance–out of the nature of itself–invariably gives birth to wisdom.

The Pythagoreans revered the monad but despised the duad, because it was the symbol of polarity. By the power of the duad the deep was created in contradistinction to the heavens. The deep mirrored the heavens and became the symbol of illusion, for the below was merely a reflection of the above. The below was called maya, the illusion, the sea, the Great Void, and to symbolize it the Magi of Persia carried mirrors. From the duad arose disputes and contentions, until by bringing the monad between the duad, equilibrium was reestablished by the Savior-God, who took upon Himself the form of a number and was crucified between two thieves for the sins of men.

The triad–3–is the first number actually odd (monad not always being considered a number). It is the first equilibrium of unities; therefore, Pythagoras said that Apollo gave oracles from a tripod, and advised offer of libation three times. The keywords to the qualities of the triad are friendship, peace, justice, prudence, piety, temperance, and virtue. The following deities partake of the principles of the triad: Saturn (ruler of time), Latona, Cornucopiæ, Ophion (the great serpent), Thetis, Hecate, Polyhymnia (a Muse), Pluto, Triton, President of the Sea, Tritogenia, Achelous, and the Faces, Furies, and Graces. This number is called wisdom, because men organize the present, foresee the future, and benefit by the experiences of the fast. It is cause of wisdom and understanding. The triad is the number of knowledge–music, geometry, and astronomy, and the science of the celestials and terrestrials. Pythagoras taught that the cube of this number had the power of the lunar circle.

The sacredness of the triad and its symbol–the triangle–is derived from the fact that it is made up of the monad and the duad. The monad is the symbol of the Divine Father and the duad of the Great Mother. The triad being made of these two is therefore androgynous and is symbolic of the fact that God gave birth to His worlds out of Himself, who in His creative aspect is always symbolized by the triangle. The monad passing into the duad was thus capable of becoming the parent of progeny, for the duad was the womb of Meru, within which the world was incubated and within which it still exists in embryo.

The tetrad–4–was esteemed by the Pythagoreans as the primogenial number, the root of all things, the fountain of Nature and the most perfect number. All tetrads are intellectual; they have an emergent order and encircle the world as the Empyreum passes through it. Why the Pythagoreans expressed God as a tetrad is explained in a sacred discourse ascribed to Pythagoras, wherein God is called the Number of Numbers. This is because the decad, or 10, is composed of 1, 2, 3, and 4. The number 4 is symbolic of God because it is symbolic of the first four numbers. Moreover, the tetrad is the center of the week, being halfway between 1 and 7. The tetrad is also the first geometric solid.

Pythagoras maintained that the soul of man consists of a tetrad, the four powers of the soul being mind, science, opinion, and sense. The tetrad connects all beings, elements, numbers, and seasons; nor can anything be named which does not depend upon the tetractys. It is the Cause and Maker of all things, the intelligible God, Author of celestial and sensible good, Plutarch interprets this tetractys, which he said was also called the world, to be 36, consisting of the first four odd numbers added to the first four even numbers, thus:

1 + 3 +5 +7 = 16
2 + 4 + 6 + 8 = 20
  36

Keywords given to the tetrad are impetuosity, strength, virility, two-mothered, and the key keeper of Nature, because the universal constitution cannot be without it. It is also called harmony and the first profundity. The following deities partook of the nature of the tetrad: Hercules, Mercury, Vulcan, Bacchus, and Urania (one of the Muses).

The triad represents the primary colors and the major planets, while the tetrad represents the secondary colors and the minor planets. From the first triangle come forth the seven spirits, symbolized by a triangle and a square. These together form the Masonic apron.

The pentad–5–is the union of an odd and an even number (3 and 2). Among the Greeks, the pentagram was a sacred symbol of light, health, and vitality. It also symbolized the fifth element–ether–because it is free from the disturbances of the four lower elements. It is called equilibrium, because it divides the perfect number 10 into two equal parts.

The pentad is symbolic of Nature, for, when multiplied by itself it returns into itself, just as grains of wheat, starting in the form of seed, pass through Nature’s processes and reproduce the seed of the wheat as the ultimate form of their own growth. Other numbers multiplied by themselves produce other numbers, but only 5 and 6 multiplied by themselves represent and retain their original number as the last figure in their products.

The pentad represents all the superior and inferior beings. It is sometimes referred to as the hierophant, or the priest of the Mysteries, because of its connection with the spiritual ethers, by means of which mystic development is attained. Keywords of the pentad are reconciliation, alternation, marriage, immortality, cordiality, Providence, and sound. Among the deities who partook of the nature of the pentad were Pallas, Nemesis, Bubastia (Bast), Venus, Androgynia, Cytherea, and the messengers of Jupiter.

The tetrad (the elements) plus the monad equals the pentad. The Pythagoreans taught that the elements of earth, fire, air, and water were permeated by a substance called ether–the basis of vitality and life. Therefore, they chose the five-pointed star, or pentagram, as the symbol of vitality, health, and interpenetration.

It was customary for the philosophers to conceal the element of earth under the symbol of a dragon, and many of the heroes of antiquity were told to go forth and slay the dragon. Hence, they drove their sword (the monad) into the body of the dragon (the tetrad). This resulted in the formation of the pentad, a symbol of the victory of the spiritual nature over the material nature. The four elements are symbolized in the early Biblical writings as the four rivers that poured out of Garden of Eden. The elements themselves are under the control of the composite Cherubim of Ezekiel.

The Pythagoreans held the hexad–6–to represent, as Clement of Alexandria conceived, the creation of the world according to both the prophets and the ancient Mysteries. It was called by the Pythagoreans the perfection of all the parts. This number was particularly sacred to Orpheus, and also to the Fate, Lachesis, and the Muse, Thalia. It was called the form of forms, the articulation of the universe, and the maker of the soul.

Among the Greeks, harmony and the soul were considered to be similar in nature, because all souls are harmonic. The hexad is also the symbol of marriage, because it is formed by the union of two triangles, one masculine and the other feminine. Among the keywords given to the hexad are: time, for it is the measure of duration; panacea, because health is equilibrium, and the hexad is a balance number; the world, because the world, like the hexad, is often seen to consist of contraries by harmony; omnisufficient, because its parts are sufficient for totality (3 +2 + 1 = 6); unwearied, because it contains the elements of immortality.

By the Pythagoreans the heptad–7–was called “worthy of veneration.” It was held to be the number of religion, because man is controlled by seven celestial spirits to whom it is proper for him to make offerings. It was called the number of life, because it was believed that human creatures born in the seventh month of embryonic life usually lived, but those born in the eighth month often died. One author called it the Motherless Virgin, Minerva, because it was nor born of a mother but out of the crown, or the head of the Father, the monad. Keywords of the heptad are fortune, occasion, custody, control, government, judgment, dreams, voices, sounds, and that which leads all things to their end. Deities whose attributes were expressed by the heptad were Ægis, Osiris, Mars, and Cleo (one of the Muses).

Among many ancient nations the heptad is a sacred number. The Elohim of the Jews were supposedly seven in number. They were the Spirits of the Dawn, more commonly known as the Archangels controlling the planets. The seven Archangels, with the three spirits controlling the sun in its threefold aspect, constitute the 10, the sacred Pythagorean decad. The mysterious Pythagorean tetractys, or four rows of dots, increasing from 1 to 4, was symbolic of the stages of creation. The great Pythagorean truth that all things in Nature are regenerated through the decad, or 10, is subtly preserved in Freemasonry through these grips being effected by the uniting of 10 fingers, five on the hand of each person.

The 3 (spirit, mind, and soul) descend into the 4 (the world), the sum being the 7, or the mystic nature of man, consisting of a threefold spiritual body and a fourfold material form. These are symbolized by the cube, which has six surfaces and a mysterious seventh point within. The six surfaces are the directions: north, east, south, west, up, and down; or, front, back, right, left, above, and below; or again, earth, fire, air, water, spirit, and matter. In the midst of these stands the 1, which is the upright figure of man, from whose center in the cube radiate six pyramids. From this comes the great occult axiom: “The center is the father of the directions, the dimensions, and the distances.”

The heptad is the number of the law, because it is the number of the Makers of Cosmic law, the Seven Spirits before the Throne.

The ogdoad–8–was sacred because it was the number of the first cube, which form had eight corners, and was the only evenly-even number under 10 (1-2-4-8-4-2-1). Thus, the 8 is divided into two 4’s, each 4 is divided into two 2’s, and each 2 is divided into two 1’s, thereby reestablishing the monad. Among the keywords of the ogdoad are love, counsel, prudence, law, and convenience. Among the divinities partaking of its nature were Panarmonia, Rhea, Cibele, Cadmæa, Dindymene, Orcia, Neptune, Themis, and Euterpe (a Muse).

The ogdoad was a mysterious number associated with the Eleusinian Mysteries of Greece and the Cabiri. It was called the little holy number. It derived its form partly from the twisted snakes on the Caduceus of Hermes and partly from the serpentine motion of the celestial bodies; possibly also from the moon’s nodes.

The ennead–9–was the first square of an odd number (3×3). It was associated with failure and shortcoming because it fell short of the perfect number 10 by one. It was called the called the number of man, because of the nine months of his embryonic life. Among its keywords are ocean and horizon, because to the ancients these were boundless. The ennead is the limitless number because there is nothing beyond it but the infinite 10. It was called boundary and limitation, because it gathered all numbers within itself. It was called the sphere of the air, because it surrounded the numbers as air surrounds the earth, Among the gods and goddesses who partook in greater or less degree of its nature were Prometheus, Vulcan, Juno, the sister and wife of Jupiter, Pæan, and Aglaia, Tritogenia, Curetes, Proserpine, Hyperion, and Terpsichore (a Muse).

The 9 was looked upon as evil, because it was an inverted 6. According to the Eleusinian Mysteries, it was the number of the spheres through which the consciousness passed on its way to birth. Because of its close resemblance to the spermatozoon, the 9 has been associated with germinal life.

The decad–10–according to the Pythagoreans, is the greatest of numbers, not only because it is the tetractys (the 10 dots) but because it comprehends all arithmetic and harmonic proportions. Pythagoras said that 10 is the nature of number, because all nations reckon to it and when they arrive at it they return to the monad. The decad was called both heaven and the world, because the former includes the latter. Being a perfect number, the decad was applied by the Pythagoreans to those things relating to age, power, faith, necessity, and the power of memory. It was also called unwearied, because, like God, it was tireless. The Pythagoreans divided the heavenly bodies into ten orders. They also stated that the decad perfected all numbers and comprehended within itself the nature of odd and even, moved and unmoved, good and ill. They associated its power with the following deities: Atlas (for it carried the numbers on its shoulders), Urania, Mnemosyne, the Sun, Phanes, and the One God.

The decimal system can probably be traced back to the time when it was customary to reckon on the fingers, these being among the most primitive of calculating devices and still in use among many aboriginal peoples.

 

The Human Body in Symbolism

THE oldest, the most profound, the most universal of all symbols is the human body. The Greeks, Persians, Egyptians, and Hindus considered a philosophical analysis of man’s triune nature to be an indispensable part of ethical and religious training. The Mysteries of every nation taught that the laws, elements, and powers of the universe were epitomized in the human constitution; that everything which existed outside of man had its analogue within man. The universe, being immeasurable in its immensity and inconceivable in its profundity, was beyond mortal estimation. Even the gods themselves could comprehend but a part of the inaccessible glory which was their source. When temporarily permeated with divine enthusiasm, man may transcend for a brief moment the limitations of his own personality and behold in part that celestial effulgence in which all creation is bathed. But even in his periods of greatest illumination man is incapable of imprinting upon the substance of his rational soul a perfect image of the multiform expression of celestial activity.

Recognizing the futility of attempting to cope intellectually with that which transcends the comprehension of the rational faculties, the early philosophers turned their attention from the inconceivable Divinity to man himself, with in the narrow confines of whose nature they found manifested all the mysteries of the external spheres. As the natural outgrowth of this practice there was fabricated a secret theological system in which God was considered as the Grand Man and, conversely, man as the little god. Continuing this analogy, the universe was regarded as a man and, conversely, man as a miniature universe. The greater universe was termed the Macrocosm–the Great World or Body–and the Divine Life or spiritual entity controlling its functions was called the Macroprosophus. Man’s body, or the individual human universe, was termed the Microcosm, and the Divine Life or spiritual entity controlling its functions was called the Microprosophus. The pagan Mysteries were primarily concerned with instructing neophytes in the true relationship existing between the Macrocosm and the Microcosm–in other words, between God and man. Accordingly, the key to these analogies between the organs and functions of the Microcosmic man and those of the Macrocosmic Man constituted the most prized possession of the early initiates.

In Isis Unveiled, H. P. Blavatsky summarizes the pagan concept of man as follows:

“Man is a little world–a microcosm inside the great universe. Like a fetus, he is suspended, by all his three spirits, in the matrix of the macrocosmos; and while his terrestrial body is in constant sympathy with its parent earth, his astral soul lives in unison with the sidereal anima mundi. He is in it, as it is in him, for the world-pervading element fills all space, and is space itself, only shoreless and infinite. As to his third spirit, the divine, what is it but an infinitesimal ray, one of the countless radiations proceeding directly from the Highest Cause–the Spiritual Light of the World? This is the trinity of organic and inorganic nature–the spiritual and the physical, which are three in one, and of which Proclus says that ‘The first monad is the Eternal God; the second, eternity; the third, the paradigm, or pattern of the universe;’ the three constituting the Intelligible Triad.”

Long before the introduction of idolatry into religion, the early priests caused the statue of a man to be placed in the sanctuary of the temple. This human figure symbolized the Divine Power in all its intricate manifestations. Thus the priests of antiquity accepted man as their textbook, and through the study of him learned to understand the greater and more abstruse mysteries of the celestial scheme of which they were a part. It is not improbable that this mysterious figure standing over the primitive altars was made in the nature of a manikin and, like certain emblematic hands in the Mystery schools, was covered with either carved or painted hieroglyphs. The statue may have opened, thus showing the relative positions of the organs, bones, muscles, nerves, and other parts. After ages of research, the manikin became a mass of intricate hieroglyphs and symbolic figures. Every part had its secret meaning. The measurements formed a basic standard by means of which it was possible to measure all parts of cosmos. It was a glorious composite emblem of all the knowledge possessed by the sages and hierophants.

Then came the age of idolatry. The Mysteries decayed from within. The secrets were lost and none knew the identity of the mysterious man who stood over the altar. It was remembered only that the figure was a sacred and glorious symbol of the Universal Power, and it: finally came to be looked upon as a god–the One in whose image man was made. Having lost the knowledge of the purpose for which the manikin was originally constructed, the priests worshiped this effigy until at last their lack of spiritual understanding brought the temple down in ruins about their heads and the statue crumbled with the civilization that had forgotten its meaning.

Proceeding from this assumption of the first theologians that man is actually fashioned in the image of God, the initiated minds of past ages erected the stupendous structure of theology upon the foundation of the human body. The religious world of today is almost totally ignorant of the fact that the science of biology is the fountainhead of its doctrines and tenets. Many of the codes and laws believed by modern divines to have been direct revelations from Divinity are in reality the fruitage of ages of patient delving into the intricacies of the human constitution and the infinite wonders revealed by such a study.

In nearly all the sacred books of the world can be traced an anatomical analogy. This is most evident in their creation myths. Anyone familiar with embryology and obstetrics will have no difficulty in recognizing the basis of the allegory concerning Adam and Eve and the Garden of Eden, the nine degrees of the Eleusinian Mysteries, and the Brahmanic legend of Vishnu’s incarnations. The story of the Universal Egg, the Scandinavian myth of Ginnungagap (the dark cleft in space in which the seed of the world is sown), and the use of the fish as the emblem of the paternal generative power–all show the true origin of theological speculation. The philosophers of antiquity realized that man himself was the key to the riddle of life, for he was the living image of the Divine Plan, and in future ages humanity also will come to realize more fully the solemn import of those ancient words: “The proper study of mankind is man.”

Both God and man have a twofold constitution, of which the superior part is invisible and the inferior visible. In both there is also an intermediary sphere, marking the point where these visible and invisible natures meet. As the spiritual nature of God controls His objective universal form-which is actually a crystallized idea–so the spiritual nature of man is the invisible cause and controlling power of his visible material personality. Thus it is evident that the spirit of man bears the same relationship to his material body that God bears to the objective universe. The Mysteries taught that spirit, or life, was anterior to form and that what is anterior includes all that is posterior to itself. Spirit being anterior to form, form is therefore included within the realm of spirit. It is also a popular statement or belief that man’s spirit is within his body. According to the conclusions of philosophy and theology, however, this belief is erroneous, for spirit first circumscribes an area and then manifests within it. Philosophically speaking, form, being a part of spirit, is within spirit; but: spirit is more than the sum of form, As the material nature of man is therefore within the sum of spirit, so the Universal Nature, including the entire sidereal system, is within the all-pervading essence of God–the Universal Spirit.

According to another concept of the ancient wisdom, all bodies–whether spiritual or material–have three centers, called by the Greeks the upper center, the middlecenter, and the lower center. An apparent ambiguity will here be noted. To diagram or symbolize adequately abstract mental verities is impossible, for the diagrammatic representation of one aspect of metaphysical relationships may be an actual contradiction of some other aspect. While that which

 

THE TETRAGRAMMATON IN THE HUMAN HEART.

From Böhme’s Libri Apologetici.

The Tetragrammaton, or four-lettered Name of God, is here arranged as a tetractys within the inverted human heart. Beneath, the name Jehovah is shown transformed into Jehoshua by the interpolation of the radiant Hebrew letter סה, Shin. The drawing as a whole represents the throne of God and His hierarchies within the heart of man. In the first book of his Libri Apologetici, Jakob Böhme thus describes the meaning of the symbol: “For we men have one book in common which points to God. Each has it within himself, which is the priceless Name of God. Its letters are the flames of His love, which He out of His heart in the priceless Name of Jesus has revealed in us. Read these letters in your hearts and spirits and you have books enough. All the writings of the children of God direct you unto that one book, for therein lie all the treasures of wisdom. * * * This book is Christ in you.”

is above is generally considered superior in dignity and power, in reality that which is in the center is superior and anterior to both that which is said to be above and that which is said to be below. Therefore, it must be said that the first–which is considered as being above–is actually in the center, while both of the others (which are said to be either above or below) are actually beneath. This point can be further simplified if the reader will consider above as indicating degree of proximity to source and below as indicating degree of distance from source, source being posited in the actual center and relative distance being the various points along the radii from the center toward the circumference. In matters pertaining to philosophy and theology, up may be considered as toward the center and down as toward the circumference. Center is spirit; circumference is matter. Therefore, up is toward spirit along an ascending scale of spirituality; down is toward matter along an ascending scale of materiality. The latter concept is partly expressed by the apex of a cone which, when viewed from above, is seen as a point in the exact center of the circumference formed by the base of the cone.

These three universal centers–the one above, the one below, and the link uniting them-represent three suns or three aspects of one sun–centers of effulgence. These also have their analogues in the three grand centers of the human body, which, like the physical universe, is a Demiurgic fabrication.

“The first of these [suns],” says Thomas Taylor, “is analogous to light when viewed subsisting in its fountain the sun; the second to the light immediately proceeding from the sun; and the third to the splendour communicated to other natures by this light.”

Since the superior (or spiritual) center is in the midst of the other two, its analogue in the physical body is the heart–the most spiritual and mysterious organ in the human body. The second center (or the link between the superior and inferior worlds) is elevated to the position of greatest physical dignity–the brain. The third (or lower) center is relegated to the position of least physical dignity but greatest physical importance–the generative system. Thus the heart is symbolically the source of life; the brain the link by which, through rational intelligence, life and form are united; and the generative system–or infernal creator–the source of that power by which physical organisms are produced. The ideals and aspirations of the individual depend largely upon which of these three centers of power predominates in scope and activity of expression. In the materialist the lower center is the strongest, in the intellectualist the higher center; but in the initiate the middle center–by bathing the two extremes in a flood of spiritual effulgence–controls wholesomely both the mind and the body.

As light bears witness of life-which is its source-so the mind bears witness of the spirit, and activity in a still lower plane bears witness of intelligence. Thus the mind bears witness of the heart, while the generative system, in turn, bears witness of the mind. Accordingly, the spiritual nature is most commonly symbolized by a heart; the intellectual power by an opened eye, symbolizing the pineal gland or Cyclopean eye, which is the two-faced Janus of the pagan Mysteries; and the generative system by a flower, a staff, a cup, or a hand.

While all the Mysteries recognized the heart as the center of spiritual consciousness, they often purposely ignored this concept and used the heart in its exoteric sense as the symbol of the emotional nature, In this arrangement the generative center represented the physical body, the heart the emotional body, and the brain the mental body. The brain represented the superior sphere, but after the initiates had passed through the lower degrees they were instructed that the brain was the proxy of the spiritual flame dwelling in the innermost recesses of the heart. The student of esotericism discovers ere long that the ancients often resorted to various blinds to conceal the true interpretations of their Mysteries. The substitution of the brain for the heart was one of these blinds.

The three degrees of the ancient Mysteries were, with few exceptions, given in chambers which represented the three great centers of the human and Universal bodies. If possible, the temple itself was constructed in the form of the human body. The candidate entered between the feet and received the highest degree in the point corresponding to the brain. Thus the first degree was the material mystery and its symbol was the generative system; it raised the candidate through the various degrees of concrete thought. The second degree was given in the chamber corresponding to the heart, but represented the middle power which was the mental link. Here the candidate was initiated into the mysteries of abstract thought and lifted as high as the mind was capable of penetrating. He then passed into the third chamber, which, analogous to the brain, occupied the highest position in the temple but, analogous to the heart, was of the greatest dignity. In the brain chamber the heart mystery was given. Here the initiate for the first time truly comprehended the meaning of those immortal words: “As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he.” As there are seven hearts in the brain so there are seven brains in the heart, but this is a matter of superphysics of which little can be said at the present time.

Proclus writes on this subject in the first book of On the Theology of Plato:

“Indeed, Socrates in the (First) Alcibiades rightly observes, that the soul entering into herself will behold all other things, and deity itself. For verging to her own union, and to the centre of all life, laying aside multitude, and the variety of the all manifold powers which she contains, she ascends to the highest watch-tower offerings. And as in the most holy of the mysteries, they say, that the mystics at first meet with the multi form, and many-shaped genera, which are hurled forth before the gods, but on entering the temple, unmoved, and guarded by the mystic rites, they genuinely receive in their bosom [heart] divine illumination, and divested of their garments, as they would say, participate of a divine nature; the same mode, as it appears to me, takes place in the speculation of wholes. For the soul when looking at things posterior to herself, beholds the shadows and images of beings, but when she converts herself to herself she evolves her own essence, and the reasons which she contains. And at first indeed, she only as it were beholds herself; but, when she penetrates more profoundly into the knowledge of herself, she finds in herself both intellect, and the orders of beings. When however, she proceeds into her interior recesses, and into the adytum as it were of the soul, she perceives with her eye closed [without the aid of the lower mind], the genus of the gods, and the unities of beings. For all things are in us psychically, and through this we are naturally capable of knowing all things, by exciting the powers and the images of wholes which we contain.”

The initiates of old warned their disciples that an image is not a reality but merely the objectification of a subjective idea. The image, of the gods were nor designed to be objects of worship but were to be regarded merely as emblems or reminders of invisible powers and principles. Similarly, the body of man must not be considered as the individual but only as the house of the individual, in the same manner that the temple was the House of God. In a state of grossness and perversion man’s body is the tomb or prison of a divine principle; in a state of unfoldment and regeneration it is the House or Sanctuary of the Deity by whose creative powers it was fashioned. “Personality is suspended upon a thread from the nature of Being,” declares the secret work. Man is essentially a permanent and immortal principle; only his bodies pass through the cycle of birth and death. The immortal is the reality; the mortal is the unreality. During each period of earth life, reality thus dwells in unreality, to be liberated from it temporarily by death and permanently by illumination.

 

HAND DECORATED WITH EFFIGIES OF JESUS CHRIST, THE VIRGIN MARY, AND THE TWELVE APOSTLES.

From an old print, courtesy of Carl Oscar Borg.

Upon the twelve phalanges of the fingers, appear the likenesses of the Apostles, each bearing its own appropriate symbol. In the case of those who suffered martyrdom the symbol signifies the instrument of death. Thus, the symbol of St. Andrew is a cross; of St. Thomas, a javelin or a builder’s square; of St. James the Less, a club; of St Philip, a cross; of St. Bartholomew, a large knife or scimitar; of St. Matthew, a sword or spear (sometimes a purse); of St. Simon, a club or saw; of St. Matthias, an axe; and of St. Judas, a halbert. The Apostles whose symbols do not elate to their martyrdom are St. Peter, who carries two crossed keys, one gold and one silver; St. James the Great, who bears a pilgrim’s staff and an escalop shell; and St. John, who holds a cup from which the poison miraculously departed in the form of a serpent. (See Handbook of Christian Symbolism.) The figure of Christ upon the second phalange of the thumb does not follow the pagan system of assigning the first Person of the Creative Triad to this Position. God the Father should occupy the second Phalange, God the Son the first phalange, while to God the Holy Spirit is assigned the base of the thumb.–Also, according to the Philosophic arrangement, the Virgin should occupy the base of the thumb, which is sacred to the moon.

While generally regarded as polytheists, the pagans gained this reputation not because they worshiped more than one God but rather because they personified the attributes of this God, thereby creating a pantheon of posterior deities each manifesting a part of what the One God manifested as a whole. The various pantheons of ancient religions therefore actually represent the catalogued and personified attributes of Deity. In this respect they correspond to the hierarchies of the Hebrew Qabbalists. All the gods and goddesses of antiquity consequently have their analogies in the human body, as have also the elements, planets, and constellations which were assigned as proper vehicles for these celestials. Four body centers are assigned to the elements, the seven vital organs to the planets, the twelve principal parts and members to the zodiac, the invisible parts of man’s divine nature to various supermundane deities, while the hidden God was declared to manifest through the marrow in the bones.

It is difficult for many to realize that they are actual universes; that their physical bodies are a visible nature through the structure of which countless waves of evolving life are unfolding their latent potentialities. Yet through man’s physical body not only are a mineral, a plant, and an animal kingdom evolving, but also unknown classifications and divisions of invisible spiritual life. just as cells are infinitesimal units in the structure of man, so man is an infinitesimal unit in the structure of the universe. A theology based upon the knowledge and appreciation of these relationships is as profoundly just as it is profoundly true.

As man’s physical body has five distinct and important extremities–two legs, two arms, and a head, of which the last governs the first four–the number 5 has been accepted as the symbol of man. By its four corners the pyramid symbolizes the arms and legs, and by its apex the head, thus indicating that one rational power controls four irrational corners. The hands and feet are used to represent the four elements, of which the two feet are earth and water, and the two hands fire and air. The brain then symbolizes the sacred fifth element–æther–which controls and unites the other four. If the feet are placed together and the arms outspread, man then symbolizes the cross with the rational intellect as the head or upper limb.

The fingers and toes also have special significance. The toes represent the Ten Commandments of the physical law and the fingers the Ten Commandments of the spiritual law. The four fingers of each hand represent the four elements and the three phalanges of each finger represent the divisions of the element, so that in each hand there are twelve parts to the fingers, which are analogous to the signs of the zodiac, whereas the two phalanges and base of each thumb signify the threefold Deity. The first phalange corresponds to the creative aspect, the second to the preservative aspect, and the base to the generative and destructive aspect. When the hands are brought together, the result is the twenty-four Elders and the six Days of Creation.

In symbolism the body is divided vertically into halves, the right half being considered as light and the left half as darkness. By those unacquainted with the true meanings of light and darkness the light half was denominated spiritual and the left half material. Light is the symbol of objectivity; darkness of subjectivity. Light is a manifestation of life and is therefore posterior to life. That which is anterior to light is darkness, in which light exists temporarily but darkness permanently. As life precedes light, its only symbol is darkness, and darkness is considered as the veil which must eternally conceal the true nature of abstract and undifferentiated Being.

In ancient times men fought with their right arms and defended the vital centers with their left arms, on which was carried the protecting shield. The right half of the body was regarded therefore as offensive and the left half defensive. For this reason also the right side of the body was considered masculine and the left side feminine. Several authorities are of the opinion that the present prevalent right-handedness of the race is the outgrowth of the custom of holding the left hand in restraint for defensive purposes. Furthermore, as the source of Being is in the primal darkness which preceded light, so the spiritual nature of man is in the dark part of his being, for the heart is on the left side.

Among the curious misconceptions arising from the false practice of associating darkness with evil is one by which several early nations used the right hand for all constructive labors and the left hand for only those purposes termed unclean and unfit for the sight of the gods. For the same reason black magic was often referred to as the left-hand path, and heaven was said to be upon the right and hell upon the left. Some philosophers further declared that there were two methods of writing: one from left to right, which was considered the exoteric method; the other from right to left, which was considered esoteric. The exoteric writing was that which was done out or away from the heart, while the esoteric writing was that which–like the ancient Hebrew–was written toward the heart.

The secret doctrine declares that every part and member of the body is epitomized in the brain and, in turn, that all that is in the brain is epitomized in the heart. In symbolism the human head is frequently used to represent intelligence and self-knowledge. As the human body in its entirety is the most perfect known product of the earth’s evolution, it was employed to represent Divinity–the highest appreciable state or condition. Artists, attempting to portray Divinity, often show only a hand emerging from an impenetrable cloud. The cloud signifies the Unknowable Divinity concealed from man by human limitation. The hand signifies the Divine activity, the only part of God which is cognizable to the lower senses.

The face consists of a natural trinity: the eyes representing the spiritual power which comprehends; the nostrils representing the preservative and vivifying power; and the mouth and ears representing the material Demiurgic power of the lower world. The first sphere is eternally existent and is creative; the second sphere pertains to the mystery of the creative breach; and the third sphere

 

THE THREEFOLD LIFE OF THE INNER MAN.

Redrawn from Gichtel’s Theosophia Practica.

Johann Georg Gichtel, a profound Philosopher and mystic, the most illumined of the disciples of Jakob Böhme, secretly circulated the above diagrams among a small group of devoted friends and students. Gichtel republished the writings of Böhme, illustrating them with numerous remarkable figures. According to Gichtel, the diagrams above, represent the anatomy of the divine (or inner) man, and graphically set forth its condition during its human, infernal, and divine states. The plates in the William Law edition of Böhme’s works are based apparently upon Gichtel’s diagrams, which they follow in all essentials. Gichtel gives no detailed description of his figures, and the lettering on the original diagrams here translated out of the German is the only clue to the interpretation of the charts.

The two end figures represent the obverse and reverse of the same diagram and are termed Table Three. They are “designed to show the Condition of the whole Man, as to all his three essential Parts, Spirit, Soul, and Body, in his Regenerated State.” The third figure from the left is called the Second Table, and sets forth “the Condition of Man in his old, lapsed, and corrupted State; without any respect to, or consideration of his renewing by regeneration.” The third figure, however, does not correspond with the First Table of William Law. The First Table presumably represents the condition of humanity before the Fall, but the Gichtel plate pertains to the third, or regenerated, state of mankind. William Law thus describes the purpose of the diagrams, and the symbols upon them: “These three tables are designed to represent Man in his different Threefold State: the First before his Fall, in Purity, Dominion, and Glory: the Second after his Fall, in Pollution and Perdition: and the Third in his rising from the Fall, or on the Way of regeneration, in Sanctification and Tendency to his last Perfection.” The student of Orientalism will immediately recognize in the symbols upon the figures the Hindu chakras, or centers of spiritual force, the various motions and aspects of which reveal the condition of the disciple’s internal divine nature.

to the creative word. By the Word of God the material universe was fabricated, and the seven creative powers, or vowel sounds–which had been brought into existence by the speaking of the Word–became the seven Elohim or Deities by whose power and ministration the lower world was organized. Occasionally the Deity is symbolized by an eye, an ear, a nose, or a mouth. By the first, Divine awareness is signified; by the second, Divine interest; by the third, Divine vitality; and by the fourth, Divine command.

The ancients did not believe that spirituality made men either righteous or rational, but rather that righteousness and rationality made men spiritual. The Mysteries taught that spiritual illumination was attained only by bringing the lower nature up to a certain standard of efficiency and purity. The Mysteries were therefore established for the purpose of unfolding the nature of man according to certain fixed rules which, when faithfully followed, elevated the human consciousness to a point where it was capable of cognizing its own constitution and the true purpose of existence. This knowledge of how man’s manifold constitution could be most quickly and most completely regenerated to the point of spiritual illumination constituted the secret, or esoteric, doctrine of antiquity. Certain apparently physical organs and centers are in reality the veils or sheaths of spiritual centers. What these were and how they could be unfolded was never revealed to the unregenerate, for the philosophers realized that once he understands the complete working of any system, a man may accomplish a prescribed end without being qualified to manipulate and control the effects which he has produced. For this reason long periods of probation were imposed, so that the knowledge of how to become as the gods might remain the sole possession of the worthy.

Lest that knowledge be lost, however, it was concealed in allegories and myths which were meaningless to the profane but self-evident to those acquainted with that theory of personal redemption which was the foundation of philosophical theology. Christianity itself may be cited as an example. The entire New Testament is in fact an ingeniously concealed exposition of the secret processes of human regeneration. The characters so long considered as historical men and women are really the personification of certain processes which take place in the human body when man begins the task of consciously liberating himself from the bondage of ignorance and death.

The garments and ornamentations supposedly worn by the gods are also keys, for in the Mysteries clothing was considered as synonymous with form. The degree of spirituality or materiality of the organisms was signified by the quality, beauty, and value of the garments worn. Man’s physical body was looked upon as the robe of his spiritual nature; consequently, the more developed were his super-substantial powers the more glorious his apparel. Of course, clothing was originally worn for ornamentation rather than protection, and such practice still prevails among many primitive peoples. The Mysteries caught that man’s only lasting adornments were his virtues and worthy characteristics; that he was clothed in his own accomplishments and adorned by his attainments. Thus the white robe was symbolic of purity, the red robe of sacrifice and love, and the blue robe of altruism and integrity. Since the body was said to be the robe of the spirit, mental or moral deformities were depicted as deformities of the body.

Considering man’s body as the measuring rule of the universe, the philosophers declared that all things resemble in constitution–if not in form–the human body. The Greeks, for example, declared Delphi to be the navel of the earth, for the physical planet was looked upon as a gigantic human being twisted into the form of a ball. In contradistinction to the belief of Christendom that the earth is an inanimate thing, the pagans considered not only the earth but also all the sidereal bodies as individual creatures possessing individual intelligences. They even went so far as to view the various kingdoms of Nature as individual entities. The animal kingdom, for example, was looked upon as one being–a composite of all the creatures composing that kingdom. This prototypic beast was a mosaic embodiment of all animal propensities and within its nature the entire animal world existed as the human species exists within the constitution of the prototypic Adam.

In the same manner, races, nations, tribes, religions, states, communities, and cities were viewed as composite entities, each made up of varying numbers of individual units. Every community has an individuality which is the sum of the individual attitudes of its inhabitants. Every religion is an individual whose body is made up of a hierarchy and vast host of individual worshipers. The organization of any religion represents its physical body, and its individual members the cell life making up this organism. Accordingly, religions, races, and communities–like individuals–pass through Shakespeare’s Seven Ages, for the life of man is a standard by which the perpetuity of all things is estimated.

According to the secret doctrine, man, through the gradual refinement of his vehicles and the ever-increasing sensitiveness resulting from that refinement, is gradually overcoming the limitations of matter and is disentangling himself from his mortal coil. When humanity has completed its physical evolution, the empty shell of materiality left behind will be used by other life waves as steppingstones to their own liberation. The trend of man’s evolutionary growth is ever toward his own essential Selfhood. At the point of deepest materialism, therefore, man is at the greatest distance from Himself. According to the Mystery teachings, not all the spiritual nature of man incarnates in matter. The spirit of man is diagrammatically shown as an equilateral triangle with one point downward. This lower point, which is one-third of the spiritual nature but in comparison to the dignity of the other two is much less than a third, descends into the illusion of material existence for a brief space of time. That which never clothes itself in the sheath of matter is the Hermetic Anthropos–the Overman– analogous to the Cyclops or guardiandæmon of the Greeks, the angel of Jakob Böhme, and the Oversoul of Emerson, “that Unity, that Oversoul, within which every man’s particular being is contained and made one with all other.”

At birth only a third part of the Divine Nature of man temporarily dissociates itself from its own immortality and takes upon itself the dream of physical birth and existence, animating with its own celestial enthusiasm a vehicle composed of material elements, part of and bound to the material sphere. At death this incarnated part awakens from the dream of physical existence and reunites itself once more with its eternal condition. This periodical descent of spirit into matter is termed the wheel of life and death, and the principles involved are treated at length by the philosophers under the subject of metempsychosis. By initiation into the Mysteries and a certain process known as operative theology, this law of birth and death is transcended, and during the course of physical existence that part of the spirit which is asleep in form is awakened without the intervention of death–the inevitable Initiator–and is consciously reunited with the Anthropos, or the overshadowing substance of itself. This is at once the primary purpose and the consummate achievement of the Mysteries: that man shall become aware of and consciously be reunited with the divine source of himself without tasting of physical dissolution.

 

THE DIVINE TREE IN MAN

(reverse)

From Law’s Figures of Jakob Böhme.

Just as the diagram representing the front view of man illustrates his divine principles in their regenerated state, so the back view of the same figure sets forth the inferior, or “night,” condition of the sun. From the Sphere of the Astral Mind a line ascends through the Sphere of reason into that of the Senses. The Sphere of the Astral Mind and of the Senses are filled with stars to signify the nocturnal condition of their natures. In the sphere of reason, the superior and the inferior are reconciled, Reason in the mortal man corresponding to Illumined Understanding in the spiritual man.

 

THE DIVINE TREE IN MAN

(obverse)

From Law’s Figures of Jakob Böhme.

A tree with its roots in the heart rises from the Mirror of the Deity through the Sphere of the Understanding to branch forth in the Sphere of the Senses. The roots and trunk of this tree represent the divine nature of man and may be called his spirituality; the branches of the tree are the separate parts of the divine constitution and may be likened to the individuality; and the leaves–because of their ephemeral nature–correspond to the personality, which partakes of none of the permanence of its divine source.

The Hiramic Legend

WHEN Solomon–the beloved of God, builder of the Everlasting House, and Grand Master of the Lodge of Jerusalem–ascended the throne of his father David he consecrated his life to the erection of a temple to God and a palace for the kings of Israel. David’s faithful friend, Hiram, King of Tyre, hearing that a son of David sat upon the throne of Israel, sent messages of congratulation and offers of assistance to the new ruler. In his History of the Jews, Josephus mentions that copies of the letters passing between the two kings were then to be seen both at Jerusalem and at Tyre. Despite Hiram’s lack of appreciation for the twenty cities of Galilee which Solomon presented to him upon the completion of the temple, the two monarchs remained the best of friends. Both were famous for their wit and wisdom, and when they exchanged letters each devised puzzling questions to test the mental ingenuity of the other. Solomon made an agreement with Hiram of Tyre promising vast amounts of barley, wheat, corn, wine, and oil as wages for the masons and carpenters from Tyre who were to assist the Jews in the erection of the temple. Hiram also supplied cedars and other fine trees, which were made into rafts and floated down the sea to Joppa, whence they were taken inland by Solomon’s workmen to the temple site.

Because of his great love for Solomon, Hiram of Tyre sent also the Grand Master of the Dionysiac Architects, CHiram Abiff, a Widow’s Son, who had no equal among the craftsmen of the earth. CHiram is described as being “a Tyrian by birch, but of Israelitish descent,” and “a second Bezaleel, honored by his king with the title of Father.” The Freemason’s Pocket Companion (published in 1771) describes CHiram as “the most cunning, skilful and curious workman that ever lived, whose abilities were not confined to building alone, but extended to all kinds of work, whether in gold, silver, brass or iron; whether in linen, tapestry, or embroidery; whether considered as an architect, statuary [sic]; founder or designer, separately or together, he equally excelled. From his designs, and under his direction, all the rich and splendid furniture of the Temple and its several appendages were begun, carried on, and finished. Solomon appointed him, in his absence, to fill the chair, as Deputy Grand-Master; and in his presence, Senior Grand-Warden, Master of work, and general overseer of all artists, as well those whom David had formerly procured from Tyre and Sidon, as those Hiram should now send.” (Modem Masonic writers differ as to the accuracy of the last sentence.)

Although an immense amount of labor was involved in its construction, Solomon’s Temple–in the words of George Oliver–“was only a small building and very inferior in point of size to some of our churches.” The number of buildings contiguous to it and the vast treasure of gold and precious stones used in its construction concentrated a great amount of wealth within the temple area. In the midst of the temple stood the Holy of Holies, sometimes called the Oracle. It was an exact cube, each dimension being twenty cubits, and exemplified the influence of Egyptian symbolism. The buildings of the temple group were ornamented with 1,453 columns of Parian marble, magnificently sculptured, and 2,906 pilasters decorated with capitals. There was a broad porch facing the east, and the sanctum sanctorum was upon the west. According to tradition, the various buildings and courtyards could hold in all 300,000 persons. Both the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies were entirely lined with solid gold plates encrusted with jewels.

King Solomon began the building of the temple in the fourth year of his reign on what would be, according to modern calculation, the 21st day of April, and finished it in the eleventh year of his reign on the 23rd day of October. The temple was begun in the 480th year after the children of Israel had passed the Red Sea. Part of the labor of construction included the building of an artificial foundation on the brow of Mount Moriah. The stones for the temple were hoisted from quarries directly beneath Mount Moriah and were trued before being brought to the surface. The brass and golden ornaments for the temple were cast in molds in the clay ground between Succoth and Zeredatha, and the wooden parts were all finished before they reached the temple site. The building was put together, consequently, without sound and without instruments, all its parts fitting exactly “without the hammer of contention, the axe of division, or any tool of mischief.”

Anderson’s much-discussed Constitutions of the Free-Masons, published in London in 1723, and reprinted by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1734, thus describes the division of the laborers engaged in the building of the Everlasting House:

“But Dagon’s Temple, and the finest structures of Tyre and Sidon, could not be compared with the Eternal God’s Temple at Jerusalem, * * * there were employed about it no less than 3,600 Princes, or Master-Masons, to conduct the work according to Solomon’s directions, with 80,000 hewers of stone in the mountain, or Fellow Craftsmen, and 70,000 labourers, in all 153,600 besides the levy under Adoniram to work in the mountains of Lebanon by turns with the Sidonians, viz., 30,000, being in all 183,600.”

Daniel Sickels gives 3,300 overseers, instead of 3,600, and lists the three Grand Masters separately. The same author estimates the cost of the temple at nearly four thousand millions of dollars.

The Masonic legend of the building of Solomon’s Temple does not in every particular parallel the Scriptural version, especially in those portions relating to CHiram Abiff. According to the Biblical account, this Master workman returned to his own country; in the Masonic allegory he is foully murdered. On this point A. E. Waite, in his New Encyclopædia of Freemasonry, makes the following explanatory comment:

“The legend of the Master-Builder is the great allegory of Masonry. It happens that his figurative story is grounded on the fact of a personality mentioned in Holy Scripture, but this historical background is of the accidents and not the essence; the significance is in the allegory and not in any point of history which may lie behind it.”

CHiram, as Master of the Builders, divided his workmen into three groups, which were termed Entered Apprentices, Fellow-Craftsmen, and Master Masons. To each division he gave certain

 

A MASONIC APRON WITH SYMBOLIC FIGURES.

From an early hand-painted Masonic apron.

While the mystic symbolism of Freemasonry decrees that the apron shall be a simple square of white lambskin with appropriate flap, Masonic aprons are frequently decorated with curious and impressive figures. “When silk cotton, or linen is worn,” writes Albert Pike, “the symbolism is lost. Nor is one clothed who blots, defaces, and desecrates the white surface with ornamentation, figuring, or colors of any kind.” (See Symbolism.)

To Mars, the ancient plane of cosmic energy, the Atlantean and Chaldean “star gazers” assigned Aries as a diurnal throne and Scorpio as a nocturnal throne. Those not raised to spiritual life by initiation are described as “dead from the sting of a scorpion,” for they wander in the night side of divine power. Through the mystery of the Paschal Lamb, or the attainment of the Golden Fleece, these soul are raised into the constructive day Power of Mars in Aries–the symbol of the Creator.

When worn over the area related to the animal passions, the pure lambskin signifies the regeneration of the procreative forces and their consecration to the service of the Deity. The size of the apron, exclusive of the flap, makes it the symbol of salvation, for the Mysteries declare that it must consist of 144 square inches.

The apron shown above contains a wealth of symbolism: the beehive, emblematic of the Masonic lodge itself, the trowel, the mallet, and the trestleboad; the rough and trued ashlars; the pyramids and hills of Lebanon; the pillars, the Temple, and checkerboard floor; and the blazing star and tools of the Craft. The center of the apron is occupied by the compass and square, representative of the Macrocosm an the microcosm, and the alternately black and white serpent of astral light. Below is an acacia branch with seven sprigs, signifying the life Centers of the superior and the inferior man. The skull and cross bones are a continual reminder that the spiritual nature attains liberation only after the philosophical death of man’s sensuous personality.

passwords and signs by which their respective excellence could be quickly determined. While all were classified according to their merits some were dissatisfied, for they desired a more exalted position than they were capable of filling. At last three Fellow-Craftsmen, more daring than their companions, determined to force CHiram to reveal to them the password of the Master’s degree. Knowing that CHiram always went into the unfinished sanctum sanctorum at high noon to pray, these ruffians–whose names were Jubela, Jubelo, and Jubelum–lay in wait for him, one at each of the main gates of the temple. CHiram, about to leave the temple by the south gate, was suddenly confronted by Jubela armed with a twenty-four-inch gauge. Upon CHiram’s refusal to reveal the Master’s Word, the ruffian struck him on the throat with the rule, and the wounded Master then hastened to the west gate, where Jubelo, armed with a square, awaited him and made a similar demand. Again CHiram was silent, and the second assassin struck him on the breast with the square. CHiram thereupon staggered to the east gate, only to be met there by Jubelum armed with a maul. When CHiram, refused him the Master’s Word, Jubelum struck the Master between the eyes with the mallet and CHiram fell dead.

The body of CHiram was buried by the murderers over the brow of Mount Moriah and a sprig of acacia placed upon the grave. The murderers then sought to escape punishment for their crime by embarking for Ethiopia, but the port was closed. All three were finally captured, and after admitting their guilt were duly executed. Parties of three were then sent out by King Solomon, and one of these groups discovered the newly made grave marked by the evergreen sprig. After the Entered Apprentices and the Fellow-Craftsmen had failed to resurrect their Master from the dead he was finally raised by the Master Mason with the “strong grip of a Lion’s Paw.”

To the initiated Builder the name CHiram Abiff signifies “My Father, the Universal Spirit, one in essence, three in aspect.” Thus the murdered Master is a type of the Cosmic Martyr–the crucified Spirit of Good, the dying god–whose Mystery is celebrated throughout the world. Among the manuscripts of Dr. Sigismund Bastrom, the initiated Rosicrucian, appears the following extract from von Welling concerning the true philosophic nature of the Masonic CHiram:

“The original word חירם, CHiram, is a radical word consisting of three consonants ח ר and ם i. e. Cheth, Resh and Mem. (1) ח, Cheth, signifiesChamah, the Sun’s light, i. e. the Universal, invisible, cold fire of Nature attracted by the Sun, manifested into light and sent down to us and to every planetary body belonging to the solar system. (2) ר, Resh, signifies ריח Ruach, i. e. Spirit, air, wind, as being the Vehicle which conveys and collects the light into numberless Foci, wherein the solar rays of light are agitated by a circular motion and manifested in Heat and burning Fire. (3) ם, or מMem, signifies majim, water, humidity, but rather the mother of water, i. e. Radical Humidity or a particular kind of condensed air. These three constitute the Universal Agent or fire of Nature in one word, חירם, CHiram, not Hiram.”

Albert Pike mentions several forms of the name CHiram: Khirm, Khurm, and Khur-Om, the latter ending in the sacred Hindu monosyllable OM, which may also be extracted from the names of the three murderers. Pike further relates the three ruffians to a triad of stars in the constellation of Libra and also calls attention to the fact that the Chaldean god Bal–metamorphosed into a demon by the Jews–appears in the name of each of the murderers, Jubela, Jubelo, and Jubelum. To interpret the Hiramic legend requires familiarity with both the Pythagorean and Qabbalistic systems of numbers and letters, and also the philosophic and astronomic cycles of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and Brahmins. For example, consider the number 33. The first temple of Solomon stood for thirty-three years in its pristine splendor. At the end of that time it was pillaged by the Egyptian King Shishak, and finally (588 B.C.) it was completely destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar and the people of Jerusalem were led into captivity to Babylon. (See General History of Freemasonry, by Robert Macoy.) Also King David ruled for thirty-three years in Jerusalem; the Masonic Order is divided into thirty-three symbolic degrees; there are thirty-three segments in the human spinal column; and Jesus was crucified in the thirty-third year of His life.

The efforts made to discover the origin of the Hiramic legend show that, while the legend in its present form is comparatively modem, its underlying principles run back to remotest antiquity. It is generally admitted by modem Masonic scholars that the story of the martyred CHiram is based upon the Egyptian rites of Osiris, whose death and resurrection figuratively portrayed the spiritual death of man and his regeneration through initiation into the Mysteries. CHiram is also identified with Hermes through the inscription on the Emerald Table. From these associations it is evident that CHiram is to be considered as a prototype of humanity; in fact he is Plato’s Idea (archetype) of man. As Adam after the Fall symbolizes the Idea of human degeneration, so CHiram through his resurrection symbolizes the Idea of human regeneration.

On the 19th day of March, 1314, Jacques de Molay, the last Grand Master of the Knights Templars, was burned on a pyre erected upon that point of the islet of the Seine, at Paris, where afterwards was erected the statue of King Henry IV. (See The Indian Religions, by Hargrave Jennings.)

“It is mentioned as a tradition in some of the accounts of the burning,” writes Jennings, “that Molay, ere he expired, summoned Clement, the Pope who had pronounced the bull of abolition against the Order and had condemned the Grand Master to the flames, to appear, within forty days, before the Supreme Eternal judge, and Philip [the king] to the same awful tribunal within the space of a year. Both predictions were fulfilled.”

The close relationship between Freemasonry and the original Knights Templars has caused the story of CHiram to be linked with the martyrdom of Jacques de Molay. According to this interpretation, the three ruffians who cruelly slew their Master at the gates of the temple because he refused to reveal the secrets of his Order represent the Pope, the king, and the executioners. De Molay died maintaining his innocence and refusing to disclose the philosophical and magical arcana of the Templars.

Those who have sought to identify CHiram with the murdered King Charles the First conceive the Hiramic legend to have been invented for that purpose by Elias Ashmole, a mystical philosopher, who was probably a member of the Rosicrucian Fraternity. Charles was dethroned in 1647 and died on the block in 1649, leaving the Royalist party leaderless. An attempt has been made to relate the term “the Sons of the Widow” (an appellation frequently applied to members of the Masonic Order) to this incident in English history, for by the murder of her king England became a Widow and all Englishmen Widow’s Sons.

To the mystic Christian Mason, CHiram. represents the Christ who in three days (degrees) raised the temple of His body from its earthly sepulcher. His three murderers were Cæsar’s agent (the state), the Sanhedrin (the church), and the incited populace (the mob). Thus considered, CHiram becomes the higher nature of man and the murderers are ignorance, superstition, and fear. The indwelling Christ can give expression to Himself in this world only through man’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. Right thinking, right feeling, and right action–these are three gates through which the Christ power passes into the material world, there to labor in the erection of the Temple of Universal Brotherhood. Ignorance, superstition, and fear are three ruffians through whose agencies the Spirit of Good is murdered and a false kingdom, controlled by wrong thinking, wrong feeling, and wrong action, established in its stead. In the material universe evil appears ever victorious.

“In this sense,” writes Daniel Sickels, “the myth of the Tyrian is perpetually repeated in the history of human affairs. Orpheus was murdered, and his body thrown into the Hebrus; Socrates was made to drink the hemlock; and, in all ages, we have seen Evil temporarily triumphant, and Virtue and Truth calumniated, persecuted, crucified, and slain. But Eternal justice marches surely and swiftly through the world: the Typhons, the children of darkness, the plotters of crime, all the infinitely varied forms of evil, are swept into oblivion; and Truth and Virtue–for a time laid low–come forth, clothed with diviner majesty, and crowned with everlasting glory!” (See General Ahiman Rezon.)

If, as there is ample reason to suspect, the modern Freemasonic Order was profoundly influenced by, if it is not an actual outgrowth of, Francis Bacon’s secret society, its symbolism is undoubtedly permeated with Bacon’s two great ideals: universal education and universal democracy. The deadly enemies of universal education are ignorance, superstition, and fear, by which the human soul is held in bondage to the lowest part of its own constitution. The arrant enemies of universal democracy have ever been the crown, the tiara, and the torch. Thus CHiram symbolizes that ideal state of spiritual, intellectual, and physical emancipation which has ever been sacrificed upon the altar of human selfishness. CHiram is the Beautifier of the Eternal House. Modern utilitarianism, however, sacrifices the beautiful for the practical, in the same breath declaring the obvious lie that selfishness, hatred, and discord are practical.

Dr. Orville Ward Owen found a considerable part of the first

 

THE EMBLEMATIC HAND OF THE MYSTERIES.

From Montfaucon’s Antiquities.

A hand covered with numerous symbols was extended to the neophytes when they entered into the Temple of Wisdom. An understanding of the embossed upon the surface of the hand brought with it Divine power and regeneration Therefore, by means of these symbolic hands the candidate was said to be raised from the dead.

thirty-two degrees of Freemasonic ritualism hidden in the text of the First Shakespeare Folio. Masonic emblems are to be observed also upon the title pages of nearly every book published by Bacon. Sir Francis Bacon considered himself as a living sacrifice upon the altar of human need; he was obviously cut down in the midst of his labors, and no student of his New Atlantis can fail to recognize the Masonic symbolism contained therein. According to the observations of Joseph Fort Newton, the Temple of Solomon described by Bacon in that utopian romance was not a house at all but the name of an ideal state. Is it not true that the Temple of Freemasonry is also emblematic of a condition of society? While, as before stated, the principles of the Hiramic legend are of the greatest antiquity, it is not impossible that its present form may be based upon incidents in the life of Lord Bacon, who passed through the philosophic death and was raised in Germany.

In an old manuscript appears the statement that the Freemasonic Order was formed by alchemists and Hermetic philosophers who had banded themselves together to protect their secrets against the infamous methods used by avaricious persons to wring from them the secret of gold-making. The fact that the Hiramic legend contains an alchemical formula gives credence to this story. Thus the building of Solomon’s Temple represents the consummation of the magnum opus, which cannot be realized without the assistance of CHiram, the Universal Agent. The Masonic Mysteries teach the initiate how to prepare within his own soul a miraculous powder of projection by which it is possible for him to transmute the base lump of human ignorance, perversion, and discord into an ingot of spiritual and philosophic gold.

Sufficient similarity exists between the Masonic CHiram and the Kundalini of Hindu mysticism to warrant the assumption that CHiram may be considered a symbol also of the Spirit Fire moving through the sixth ventricle of the spinal column. The exact science of human regeneration is the Lost Key of Masonry, for when the Spirit Fire is lifted up through the thirty-three degrees, or segments of the spinal column, and enters into the domed chamber of the human skull, it finally passes into the pituitary body (Isis), where it invokes Ra (the pineal gland) and demands the Sacred Name. Operative Masonry, in the fullest meaning of that term, signifies the process by which the Eye of Horus is opened. E. A. Wallis Budge has noted that in some of the papyri illustrating the entrance of the souls of the dead into the judgment hall of Osiris the deceased person has a pine cone attached to the crown of his head. The Greek mystics also carried a symbolic staff, the upper end being in the form of a pine cone, which was called the thyrsus of Bacchus. In the human brain there is a tiny gland called the pineal body, which is the sacred eye of the ancients, and corresponds to the third eye of the Cyclops. Little is known concerning the function of the pineal body, which Descartes suggested (more wisely than he knew) might be the abode of the spirit of man. As its name signifies, the pineal gland is the sacred pine cone in man–the eye single, which cannot be opened until CHiram (the Spirit Fire) is raised through the sacred seals which are called the Seven Churches in Asia.

There is an Oriental painting which shows three sun bursts. One sunburst covers the head, in the midst of which sits Brahma with four heads, his body a mysterious dark color. The second sunburst–which covers the heart, solar plexus, and upper abdominal region–shows Vishnu sitting in the blossom of the lotus on a couch formed of the coils of the serpent of cosmic motion, its seven-hooded head forming a canopy over the god. The third sunburst is over the generative system, in the midst of which sits Shiva, his body a grayish white and the Ganges River flowing out of the crown of his head. This painting was the work of a Hindu mystic who spent many years subtly concealing great philosophical principles within these figures. The Christian legends could be related also to the human body by the same method as the Oriental, for the arcane meanings hidden in the teachings of both schools are identical.

As applied to Masonry, the three sunbursts represent the gates of the temple at which CHiram was struck, there being no gate in the north because the sun never shines from the northern angle of the heavens. The north is the symbol of the physical because of its relation to ice (crystallized water) and to the body (crystallized spirit). In man the light shines toward the north but never from it, because the body has no light of its own but shines with the reflected glory of the divine life-particles concealed within physical substance. For this reason the moon is accepted as the symbol of man’s physical nature. CHiram is the mysterious fiery, airy water which must be raised through the three grand centers symbolized by the ladder with three rungs and the sunburst flowers mentioned in the description of the Hindu painting. It must also pass upward by means of the ladder of seven rungs-the seven plexuses proximate to the spine. The nine segments of the sacrum and coccyx are pierced by ten foramina, through which pass the roots of the Tree of Life. Nine is the sacred number of man, and in the symbolism of the sacrum and coccyx a great mystery is concealed. That part of the body from the kidneys downward was termed by the early Qabbalists the Land of Egypt into which the children of Israel were taken during the captivity. Out of Egypt, Moses (the illuminated mind, as his name implies) led the tribes of Israel (the twelve faculties) by raising the brazen serpent in the wilderness upon the symbol of the Tau cross. Not only CHiram but the god-men of nearly every pagan Mystery ritual are personifications of the Spirit Fire in the human spinal cord.

The astronomical aspect of the Hiramic legend must not be overlooked. The tragedy of CHiram is enacted annually by the sun during its passage through the signs of the zodiac.

“From the journey of the Sun through the twelve signs,” writes Albert Pike, “come the legend of the twelve labors of Hercules, and the incarnations of Vishnu and Buddha. Hence came the legend of the murder of Khurum, representative of the Sun, by the three Fellow-Crafts, symbols of the Winter signs, Capricornus, Aquarius, and Pisces, who assailed him at the three gates of Heaven and slew him at the Winter Solstice. Hence the search for him by the nine Fellow-Crafts, the other nine signs, his finding, burial, and resurrection.” (See Morals and Dogma.)

Other authors consider Libra, Scorpio, and Sagittarius as the three murderers of the sun, inasmuch as Osiris was murdered by Typhon, to whom were assigned the thirty degrees of the constellation of Scorpio. In the Christian Mysteries also Judas signifies the Scorpion, and the thirty pieces of silver for which he betrayed His Lord represent the number of degrees in that sign. Having been struck by Libra (the state), Scorpio (the church), and Sagittarius (the mob), the sun (CHiram) is secretly home through the darkness by the signs of Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces and buried over the brow of a hill (the vernal equinox). Capricorn has for its symbol an old man with a scythe in his hand. This is Father Time–a wayfarer–who is symbolized in Masonry as straightening out the ringlets of a young girl’s hair. If the Weeping Virgin be considered a symbol of Virgo, and Father Time with his scythe a symbol of Capricorn, then the interval of ninety degrees between these two signs will be found to correspond to that occupied by the three murderers. Esoterically, the urn containing the ashes of CHiram represents the human heart. Saturn, the old man who lives at the north pole, and brings with him to the children of men a sprig of evergreen (the Christmas tree), is familiar to the little folks under the name of Santa Claus, for he brings each winter the gift of a new year.

The martyred sun is discovered by Aries, a Fellow-Craftsman, and at the vernal equinox the process of raising him begins. This is finally accomplished by the Lion of Judah, who in ancient times occupied the position of the keystone of the Royal Arch of Heaven. The precession of the equinoxes causes various signs to play the rôle of the murderers of the sun during the different ages of the world, but the principle involved remains unchanged. Such is the cosmic story of CHiram, the Universal Benefactor, the Fiery Architect: of the Divine House, who carries with him to the grave that Lost Word which, when spoken, raises all life to power and glory. According to Christian mysticism, when the Lost Word is found it is discovered in a stable, surrounded by beasts and marked by a star. “After the sun leaves Leo,” writes Robert Hewitt Brown, “the days begin to grow unequivocally shorter as the sun declines toward the autumnal equinox, to be again slain by thethree autumnal months, lie dead through the three winter ones, and be raised again by the three vernal ones. Each year the great tragedy is repeated, and the glorious resurrection takes place.” (See Stellar Theology and Masonic Astronomy.)

CHiram is termed dead because in the average individual the cosmic creative forces are limited in their manifestation to purely physical–and correspondingly materialistic–expression. Obsessed by his belief in the reality and permanence of physical existence, man does not correlate the material universe with the blank north wall of the temple. As the solar light symbolically is said to die as it approaches the winter solstice, so the physical world may be termed

 

DIANA OF EPHESUS.

From Montfaucon’s Antiquities.

Crowned with a triple tower-like tiara and her form adorned with symbolic creatures representative of her spiritual powers, Diana stood for the source of that imperishable doctrine which, flowing from the bosom of the Great Multimammia, is the spiritual food of those aspiring men and women who have consecrated their lives to the contemplation of reality. As the physical body of man receives its nutriment from the Great Earth Mother, so the spiritual nature of man is fed from the never failing fountains of Truth pouring outward from the invisible worlds.

the winter solstice of the spirit. Reaching the winter solstice, the sun apparently stands still for three days and then, rolling away the stone of winter, begins its triumphal march north towards the summer solstice. The condition of ignorance may be likened to the winter solstice of philosophy; spiritual understanding to the summer solstice. From this point of view, initiation into the Mysteries becomes the vernal equinox of the spirit, at which time the CHiram in man crosses from the realm of mortality into that of eternal life. The autumnal equinox is analogous to the mythological fall of man, at which time the human spirit descended into the realms of Hades by being immersed in the illusion of terrestrial existence.

In An Essay on the Beautiful, Plotinus describes the refining effect of beauty upon the unfolding consciousness of man. Commissioned to decorate the Everlasting House, CHiram Abiff is the embodiment of the beautifying principle. Beauty is essential to the natural unfoldment of the human soul. The Mysteries held that man, in part at least, was the product of his environment. Therefore they considered it imperative that every person be surrounded by objects which would evoke the highest and noblest sentiments. They proved that it was possible to produce beauty in life by surrounding life with beauty. They discovered that symmetrical bodies were built by souls continuously in the presence of symmetrical bodies; that noble thoughts were produced by minds surrounded by examples of mental nobility. Conversely, if a man were forced to look upon an ignoble or asymmetrical structure it would arouse within him a sense of ignobility which would provoke him to commit ignoble deeds. If an ill-proportioned building were erected in the midst of a city there would be ill-proportioned children born in that community; and men and women, gazing upon the asymmetrical structure, would live inharmonious lives. Thoughtful men of antiquity realized that their great philosophers were the natural products of the æsthetic ideals of architecture, music, and art established as the standards of the cultural systems of the time.

The substitution of the discord of the fantastic for the harmony of the beautiful constitutes one of the great tragedies of every civilization. Not only were the Savior-Gods of the ancient world beautiful, but each performed a ministry of beauty, seeking to effect man’s regeneration by arousing within him the love of the beautiful. A renaissance of the golden age of fable can be made possible only by the elevation of beauty to its rightful dignity as the all-pervading, idealizing quality in the religious, ethical, sociological, scientific, and political departments of life. The Dionysiac Architects were consecrated to the raising of their Master Spirit–Cosmic Beauty–from the sepulcher of material ignorance and selfishness by erecting buildings which were such perfect exemplars of symmetry and majesty that they were actually magical formulæ by which was evoked the spirit of the martyred Beautifier entombed within a materialistic world.

In the Masonic Mysteries the triune spirit of man (the light Delta) is symbolized by the three Grand Masters of the Lodge of Jerusalem. As God is the pervading principle of three worlds, in each of which He manifests as an active principle, so the spirit of man, partaking of the nature of Divinity, dwells upon three planes of being: the Supreme, the Superior, and the Inferior spheres of the Pythagoreans. At the gate of the Inferior sphere (the underworld, or dwelling place of mortal creatures) stands the guardian of Hades–the three–headed dog Cerberus, who is analogous to the three murderers of the Hiramic legend. According to this symbolic interpretation of the triune spirit, CHiram is the third, or incarnating, part–the Master Builder who through all ages erects living temples of flesh and blood as shrines of the Most High. CHiram comes forth as a flower and is cut down; he dies at the gates of matter; he is buried in the elements of creation, but–like Thor–he swings his mighty hammer in the fields of space, sets the primordial atoms in motion, and establishes order out of Chaos. As the potentiality of cosmic power within each human soul, CHiram lies waiting for man by the elaborate ritualism of life to transmute potentiality into divine potency. As the sense perceptions of the individual increase, however, man gains ever greater control over his various parts, and the spirit of life within gradually attains freedom. The three murderers represent the laws of the Inferior world–birth, growth, and decay–which ever frustrate the plan of the Builder. To the average individual, physical birch actually signifies the death of CHiram, and physical death the resurrection of CHiram. To the initiate, however, the resurrection of the spiritual nature is accomplished without the intervention of physical death.

The curious symbols found in the base of Cleopatra’s Needle now standing in Central Park, New York, were interpreted as being of first Masonic significance by S. A. Zola, 33° Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Egypt. Masons’ marks and symbols are to be found on the stones of numerous public buildings not only in England and on the Continent but also in Asia. In his Indian Masons’ Marks of the Moghul Dynasty, A. Gorham describes scores of markings appearing on the walls of buildings such as the Taj Mahal, the Jama Masjid, and that: famous Masonic structure, the Kutab Minar. According to those who regard Masonry as an outgrowth of the secret society of architects and builders which for thousands of years formed a caste of master craftsmen, CHiram Abiff was the Tyrian Grand Master of a world-wide organization of artisans, with headquarters in Tyre. Their philosophy consisted of incorporating into the measurements and ornamentation of temples, palaces, mausoleums, fortresses, and other public buildings their knowledge of the laws controlling the universe. Every initiated workman was given a hieroglyphic with which he marked the stones he trued to show to all posterity that he thus dedicated to the Supreme Architect of the Universe each perfected product of his labor. Concerning Masons’ marks, Robert Freke Gould writes:

“It is very remarkable that these marks are to be found in all countries–in the chambers of the Great Pyramid at Gizeh, on the underground walls of Jerusalem, in Herculaneum and Pompeii, on Roman walls and Grecian temples, in Hindustan, Mexico, Peru, Asia Minor–as well as on the great ruins of England, France, Germany, Scotland, Italy, Portugal and Spain.” (See A Concise History of Freemasonry.)

From this viewpoint the story of CHiram may well represent the incorporation of the divine secrets of architecture into the actual parts and dimensions of earthly buildings. The three degrees of the Craft bury the Grand Master (the Great Arcanum) in the actual structure they erect, after first having killed him with the builders’ tools, by reducing the dimensionless Spirit of Cosmic Beauty to the limitations of concrete form. These abstract ideals of architecture can be resurrected, however, by the Master Mason who, by meditating upon the structure, releases therefrom the divine principles of architectonic philosophy incorporated or buried within it. Thus the physical building is actually the tomb or embodiment of the Creative Ideal of which its material dimensions are but the shadow.

Moreover, the Hiramic legend may be considered to embody the vicissitudes of philosophy itself. As institutions for the dissemination of ethical culture, the pagan Mysteries were the architects of civilization. Their power and dignity were personified in CHiram Abiff–the Master Builder–but they eventually fell a victim to the onslaughts of that recurrent trio of state, church, and mob. They were desecrated by the state, jealous of their wealth and power; by the early church, fearful of their wisdom; and by the rabble or soldiery incited by both state and church. As CHiram when raised from his grave whispers the Master Mason’s Word which was lost through his untimely death, so according to the tenets of philosophy the reestablishment or resurrection of the ancient Mysteries will result in the rediscovery of that secret teaching without which civilization must continue in a state of spiritual confusion and uncertainty.

When the mob governs, man is ruled by ignorance; when the church governs, he is ruled by superstition; and when the state governs, he is ruled by fear. Before men can live together in harmony and understanding, ignorance must be transmuted into wisdom, superstition into an illumined faith, and fear into love. Despite statements to the contrary, Masonry is a religion seeking to unite God and man by elevating its initiates to that level of consciousness whereon they can behold with clarified vision the workings of the Great Architect of the Universe. From age to age the vision of a perfect civilization is preserved as the ideal for mankind. In the midst of that civilization shall stand a mighty university wherein both the sacred and secular sciences concerning the mysteries of life will be freely taught to all who will assume the philosophic life. Here creed and dogma will have no place; the superficial will be removed and only the essential be preserved. The world will be ruled by its most illumined minds, and each will occupy the position for which he is most admirably fitted.

The great university will be divided into grades, admission to which will be through preliminary tests or initiations. Here mankind will be instructed in the most sacred, the most secret, and the most enduring of all Mysteries–Symbolism. Here the initiate will be taught that every visible object, every abstract thought, every emotional reaction is but the symbol of an eternal principle. Here mankind will learn that CHiram (Truth) lies buried in every atom of Kosmos; that every form is a symbol and every symbol the tomb of an eternal verity. Through education–spiritual, mental, moral, and physical–man will learn to release living truths from their lifeless coverings. The perfect government of the earth must be patterned eventually after that divine government by which the universe is ordered. In that day when perfect order is reestablished, with peace universal and good triumphant, men will no longer seek for happiness, for they shall find it welling up within themselves. Dead hopes, dead aspirations, dead virtues shall rise from their graves, and the Spirit of Beauty and Goodness repeatedly slain by ignorant men shall again be the Master of Work. Then shall sages sit upon the seats of the mighty and the gods walk with men.

The Pythagorean Theory of Music and Color

HARMONY is a state recognized by great philosophers as the immediate prerequisite of beauty. A compound is termed beautiful only when its parts are inharmonious combination. The world is called beautiful and its Creator is designated the Good because good perforce must act in conformity with its own nature; and good acting according to its own nature is harmony, because the good which it accomplishes is harmonious with the good which it is. Beauty, therefore, is harmony manifesting its own intrinsic nature in the world of form.

The universe is made up of successive gradations of good, these gradations ascending from matter (which is the least degree of good) to spirit (which is the greatest degree of good). In man, his superior nature is the summum bonum. It therefore follows that his highest nature most readily cognizes good because the good external to him in the world is in harmonic ratio with the good present in his soul. What man terms evil is therefore, in common with matter, merely the least degree of its own opposite. The least degree of good presupposes likewise the least degree of harmony and beauty. Thus deformity (evil) is really the least harmonious combination of elements naturally harmonic as individual units. Deformity is unnatural, for, the sum of all things being the Good, it is natural that all things should partake of the Good and be arranged in combinations that are harmonious. Harmony is the manifesting expression of the Will of the eternal Good.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF MUSIC

It is highly probable that the Greek initiates gained their knowledge of the philosophic and therapeutic aspects of music from the Egyptians, who, in turn, considered Hermes the founder of the art. According to one legend, this god constructed the first lyre by stretching strings across the concavity of a turtle shell. Both Isis and Osiris were patrons of music and poetry. Plato, in describing the antiquity of these arts among the Egyptians, declared that songs and poetry had existed in Egypt for at least ten thousand years, and that these were of such an exalted and inspiring nature that only gods or godlike men could have composed them. In the Mysteries the lyre was regarded as the secret symbol of the human constitution, the body of the instrument representing the physical form, the strings the nerves, and the musician the spirit. Playing upon the nerves, the spirit thus created the harmonies of normal functioning, which, however, became discords if the nature of man were defiled.

While the early Chinese, Hindus, Persians, Egyptians, Israelites, and Greeks employed both vocal and instrumental music in their religious ceremonials, also to complement their poetry and drama, it remained for Pythagoras to raise the art to its true dignity by demonstrating its mathematical foundation. Although it is said that he himself was not a musician, Pythagoras is now generally credited with the discovery of the diatonic scale. Having first learned the divine theory of music from the priests of the various Mysteries into which he had been accepted, Pythagoras pondered for several years upon the laws governing consonance and dissonance. How he actually solved the problem is unknown, but the following explanation has been invented.

One day while meditating upon the problem of harmony, Pythagoras chanced to pass a brazier’s shop where workmen were pounding out a piece of metal upon an anvil. By noting the variances in pitch between the sounds made by large hammers and those made by smaller implements, and carefully estimating the harmonies and discords resulting from combinations of these sounds, he gained his first clue to the musical intervals of the diatonic scale. He entered the shop, and after carefully examining the tools and making mental note of their weights, returned to his own house and constructed an arm of wood so that it: extended out from the wall of his room. At regular intervals along this arm he attached four cords, all of like composition, size, and weight. To the first of these he attached a twelve-pound weight, to the second a nine-pound weight, to the third an eight-pound weight, and to the fourth a six-pound weight. These different weights corresponded to the sizes of the braziers’ hammers.

Pythagoras thereupon discovered that the first and fourth strings when sounded together produced the harmonic interval of the octave, for doubling the weight had the same effect as halving the string. The tension of the first string being twice that of the fourth string, their ratio was said to be 2:1, or duple. By similar experimentation he ascertained that the first and third string produced the harmony of the diapente, or the interval of the fifth. The tension of the first string being half again as much as that of the third string, their ratio was said to be 3:2, or sesquialter. Likewise the second and fourth strings, having the same ratio as the first and third strings, yielded a diapente harmony. Continuing his investigation, Pythagoras discovered that the first and second strings produced the harmony of the diatessaron, or the interval of the third; and the tension of the first string being a third greater than that of the second string, their ratio was said to be 4:3, or sesquitercian. The third and fourth strings, having the same ratio as the first and second strings, produced another harmony of the diatessaron. According to Iamblichus, the second and third strings had the ratio of 8:9, or epogdoan.

The key to harmonic ratios is hidden in the famous Pythagorean tetractys, or pyramid of dots. The tetractys is made up of the first four numbers–1, 2, 3, and 4–which in their proportions reveal the intervals of the octave, the diapente, and the diatessaron. While the law of harmonic intervals as set forth above is true, it has been subsequently proved that hammers striking metal in the manner

 

THE INTERVALS AND HARMONIES OF THE SPHERES.

From Stanley’s The History of Philosophy.

In the Pythagorean concept of the music of the spheres, the interval between the earth and the sphere of the fixed stars was considered to be a diapason–the most perfect harmonic interval. The allowing arrangement is most generally accepted for the musical intervals of the planets between the earth and the sphere of the fixed stars: From the sphere of the earth to the sphere of the moon; one tone; from the sphere of the moon to that of Mercury, one half-tone; from Mercury to Venus, one-half; from Venus to the sun, one and one-half tones; from the sun to Mars, one tone; from Mars to Jupiter, one-half tone; from Jupiter to Saturn, one-half tone; from Saturn to the fixed stars, one-half tone. The sum of these intervals equals the six whole tones of the octave.

 

THE CONSONANCES OF THE MUNDANE MONOCHORD.

From Fludd’s De Musica Mundana.

This diagrammatic sector represents the major gradations of energy and substance between elemental earth and absolute unconditioned force. Beginning with the superior, the fifteen graduated spheres descend in the following order: Limitless and Eternal Life; the superior, the middle, and the inferior Empyrean; the seven planets; and the four elements. Energy is symbolized by Fludd as a pyramid with its base upon the concave surface of the superior Empyrean, and substance as another Pyramid with its base upon the convex surface of the sphere (not planet) of earth. These pyramids demonstrate the relative proportions of energy and substance entering into the composition of the fifteen planes of being. It will be noted that the ascending pyramid of substance touches but does not pierce the fifteenth sphere–that of Limitless and Eternal Life. Likewise, the descending pyramid of energy touches but does not pierce the first sphere–the grossest condition of substance. The plane of the sun is denominated the sphere of equality, for here neither energy nor substance predominate. The mundane monochord consists of a hypothetical string stretched from the base of the pyramid of energy to the base of the pyramid of substance.

described will not produce the various tones ascribed to them. In all probability, therefore, Pythagoras actually worked out his theory of harmony from the monochord–a contrivance consisting of a single string stretched between two pegs and supplied with movable frets.

To Pythagoras music was one of the dependencies of the divine science of mathematics, and its harmonies were inflexibly controlled by mathematical proportions. The Pythagoreans averred that mathematics demonstrated the exact method by which the good established and maintained its universe. Number therefore preceded harmony, since it was the immutable law that governs all harmonic proportions. After discovering these harmonic ratios, Pythagoras gradually initiated his disciples into this, the supreme arcanum of his Mysteries. He divided the multitudinous parts of creation into a vast number of planes or spheres, to each of which he assigned a tone, a harmonic interval, a number, a name, a color, and a form. He then proceeded to prove the accuracy of his deductions by demonstrating them upon the different planes of intelligence and substance ranging from the most abstract logical premise to the most concrete geometrical solid. From the common agreement of these diversified methods of proof he established the indisputable existence of certain natural laws.

Having once established music as an exact science, Pythagoras applied his newly found law of harmonic intervals to all the phenomena of Nature, even going so far as to demonstrate the harmonic relationship of the planets, constellations, and elements to each other. A notable example of modern corroboration of ancient philosophical reaching is that of the progression of the elements according to harmonic ratios. While making a list of the elements in the ascending order of their atomic weights, John A. Newlands discovered at every eighth element a distinct repetition of properties. This discovery is known as the law of octaves in modern chemistry.

Since they held that harmony must be determined not by the sense perceptions but by reason and mathematics, the Pythagoreans called themselves Canonics, as distinguished from musicians of the Harmonic School, who asserted taste and instinct to be the true normative principles of harmony. Recognizing, however, the profound effect: of music upon the senses and emotions, Pythagoras did not hesitate to influence the mind and body with what he termed “musical medicine.”

Pythagoras evinced such a marked preference for stringed instruments that he even went so far as to warn his disciples against allowing their ears to be defiled by the sounds of flutes or cymbals. He further declared that the soul could be purified from its irrational influences by solemn songs sung to the accompaniment of the lyre. In his investigation of the therapeutic value of harmonics, Pythagoras discovered that the seven modes–or keys–of the Greek system of music had the power to incite or allay the various emotions. It is related that while observing the stars one night he encountered a young man befuddled with strong drink and mad with jealousy who was piling faggots about his mistress’ door with the intention of burning the house. The frenzy of the youth was accentuated by a flutist a short distance away who was playing a tune in the stirring Phrygian mode. Pythagoras induced the musician to change his air to the slow, and rhythmic Spondaic mode, whereupon the intoxicated youth immediately became composed and, gathering up his bundles of wood, returned quietly to his own home.

There is also an account of how Empedocles, a disciple of Pythagoras, by quickly changing the mode of a musical composition he was playing, saved the life of his host, Anchitus, when the latter was threatened with death by the sword of one whose father he had condemned to public execution. It is also known that Esculapius, the Greek physician, cured sciatica and other diseases of the nerves by blowing a loud trumpet in the presence of the patient.

Pythagoras cured many ailments of the spirit, soul, and body by having certain specially prepared musical compositions played in the presence of the sufferer or by personally reciting short selections from such early poets as Hesiod and Homer. In his university at Crotona it was customary for the Pythagoreans to open and to close each day with songs–those in the morning calculated to clear the mind from sleep and inspire it to the activities of the coming day; those in the evening of a mode soothing, relaxing, and conducive to rest. At the vernal equinox, Pythagoras caused his disciples to gather in a circle around one of their number who led them in song and played their accompaniment upon a lyre.

The therapeutic music of Pythagoras is described by Iamblichus thus: “And there are certain melodies devised as remedies against the passions of the soul, and also against despondency and lamentation, which Pythagoras invented as things that afford the greatest assistance in these maladies. And again, he employed other melodies against rage and anger, and against every aberration of the soul. There is also another kind of modulation invented as a remedy against desires.” (See The Life of Pythagoras.)

It is probable that the Pythagoreans recognized a connection between the seven Greek modes and the planets. As an example, Pliny declares that Saturn moves in the Dorian mode and Jupiter in the Phrygian mode. It is also apparent that the temperaments are keyed to the various modes, and the passions likewise. Thus, anger–which is a fiery passion–may be accentuated by a fiery mode or its power neutralized by a watery mode.

The far-reaching effect exercised by music upon the culture of the Greeks is thus summed up by Emil Nauman: “Plato depreciated the notion that music was intended solely to create cheerful and agreeable emotions, maintaining rather that it should inculcate a love of all that is noble, and hatred of all that is mean, and that nothing could more strongly influence man’s innermost feelings than melody and rhythm. Firmly convinced of this, he agreed with Damon of Athens, the musical instructor of Socrates, that the introduction of a new and presumably enervating scale would endanger the future of a whole nation, and that it was not possible to alter a key without shaking the very foundations of the State. Plato affirmed that music which ennobled the mind was of a far higher kind than that which merely appealed to the senses, and he strongly insisted that it was the paramount duty of the Legislature to suppress all music of an effeminate and lascivious character, and to encourage only s that which was pure and dignified; that bold and stirring melodies were for men, gentle and soothing ones for women. From this it is evident that music played a considerable part in the education of the Greek youth. The greatest care was also to be taken in the selection of instrumental music, because the absence of words rendered its signification doubtful, and it was difficult to foresee whether it would exercise upon the people a benign or baneful influence. Popular taste, being always tickled by sensuous and meretricious effects, was to be treated with deserved contempt. (See The History of Music.)

Even today martial music is used with telling effect in times of war, and religious music, while no longer developed in accordance with the ancient theory, still profoundly influences the emotions of the laity.

THE MUSIC OF THE SPHERES

The most sublime but least known of all the Pythagorean speculations was that of sidereal harmonics. It was said that of all men only Pythagoras heard the music of the spheres. Apparently the Chaldeans were the first people to conceive of the heavenly bodies joining in a cosmic chant as they moved in stately manner across the sky. Job describes a time “when the stars of the morning sang together,” and in The Merchant of Venice the author of the Shakesperian plays

 

THE MUNDANE MONOCHORD WITH ITS PROPORTIONS AND INTERVALS.

From Fludd’s De Musica Mundana.

In this chart is set forth a summary of Fludd’s theory of universal music. The interval between the element of earth and the highest heaven is considered as a double octave, thus showing the two extremes of existence to be in disdiapason harmony. It is signifies that the highest heaven, the sun, and the earth have the same time, the difference being in pitch. The sun is the lower octave of the highest heaven and the earth the lower octave of the sun. The lower octave (Γ to G) comprises that part of the universe in which substance predominate over energy. Its harmonies, therefore, are more gross than those of the higher octave (G to g) wherein energy predominates over substance. “If struck in the more spiritual part,” writes Fludd, “the monochord will give eternal life; if in the more material part, transitory life.” It will be noted that certain elements, planets, and celestial spheres sustain a harmonic ratio to each other, Fludd advanced this as a key to the sympathies and antipathies existing between the various departments of Nature.

writes: “There’s not the smallest orb which thou behold’st but in his motion like an angel sings.” So little remains, however, of the Pythagorean system of celestial music that it is only possible to approximate his actual theory.

Pythagoras conceived the universe to be an immense monochord, with its single string connected at its upper end to absolute spirit and at its lower end to absolute matter–in other words, a cord stretched between heaven and earth. Counting inward from the circumference of the heavens, Pythagoras, according to some authorities, divided the universe into nine parts; according to others, into twelve parts. The twelvefold system was as follows: The first division was called theempyrean, or the sphere of the fixed stars, and was the dwelling place of the immortals. The second to twelfth divisions were (in order) the spheres of Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the sun, Venus, Mercury, and the moon, and fire, air, water, and earth. This arrangement of the seven planets (the sun and moon being regarded as planets in the old astronomy) is identical with the candlestick symbolism of the Jews–the sun in the center as the main stem with three planets on either side of it.

The names given by the Pythagoreans to the various notes of the diatonic scale were, according to Macrobius, derived from an estimation of the velocity and magnitude of the planetary bodies. Each of these gigantic spheres as it rushed endlessly through space was believed to sound a certain tone caused by its continuous displacement of the æthereal diffusion. As these tones were a manifestation of divine order and motion, it must necessarily follow that they partook of the harmony of their own source. “The assertion that the planets in their revolutions round the earth uttered certain sounds differing according to their respective ‘magnitude, celerity and local distance,’ was commonly made by the Greeks. Thus Saturn, the farthest planet, was said to give the gravest note, while the Moon, which is the nearest, gave the sharpest. ‘These sounds of the seven planets, and the sphere of the fixed stars, together with that above us [Antichthon], are the nine Muses, and their joint symphony is called Mnemosyne.'” (See The Canon.)This quotation contains an obscure reference to the ninefold division of the universe previously mentioned.

The Greek initiates also recognized a fundamental relationship between the individual heavens or spheres of the seven planets, and the seven sacred vowels. The first heaven uttered the sound of the sacred vowel Α (Alpha); the second heaven, the sacred vowel Ε (Epsilon); the third, Η (Eta); the fourth, Ι (Iota); the fifth, Ο (Omicron); the sixth, Υ (Upsilon); and the seventh heaven, the sacred vowel Ω (Omega). When these seven heavens sing together they produce a perfect harmony which ascends as an everlasting praise to the throne of the Creator. (See Irenæus’ Against Heresies.) Although not so stated, it is probable that the planetary heavens are to be considered as ascending in the Pythagorean order, beginning with the sphere of the moon, which would be the first heaven.

Many early instruments had seven Strings, and it is generally conceded that Pythagoras was the one who added the eighth string to the lyre of Terpander. The seven strings were always related both to their correspondences in the human body and to the planets. The names of God were also conceived to be formed from combinations of the seven planetary harmonies. The Egyptians confined their sacred songs to the seven primary sounds, forbidding any others to be uttered in their temples. One of their hymns contained the following invocation: “The seven sounding tones praise Thee, the Great God, the ceaseless working Father of the whole universe.” In another the Deity describes Himself thus: “I am the great indestructible lyre of the whole world, attuning the songs of the heavens. (See Nauman’sHistory of Music.)

The Pythagoreans believed that everything which existed had a voice and that all creatures were eternally singing the praise of the Creator. Man fails to hear these divine melodies because his soul is enmeshed in the illusion of material existence. When he liberates himself from the bondage of the lower world with its sense limitations, the music of the spheres will again be audible as it was in the Golden Age. Harmony recognizes harmony, and when the human soul regains its true estate it will not only hear the celestial choir but also join with it in an everlasting anthem of praise to that Eternal Good controlling the infinite number of parts and conditions of Being.

The Greek Mysteries included in their doctrines a magnificent concept of the relationship existing between music and form. The elements of architecture, for example, were considered as comparable to musical modes and notes, or as having a musical counterpart. Consequently when a building was erected in which a number of these elements were combined, the structure was then likened to a musical chord, which was harmonic only when it fully satisfied the mathematical requirements of harmonic intervals. The realization of this analogy between sound and form led Goethe to declare that “architecture is crystallized music.”

In constructing their temples of initiation, the early priests frequently demonstrated their superior knowledge of the principles underlying the phenomena known as vibration. A considerable part of the Mystery rituals consisted of invocations and intonements, for which purpose special sound chambers were constructed. A word whispered in one of these apartments was so intensified that the reverberations made the entire building sway and be filled with a deafening roar. The very wood and stone used in the erection of these sacred buildings eventually became so thoroughly permeated with the sound vibrations of the religious ceremonies that when struck they would reproduce the same tones thus repeatedly impressed into their substances by the rituals.

Every element in Nature has its individual keynote. If these elements are combined in a composite structure the result is a chord that, if sounded, will disintegrate the compound into its integral parts. Likewise each individual has a keynote that, if sounded, will destroy him. The allegory of the walls of Jericho falling when the trumpets of Israel were sounded is undoubtedly intended to set forth the arcane significance of individual keynote or vibration.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF COLOR

“Light,” writes Edwin D. Babbitt, “reveals the glories of the external world and yet is the most glorious of them all. It gives beauty, reveals beauty and is itself most beautiful. It is the analyzer, the truth-teller and the exposer of shams, for it shows things as they are. Its infinite streams measure off the universe and flow into our telescopes from stars which are quintillions of miles distant. On the other hand it descends to objects inconceivably small, and reveals through the microscope objects fifty millions of times less than can be seen by the naked eye. Like all other fine forces, its movement is wonderfully soft, yet penetrating and powerful. Without its vivifying influence, vegetable, animal, and human life must immediately perish from the earth, and general ruin take place. We shall do well, then, to consider this potential and beautiful principle of light and its component colors, for the more deeply we penetrate into its inner laws, the more will it present itself as a marvelous storehouse of power to vitalize, heal, refine, and delight mankind.” (See The Principles of Light and Color.)

Since light is the basic physical manifestation of life, bathing all creation in its radiance, it is highly important to realize, in part at least, the subtle nature of this divine substance. That which is called light is actually a rate of vibration causing certain reactions upon the optic nerve. Few realize how they are walled in by the limitations

 

THE THEORY OF ELEMENTAL MUSIC.

From Fludd’s De Musica Mundana.

In this diagram two interpenetrating pyramids are again employed, one of which represents fire and the other earth. It is demonstrated according to the law of elemental harmony that fire does not enter into the composition of earth nor earth into the composition of fire. The figures on the chart disclose the harmonic relationships existing between the four primary elements according to both Fludd and the Pythagoreans. Earth consists of four parts of its own nature; water of three parts of earth and one part of fire. The sphere of equality is a hypothetical point where there is an equilibrium of two parts of earth and two parts of fire. Air is composed of three parts of fire and one part of earth; fire, of four parts of its own nature. Thus earth and water bear to each other the ratio of 4 to 3, or the diatessaron harmony, and water and the sphere of equality the ratio of 3 to 2, or the diapente harmony. Fire and air also bear to each other the ratio of 4 to 3, or the diatessaron harmony, and air and the sphere of equality the ratio of 3 to 2, or the diapente harmony. As the sum of a diatessaron and a diapente equals a diapason, or octave, it is evident that both the sphere of fire and the sphere of earth are in diapason harmony with the sphere of equality, and also that fire and earth are in disdiapason harmony with each other.

of the sense perceptions. Not only is there a great deal more to light than anyone has ever seen but there are also unknown forms of light which no optical equipment will ever register. There are unnumbered colors which cannot be seen, as well as sounds which cannot be heard, odors which cannot be smelt, flavors which cannot be tasted, and substances which cannot be felt. Man is thus surrounded by a supersensible universe of which he knows nothing because the centers of sense perception within himself have not been developed sufficiently to respond to the subtler rates of vibration of which that universe is composed.

Among both civilized and savage peoples color has been accepted as a natural language in which to couch their religious and philosophical doctrines. The ancient city of Ecbatana as described by Herodotus, its seven walls colored according to the seven planets, revealed the knowledge of this subject possessed by the Persian Magi. The famous zikkurat or astronomical tower of the god Nebo at Borsippa ascended in seven great steps or stages, each step being painted in the key color of one of the planetary bodies. (See Lenormant’s Chaldean Magic.) It is thus evident that the Babylonians were familiar with the concept of the spectrum in its relation to the seven Creative Gods or Powers. In India, one of the Mogul emperors caused a fountain to be made with seven levels. The water pouring down the sides through specially arranged channels changed color as it descended, passing sequentially through all shades of the spectrum. In Tibet, color is employed by the native artists to express various moods. L. Austine Waddell, writing of Northern Buddhist art, notes that in Tibetan mythology,

“White and yellow complexions usually typify mild moods, while the red, blue, and black belong to fierce forms, though sometimes light blue, as indicating the sky, means merely celestial. Generally the gods are pictured white, goblins red, and devils black, like their European relative.” (SeeThe Buddhism of Tibet.)

In Meno, Plato, speaking through Socrates, describes color as “an effluence of form, commensurate with sight, and sensible.” In Theætetus he discourses more at length on the subject thus:

“Let us carry out the principle which has just been affirmed, that nothing is self-existent, and then we shall see that every color, white, black, and every other color, arises out of the eye meeting the appropriate motion, and that what we term the substance of each color is neither the active nor the passive element, but something which passes between them, and is peculiar to each percipient; are you certain that the several colors appear to every animal–say a dog–as they appear to you?”

In the Pythagorean tetractys–the supreme symbol of universal forces and processes–are set forth the theories of the Greeks concerning color and music. The first three dots represent the threefold White Light, which is the Godhead containing potentially all sound and color. The remaining seven dots are the colors of the spectrum and the notes of the musical scale. The colors and tones are the active creative powers which, emanating from the First Cause, establish the universe. The seven are divided into two groups, one containing three powers and the other four a relationship also shown in the tetractys. The higher group–that of three–becomes the spiritual nature of the created universe; the lower group–that of four–manifests as the irrational sphere, or inferior world.

In the Mysteries the seven Logi, or Creative Lords, are shown as streams of force issuing from the mouth of the Eternal One. This signifies the spectrum being extracted from the white light of the Supreme Deity. The seven Creators, or Fabricators, of the inferior spheres were called by the Jews the Elohim. By the Egyptians they were referred to as the Builders (sometimes as the Governors) and are depicted with great knives in their hands with which they carved the universe from its primordial substance. Worship of the planets is based upon their acceptation as the cosmic embodiments of the seven creative attributes of God. The Lords of the planets were described as dwelling within the body of the sun, for the true nature of the sun, being analogous to the white light, contains the seeds of all the tone and color potencies which it manifests.

There are numerous arbitrary arrangements setting forth the mutual relationships of the planets, the colors, and the musical notes. The most satisfactory system is that based upon the law of the octave. The sense of hearing has a much wider scope than that of sight, for whereas the ear can register from nine to eleven octaves of sound the eye is restricted to the cognition of but seven fundamental color tones, or one tone short of the octave. Red, when posited as the lowest color tone in the scale of chromatics, thus corresponds to do, the first note of the musical scale. Continuing the analogy, orange corresponds to re, yellow to mi, green to fa, blue to sol, indigo to la, and violet to si (ti). The eighth color tone necessary to complete the scale should be the higher octave of red, the first color tone. The accuracy of the above arrangement is attested by two striking facts: (1) the three fundamental notes of the musical scale–the first, the third, and the fifth–correspond with the three primary colors–red, yellow, and blue; (2) the seventh, and least perfect, note of the musical scale corresponds with purple, the least perfect tone of the color scale.

In The Principles of Light and Color, Edwin D. Babbitt confirms the correspondence of the color and musical scales: “As C is at the bottom of the musical scale and made with the coarsest waves of air, so is red at the bottom of the chromatic scale and made with the coarsest waves of luminous ether. As the musical note B [the seventh note of the scale] requires 45 vibrations of air every time the note C at the lower end of the scale requires 24, or but little over half as many, so does extreme violet require about 300 trillions of vibrations of ether in a second, while extreme red requires only about 450 trillions, which also are but little more than half as many. When one musical octave is finished another one commences and progresses with just twice as many vibrations as were used in the first octave, and so the same notes are repeated on a finer scale. In the same way when the scale of colors visible to the ordinary eye is completed in the violet, another octave of finer invisible colors, with just twice as many vibrations, will commence and progress on precisely the same law.”

When the colors are related to the twelve signs of the zodiac, they are arranged as the spokes of a wheel. To Aries is assigned pure red; to Taurus, red-orange; to Gemini, pure orange; to Cancer, orange-yellow; to Leo, pure yellow; to Virgo, yellow-green; to Libra, pure green; to Scorpio, green-blue; to Sagittarius, pure blue; to Capricorn, blue-violet; to Aquarius, pure violet; and to Pisces, violet-red.

In expounding the Eastern system of esoteric philosophy, H. P, Blavatsky relates the colors to the septenary constitution of man and the seven states of matter as follows:

COLOR PRINCIPLES OF MAN STATES OF MATTER
Violet Chaya, or Etheric Double Ether
Indigo Higher Manas, or Spiritual Intelligence Critical State called Air
Blue Auric Envelope Steam or Vapor
Green Lower Manas, or Animal Soul Critical State
Yellow Buddhi, or Spiritual Soul Water
Orange Prana, or Life Principle Critical State
Red Kama Rupa, or Seat of Animal Life Ice

This arrangement of the colors of the spectrum and the musical notes of the octave necessitates a different grouping of the planets in order to preserve their proper tone and color analogies. Thus do becomes Mars; re, the sun; mi, Mercury; fa, Saturn; sol, Jupiter; la, Venus; si (ti) the moon. (See The E. S. Instructions.)

 

THE FOUR ELEMENTS AND THEIR CONSONANTAL INTERVALS.

From Fludd’s De Musica Mundana.

In this diagram Fludd has divided each of the four Primary elements into three subdivisions. The first division of each element is the grossest, partaking somewhat of the substance directly inferior to itself (except in the case of the earth, which has no state inferior to itself). The second division consists of the element in its relatively pure state, while the third division is that condition wherein the element partakes somewhat of the substance immediately superior to itself. For example the lowest division of the element of water is sedimentary, as it contains earth substance in solution; the second division represents water in its most common state–salty–as in the case of the ocean; and the third division is water in its purest state–free from salt. The harmonic interval assigned to the lowest division of each element is one tone, to the central division also a tone, but to the higher division a half-tone because it partakes of the division immediately above it. Fludd emphasizes the fact that as the elements ascend in series of two and a half tones, the diatessaron is the dominating harmonic interval of the elements.

 

The Air Nation Kingdon

The highest peaks in the world exist in two pockets, exactly opposite one another and connected by a straight line. Why were we never taught this in school?

8,000 metres

There are 14 mountains over 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) and are often referred to as the Eight-thousanders. All are located in the two highest mountain ranges in the world, the Himalayas and the Karakoram.

Mt. Everest – 8,848 m (29,029 ft)

K2 – 8,611 m (28,251 ft)
Mountain Metres Feet Range Location and Notes
Mount Everest 8,848 29,029 Himalayas Nepal/China (Tibet)
K2 8,611 28,251 Karakoram China/Pakistan (Gilgit–Baltistan) – The “Savage Mountain”.
Kangchenjunga 8,586 28,169 Himalayas Nepal/India (Sikkim) – Considered to be highest until 1849.
Highest peak in India.
Lhotse 8,516 27,940 Himalayas Nepal/China (Tibet) – Climbers ascend Lhotse Face in climbing Everest
Makalu 8,462 27,762 Himalayas Nepal/China (Tibet)
Cho Oyu 8,201 26,906 Himalayas Nepal/China (Tibet) – Considered “easiest” eight-thousander
Dhaulagiri 8,167 26,795 Himalayas Nepal – Presumed world’s highest from 1808-1838
Manaslu 8,156 26,759 Himalayas Nepal
Nanga Parbat 8,125 26,657 Himalayas Pakistan
Annapurna 8,091 26,545 Himalayas Nepal – First eight-thousander to be climbed (1950)
Gasherbrum I 8,068 26,470 Karakoram China/Pakistan – Originally named K5
Broad Peak 8,047 26,401 Karakoram China/Pakistan – Originally named K3
Gasherbrum II 8,035 26,362 Karakoram China/Pakistan – Originally named K4
Shishapangma 8,012 26,286 Himalayas China (Tibet)

7,000 metres[edit]

Left to right: Gasherbrum IV, VII, V, VI

Nanda Devi – 7,816 m (25,643 ft)

Rakaposhi – 7,788 m (25,551 ft)

Annapurna I and South (left)

Muztagh Tower – 7,273 m (23,862 ft)

Baruntse – 7,220 m (23,688 ft)

Pumori – 7,161 m (23,494 ft)
Mountain Metres Feet Range Location and Notes
Gyachung Kang 7,952 26,089 Himalayas Nepal (Khumbu)/China (Tibet)
Gasherbrum III 7,946 26,070 Karakoram China/Pakistan
Annapurna II 7,937 26,040 Himalayas Nepal
Gasherbrum IV 7,932 26,024 Karakoram China/Pakistan
Himalchuli 7,893 25,896 Himalayas Manaslu, Nepal
Distaghil Sar 7,885 25,869 Karakoram Pakistan
Ngadi Chuli 7,871 25,823 Himalayas Manaslu, Nepal
Nuptse 7,861 25,791 Himalayas Everest Massif, Nepal
Khunyang Chhish 7,852 25,761 Karakoram Pakistan
Masherbrum 7,821 25,659 Karakoram Pakistan – Originally named K1
Nanda Devi 7,816 25,643 Himalayas India (Uttarakhand) – #2 in India
Chomo Lonzo 7,804 25,604 Himalayas Makalu Massiff, Nepal/China (Tibet)
Batura Sar 7,795 25,574 Karakoram Pakistan
Kanjut Sar 7,790 25,558 Karakoram Pakistan
Rakaposhi 7,788 25,551 Karakoram Pakistan
Namcha Barwa 7,782 25,531 Himalayas China (Tibet)
Batura II 7,762 25,466 Karakoram Pakistan
Kamet 7,756 25,446 Himalayas India (Uttarakhand)
Saltoro Kangri 7,742 25,400 Karakoram India (Jammu and Kashmir)/Pakistan
Batura III 7,729 25,358 Karakoram Pakistan
Kongur Tagh 7,719 25,325 Kunlun Mountains China – Possibly 7649? metres
Jannu 7,710 25,295 Himalayas Kangchenjunga, Nepal
Molamenqing 7,710 25,295 Himalayas Shishapangma group, China (Tibet)
Gurla Mandhata 7,694 25,243 Himalayas (Nalakankar) China (Tibet)
Tirich Mir 7,690 25,230 Hindu Kush Pakistan – #1 in Hindu Kush
Saser Kangri 7,672 25,171 Karakoram India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Chogolisa 7,665 25,148 Karakoram Pakistan
Shispare 7,611 24,970 Karakoram Pakistan
Changtse 7,583 24,879 Himalayas Everest Massif, China (Tibet)
Trivor 7,577 24,859 Karakoram Pakistan
Gangkhar Puensum 7,570 24,836 Himalayas Bhutan/China (Tibet)
Gongga Shan 7,556 24,790 Daxue Shan Sichuan, China
Annapurna III 7,555 24,787 Himalayas Nepal
Kula Kangri 7,554 24,783 Himalayas China (Tibet) (possibly also Bhutan)
Chogolisa II 7,554 24,783 Karakoram Pakistan
Muztagh Ata 7,546 24,757 Kongur Tagh China (Xinjiang)
Skyang Kangri 7,545 24,754 Karakoram Pakistan/China
Yukshin Gardan Sar 7,530 24,705 Karakoram Pakistan
Annapurna IV 7,525 24,688 Himalayas Nepal
Mamostong Kangri 7,516 24,659 Karakoram India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Ismoil Somoni Peak 7,495 24,590 Pamir Mountains Tajikistan
Noshaq 7,492 24,580 Hindu Kush Afghanistan– #1 in Afghanistan
Pumari Chhish 7,492 24,580 Karakoram Pakistan
Passu Sar 7,476 24,528 Karakoram Pakistan
Malubiting 7,458 24,469 Karakoram Pakistan
Gangapurna 7,455 24,459 Annapurna Himalaya Nepal
Jengish Chokusu 7,439 24,406 Tian Shan China/Kyrgyzstan– #1 in Tian Shan
K12 7,428 24,370 Karakoram India (Jammu and Kashmir)/Pakistan
Istor-o-Nal 7,403 24,288 Hindu Kush Pakistan
Ghent Kangri 7,401 24,281 Karakoram India (Jammu and Kashmir)/Pakistan
Haramosh Peak 7,397 24,268 Karakoram Pakistan
Kabru 7,394 24,259 Himalayas Kanchenjunga, India (Sikkim)/Nepal
Ultar 7,388 24,239 Karakoram Pakistan
Rimo I 7,385 24,229 Karakoram India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Sherpi Kangri 7,380 24,213 Karakoram Pakistan)
Labuche Kang 7,367 24,170 Himalayas near Cho Oyu, Nepal/China (Tibet)
Kirat Chuli 7,365 24,163 Himalayas Nepal/India (Sikkim) border
Skil Brum 7,360 24,147 Karakoram Pakistan – May also be given as 7,410 m
Gimmigela Chuli 7,350 24,114 Himalayas Nepal/India (Sikkim) border
Bojohagur Duanasir 7,329 24,045 Karakoram Pakistan
Chamlang 7,319 24,012 Himalayas Khumbu, Nepal
Jomolhari / Chomolhari 7,314 23,996 Himalayas Bhutan/China (Tibet)
Baltoro Kangri 7,312 23,990 Karakoram Pakistan
Siguang Ri 7,308 23,976 Himalayas China (Tibet)
The Crown 7,295 23,934 Karakoram China (Xinjiang)
Gyala Peri 7,294 23,930 Himalayas China (Tibet)
Porong Ri 7,292 23,924 Himalayas China (Tibet)
Baintha Brakk 7,285 23,901 Karakoram Pakistan
Yutmaru Sar 7,283 23,894 Karakoram Pakistan
K6 7,282 23,891 Karakoram Pakistan – Also known as Baltistan Peak
Kangpenqing 7,281 23,888 Himalayas China (Tibet)
Mana Peak 7,272 23,858 Himalayas India (Uttarakhand) – SSE of Kamet
Muztagh Tower 7,273 23,862 Karakoram Pakistan
Diran 7,257 23,809 Karakoram Pakistan
Apsarasas Kangri 7,245 23,770 Karakoram China/India
Langtang Lirung 7,227 23,711 Himalayas Nepal
Khartaphu 7,213 23,665 Himalayas China (Tibet)
Tongshanjiabu 7,207 23,645 Himalayas Bhutan/China
Langtang Ri 7,205 23,638 Himalayas Nepal/China (Tibet)
Kangphu Kang 7,204 23,635 Himalayas Bhutan/China
Annapurna South 7,219 23,684 Himalayas Nepal
Melungtse 7,181 23,560 Rolwaling Himalayas China (Tibet)
Liushi Shan 7,167 23,514 Kunlun China – #1 in Kunlun
Baruntse 7,162 23,497 Himalayas Khumbu, Nepal
Pumori 7,161 23,494 Himalayas Khumbu, Nepal
Nemjung 7,140 23,425 Himalayas Nepal
Udren Zom 7,140 23,425 Hindu Kush Pakistan
Nun Kun 7,135 23,409 Karakoram India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Tilicho Peak 7,134 23,406 Himalayas Annapurna Himal, Nepal
Gauri Sankar 7,134 23,406 Rolwaling Himalayas Nepal/China (Tibet)
Lenin Peak 7,134 23,406 Pamir Mountains TajikistanKyrgyzstan– #2 in Pamirs
Api 7,132 23,399 Himalayas Nepal
Pauhunri 7,128 23,386 Himalayas India (Sikkim)/China (Tibet)
Korzhenevskaya 7,105 23,310 Pamir Mountains Tajikistan – #3 in Pamirs
Lunpo Gangri 7,095 23,278 Himalayas (Gangdise) China (Tibet)
Tirsuli 7,074 23,209 Himalayas India (Uttarakhand)
Dunagiri 7,066 23,182 Himalayas India (Uttarakhand)
Kangto 7,060 23,163 Himalayas India (Arunachal Pradesh)/China (Tibet)
Nyegyi Kansang 7,047 23,120 Himalayas India (Arunachal Pradesh)/China (Tibet)
Kezhen Peak 7,038 23,091 Karakoram China (Xinjiang)
Shah Dhar 7,038 23,091 Hindu Kush Afghanistan/Pakistan
Spantik 7,027 23,054 Karakoram Pakistan
Khan Tengri 7,010 22,999 Tian Shan Kyrgyzstan-Kazakhstan – #2 in Tian Shan

6,000 metres[edit]

Machapuchare – 6,993 m (22,943 ft)

Ama Dablam – 6,812 m (22,349 ft)

Huascarán – 6,768 m (22,205 ft)

Chimborazo – 6,267 m (20,561 ft)

Imja Tse – 6,160 m (20,210 ft)

Mitre Peak – 6,010 m (19,718 ft)
Mountain Metres Feet Location and Notes
Machapuchare 6,993 22,943 Annapurna Himalaya, Nepal– Officially unclimbed (attempts not allowed)
Kang Guru 6,981 22,904 Manaslu Himalaya, Nepal – 2005 avalanche kills 18
Karun Kuh 6,977 22,890 Karakoram, Pakistan
Avicenna Peak 6,974 22,881 Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan– #3 in Pamirs
Ulugh Muztagh 6,973 22,877 Kunlun Mountains, Tibet– Often misquoted as 7,723 m
Aconcagua 6,962 22,841 Andes, Argentina – Highest in both the Western and Southern Hemispheres
Lunkho e Dosare 6,901 22,641 Hindu Kush, Afghanistan-Pakistan
Ojos del Salado 6,891 22,608 Andes, Argentina-Chile – Highest volcano on Earth
Siniolchu 6,888 22,598 Kangchenjunga Himalaya, India (Sikkim)
Kanjiroba 6,883 22,582 Himalayas, Nepal
Nanda Kot 6,861 22,510 KumaonHimalayas, India (Utarakhand)
Kubi Gangri 6,859 22,503 Himalayas, Nepal/China (Tibet)
Angel Sar 6,858 22,500 Karakoram, Pakistan
Jethi Bahurani 6,850 22,474 Himalayas, Nepal
Chongra Peak 6,830 22,408 Nanga Parbat Himalaya, Pakistan
Ama Dablam 6,812 22,349 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)
Monte Pissis 6,795 22,293 Andes, Argentina – Third highest in Western Hemisphere
Biarchedi 6,781 22,247 Karakoram, Pakistan
Huascarán Sur 6,768 22,205 Andes, Peru– Highest
Cerro Bonete 6,759 22,175 Andes, Argentina
Nevado Tres Cruces 6,749 22,142 Andes, Argentina/Chile
Kawagarbo 6,740 22,113 Himalayas, China (Yunnan/Tibet)
Llullaillaco 6,739 22,110 Andes, Argentina/Chile
Cho Polu 6,735 22,096 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)
Kangju Kangri 6,725 22,064 Karakoram, India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Changla 6,721 22,051 Himalayas, Nepal/China (Tibet)
Mount Pandim 6,691 21,952 Himalayas, India (Sikkim)
Num Ri 6,677 21,906 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)
Gul Lasht Zom 6,657 21,841 Hindu Kush, Pakistan
Huascarán Norte 6,655 21,834 Andes, Peru
Khumbutse 6,640 21,785 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)/China (Tibet) – First peak west of Everest
Mount Kailash 6,638 21,778 Transhimalaya, western Tibet – Officially unclimbed (attempts not allowed)
Yerupajá 6,635 21,768 Andes, Peru
Thamserku 6,623 21,729 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)
Incahuasi 6,621 21,722 Andes, Argentina/Chile
Pangpoche 6,620 21,719 Himalayas, Nepal
Manirang 6,597 21,644 Himalayas, India (Himachal Pradesh)
Nilkantha 6,596 21,640 Himalayas, India (Uttarakhand)
Phuparash Peak 6,574 21,568 Karakoram, Pakistan
Sickle Moon Peak 6,574 21,568 Himalayas, India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Buni Zom 6,551 21,493 Hindu Kush, Pakistan
Nevado Sajama 6,542 21,463 Andes, Bolivia– Highest
Ghamubar Zom 6,518 21,385 Hindu Kush, Pakistan
Singu Chuli 6,501 21,329 Annapurna Himalayas, Nepal
Taboche 6,501 21,329 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)
Cerro El Muerto 6,488 21,286 Andes, Argentina/Chile
Mera Peak 6,476 21,247 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)
Illimani 6,462 21,201 Andes, Bolivia
Hiunchuli 6,441 21,132 Annapurna Himalaya, Nepal
Cholatse 6,440 21,129 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)
Ancohuma 6,427 21,086 Andes, Bolivia
Coropuna 6,425 21,079 Andes, Peru
Antofalla 6,409 21,027 Andes, Argentina
Huandoy 6,395 20,981 Andes, Peru
Ausangate 6,384 20,945 Andes, Peru
Illampu 6,368 20,892 Andes, Bolivia
Kusum Kangguru 6,367 20,889 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)
Kinnaur Kailash 6,349 20,830 Himalayas, Kinnaur, India (Himachal Pradesh)
Parinaquta 6,348 20,827 Andes, Bolivia/Chile
Siula Grande 6,344 20,814 Andes, Peru
Bamba Dhura 6,334 20,781 Uttarakhand Himalayas, India (Uttarakhand)
Ampato 6,288 20,630 Andes, Peru
Amne Machin 6,282 20,610 Kunlun Mountains, China (Qinghai)
Pomerape 6,282 20,610 Andes, Bolivia/Chile
Salcantay 6,271 20,574 Andes, Peru
Chimborazo 6,267 20,561 Ecuador – Furthest point from Earth’s center
Kongde Ri 6,187 20,299 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)
Aucanquilcha 6,176 20,262 Andes, Chile
Denali 6,168 20,236 Alaska Range, United States (Alaska) – Highest in North America
Imja Tse 6,160 20,210 Himalayas, Nepal (Khumbu)
Stok Kangri 6,137 20,135 Stok Range, Himalayas, India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Pisang Peak 6,091 19,984 Annapurna Himalaya, Nepal
Huayna Potosí 6,088 19,974 Andes, Bolivia
Aracar 6,082 19,954 Andes, Argentina
Chachakumani 6,074 19,928 Andes, Bolivia
Chachani 6,057 19,872 Andes, Peru
Acotango 6,052 19,856 Andes, Bolivia/Chile
Socompa 6,051 19,852 Andes, Argentina/Chile
Acamarachi 6,046 19,836 Andes, Chile
Shayaz 6,026 19,770 Hindu Kush, Pakistan
Wallqa Wallqa 6,025 19,767 Andes, Peru
Uturunku 6,020 19,751 Andes, Bolivia
Mitre Peak 6,010 19,718 Karakoram, Pakistan

5,000 metres[edit]

Mount Logan – 5,959 m (19,551 ft)

Alpamayo – 5,947 m (19,511 ft)

Kilimanjaro – 5,895 m (19,341 ft)

Damavand – 5,610 m (18,406 ft)

Shkhara – 5,201 m (17,064 ft)

Mount Kenya – 5,199 m (17,057 ft)
Mountain Metres Feet Range Location and Notes
Mount Logan 5,959 19,551 Saint Elias Mountains Yukon, Canada– Highest in Canada
Alpamayo 5,947 19,511 Andes Peru
Cerro Lípez 5,929 19,452 Andes Bolivia
Licancabur 5,920 19,423 Andes Bolivia/Chile
Cotopaxi 5,897 19,347 Andes Ecuador– Second highest in Ecuador
Mount Kilimanjaro 5,895 19,341 Tanzania– Highest in Africa
Hkakabo Razi 5,881 19,295 Himalayas Myanmar– Highest in Southeast Asia
El Misti 5,822 19,101 Andes Peru
Cayambe 5,790 18,996 Andes Ecuador– Third highest in Ecuador
Pico Cristóbal Colón 5,776 18,950 Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Colombia– Highest coastal mountain
Antisana 5,753 18,875 Andes Ecuador
Nevado Pisco 5,752 18,871 Andes Peru
Nevado Anallajsi 5,750 18,865 Andes Bolivia
Pokalde 5,745 18,848 KhumbuHimalayas Nepal– 7 km SW of Everest
Ubinas 5,672 18,609 Andes Peru– Active volcano (2006)
Pikchu Pikchu 5,664 18,583 Andes Peru
Mount Elbrus 5,642 18,510 Caucasus Mountains North Caucasus, Russia– Highest in Caucasus
Mehrbani Peak 5,639 18,501 Karakoram Pakistan
Pico de Orizaba 5,636 18,491 Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt Mexico– Highest in Mexico
Mount Damavand 5,610 18,406 Alborz Iran– Highest in Iran and ME, highest volcano in Asia
Nevado Mismi 5,597 18,363 Andes Peru– Glacial source of the Amazon River
Jade Dragon Snow Mountain 5,596 18,360 Hengduan Mountains Yunnan, China
Lascar Volcano 5,592 18,346 Andes Chile
Kala Patthar 5,545 18,192 KhumbuHimalayas Nepal– Popular trekking peak
Mount Saint Elias 5,489 18,009 Saint Elias Mountains Yukon, Canada/Alaska, USA– Second highest in both countries
Concord Peak 5,469 17,943 Pamir Mountains AfghanistanTajikistan
Machoi Peak 5,458 17,907 Himalaya India (Jammu and Kashmir)
El Plomo 5,450 17,881 Andes Chile
Bogda Feng 5,445 17,864 Tien Shan Xinjiang, China
Popocatépetl 5,426 17,802 Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt Mexico– Second highest in Mexico
Kolahoi Peak 5,425 17,799 Himalaya India (Jammu and Kashmir) – Highest in Kashmir Valley
Chacaltaya 5,421 17,785 Andes Bolivia
Haba Xueshan 5,396 17,703 Himalaya Yunnan, China
Nevado del Ruiz 5,389 17,680 Andes Colombia– 23,000 people died in 1985 eruption
El Altar 5,320 17,454 Andes Ecuador
Mount Foraker 5,304 17,402 Alaska Range Alaska, USA
Mount Haramukh 5,300 17,388 Himalaya India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Maipo 5,264 17,270 Andes Argentina/Chile
Illiniza 5,248 17,218 Andes Ecuador
Sirbal Peak 5,236 17,178 Himalaya Kashmir Valley, India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Sangay 5,230 17,159 Andes Ecuador
Iztaccíhuatl 5,230 17,159 Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt Mexico– Third highest in Mexico
Mount Lucania 5,226 17,146 Saint Elias Mountains Yukon, Canada– Third highest in Canada
Dykh-Tau 5,205 17,077 Caucasus Mountains North Caucasus, Russia– Second highest in the Caucasus
Shkhara 5,201 17,064 Caucasus Mountains Georgia– Highest in Georgia
Mount Kenya 5,199 17,057 Kenya– Highest in Kenya
Malika Parbat 5,190 17,028 Himalaya Kaghan Valley, Pakistan|Highest in Kaghan Valley of Pakistan
Amarnath Peak 5,186 17,014 Himalaya Kashmir Valley, India (Jammu and Kashmir)
King Peak 5,173 16,972 Saint Elias Mountains Yukon, Canada– Fourth highest in Canada
Boris Yeltsin Peak 5,168 16,955 Teskey Ala-Too Kyrgyzstan
Koshtan-Tau 5,150 16,896 Caucasus Mountains North Caucasus, Russia
Mount Ararat 5,137 16,854 Turkey– Highest in Turkey
Mount Stanley 5,109 16,762 Ruwenzori Mountains Democratic Republic of the Congo/Uganda– Third highest in Africa
Mount Steele 5,073 16,644 Saint Elias Mountains Yukon, Canada– Fifth highest in Canada
Janga 5,051 16,572 Caucasus Mountains Georgia / North Caucasus, Russia– Second highest in Georgia
Mount Kazbek 5,047 16,558 Caucasus Mountains Georgia– Third highest in the country
Tungurahua 5,023 16,480 Andes Ecuador– Active volcano
Carihuairazo 5,018 16,463 Andes Ecuador
Mount Bona 5,005 16,421 Saint Elias Mountains Alaska, USA– Also given as 5,030 m or 5,045m

4,000 metres[edit]

Mt. Blackburn – 4,996 m (16,391 ft)

Pico Bolívar – 4,981 m (16,342 ft)

Tetnuldi – 4,858 m (15,938 ft)

Alam Kuh – 4,850 m (15,912 ft)

Mont Blanc – 4,810 m (15,781 ft)

Monte Rosa – 4,634 m (15,203 ft)

Mount Wilhelm – 4,509 m (14,793 ft)

Matterhorn – 4,478 m (14,692 ft)

Mt. Shasta – 4,322 m (14,180 ft)

Finsteraarhorn – 4,274 m (14,022 ft)

Grand Teton – 4,197 m (13,770 ft)

Breithorn – 4,164 m (13,661 ft)

Mount Kinabalu – 4,095 m (13,435 ft)
Mountain Metres Feet Location and Notes
Mount Blackburn 4,996 16,391 Wrangell Mtns., Alaska, USA (also given 5036 m)
Pico Bolívar 4,981 16,342 Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Andes, Venezuela– Highest in Venezuela
Pik Talgar 4,979 16,335 Tian Shan, Kazakhstan– Highest in northern Tian Shan
Mount Sanford 4,949 16,237 Wrangell Mtns., Alaska, USA
Pico Humboldt 4,940 16,207 Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Andes, Venezuela
Vinson Massif 4,892 16,050 Sentinel Range, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica– Highest in Antarctica
Pico Bonpland 4,890 16,043 Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Andes, Venezuela
Puncak Jaya 4,884 16,024 Sudirman Range, Papua, Indonesia– Highest in Indonesia
Pico La Concha 4,870 15,978 Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Andes, Venezuela
Gistola 4,860 15,945 Caucasus Mountains, Svaneti, Georgia
Shota Rustaveli Peak 4,860 15,945 Caucasus Mountains, Svaneti, Georgia/North Caucasus, Russia
Tetnuldi 4,858 15,938 Caucasus Mountains, Svaneti, Georgia
Mount Tyree 4,852 15,919 Sentinel Range, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica– Second Highest in Antarctica
Huaynaputina 4,850 15,912 Andes, Peru
Alam Kuh 4,850 15,912 Alborz, Iran– Second highest in Iran
Mount Wood 4,842 15,886 Saint Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada
Mount Vancouver 4,812 15,787 Saint Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada
Sabalan 4,811 15,784 Iran
Mont Blanc 4,810 15,781 Mont Blanc massif, France/Italy– Highest in Alps
AMK 4,822 15,820 Sahyadri, Maharashtra Sahyadri, India (Maharashtra)
Corazón 4,790 15,715 Andes, Ecuador
Pichincha 4,784 15,696 Andes, Ecuador
Jimara 4,780 15,682 Khokh Range, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia
Mount Churchill 4,766 15,636 Saint Elias Mountains, Alaska, USA
Puncak Mandala 4,760 15,617 Papua, Indonesia
Klyuchevskaya Sopka 4,750 15,584 Kamchatka, Russia
Puncak Trikora 4,750 15,584 Papua, Indonesia
Mont Blanc de Courmayeur 4,748 15,577 Mont Blanc massif, France/Italy
Sunset Peak 4,745 15,568 Himalaya, Kashmir Valley, India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Mount Slaggard 4,742 15,558 Saint Elias Mountains, Canada
Pico Piedras Blancas 4,740 15,551 Sierra de la Culata, Andes, Venezuela
Pico El Toro 4,730 15,518 Andes, Venezuela
Tatakooti Peak 4,725 15,502 Himalaya, Kashmir Valley, India (Jammu and Kashmir)
Rumiñahui 4,721 15,489 Andes, Ecuador
Pico El Leon 4,720 15,486 Andes, Venezuela
Ushba 4,710 15,453 Caucasus Mountains, Svaneti, Georgia
Volcán Domuyo 4,709 15,449 Andes, Argentina
Pico Los Nevados 4,700 15,420 Andes, Venezuela
Pico Pan de Azucar 4,680 15,354 Sierra de la Culata, Andes, Venezuela
Naltar Peak 4,678 15,348 Pakistan
Mount Fairweather 4,663 15,299 Fairweather Range, Alaska, USA
Pico Mucuñuque 4,660 15,289 Andes, Venezuela
Pico El Buitre 4,650 15,256 Andes, Venezuela
Khazret Sultan 4,643 15,233 Gissar, Uzbekistan
Sierra Negra 4,640 15,223 Mexico
Monte Rosa 4,634 15,203 Switzerland– Highest point in Switzerland
Nordend 4,609 15,121 Pennine Alps, SwitzerlandItaly
Mount Hubbard 4,577 15,016 Saint Elias Mountains
Nevado de Toluca 4,577 15,016 Mexico
Mount Meru 4,566 14,980 Tanzania
Zumsteinspitze 4,563 14,970 Pennine Alps, SwitzerlandItaly
Dom 4,545 14,911 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Ras Dashen 4,533 14,872 Ethiopia– Highest point in Ethiopia
Signalkuppe 4,527 14,852 Pennine Alps, SwitzerlandItaly
Lyskamm 4,527 14,852 Pennine Alps, SwitzerlandItaly
Mount Bear 4,521 14,833 Saint Elias Mountains, Alaska, USA
Mount Wilhelm 4,509 14,793 Papua New Guinea
Mount Karisimbi 4,507 14,787 Virunga Mountains, Rwanda/DRC
Mount Walsh 4,507 14,787 Saint Elias Mountains, Canada
Belukha Mountain 4,506 14,783 Altay Mountains, Russia
Weisshorn 4,506 14,783 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Tebulosmta 4,493 14,741 Caucasus Mountains, Georgia/Chechnya, Russia
Täschhorn 4,491 14,734 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 14,715 Azerbaijan
Matterhorn 4,478 14,692 Pennine Alps, Switzerland/Italy
Mount Rutford 4,477 14,688 Sentinel Range, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica
Mont Maudit 4,465 14,649 Mont Blanc massif, France/Italy
Babis Mta 4,454 14,613 Caucasus Mountains, Georgia/Russia
Mount Shani 4,451 14,603 Caucasus Mountains, Georgia/Russia
Dena 4,448 14,593 Zagros MountainsIran
Vladimir Putin Peak 4,446 14,587 Kyrgyz Alatau, Kyrgyzstan
Mount Hunter 4,442 14,573 Alaska Range, Alaska, USA
Mount Whitney 4,421 14,505 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Mount Alverstone 4,420 14,501 Saint Elias Mountains, Alaska, USA/Yukon, Canada
University Peak 4,411 14,472 Saint Elias Mountains, Alaska, USA
Aello Peak 4,403 14,446 Saint Elias Mountains, Alaska, USA
Mount Elbert 4,402 14,442 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Massive 4,395 14,419 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Harvard 4,395 14,419 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Rainier 4,392 14,409 Cascades, Washington, USA
Kholeno 4,387 14,393 Alborz, Iran
Mount Williamson 4,382 14,377 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 14,350 Bayan-Ölgii Province, Mongolia
Blanca Peak 4,374 14,350 Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA
La Plata Peak 4,372 14,344 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Giluwe 4,368 14,331 Papua New Guinea
Burchula 4,364 14,318 Caucasus Mountains, Georgia
Uncompahgre Peak 4,361 14,308 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Dent Blanche 4,357 14,295 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Crestone Peak 4,357 14,295 Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Lincoln 4,354 14,285 Mosquito Range, Colorado, USA
Azad Kuh 4,355 14,288 Alborz, Iran
Grays Peak 4,350 14,272 Front Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Evans 4,350 14,272 Front Range, Colorado, USA
Quandary Peak 4,350 14,272 Tenmile Range, Colorado, USA
Lalveri 4,350 14,272 Caucasus Mountains, Svaneti, Georgia
Mount Antero 4,349 14,268 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Torreys Peak 4,349 14,268 Front Range, Colorado, USA
Castle Peak 4,348 14,265 Elk Mountains, Colorado, USA
Longs Peak 4,345 14,255 Front Range, Colorado, USA
McArthur Peak 4,344 14,252 Saint Elias Mountains, Yukon
Mount Wilsion 4,342 14,245 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
White Mountain Peak 4,342 14,245 White Mountains, California, USA
North Palisade 4,341 14,242 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Mount Shavano 4,337 14,229 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Colima 4,330 14,206 Mexico
Crestone Needle 4,327 14,196 Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Belford 4,327 14,196 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Princeton 4,327 14,196 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Shasta 4,322 14,180 California, USA
Mount Elgon 4,321 14,177 Uganda-Kenya
Mount Bross 4,320 14,173 Mosquito Range, Colorado, USA
Kit Carson Mountain 4,318 14,167 Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Wrangell 4,317 14,163 Alaska, USA
Maroon Peak 4,315 14,157 Elk Mountains, Colorado, USA
Tabeguache Peak 4,315 14,157 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
El Diente Peak 4,315 14,157 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Mount Sill 4,314 14,154 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Grand Combin 4,313 14,150 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Mount Oxford (Colorado) 4,313 14,150 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Sneffels 4,312 14,147 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Mount Democrat 4,312 14,147 Mosquito Range, Colorado, USA
Capitol Peak 4,307 14,131 Elk Mountains, Colorado, USA
Pikes Peak 4,302 14,114 Colorado, USA
Snowmass Mountain 4,295 14,091 Elk Mountains, Colorado, USA
Lenzspitze 4,294 14,088 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Mount Russell 4,296 14,094 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Mount Eolus 4,292 14,081 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Windom Peak 4,292 14,081 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Challenger Point 4,292 14,081 Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Columbia 4,291 14,078 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Adishi 4,290 14,075 Caucasus Mountains, Svaneti, Georgia
Mount Augusta 4,290 14,075 Saint Elias Mountains, Alaska, USA
Humboldt Peak (Colorado) 4,287 14,065 Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, USA
Split Mountain 4,287 14,065 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Mount Bierstadt 4,286 14,062 Front Range, Colorado, USA
Diklosmta 4,285 14,058 Caucasus Mountains, Tusheti, Georgia
Sunlight Peak 4,285 14,058 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Missouri Mountain 4,282 14,049 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Culebra Peak 4,282 14,049 Colorado, USA
Handies Peak 4,281 14,045 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Ellingwood Point 4,280 14,042 Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Lindsey 4,280 14,042 Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, USA
Little Bear Peak 4,279 14,039 Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, USA
Mount Sherman 4,278 14,035 Mosquito Range, Colorado, USA
Redcloud Peak 4,277 14,032 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Galeras 4,276 14,029 Andes, Columbia
Mount Langley 4,275 14,026 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Finsteraarhorn 4,274 14,022 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Pyramid Peak 4,273 14,019 Elk Mountains, Colorado, USA
Mount Tyndall 4,273 14,019 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Wilson Peak 4,272 14,016 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Mount Muir 4,272 14,016 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
San Luis Peak 4,271 14,012 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Wetterhorn Peak 4,271 14,012 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Middle Palisade 4,271 14,012 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Huron Peak 4,269 14,006 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Mount of the Holy Cross 4,269 14,006 Sawatch Range, Colorado, USA
Thunderbolt Peak 4,268 14,003 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Sunshine Peak 4,268 14,003 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Mount Strickland 4,260 13,976 Saint Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada
Pigeon Peak 4,259 13,973 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Mount Kennedy 4,250 13,944 Saint Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada
Pointe Bayeux 4,258 13,970 Graian Alps, Mont Blanc massif, France
Mont Blanc du Tacul 4,248 13,937 Graian Alps, Mont Blanc massif, France
Stecknadelhorn 4,241 13,914 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Avalanche Peak 4,228 13,871 Saint Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada
Zinalrothorn 4,221 13,848 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Volcán Tajumulco 4,220 13,845 Guatemala
Hohberghorn 4,219 13,842 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Turret Peak 4,217 13,835 Needle Mountains, Colorado, USA
Mount Darwin 4,216 13,832 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Mount Hayes 4,216 13,832 Alaska, USA
Sacabaya 4,215 13,829 Bolivia
Grandes Jorasses 4,208 13,806 Mont Blanc massif, France/Italy
Gannett Peak 4,208 13,806 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
Mauna Kea 4,207 13,802 Hawaii, USA
Alphubel 4,206 13,799 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Mauna Kea 4,205 13,796 Hawaii, USA (highest mountain base to summit)
Cofre de Perote 4,201 13,783 Mexico
Zard-Kuh 4,200 13,780 Zagros MountainsIran
Shah Alborz 4,200 13,780 Alborz, Iran
Rimpfischhorn 4,199 13,776 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Grand Teton 4,199 13,776 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Mount Cook 4,196 13,766 Saint Elias Mountains, Canada/USA
Aletschhorn 4,192 13,753 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Strahlhorn 4,190 13,747 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Fremont Peak 4,189 13,743 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
Mount Warren 4,182 13,720 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
Mount Sidley 4,181 13,717 Antarctica
Dent d’Hérens 4,171 13,684 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Mauna Loa 4,171 13,684 Hawaii, USA
Jbel Toubkal 4,167 13,671 Atlas Mountains, Morocco
Mount Minto 4,165 13,665 Antarctica
Breithorn 4,165 13,665 Pennine Alps, Switzerland/Italy
Jungfrau 4,158 13,642 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Bishorn 4,153 13,625 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Mount Helen 4,151 13,619 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
El Mela 4,150 13,615 Andes, Argentina
Mount Quincy Adams 4,150 13,615 Fairweather Range, Canada/USA
Doublet Peak 4,145 13,599 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
Turret Peak 4,145 13,599 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
Mount Parnassus (Colorado) 4,137 13,573 Front Range, Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA
Uludoruk (Reşko / Gelyaşin) 4,137 13,573 Cilo Daglari Hakkari, Turkey
Mount Sacagawea 4,136 13,570 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
Mount Dubois 4,135 13,566 White Mountains, California, USA
Mount Muhabura (Albertine Rift) 4,127 13,540 Virunga Mountains, Musanze, Rwanda
Kings Peak 4,125 13,533 Uinta Range, Utah, USA
Aiguille Verte 4,122 13,524 Mont Blanc massif, France
Mount Bangeta 4,121 13,520 Papua New Guinea
Mount Dickerson 4,120 13,517 Queen Alexandra Range, Antarctica
Jackson Peak 4,120 13,517 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
Mount Woodrow Wilson 4,115 13,501 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
Aiguilles du Diable 4,014 13,169 Graian Alps, Mont Blanc massif, France
Bastion Peak 4,113 13,494 Wind River Range, Wyoming
Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey 4,112 13,491 Mont Blanc massif, Italy
Mönch 4,107 13,474 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Mount Febbas 4,105 13,468 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
Barre des Écrins 4,102 13,458 Dauphiné Alps, France
Mount Aragats 4,095 13,435 Armenia
Mount Cameroon 4,095 13,435 Cameroon
Mount Kinabalu 4,095 13,435 Sabah, Malaysia– Highest in Malaysia
Grizzly Peak D 4,093 13,428 Front Range, Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA
Pollux 4,092 13,425 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Kīlauea 4,091 13,422 Hawaii, USA
Mount Wade 4,085 13,402 Prince Olav Mountains, Antarctica
Mount Victoria 4,072 13,360 Papua New Guinea
Centennial Peak 4,070 13,353 Prince Olav Mountains, Antarctica
Gran Paradiso 4,061 13,323 Graian Alps, Italy
Ober Gabelhorn 4,053 13,297 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Piz Bernina 4,049 13,284 Bernina Alps, Switzerland
Fiescherhorn 4,049 13,284 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Grünhorn 4,043 13,264 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Lauteraarhorn 4,042 13,261 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Aiguille du Géant 4,035 13,238 Graian Alps, Mont Blanc massif, France
Mount Sniktau 4,034 13,235 Front Range, Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA
Allalinhorn 4,027 13,212 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Wind River Peak 4,021 13,192 Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA
Latsga 4,019 13,186 Caucasus Mountains, Svaneti, Georgia
Weissmies 4,017 13,179 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Mount Waddington 4,016 13,176 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Marcus Baker 4,016 13,176 Chugach Range, Alaska, USA
Dôme de neige des Écrins 4,015 13,173 Dauphiné Alps, France
Conejos Peak 4,015 13,173 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Dent du Géant 4,013 13,166 Mont Blanc massif, France/Italy
Red Slate Mountain 4,013 13,166 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Cloud Peak 4,013 13,166 Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming, USA
Wheeler Peak 4,012 13,163 Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico, USA
Lagginhorn 4,010 13,156 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Twilight Peak 4,010 13,156 San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA
Francs Peak 4,009 13,153 Absaroka Range, Wyoming, USA
Mount Walter 4,005 13,140 New Mexico, USA
Les Droites 4,000 13,123 Mont Blanc massif, France

3,000 metres[edit]

Piz Zupò – 3,995 m (13,107 ft)

Mt. Robson – 3,954 m (12,972 ft)

Mt. Sahand – 3,707 m (12,162 ft)

Mt. Fuji – 3,776 m (12,388 ft)
Mountain Metres Feet Location and Notes
Piz Zupò 3,995 13,107 Bernina Range, Switzerland
Truchas Peak 3,994 13,104 Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico
Fletschhorn 3,993 13,100 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Mount Albert Edward 3,990 13,091 Papua New Guinea
La Meije 3,987 13,081 Dauphiné Alps, France
Wheeler Peak 3,982 13,064 Snake Range, Nevada
Mount Dana 3,981 13,061 California
Acatenango 3,976 13,045 Guatemala
Piz Roseg 3,973 13,035 Bernina Range, Switzerland
Piz Scerscen 3,971 13,028 Bernina Range, Switzerland
Eiger 3,970 13,025 Bernese Oberland, Switzerland
Mount Tochal 3,964 13,005 Alborz, Iran
Black Tooth Mountain 3,964 13,005 Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming
Grand Cornier 3,962 12,999 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Mount Owen 3,957 12,982 Teton Range, Wyoming
Ailefroide 3,954 12,972 Dauphiné Alps, France
Mount Robson 3,954 12,972 Highest point in the Canadian Rockies
Descabezado Grande 3,953 12,969 Chile
Yu Shan (Mount Jade) 3,952 12,966 Highest point in Taiwan
Mont Pelvoux 3,946 12,946 Dauphiné Alps, France
Mount Julian 3,940 12,927 Colorado, USA
Mount Erciyes 3,916 12,848 Central Anatolia, Turkey
Bomber Mountain 3,914 12,841 Bighorn Range, Wyoming, USA
Pic Sans Nom 3,919 12,858 Dauphiné Alps, France
Jicarita Peak 3,912 12,835 Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico
Ortler 3,905 12,812 Italy South Tyrol
Piz Palü 3,905 12,812 Bernina Range, Switzerland
Middle Teton 3,903 12,805 Teton Range, Wyoming
Aiguille d’Argentière 3,902 12,802 Mont Blanc massif, France/Switzerland
Granite Peak 3,901 12,799 Montana, USA – Highest point
Mount Gibbs 3,893 12,772 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Mount Crillon 3,879 12,726 Fairweather Range, Alaska, USA
Mont Blanc de Cheilon 3,870 12,697 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Aiguille du Goûter 3,863 12,674 Graian Alps, Mont Blanc massif, France
Borah Peak 3,861 12,667 Idaho, USA – Highest point
Grande Casse 3,855 12,648 Vanoise Massif, France
Humphreys Peak 3,852 12,638 Arizona, USA – Highest point
Santa Fe Baldy 3,847 12,621 Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico
Mount Baldwin 3,845 12,615 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Aiguille du Midi 3,842 12,605 Graian Alps, Mont Blanc Massif, France
Mount Moran 3,842 12,605 Wyoming, USA
Monte Viso 3,841 12,602 Italian Alps
Mount Saramati 3,826 12,552 Patkai Range, Nagaland, India<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Saramati>
Nesthorn 3,822 12,539 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Cerro Chirripó 3,820 12,533 Highest in Costa Rica
Aiguille des Glaciers 3,816 12,520 Mont Blanc massif, France/Italy
South Teton 3,814 12,513 Teton Range, Wyoming
La Râteau 3,809 12,497 Dauphiné Alps, France
Mount Kerinci 3,800 12,467 Highest volcano in Indonesia
Großglockner 3,798 12,461 Austria – Highest point
Pigne d’Arolla 3,796 12,454 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Mount Erebus 3,794 12,448 Antarctica – Southernmost active volcano
Mont Pourri 3,779 12,398 Vanoise Massif, France
Mount Fuji 3,776 12,388 Japan– Highest in Japan
Wildspitze 3,774 12,382 Austria
Greenhorn Mountain 3,763 12,346 Wet Mountains, Colorado, USA
Volcán de Fuego 3,763 12,346 Guatemala
Teewinot Mountain 3,757 12,326 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Aiguille du Dru 3,754 12,316 Graian Alps, France
Aoraki/Mount Cook 3,754 12,316 New Zealand – Highest point
Pointe de Charbonnel 3,752 12,310 Graian Alps, France
Piz Morteratsch 3,751 12,306 Bernina Range, Switzerland
Mount Davis 3,750 12,303 California, USA
Mount Morrison 3,750 12,303 California, USA
Aiguille de la Grande Sassière 3,747 12,293 Graian Alps, France
Lanín 3,747 12,293 Chile/Argentina
Mount Columbia 3,747 12,293 Canadian Rockies – Highest in Alberta
Mount Adams 3,743 12,280 Washington, USA
Teepe Pillar 3,739 12,267 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Weißkugel 3,739 12,267 Alps, Austria/Italy
Minarets 3,735 12,254 Sierra Nevada, California
Mount Huntington 3,731 12,241 Alaska Range, Alaska, USA
Mount Rinjani 3,726 12,224 Indonesia
Cerro del Potosí 3,721 12,208 Mexico
Teide 3,718 12,198 Canary Islands – Highest in Spain
Asperity Mountain 3,716 12,192 Waddington Range
Sahand 3,707 12,162 East Azerbaijan, Iran
Monte San Lorenzo 3,706 12,159 Patagonia, Argentina-Chile
Wetterhorn 3,701 12,142 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Dent Parrachée 3,697 12,129 Vanoise massif, France
Gunnbjørn 3,694 12,119 highest in Greenland
North Twin Peak 3,684 12,087 Canadian Rockies
Monte Disgrazia 3,678 12,067 Bregaglia, Switzerland
Semeru 3,676 12,060 Java, Indonesia
Les Bans 3,669 12,037 Ecrins, France
Cloudveil Dome 3,666 12,028 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Thor Peak 3,666 12,028 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Medicine Bow Peak 3,661 12,011 Wyoming, USA
Hyndman Peak 3,660 12,008 Idaho, USA
Mount Clemenceau 3,658 12,001 Canadian Rockies
Mount Frakes 3,654 11,988 Crary Mountains, Antarctica
Grande Motte 3,853 12,641 Vanoise Massif, France
Sierra Blanca 3,652 11,982 Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico
Pointe de la Fournache 3,642 11,949 Vanoise massif, France
Buck Mountain 3,639 11,939 Teton Range, Wyoming
Mount Nebo 3,636 11,929 Utah, USA
Mount Charleston 3,632 11,916 Nevada, USA
Hintere Schwärze 3,628 11,903 Ötztal Alps, Austria/Italy
Nez Perce Peak 3,627 11,900 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Mount Alberta 3,619 11,873 Canadian Rockies
Mount Assiniboine 3,618 11,870 Canadian Rockies
Tödi 3,614 11,857 Swiss Alps
Mount Forbes 3,612 11,850 Canadian Rockies
Lautaro 3,607 11,834 Patagonia, Chile
Dôme de la Sache 3,601 11,814 Vanoise massif, France
Castle Peak 3,601 11,814 Idaho, USA
Dôme de l’Arpont 3,601 11,814 Vanoise massif, France
Dôme de Chasseforêt 3,586 11,765 Vanoise massif, France
Makra Peak 3,586 11,765 Pakistan
Sierra Velluda 3,585 11,762 Chile
Grand Roc Noir 3,582 11,752 Vanoise massif, France
Mount Timpanogos 3,582 11,752 Utah, USA
Dôme des Nants 3,570 11,713 Vanoise massif, France
Ryan Peak 3,570 11,713 Idaho, USA
South Twin Peak 3,566 11,699 Canadian Rockies
Olan 3,564 11,693 Ecrins, France
Aiguille de Péclet 3,561 11,683 Vanoise massif, France
Presanella 3,558 11,673 Adamello-Presanella, Italy
Mount Steere 3,558 11,673 Antarctica
Monarch Mountain 3,555 11,663 Pacific Ranges, British Columbia, Canada
Monte Leone 3,552 11,654 Lepontine Alps, Switzerland
Mont Turia 3,550 11,647 Vanoise massif, France
Mount Temple 3,543 11,624 Canadian Rockies
Disappointment Peak 3,541 11,617 Teton Range, Wyoming
Mount Woodring 3,533 11,591 Teton Range, Wyoming
Aiguille de Polset 3,531 11,585 Vanoise Massif, France
Snow Dome 3,520 11,549 Canadian Rockies
Aiguilles d’Arves 3,515 11,532 Arve Massif, France
Mont de Gébroulaz 3,511 11,519 Vanoise massif, France
Mount San Gorgonio 3,505 11,499 California, USA
Mount Kitchener 3,505 11,499 Canadian Rockies
Zuckerhütl 3,505 11,499 Stubai Alps, Austria
Mount Wister 3,502 11,490 Teton Range, Wyoming
Mount Saskatchewan 3,500 11,483 Yukon, Canada
Mount Tasman 3,497 11,473 Southern Alps, New Zealand
Mount Hungabee 3,492 11,457 Canadian Rockies
Mount Athabasca 3,491 11,453 Canadian Rockies
Tronador 3,491 11,453 Chile/Argentina
Mount Saint John 3,484 11,430 Teton Range, Wyoming
Thabana Ntlenyana 3,482 11,424 Drakensberg, Africa
Pointes du Châtelard 3,479 11,414 Vanoise massif, France
Mulhacén 3,479 11,414 Spain – Highest in continental Spain
Mount Berlin 3,478 11,411 Flood Range, Antarctica
Volcán Barú 3,475 11,401 Chiriquí, Panama
Koh-i-Takatu Sraghurgai 3,472 11,391 Quetta Sraghurgai, Suleman Range, Pakistan– 2nd Highest Peak in Balochistan Province[1]
Roc des Saints Pères 3,470 11,385 Vanoise massif, France
Mount Brazeau 3,470 11,385 Canadian Rockies
Mount Nyiragongo 3,470 11,385 Virunga Mountains, DRC
Ruby Dome 3,470 11,385 Ruby Mountains, Nevada
Roche de la Muzelle 3,465 11,368 Dauphine Alps, France
Mount Victoria 3,464 11,365 Canadian Rockies
Abajo Peak 3,463 11,362 Abajo Mountains, Utah
Eagle Peak 3,462 11,358 Absaroka Range, Wyoming, USA
Doane Peak 3,461 11,355 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Ranger Peak 3,461 11,355 Teton range, Wyoming, USA
Cerro de la Muerte 3,451 11,322 Second highest in Costa Rica
Furgghorn 3,451 11,322 Pennine Alps, Switzerland
Mafadi 3,450 11,319 Drakensberg, South Africa
Mount Andromeda 3,450 11,319 Canadian Rockies
Mount Joffre 3,449 11,316 Canadian Rockies
Hilgard Peak 3,449 11,316 Madison Range, Montana, USA
Static Peak 3,445 11,302 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Pointe de la Sana 3,436 11,273 Vanoise massif, France
Eagles Rest Peak 3,431 11,257 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Irazú Volcano 3,431 11,257 Costa Rica
Mount Hood 3,429 11,250 Cascade Range, Oregon, USA
Deltaform Mountain 3,424 11,234 Canadian Rockies
Mount Lefroy 3,423 11,230 Canadian Rockies
Pointe de l’Échelle 3,422 11,227 Vanoise massif, France
Pointe du Bouchet 3,420 11,220 Vanoise massif, France
Mount Fitzgerald 3,418 11,214 Ruby Mountains, Nevada, USA
Bellecôte 3,417 11,211 Vanoise massif, France
Crazy Peak 3,417 11,211 Montana, USA
Emi Koussi 3,415 11,204 Tibesti Mountains, Chad
Piz Linard 3,410 11,188 Switzerland
Mount Woolley 3,405 11,171 Canadian Rockies
Aneto 3,404 11,168 Pyrenees, Spain – Highest in Pyrenees
Fluchthorn 3,399 11,152 Silvretta, Austria-Switzerland
Grand Bec 3,398 11,148 Vanoise massif, France
Rockchuck Peak 3,397 11,145 Teton Range, Wyoming
Pico Veleta 3,396 11,142 Sierra Nevada, Spain – Location of the highest road in Europe
Mount Hector 3,394 11,135 Canadian Rockies
Piz Platta 3,392 11,129 Swiss Alps
Telescope Peak 3,392 11,129 Death Valley
Champagne Castle 3,377 11,079 Drakensberg, South Africa
Pic Uzu 3,376 11,076 Tibesti, Libya-Chad
Cerro Chaltén 3,375 11,073 Patagonia, Argentina-Chile
Mount Spurr 3,374 11,070 Alaska
Pointe du Vallonnet 3,372 11,063 Vanoise massif, France
Mammoth Mountain 3,371 11,060 California
Fründenhorn 3,369 11,053 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Pointe Renod 3,368 11,050 Vanoise massif, France
Traverse Peak 3,368 11,050 Teton Range, Wyoming
Mount Edith Cavell 3,363 11,033 Canadian Rockies
Dôme des Sonnailles 3,361 11,027 Vanoise massif, France
Mount Agepsta 3,357 11,014 Gagra Range, Abkhazia, Georgia
Mount Munday 3,356 11,010 Pacific Ranges, B.C., Canada
Pointe de Claret 3,355 11,007 Vanoise massif, France
Monte Perdido 3,355 11,007 Pyrenees
Parasnath 3,347 10,981 India
Electric Peak 3,343 10,968 Gallatin Range, Montana
Mount Saskatchewan 3,342 10,965 Canadian Rockies
Cerro Fábrega 3,335 10,942 Bocas Del Toro, Panama
Ward Mountain 3,333 10,935 Nevada, USA
Pointe de Méan Martin 3,330 10,925 Vanoise massif, France
Dôme de Polset 3,326 10,912 Vanoise massif, France
Cathedral Peak 3,326 10,912 California, USA
Raynolds Peak 3,325 10,909 Teton Range, Wyoming
Rolling Thunder Mountain 3,324 10,906 Teton Range, Wyoming
Mount Hampton 3,323 10,902 Antarctica
Dôme des Pichères 3,319 10,889 Vanoise massif, France
Grand Roc 3,316 10,879 Vanoise massif, France
Giant’s Castle 3,315 10,876 Drakensberg, South Africa
Sunwapta Peak 3,315 10,876 Canadian Rockies
Piz Buin 3,312 10,866 Silvretta, Austria-Switzerland
Mount Ball 3,311 10,863 Canadian Rockies
Piz Badile 3,308 10,853 Bregaglia, Switzerland
Mount Chephren 3,307 10,850 Canadian Rockies
Ağ Dağ 3,306 10,846 Bozgush mountain range, East Azerbaijan, Iran
Mount Silberhorn 3,303 10,837 Southern Alps, New Zealand
San Jacinto Peak 3,302 10,833 California, USA
Didi Abuli 3,301 10,830 Georgia
Bivouac Peak 3,299 10,823 Teton Range, Wyoming
Mount Wilbur 3,298 10,820 Fairweather Range, Alaska, USA
Monte Argentera 3,297 10,817 Maritime Alps, Italy
Mount Samsari 3,285 10,778 Abul-Samsari Range, Georgia
Roche Chevrière 3,281 10,764 Vanoise massif, France
Habicht 3,277 10,751 Stubai Alps, Austria
Thompson Peak 3,277 10,751 Idaho, USA
Pointe de Thorens 3,266 10,715 Vanoise massif, France
Mount Cramer 3,266 10,715 Idaho, USA
Toussidé 3,265 10,712 Tibesti Mountains, Chad-Libya
Antelao 3,264 10,709 Dolomites, Italy
Mont Pelve 3,261 10,699 Vanoise massif, France
Mount Stanley Baldwin 3,256 10,682 Columbia Mountains, B.C., Canada
Sandia Crest 3,255 10,679 New Mexico, USA
Épaule du Bouchet 3,250 10,663 Vanoise massif, France
Mount Smythe 3,246 10,650 Canadian Rockies
Wildstrubel 3,243 10,640 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Williams Peak 3,242 10,636 Idaho, USA
Titlis 3,238 10,623 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Owl Peak 3,235 10,614 Teton Range, Wyoming
Mount Mackenzie King 3,234 10,610 Cariboo Mountains, B.C., Canada
Pointe des Buffettes 3,233 10,607 Vanoise massif, France
Lisenser Spitze 3,230 10,597 Stubai Alps, Austria
Mount Terror 3,230 10,597 Antarctica
Aiguille Rouge 3,227 10,587 Vanoise massif, France
Monte Civetta 3,220 10,564 Dolomites, Italy
Symmetry Spire 3,219 10,561 Teton Range, Wyoming
Glacier Peak 3,213 10,541 Washington, USA
Pointe du Dard 3,212 10,538 Vanoise massif, France
Mount Binalud 3,211 10,535 Alborz, Iran
Pointe de la Réchasse 3,206 10,518 Vanoise massif, France
Mount Jefferson 3,204 10,512 Montana, USA
Mount Jefferson 3,199 10,495 Cascade Range, Oregon, USA
Dreiländerspitze 3,197 10,489 Silvretta, Austria-Switzerland
Mount Kita 3,193 10,476 Akaishi Mountains, Japan
Mount Hotaka 3,190 10,466 Hida Mountains, Japan
Mount Cleveland 3,190 10,466 Montana, USA
Ainodake 3,189 10,463 Akaishi Mountains, Japan
Lassen Peak 3,189 10,463 California, USA
Mount Galatea 3,185 10,449 Kananaskis Range, Alberta, Canada
Rendezvous Mountain 3,185 10,449 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Mount Jackson 3,184 10,446 Highest British mountain, British Antarctic Territory
Saviers Peak 3,182 10,440 Idaho, USA
Mount Yari 3,180 10,433 Hida Mountains, Japan
Parícutin 3,170 10,400 Mexico
Mount Aylmer 3,162 10,374 Canadian Rockies
South Sister 3,157 10,358 Cascade Range, Oregon, USA
Stanley Peak 3,155 10,351 Ball Range, Canadian Rockies
Jøkulkyrkja 3,148 10,328 Antarctica
Pica d’Estats 3,143 10,312 Spanish–French border, Pyrenees
Mount Arakawa 3,141 10,305 Akaishi Mountains, Japan
Gray Peak 3,140 10,302 Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
Mount Heyburn 3,139 10,299 Idaho, USA
Mount Washburn 3,122 10,243 Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
Mount Collie 3,116 10,223 Canadian Rockies
Mount Siple 3,110 10,203 Antarctica
Pirchinassi 3,110 10,203 Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir
Mount Redoubt 3,108 10,197 Alaska, USA
Mount Babel 3,101 10,174 Bow Range, Alberta, Canada
Mount Emei 3,099 10,167 China
Pico Duarte 3,098 10,164 Dominican Republic
Trapper Peak 3,096 10,157 Montana, USA
Storm Mountain 3,095 10,154 Canadian Rockies
Mount Blackmore 3,094 10,151 Montana, USA
Mount Stimson 3,091 10,141 Montana, USA
Mol Len 3,088 10,131 Patkai Range, Nagaland-India/Burma<http://www.peaklist.org/WWlists/ultras/burma.html>
Qurnat as Sawdā’ 3,088 10,131 Lebanon
Mount Richardson 3,086 10,125 Canadian Rockies
Kintla Peak 3,079 10,102 Livingston Range, Montana, USA
Mount Moulton 3,078 10,098 Antarctica
Smoky Dome 3,077 10,095 Idaho, USA
North Sister 3,074 10,085 Cascade Range, Oregon, USA
Piton des Neiges 3,069 10,069 Réunion, France
Mount San Antonio 3,068 10,066 San Gabriel Mountains, California, USA
Mount Ontake 3,067 10,062 Japan
Mount Jackson 3,064 10,052 Lewis Range, Montana, USA
Middle Sister 3,062 10,046 Cascade Range, Oregon, USA
Mount Nyamuragira 3,058 10,033 Democratic Republic of the Congo
Crowfoot Mountain 3,055 10,023 Canadian Rockies
Haleakala 3,055 10,023 Hawaii, USA
Mount Chester 3,054 10,020 Canadian Rockies
Mount Siyeh 3,052 10,013 Montana, USA
Mount Merritt 3,049 10,003 Montana, USA
Cerro de Coxóm 3,045 9,990 Guatemala
Parseierspitze 3,036 9,961 Austria
Mount Senjō 3,033 9,951 Akaishi Mountains, Japan
Mount Aspiring/Tititea 3,033 9,951 New Zealand
Kinnerly Peak 3,031 9,944 Montana, USA
Mount Agung 3,031 9,944 Bali, Indonesia
Mount McArthur 3,021 9,911 Canadian Rockies
Mount Norikura 3,026 9,928 Hida Mountains, Japan
Tsiteli Khati 3,026 9,928 Kharuli Range, Georgia
Mount Tate 3,015 9,892 Hida Mountains, Japan
Mount Japvo 3,014 9,888 Barail Range, Nagaland, India<http://www.peaklist.org/WWlists/ultras/burma.html>
Mount Tahat 3,003 9,852 Algeria – Highest
Sapitwa 3,002 9,849 Mulanje Massif, Malawi
The Fortress 3,000 9,843 Canadian Rockies

2,000 metres[edit]

Miranjani – 2,980 m (9,777 ft)

Schilthorn – 2,970 m (9,744 ft)

Zugspitze – 2,962 m (9,718 ft)

Musala – 2,925 m (9,596 ft)
Mountain Metres Feet Location and Notes
Sacajawea Peak 2,999 9,839 Wallowa Mountains, Oregon, USA
Cascade Mountain 2,998 9,836 Vermillion Range, Canadian Rockies
Copahue 2,997 9,833 Andes, Argentina/Chile
Mount Girouard 2,985 9,793 Fairholme Range, Canadian Rockies
Pico da Neblina 2,994 9,823 Brazil – Highest
Mount Whyte 2,983 9,787 Bow Range, Canadian Rockies
Miranjani 2,980 9,777 Pakistan
Forellen Peak 2,979 9,774 Teton Range, Wyoming, USA
Mount Andrus 2,978 9,770 Ames Range, Antarctica
Mount Niblock 2,976 9,764 Bow Range, Canadian Rockies
Keele Peak 2,972 9,751 Mackenzie Mountains, Yukon, Canada
Mount Odin 2,970 9,744 Monashee Mountains, B.C. Canada
Schilthorn 2,970 9,744 Bernese Alps, Switzerland
Mount Tallac 2,968 9,738 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Mount Inglismaldie 2,964 9,724 Fairholme Range, Canadian Rockies
Mount Ramelau 2,963 9,721 Highest in East Timor
Zugspitze 2,962 9,718 Germany – Highest
Little Alberta 2,956 9,698 Sir Winston Churchill Range, Canadian Rockies
Pegunungan Arfak 2,955 9,695 Arfak Mountains, West Papua, Indonesia
Iron Mountain 2,955 9,695 Soldier Mountains, Idaho, USA
Apo 2,954 9,692 Philippines – Highest
Fossil Mountain 2,946 9,665 Banff NP, Canada
Coma Pedrosa 2,942 9,652 Pyrenees, Andorra – Highest
Going to the Sun Mountain 2,939 9,642 Lewis Range, Montana, USA
Fishers Peak 2,936 9,633 Raton Mesas, Colorado-New Mexico, USA
Pilot Mountain 2,935 9,629 Massive Range, Canadian Rockies
Urirotstock 2,928 9,606 Switzerland
Musala 2,925 9,596 Bulgaria – Highest
Mount Pulag 2,922 9,587 Philippines
Mount Olympus 2,917 9,570 Thessaly/Macedonia, Greece – Highest
Mount Gould 2,912 9,554 Montana, USA
Mount Blakiston 2,910 9,547 Flathead Range, Canadian Rockies
Mount Sas dla Crusc 2,907 9,537 Dolomites, Italy
Chutine Peak 2,903 9,524 Coast Range, British Columbia
Rising Wolf Mountain 2,900 9,514 Lewis Range, Montana, USA
Bonanza Peak 2,899 9,511 Cascade Range, Washington, USA
Pic de Sanfonts 2,894 9,495 Pyrenees, Andorra
Collarada 2,886 9,469 Pyrenees, Spain
Boardman Peak 2,882 9,455 Soldier Mountains, Idaho, USA
Lembert Dome 2,880 9,449 California, USA
Mount Stuart 2,869 9,413 Cascades, Washington, USA
Mount Silverthrone 2,865 9,400 British Columbia, Canada
Triglav 2,864 9,396 Slovenia – Highest
Mount Saint Nicholas 2,858 9,377 Montana, USA
Mount Wilbur 2,841 9,321 Montana, USA
Mount Fernow 2,819 9,249 Washington, USA
Mount Hermon 2,814 9,232 Syria, Lebanon – a subpeak on its southern slopes is the high point of Golan Heights
Mount Cory 2,802 9,193 Alberta, Canada
Mount Thielsen 2,799 9,183 Cascades, USA
Copper Mountain 2,795 9,170 Alberta, Canada
Hayes Volcano 2,788 9,147 Alaska, USA
Mount Edziza 2,787 9,144 British Columbia, Canada
Canigou 2,784 9,134 Pyrenees, France
Mount Longonot 2,780 9,121 RIftvalley, Kenya
Buckner Mountain 2,778 9,114 Washington, USA
Mount Longonot 2,776 9,108 Great Rift Valley, Kenya
Seven Fingered Jack 2,774 9,101 Washington, USA
Mount Nirvana 2,773 9,098 Northwest Territories, Canada
Chief Mountain 2,768 9,081 Montana, USA
Lincoln Peak 2,768 9,081 Washington, USA
Castle Mountain 2,766 9,075 Canadian Rockies
Pyramid Mountain 2,766 9,075 Canadian Rockies
Mount Korab 2,764 9,068 Republic of Macedonia & Albania – Highest
Mount Sir James MacBrien 2,759 9,052 Canada
Mount Olympus 2,751 9,026 Utah, USA
Mawson Peak 2,745 9,006 Highest in Australia
Mount Baekdu 2,744 9,003 North Korea/China Highest in North Korea
Fairview Mountain 2,744 9,003 Bow Range, Canadian Rockies
Škrlatica 2,740 8,990 Julian Alps, Slovenia
Heavens Peak 2,739 8,986 Montana, USA
Mount Spickard 2,737 8,980 North Cascades
Mount Melbourne 2,732 8,963 Antarctica
Cerro El Pital 2,730 8,957 El Salvador – Highest
Mount Redoubt 2,730 8,957 Washington, USA
Mount Morning 2,723 8,934 Antarctica
Serles 2,718 8,917 Stubai Alps, Austria
Watzmann 2,713 8,901 Bavarian Alps, Germany
Boston Peak 2,711 8,894 Washington, USA
Grotto Mountain 2,706 8,878 Canadian Rockies
Mount Haku 2,702 8,865 Ryōhaku Mountains, Japan
Eldorado Peak 2,701 8,862 Washington, USA
Anaimudi 2,695 8,842 Kerala, India – #1 in Western Ghats, India
Maja Jezerce 2,694 8,839 #1 in Dinaric Alps, Albania
Half Dome 2,693 8,835 Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Mount Louis 2,682 8,799 Alberta, Canada
Mount Discovery 2,681 8,796 Antarctica
Pic de la Selle 2,680 8,793 Haiti
Mount Garibaldi 2,678 8,786 British Columbia, Canada
Guadalupe Peak 2,667.3 8,751 Guadalupe Mountains, Texas – Highest in Texas
Großer Krottenkopf 2,656 8,714 Allgäu Alps, Tyrol, Austria
Pic del Port Vell 2,655 8,711 Pyrenees, Andorra
Gerlachov Peak 2,655 8,711 High Tatras, Slovakia
Mount Michelson 2,652 8,701 Chugach Mountains, Alaska, USA
Mount St. Piran 2,649 8,691 Bow Range, Alberta, Canada
Mount Meager 2,645 8,678 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Trus Madi 2,642 8,668 Trus Madi Range, Sabah, Malaysia – #2 in Malaysia
Doddabetta 2,637 8,652 Tamil Nadu, India
Piton de la Fournaise 2,631 8,632 Réunion
Mount Crean 2,630 8,629 Victoria Land
Cardinal Peak 2,618 8,589 Washington, USA
Barbeau Peak 2,616 8,583 Nunavut, Canada – Highest in Nunavut
Pelister Peak 2,601 8,533 Republic of Macedonia
Pico Almanzor 2,592 8,504 Spain
Mount Tavkvetili 2,583 8,474 Georgia
Argonaut Peak 2,576 8,451 Washington, USA
Doi Inthanon 2,565 8,415 Thailand– Highest in Thailand
Cooke’s Peak/Cook’s Peak 2,563 8,409 New Mexico,USA
Pic dels Aspres 2,562 8,406 Pyrenees, Andorra
Aguja Saint Exupery 2,558 8,392 Argentina
Mount St. Helens 2,550 8,366 Washington, USA
Big Hatchet Peak 2,547 8,356 New Mexico, USA
Moldoveanu Peak 2,544 8,346 Romania
Negoiu Peak 2,535 8,317 Romania
Vistea Mare 2,527 8,291 Romania
Pidurutalagala 2,524 8,281 Sri Lanka
Mount Norquay 2,522 8,274 Canadian Rockies
Hualalai 2,521 8,271 Hawaii, USA
Parangu Mare 2,519 8,264 Romania
Mount Taranaki/Egmont 2,518 8,261 New Zealand
Garfield Peak 2,512 8,241 Wyoming, USA
Mount Veniaminof 2,507 8,225 Alaska, USA
Omu Peak 2,505 8,219 Romania
Rysy 2,503 8,212 Poland/Slovakia
Mount Tymfi 2,497 8,192 Pindus, Greece
Špik 2,472 8,110 Julian Alps, Slovenia
Luna Peak 2,470 8,104 British Columbia, Canada
Galdhøpiggen 2,469 8,100 Norway – Highest
Glittertind 2,464 8,084 Norway
El Capitan 2,464 8,084 Texas, USA
Shimbiris 2,464 8,084 Somalia
Sulphur Mountain 2,451 8,041 Canadian Rockies
Sunset Crater 2,451 8,041 Arizona, USA
Faraya Mzaar 2,444 8,018 Keserwan, Lebanon
Triple Divide Peak 2,444 8,018 Montana, USA
Monte Binga 2,436 7,992 Manica, Mozambique
Mount Olympus 2,432 7,979 Washington, USA
Peñalara 2,430 7,972 Spain
Mount Daniel 2,426 7,959 Washington, USA
Mount Murud 2,423 7,949 Kelabit Highlands, Sarawak, Malaysia – Highest mountain in Sarawak
Mocho 2,422 7,946 Los Ríos Region, Chile
Choshuenco 2,415 7,923 Los Ríos Region, Chile
Ha Ling Peak 2,408 7,900 Canadian Rockies, Alberta
Store Skagastølstind 2,405 7,890 Norway
Hajla 2,403 7,884 Kosovo
Le Tabor 2,389 7,838 Dauphine Alps, France
Kirigalpottha 2,388 7,835 Sri Lanka
Maglić 2,386 7,828 Bosnia and Herzegovina – Highest in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mount Cayley 2,385 7,825 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Galwey 2,377 7,799 Canadian Rockies
Botev Peak 2,376 7,795 Bulgaria
Mount Mulu 2,376 7,795 Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia
Mount Deception 2,374 7,789 Washington, USA
Mount Karthala 2,361 7,746 Comoros, Indian Ocean
Totapala Kanda 2,357 7,733 Sri Lanka
Signal Mountain 2,353 7,720 Wyoming, USA
Mount Pico 2,351 7,713 Azores, Portugal
Mount Blum 2,340 7,677 North Cascades
Mount Popomanaseu 2,335 7,661 Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands – Highest in Solomon Islands
Mount Prophet 2,330 7,644 North Cascades
Mount Griggs 2,317 7,602 Alaska, USA
Mount Makarakomburu 2,310 7,579 Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands
Lalla Khedidja 2,308 7,572 Djurdjura Mountains, Algeria
Lavender Peak 2,306 7,566 British Columbia, Canada
Pietrosul Rodnei Peak 2,303 7,556 Rodnei Mountains, Romanian Carpathian Mountains, Romania
Mount Sir Allan MacNab 2,297 7,536 Premier Range, British Columbia, Canada
Murree 2,291 7,516 Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Druesberg 2,282 7,487 Alps, Switzerland
Ineu Peak 2,279 7,477 Rodnei Mountains, Romanian Carpathian Mountains, Romania
Bikku Bitti 2,267 7,438 Libya – Second Highest in country
Sri Pada Mountain 2,243 7,359 Sri Lanka
Mount John Laurie 2,240 7,349 Canadian Rockies, Alberta
Red Butte 2,232 7,323 Arizona, USA
Čvrsnica 2,228 7,310 Herzegovina, BiH
Mount Kosciuszko 2,228 7,310 Snowy Mountains, New South Wales, Australia – Highest on mainland
Mount Chiginagak 2,221 7,287 Alaska, USA
Mount Townsend 2,209 7,247 Snowy Mountains, New South Wales, Australia – Second-highest on mainland
Harney Peak 2,207 7,241 South Dakota, USA – Highest in state
Golden Hinde 2,198 7,211 #1 on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Mount Twynam 2,196 7,205 Snowy Mountains, New South Wales, Australia – Third-highest on mainland
Elkhorn Mountain 2,195 7,201 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Mount Baldy 2,192 7,192 Alberta, Canada
Shiprock 2,188 7,178 New Mexico, USA
Mount Tahan 2,187 7,175 Tahan Range, Pahang, Malaysia – Highest in Peninsular Malaysia
Mount Korbu 2,183 7,162 Titiwangsa Mountains, Perak, Malaysia
Mount Yong Belar 2,180 7,152 Perak, Malaysia
Doi Chiang Dao 2,175 7,136 Thailand
Galunggung 2,168 7,113 Java
Carruthers Peak 2,145 7,037 Snowy Mountains, New South Wales, Australia
Crna Glava 2,139 7,018 Bjelasica, Crna Gora
Mount Colonel Foster 2,135 7,005 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Roche à Perdrix 2,135 7,005 Fiddle Range, Canadian Rockies
Kodaikanal 2,133 6,998 Tamilnadu, India
Mount Pilatus 2,132 6,995 Switzerland
Strmenica 2,122 6,962 Bjelasica, Crna Gora
Phu Soi Dao 2,120 6,955 Thailand/Laos
Eagle Peak 2,119 6,952 Alaska, USA
Zekova Glava 2,117 6,946 Bjelasica, Crna Gora
Öræfajökull 2,110 6,923 Iceland
Mount Benum 2,107 6,913 Malaysia
Mogotón 2,107 6,913 Nicaragua – Highest in Nicaragua
Kebnekaise 2,106 6,909 Sweden
Rambler Peak 2,092 6,864 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Mount McBride 2,083 6,834 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Pico do Selado 2,082 6,831 Monte Verde, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Phou Khe 2,079 6,821 Thailand/Laos
Schneeberg 2,076 6,811 Northern Limestone Alps, Austria
Mount Tate 2,068 6,785 Snowy Mountains, New South Wales, Australia
Bjelašnica 2,067 6,781 Sarajevo Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Kings Peak 2,065 6,775 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Hoverla 2,061 6,762 Ukraine – Highest
Mount Katmai 2,047 6,716 Alaska, USA
Mount Celeste 2,041 6,696 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Mount Mitchell 2,037 6,683 Yancey County, North Carolina, USA
Namunukula 2,035 6,677 Sri Lanka
Mount Batu Brinchang 2,032 6,667 Cameron Highlands, Pahang/Perak, Malaysia
Doi Mae Tho 2,031 6,663 Thailand
Clingmans Dome 2,025 6,644 Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee, USA
Polar Bear Peak 2,016 6,614 Chugach Mountains, Alaska, USA
Mount Asgard 2,015 6,611 Baffin Mountains, Nunavut, Canada

1,000 metres[edit]

Mount Tongariro – 1,978 m (6,490 ft)

Trident Volcano – 1,864 m (6,115 ft)

Loser – 1,838 m (6,030 ft)

Snæfellsjökull – 1,446 m (4,744 ft)

Ben Nevis – 1,344 m (4,409 ft)

Uummannaq – 1,070 m (3,510 ft)
Mountain Metres Feet Location and Notes
Serra da Estrela 1,993 6,539 Portugal
Mount Bogong 1,986 6,516 Australia – Highest in Victoria
Mount Ishizuchi 1,982 6,503 Japan – Tallest in Western Japan
Doi Phu Kha 1,980 6,496 Luang Prabang Range, Thailand
Mount Tongariro 1,978 6,490 New Zealand
Iceberg Peak 1,977 6,486 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Pico Turquino 1,975 6,480 Cuba – Highest point
El Piveto Mountain 1,969 6,460 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Qiajivik Mountain 1,963 6,440 Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada
Farcau Peak 1,956 6,417 Romania
Ciucas Peak 1,954 6,411 Romania
Chionistra 1,952 6,404 Cyprus
Hallasan 1,950 6,398 CheJudo, South Korea/ Highest Mountain in South Korea
Jabal Bil Ays 1,934 6,345 Oman
Mullayanagiri 1,930 6,332 Chikmagalur, Karnataka, India
Mount Kirigamine 1,925 6,316 Japan
Mount Washington 1,917 6,289 Presidential Range, White Mtns., Appalachian Mountains, USA– Highest in American Northeast
Mount Jiri 1,915 6,283 South Korea
Mont Ventoux 1,909 6,263 France
Ocolasu Mare 1,907 6,257 Romania
Mount Toaca 1,900 6,234 Romania
Vesper Peak 1,896 6,220 Washington, USA
Baba Budangiri 1,895 6,217 Chikmagalur, Karnataka, India
Kudremukh 1,894 6,214 Chikmagalur, Karnataka, India
Orjen 1,894 6,214 Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mount George V 1,883 6,178 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Rugged Mountain 1,875 6,152 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Straja 1,868 6,129 Romania
Trident Volcano 1,864 6,115 Alaska, USA
Mount Martin 1,863 6,112 Alaska, USA
Knuckles 1,862 6,109 Sri Lanka
Budacu 1,859 6,099 Romania
Giumalau 1,856 6,089 Romania
Cucurbata Mare 1,849 6,066 Romania
Crown Mountain 1,846 6,056 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Tibles 1,839 6,033 Romania
Loser 1,838 6,030 Austria
Vladeasa 1,836 6,024 Romania
Cerro La Campana 1,828 5,997 Olmue, Chile
Muntele Mare 1,826 5,991 Romania
Cerro de la Silla 1,820 5,971 Mexico
Biligiriranga Hills 1,800 5,906 Chamarajanagar, Karnataka, India
Rigi 1,797 5,896 Swiss Alps
Hășmașu Mare 1,792 5,879 Romania
Pietrosu Peak 1,791 5,876 Romania
Goru 1,784 5,853 Romania
Lacaut 1,777 5,830 Romania
Saca Peak 1,776 5,827 Romania
Penteleu 1,772 5,814 Romania
Mount Veve 1,768 5,801 Kolombangara, Solomon Islands
Mount Api 1,750 5,741 Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia
Tadiandamol 1,748 5,735 Kodagu, Karnataka, India
Mount Rogers 1,746 5,728 Virginia, USA – Highest point in state
Doi Phi Pan Nam 1,745 5,725 Luang Prabang Range, Thailand
Mount Wilson 1,742 5,715 California, USA
Daisen 1,729 5,673 Japan
The Horn (Mount Buffalo) 1,723 5,653 Victoria, Australia
Mount Batur 1,717 5,633 Bali, Indonesia
Kumara Parvata 1,712 5,617 Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India
Pushpagiri 1,712 5,617 Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka, India
Mount Lowe 1,707 5,600 San Gabriel Mountains, California, USA
Boulder Peak 1,707 5,600 Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA
Doi Luang 1,694 5,558 Phi Pan Nam Range, Thailand
Mitre Peak 1,692 5,551 New Zealand
Mount Caubvik 1,652 5,420 Torngat Mountains, Canada
Rarau 1,650 5,413 Romania
Peak 5390 1,643 5,390 Alaska, USA
Mount Marcy 1,629 5,344 New York, USA
Brahmagiri 1,608 5,276 Kodagu, Karnataka, India
Mount Katahdin 1,606 5,269 Maine, USA
Sněžka 1,602 5,256 Krkonoše, Czech Republic – #1 in Czech republic
Sirumalai 1,600 5,249 Tamilnadu India
Mount Washington (British Columbia) 1,590 5,217 Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Mount Benarat 1,585 5,200 Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia
Wai’ale’ale 1,569 5,148 Kauai, Hawaii, USA
Mount Baw Baw 1,567 5,141 Australia
Cirque Mountain 1,567 5,141 Labrador, Canada
Superstition Mountain 1,542 5,059 Arizona, USA
Jabel Yibir 1,527 5,010 United Arab Emirates
Madikeri 1,525 5,003 Kodagu, Karnataka, India
Mount Popa 1,518 4,980 Myanmar
Askja 1,516 4,974 Iceland
Kamakau 1,512 4,961 Molokai, Hawaii, USA
Javaleon 1,494 4,902 Spain
Mount Nuang 1,491 4,892 Titiwangsa Mountains, Malaysia
Hekla 1,491 4,892 Iceland
Mount Pinatubo 1,486 4,875 Luzon, Philippines
Spruce Knob 1,482 4,862 West Virginia, USA
Agriolefkes 1,471 4,826 Pelion, Greece
Mount Seymour 1,455 4,774 British Columbia, Canada
Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta 1,450 4,757 Chamarajanagar, Karnataka, India
Snæfellsjökull 1,446 4,744 Iceland
Gutai Peak 1,443 4,734 Romania
Mount Kalourat 1,435 4,708 Malaita, Solomon Islands
Cypress Mountain 1,432 4,698 British Columbia, Canada
Yelagiri 1,410 4,626 Tamilnadu, India
Ben Nevis 1,344 4,409 Scotland – Highest in the United Kingdom
Kodachadri 1,343 4,406 Shimoga, Karnataka, India
Mount Aniakchak 1,341 4,400 Alaska, USA
Cerro de Punta 1,338 4,390 Jayuya, Puerto Rico – Highest in Puerto Rico
Mount Bassie 1,311 4,301 Alaska, USA
Ben Macdhui 1,309 4,295 Scotland
Mount Kanaga 1,307 4,288 Alaska, USA
Sinhagad 1,303 4,275 Maharashtra, India
Rajabasa 1,281 4,203 Sumatra, Indonesia
Mount Vesuvius 1,281 4,203 Italy
Mount Ophir 1,276 4,186 Titiwangsa Mountains, Johor, Malaysia
Mount Wellington 1,271 4,170 Tasmania/Australia
Mount Si 1,270 4,167 Washington\, USA
Detunata 1,258 4,127 Romania
Mount Donna Buang 1,250 4,101 Victoria, Australia
Camel’s Hump 1,244 4,081 Vermont, USA
Cannon Mountain 1,240 4,068 New Hampshire, USA
Grouse Mountain 1,231 4,039 British Columbia, Canada
Kaʻala 1,220 4,003 Oahu, Hawaii, USA
Mount Jerai 1,217 3,993 Titiwangsa Mountains, Kedah, Malaysia
Mount Meron 1,208 3,963 Galilee, Israel – Highest in Israel (inside the ’67 borders)
Doi Lan 1,174 3,852 Phi Pan Nam Range, Thailand
Mount Diablo 1,173 3,848 California, USA
Bidean nam Bian 1,150 3,773 Scotland
Monte Musinè 1,150 3,773 Piedmont, Italy
Brocken 1,141 3,743 Saxony-Anhalt, Germany – Highest mountain in the Harz; highest in Saxony-Anhalt
Victoria Peak 1,120 3,675 Belize – 2nd highest mountain in Belize
Snowdon 1,085 3,560 Gwynedd, Wales – Highest
Tafelberg 1,085 3,560 South Africa
Flattop Mountain 1,070 3,510 Alaska, USA
Uummannaq 1,070 3,510 Greenland
White Butte 1,069 3,507 North Dakota, USA – Highest in state
Liathach 1,055 3,461 Torridon, Scotland
Corrán Tuathail 1,038 3,406 County Kerry, Ireland – Highest mountain in Ireland
Mount Ramon 1,037 3,402 Negev, Israel
Buachaille Etive Mor 1,022 3,353 Glen Etive, Scotland
Munboksan 1,015 3,330 South Korea
Kékes 1,014 3,327 Hungary – Highest mountain in Hungary
Mount Belumut 1,010 3,314 Johor, Malaysia
Old Rag Mountain 1,001 3,284 Virginia, USA

Under 1,000 metres[edit]

Mount Santubong – 810 m (2,657 ft)

Mt. Boucherie – 758 m (2,487 ft)

Qalorujoorneq – 676 m (2,218 ft)
Mountain Metres Feet Range Location and Notes
Magura Priei 996 3,268 Romania
Sgurr Dearg 986 3,235 Cuillin Scotland
Mount Sizer 980 3,215 Diablo Range USA (California)
Mount Valin 980 3,215 Saguenay Lac St-Jean Canada (Québec)
Hyangnosan 979 3,212 Gyeongnam Province, South Korea
Scafell Pike 978 3,209 Southern Fells England (Cumbria) – Highest in England
Mount Edgecumbe 976 3,202 USA (Alaska)
North Mountain (Catskills) 969 3,179 Catskill Escarpment USA (New York)
Tai Mo Shan 957 3,140 Hong Kong – Highest in Hong Kong
Helvellyn 950 3,117 Eastern Fells England (Cumbria)
El Cerro del Aripo 940 3,084 Northern Range Trinidad and Tobago – Highest point
El Tucuche 936 3,071 Northern Range Trinidad and Tobago
Lantau Peak 934 3,064 Hong Kong
Kaimondake volcano 924 3,031 Kagoshima, Japan
Pantokrator 906 2,972 Greece (Corfu)
Baekunsan 885 2,904 Ulsan, South Korea
Mount Gerizim 881 2,890 West Bank
Sunset Peak 869 2,851 Hong Kong
Slaíbh Domhnaírt 856 2,808 Mourne mountains County Down, Northern Ireland
Tinakula 851 2,792 Tinakula Solomon Islands
Muntele Cetatuia 850 2,789 Romania
Mount Magazine 839 2,753 Ozark Mountains Arkansas, USA
Hoemunsan 837 2,746 North Jeolla Province, South Korea
Drocea 836 2,743 Romania
Mount Carleton 817 2,680 Appalachian Mountains Canada (New Brunswick)
Mount Santubong 810 2,657 Malaysia (Sarawak)
Gros Morne 807 2,648 Canada (Newfoundland)
Clisham 799 2,621 Harris,Western Isles,Scotland
Mount Tamalpais 792 2,598 California Coast Ranges USA (California)
Gyemyeongsan 774 2,539 North Chungcheong Province, South Korea
Mount Boucherie 758 2,487 Canada (British Columbia)
Gaseopsan 710 2,329 North Chungcheong Province, South Korea
Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō 698 2,290 USA (Hawaii)
Signal de Botrange 694 2,277 High Fens Belgium (Liège) – Highest in Belgium
Ishpatina Ridge 690 2,264 Canada (Ontario)
Galgisan 685 2,247 Gyeonggi Province, and Gangwon Province, South Korea
Delphi 681 2,234 Greece (Skopelos)
Qalorujoorneq 676 2,218 Greenland
Maple Mountain 642 2,106 Canada (Ontario)
Masaya 635 2,083 Nicaragua
High Willhays 621 2,037 England (Dartmoor)
Munsusan (Ulsan) 600 1,969 Ulsan, South Korea
Mount Takao 599 1,965 Tokyo, Japan
Sikjangsan 596 1,955 Daejeon, South Korea
Gwanggyosan 582 1,909 Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
Mount Pond 576 1,890 South Shetland Islands
Mount Tabor 575 1,886 Galilee, Israel
Monte Conero 572 1,877 Italy (Ancona)
Gyeryongsan 566 1,857 South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea
Namamsan 543 1,781 Ulsan, South Korea
Great Mell Fell 537 1,762 Eastern Fells England (Cumbria)
Geomdansan (Seongnam) 534.7 1,754 Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
Yeonhwasan 532 1,745 Ulsan, South Korea
Heukseongsan 519 1,703 North Chungcheong Province, South Korea
Little Si 480 1,575 Cascade Range Washington, USA
Tutuiatu Peak 467 1,532 Romania
Pu’u Moaulanui 452 1,483 Kahoolawe, Hawaii
Blue Mountain 452 1,483 Ontario, Canada
Muryongsan (Ulsan) 452 1,483 Ulsan, South Korea
Dongdaesan (Ulsan) 447 1,467 Ulsan, South Korea
Diamond Hill 442 1,450 Connemara National Park Ireland
Storm King Mountain 408 1,339 Hudson Highlands USA (New York)
Gyeyangsan 395 1,296 Incheon, South Korea
Loughrigg Fell 335 1,099 Central Fells England (Cumbria)
Mount Kinka (Gifu) 329 1,079 Gifu, Japan
Vaalserberg 321 1,053 Netherlands (Limburg)
Suur Munamägi 318 1,043 Haanja, Estonia
Aukštojas 293.84 964 Medininkai, Lithuania
Kruopinė 293.65 963 Vilnius, Lithuania
Juozapinė 292.7 960 Vilnius, Lithuania
Hwajangsan 285 935 Ulsan, South Korea
Jerimoth Hill 247 810 Rhode Island, USA
Diamond Head 232 761 USA (Hawaii)
Yeomposan 203 666 Ulsan, South Korea
Hamwolsan 200 656 Ulsan, South Korea
Britton Hill 105 344 Florida, USA – The lowest high point of any US state
Mount Tenpō 005 16 Osaka, Japan

See also

[11][outer zod]

The Elements

.

The universe…everything…is made up of four or five elements or more, depending on which philosophical system you follow.  All plants, animals, stones, inanimate objects, emotions, forms of energy, and us, are a fusion of these elements.

 Classical Elemental Correspondences

The classical system of elements was developed by the eary Greeks and at first contained only four elements, spirit was later added over time.

Fire Air Water Earth  Spirit 
Greek Name έιλή, heile άήρ, aer ύδωρ, hydor Γαια, gaia ίδέα, idea or ίερόν, hieron “a divine thing”
Alchemical Metal  iron, gold  mercury silver lead
Animals dragon, lion, horse, fox, ram, snakes, bee, shark, centaur, praying mantis eagle, hawk,             dragonfly,  owl, birds,       bat, gryphon, winged  angel, insects sea serpent, dolphin, whale, fish, seal, frog, turtle, sea birds, swan cow, bull, ox, buffalo, ant, bear, stag, wolf, gopher unicorn, sphinx, dragon, gargoyle, mythical creatures
Archangel Micheal Raphael Gabriel Uriel Cassiel, Metatron
Astrological Signs Aries, Leo, Sagittarius Libra, Aquarius,          Gemini Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces Capricorn, Taurus, Virgo
Body Parts head, liver chest, throat, lungs heart, kidneys, stomach bones, sex organs
Buddhist Mantra Pam Tam Mum Mam Om
Colors red, orange,gold, pink, purple, crimson, white yellow, white, ice               blue, sky blue, violey, silver ,gray, pastels blue, aqua, turquoise, silver, sea-green, pinkish blue, indigo, gray, black black, green, brown, olive, tan, orange clear, brilliant white, black
Consciousness will inteliigence wisdom memory enlightenment
Creative Process idea development reception form completion
Direction (Northern Hemisphere) South East West North Center
Direction (Southern Hemisphere) North West East South complettion
Elementals Salamanders, Djunn, Genies Sylphs, Faeries Undines, Nymphs, Merfolk, Sirens Gnomes, Dwarves, Elves, Hobgoblins, Leprachauns Angels
Elementals Attracted By candles, lamps, incense, fire oils, incense water, solutions salts, powders, earth
Evangelists Mark Matthew John Luke
Goddesses Brigit, Vesta, Hestia, Bast, Pele Aradia, Arianhod,Nuit,  Urania,Iris, Aditi Aphrodite, Tiamat, Mari, Yemaya Gaia, Ceres, Demeter, Rhea, Persephone, Rhiannon Isis, Shekinah, Cerridwen, Ahura
Gods Hephaestus, Hours, Vulcan, Logi, Ra, Prometheus Mercury, Thoth, Vayu, Zeus, Enlil Poseidon, Neptune, Osiris, Ea Dionysus, Pan, Tammuz, Cernunnons Akasha, Buddha, JHVH, Iao
Hand small finger index finger ringer finger middle finger thumb
Hebrew Letter Yod Vau He He (final)
Human Age youth birth middle age old age, death transcendence
Human Aspect life force mental, mind emotional body physical body spiritual body, soul
Levels of Understanding spiritual, mystical logical psychological literal
Life Cycle sexual maturity youth conception old age beyond birth and death
Magical Action to will or do to dare to know to keep silent
Metals gold, brass mercury, tin silver, copper lead, iron meteorite metal
Mode of Perception feeling thinking intuition sensation
Mode of Thinking will intellect emotion belief
Musical Instrument guitar, all stringed instruments flute, organ, all wind instruments harp drums, all percussion instruments
Natural Form animal plant metal stone
Places fires, deserts, ovens, fireplaces, volcanoes, hot springs, bedroom (for sex) plains, mountain peaks, towers, sky, bluffs, treerops, windy beaches, schools, libraries, airplanes rivers, oceans, streams, waterfalls, ponds, beaches, springs, wells, bedroom (for sleep), bathtubs, swimming pool, fountains caves, mountains, forests, parks, mines, meadows,groves, gardens, kitchens, basements, valleys
Planes of Existence spiritual plane mental plane astral plane physical plane
Planets Sun, Mars Mercury, Jupiter Moon, Venus Earth, Saturn, fixed stars
Plant Part seed flower leaf root
Plants peppers, garlic, mustard, onion, heliotrope, buttercup, sunflower, cedar, beech, red poppy, nettle,cactus, lime, basil, juniper, orange, thistle yarrow, violet, pansy, anise, lemongrass, pine, aspen, lavender, yarrow,clover, dill lotus, fern, moss, water lily, cattails, seaweed, melons, cucumber, night flowers, water plants, aloe, lemon, lettuce, thyme, chamomile, willow, passion flower grains, grasses, ivy, apple, comfrey, cedar, magnolia, oak, sage, nuts, cypress mistletoe, nightshade, fir, coltsfoot, hemlock
Polyhedron Icosahedron (20 faces) Octahedron (8 faces) Dodecahedron (12 faces) Cube (6 faces) Tetrahedron (4 faces)
Principles of Change disintergration, acceleration movement metamorphosis slowing, solidifying changeless, constant
Professions peasant, working class, explorer, inventor, administrator politician, lawyer, scientist, military, nobility clergy, artist, healer, psychologist farmer, tradesman, industrial worker, crafts person
Qualities hot & dry hot & moist cold & moist cold & dry
Ritual Forms burning herb, images, candles, and incense divination, meditation, singing, writing, chanting, numerology, finding lost or stolen objects using teas, bathing, washing planting, burying, carving runes, visualising
Season Summer Spring/Winter Fall Winter/Spring Turning of the Whell
Sense sight smell taste touch hearing
Sephirah Netzach, Chokmah Yesod, Tiphareth Hod, Binah Malkuth Kether
Sounds crickets, bees flute waterafll, ocean, bell, cymbals, gong drums, thunder
State energy gas liquid solid
Stones fire opal, ruby, amber, obsidian, carnelian sapphire, topaz, lapis lazuli, citrine, amethyst pearl, aquamarine, river stone, fluorite, moonstone, geode salt, granite, emerald, jade, malachite quartz crystal, diamond, black onyx, jet
Syllable of Creation Ra Ya Va La
Symbols Sun, stars, lightening, fire, double-headed axe, volcano sly, clouds, wind, incense, bell, flute, birds all bodies of water, rain, fog, shells, ship’swheel, anchor, boat, bath cave, mountain, rocks, scythe, cornucopia, gardens spiral, the cosmos
Tarot Court Cards Kings Knights Queens Pages
Tarot Suit Sword Wnads Cups Pentacles
Tarot Trump Card Judgement Fool Hanged Man World Hermit
Tattva Sanskrit Name Tejas Vayu Apas Prithivi
Tattva Shape red triangle blue circle silver crescent yellow square
Temperaments (active) enthusiasm, activity, eagerness,courage, energy, resolution, faithfulness optimism, independence, kindness, joy, capacity to penetrate, ability to communicate, clarity compassion, devotion, commitment, modesty, gentleness, forgiveness, meditative, friendship endurance, stability, determination, balance, thoughtfulness, confidence, responsibility
Temperaments (passive) jealousy, gluttony, stubbornness, ander, aggression, egotism, possessive gossiping, dishonesty, selfishness, lack of endurance indifference, laziness, depression, timidity boredom, dullness, mistrust of others, tardiness, slow
Tetramorph Lion Man Eagle Ox Sphinx
Tibetan Directions West North East South Center
Time of Day noon dawn sunset, twilight midnight now, all time
Tools athame, sword, candle, match, axe, wand staff, wand, censor, flag, spear, bow, dagger cauldron, mirror, cup, net, trident, bowl pentacle, cords, scourge, horn, shield, trowel, pick, mace, stones bell, lamp, cauldron
Tree flowering almond aspen willow oak ash
Types of Magic Tantra, candle magic, healing, color magic, fire scying magic of the four winds, finding lost or stolen object, invocation, divination, shamanism love magic, purification, healing, divination, mirror magic, dream magic tree magic, fertility magic, herb lore, rune magic, cord magic, feng shui
Viewpoint future outward inward past completion
Wind Notus Eurus Zephyrus Boreas, Ophion storms
Yin/Yang (Duality) Yang Yang Yin Yin Yin/Yang

 

The Chinese Five Elements

 

 

The Chinese believe that we are surrounded by five energy fields: wood, fire, earth, metal, and water…representations of different types of chi…life and creative energy.  They believe the elements are not static; that they are constantly moving and changing.  Once the five elements were identified, the Chinese began to categorize all phenomena within the five elements.  Rivers, mountains, trees, music, sounds, our bodies…physical, emotional, and spiritual, the forces of nature, ect. were all classified.

In traditional Chinese philosophy the five elements are known Wu Xing also translated as the five phases, five movements or five steps.  “Wu Xing” is actually the short form of “Wu zhong liu xing zhi chi” or “the five types of chi dominating at different times. These are the five basic forms of energy, constantly being transformed from one into another throughout the natural world. In people the elements determine our whole physical, psychological and emotional balance.  The five types of chi and their properties are:

Water runs downwards, liberal
Wood grows upwards, enduring
Fire spreads in all directions, radiant and hot
Metal pierce in one direction, sharp and pointing
Earth attracts and concentrates, stable

 

The doctrine of five phases describes two cycles of balance between the elements.  The first is a cycle of generation or creation, 生 shēng. The second cycle is one of overcoming or destruction, 克, .

Generating

  • Wood feeds fire;
  • Fire creates earth (ash);
  • Earth bears metal;
  • Metal collects water;
  • Water nourishes wood.

Overcoming

  • Wood parts earth;
  • Earth absorbs water;
  • Water quenches fire;
  • Fire melts metal;
  • Metal chops wood.

There are also two cycles of imbalance…the overacting cycle, cheng, and the insulting cycle, wu.

 

Wood Fire Earth Metal Water
qualities leadership, assertiveness, creativity, planning, decision-making, competitiveness, conflict, anger, frustration self-expression, emotional extremes, empathy, extrovert, attention-seeking, sociable, talkative caring, supportive, nourishing, family-oriented, stability, grounding, “mother hen”, worrier precise, meticulous, logical, analytical, moderation, self-control, morality, tendency to pessimism solitude, privacy, introspection, philosophy, mystery, truth, honesty, anxiety, nervousness, insecurity
color green, blue red, orange, purple, pink yellow, brown white, golden, silver dark blue, black
number 8 7 5 9 6
shape straight line, rod like triangle cube sphere wavy
direction east south zenith west north
planet Jupiter Mars Saturn Venus Mercury
heavenly creature Azure Dragon Vermillion Bird Yellow Dragon White Tiger Black Tortoise
climate windy, rain heat windy, damp clear, dry cold
season spring summer change of seasons (every third month) autumn winter
months 1-2 4-5 3,6,8,12 7-8 10-11
period of growth germination, sprouting growth, blooming transformation, ripening harvest, collection storage, withering, dormant
animals scaled winged naked furred shelled
livestock dog sheep and goat cattle chicken pig
fruit plum apricot dates peach chestnut
grain barley and wheat rice millet corn beans
meat poultry lamb beef horse pork
vegetable onions, chives, mallow endive and grain cabbage, potatoes, carrots, and scallions watercress and onions coarse greens and leeks
day Thursday Tuesday Saturday Friday Wednesday
Yin-Yang lesser yang utmost yang center lesser yin utmost yin
energy generative expansive stabilizing contracting conserving
movement grows upward, enduring spreads in all directions, radiant and hot attracts and concentrates, stable pierce in one direction, sharp and pointing runs downwards, liberal
produces wood produces fire fire produces earth earth produces metal metal produces water water produces wood
overcomes wood overcomes earth fire overcomes metal earth overcomes water metal overcomes wood water overcomes fire
sound calling laughing singing crying and lamenting moaning
music note chiao – kaku – E chih – chi – G kung – kyû – C shang – shô – D yü – u – A
phase of life birth youth adulthood old age death
virtue benevolence propriety good faith righteousness knowledge
mental quality sensitivity creativity clarity intuition spontaneity
positive emotion patience joy love and empathy courage calmness
negative emotion anger and frustration over excitation worry and anxiety grief and sadness fear
taste sour bitter sweet pungent salty
finger index middle thumb ring little
body  part tendons pulse muscle skin bones
zang organs (yin) liver heart spleen  lungs kidneys
fu organs (yang) gall bladder small intestine stomach large intestine bladder
sense sight speech taste smell hearing
sense organ eyes tongue mouth nose ears

 


 The Hindu Elements…

The Chândogya Upanishad contains a desciption that is most likely the earliest Hindu viewpoint of the elements.

 

Element Tattwa Name Color Foods Color BodyAssociation
Fire agni red oil, butter, and fat red bone, marrow, and speech
Water ap white water white urine, blood, and prân.a (breath)
Air prithivi black other foods black flesh, mind, and feces

According to the Bhagavad-Gita and the Sankhya school of thought the three elements relate to the the three gunas, forces of nature…the causes of everything, and the order of the elements is changed.

Element Guna  (force of nature) Color Caste
Water sattva(goodness) – pure, elevating, enlightening white Brahmins—teachers, scholars and priests
Fire rajas(passion) – motivates us to create, acquire and enjoy red Kshatriyas—kings and warriors
Earth tamas(ignorance) – dirty, degrading, deluding, and destructive black or brown Vaishyas—traders, Shudras—agriculturists, service providers, and some artisan groups, and Parjanya or Antyaja(now called Dalits)— “untouchables”

 

 

The Hindus believe that God created the four elements with akasha, and and that the knowledge of all human experience is contained in the akashic records.

The roots of Tattvic philosophy go back to at least 2000 BC.  Tattva or tattwa(from tat, meaning “that” and tvam, meaning “thou”) means “thatness”…the real state of being of everything.  The five elements – Akasha, Vayu, Tejas, Apas, Prithivi – exist in ALL matter.

Each tattva contains within itself a combination of the other four and themselves, and therefore are fivefold in nature.  The sub-Tattvas are symbolized by placing a smaller Tattvic symbol within the larger main Tattvic symbol.  Therefore there are a total of 25 Tattvas: Spirit of Spirit, Air of Spirit, Fire of Spirit, Water of Spirit, Earth of Spirit; Air of Air, Fire of Air, Water of Air, Earth of Air, Spirit of Air; Fire of Fire, Water of Fire, Earth of Fire, Spirit of Fire, Air of Fire; Water of Water, Earth of Water, Spirit of Water, Air of Water, Fire of Water; & Earth of Earth, Spirit of Earth, Air of Earth, Fire of Earth, Water of Earth.

Apas Tejas Prithivi Vayu Akasha
qualities weightless, mobile, cool, dry, porous and subtleanything dry and airy, or that creates gas

motion or movement, evaporation, dryness

hot, sharp, dry, subtle, weightless and roughanything combustible and spicy

radiation of heat and light

heavy, rough, solid, stable, slowanything solid and heavy

resistance, density

oily (unctuous), moist, cool, soft, and stickyanything liquid, fluid or watery

cohesion, lubrication

soft, light, subtle and abundantanything that is light, profuse, and ethereal

provides room, looseness, openness

facilitator of touch and vibration form, color and temperature fragrance, odor and shape fluidity and taste (via saliva) sound and non-resistance
element water air earth air ether
symbol silver crescent red triangle yellow square blue circle black or indigo oval (vesica piscis)
direction west south north east center
mantra Ram Pam Lam Vam Ham
food toast, cookies, cabbage, beans chilies, ginger, pepper, clove, cumin fried foods, cheese, cakes, banana drinks, soups, melons, cucumber hollow and light foods – popcorn, wafers
human body taste, genitals, procreation, tongue, taste form, legs, walking, eyes, vision smell-odor, excretory organs, excretion, nose touch, hands, giving and receiving, skin, tactile perception sound, vocal cords, speech, ears, hearing
physical effect increases coolness, dryness, movement and circulation increases digestion, metabolism (fire and heat), glow and color of skin increases heaviness, stability, obesity and solidity in the body increases smoothness, coolness, softness and flow of fluids increases softness and lightness in the body
taste astringent hot, spicy sweet acid bitter

 

The Gogyo and Godai…Japanese Systems of  Five Elements

Everything in the universe is said to be a manifestation of these five elemental ‘building blocks’.  Nothing is solely composed of one element, but is a complex combination of all five.

“The Five Goings or Journeys” or “The Five Transformations“…The Gogyosystem uses the elements of water(sui), wood(mokyu), fire(ka), earth(do), and metal(kin) to represent the elements and how they interact in organic creation, as in our bodies.  These is the parts and pieces, examples…the outward appearances we use to categorize and identify objects.  These elements show the life and/or death cycle of all things.  This system was influenced by the Chinese elemental system.

The Five Great Elements”or The Five Manifestations“…The Godai system uses the elements of earth(chi), water(sui), fire(ka), wind(fu), void(ku) to represent how the “ten thousand things” come forth from the void.  The five elements are known as manifestations or appearances.  The elements are a system of cataloging all the individual parts or objects of that are part of the universe and created in the universe.  These elements are the life, breath, and pulse that gives something substance…makes it real.  It is used to understand creation throughout the universe of which all creation is a part of.  It is believed to understand the working of the godai will help a person achieve knowledge and enlightenment.  This system was imported from Tibet.

 

The five elements can been seen represented in Japanese architecture and art.  Each story of the five-story pagoda corresponds to one of five elements. The bottom story is square and corresponds to the earth. The second story is spherical and corresponds to water.  The third story is triangular and corresponds to fire.  The fourth story is a reclining half-moon shape and corresponds to wind.  The uppermost part of the structure is gem or teardrop shaped and corresponds with space.  Japanese lanterns also have a similar structure.

The Gogyo

 

Sui Mokyu Ka Do Kin
element water wood fire earth metal
stages of human life the joining off egg and sperm birth as a beginning of new life growth through childhood adult years, settling down with a companion and starting the cycle again the planning stage, the intention to become a parent
energy states energy in a pooling, collecting, or sinking state upward reaching, new growth expanding or evaporating energy condensing energy compacting energy
natural life stages the coming together of all things necessary to allow growth to take placethe seed, soil, moisture, warmth, ect. a separate and distinct creation or “life” which is different from its base partsa shoot, root, or leaf maturityflowers, fruits, nuts, and roots life endingwithering and drying out decompositionthe plant returning to the soil it came from

The Godai

Chi or Tsuchi Sui or Mizu Ka or Hi Fū or Kaze Kū or Sora
element Earth Water Fire Wind or Air Void, Space, Sky, or Heaven
natural objects and forces the hard, solid objects of the worldstones the fluid, flowing, formless things in the worldplants, rivers, the changing seasons the energetic, moving, forceful things in the worldanimals, lightning things that grow and expand, and enjoy freedom of movementair, smoke things beyond our everyday experiencespirit, thought, creative energy
body bones, muscles, tissues blood, bodily fluids the metabolism and body heat, the emotions of drive and passion breathing, the mind the ability to think and communicate, creativity
associations stubbornness, stability, physicality, gravity emotion, defensiveness, adaptability, flexibility, magnetism motivation, desire, intention, an outgoing spirit will, elusiveness, benevolence, compassion, wisdom power, creativity, spontaneity, inventiveness
Shinto God ChijinGod of Earth SuijinGod of Water KajinGod of Fire FuujinGod of Wind
finger little finger ring finger middle finger index finger thumb
direction north west south east center
color red orange yellow green blue

The “Great Elements” in Buddhism

    Mahābhūta is  Pali for the “Great Elements” used among  Buddhists as well as some Hindus, Jains and Sikhs.  The four Great Elements are earth, water, fire and air, and later a fifth, space, was added. In early Buddhism, the Four Elements were known the basis for understanding and for liberating oneself from suffering.  The Pali canon describes the Great Elements as both external and internal…of the body, such as bone and blood, and outside the body, as a river or tree.

Element Earth Water or Liquid Fire Air or Wind
Pali name paţhavī-dhātu āpo-dhātu tejo-dhātu vāyo-dhātu
Character solidity cohesion heat movement
Internal attributes head hair, body hair, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bone, organs, intestinal material, ect. bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, nasal mucus, urine, ect. those bodily functions that produce physical warmth, aging, digestion, ect. associated with the pulmonary system, as in breathing, the intestinal system, for example the bowels, etc.

There are also two other elements occasionally referred to in the Pali canon:

Element Void or Space Consciousness
Pali name ākāsa-dhātu viññāņa-dhātu
Internal Attributes bodily orifices such as the ears, nostrils, mouth, anus, sex organs, ect. used by the body to be aware of the three feelings of pleasure, pain and neither-pleasure-nor-pain

 

Void Water Earth Fire Air
Buddhas Vairocana
The Buddha Supreme and Eternal; The Radiant One
Akshobhya
The Immovable or Unshakable Buddha
Ratnasambhava
The Source of Precious Things or Jewel-Born One
Amitâbha
The Buddha of Infinite Light
Amoghasiddhi
The Almighty Conquerer or Lord of Karma
jewels sapphire diamond gold ruby emerald
direction center east south west north
shape almond dome & sphere square triangle crescent
mantra om hûm tram hrîh âh
body crown navel knee chest brow
sense organ mind ears eyes nose body
sensory objects sounds sights smells tastes & textures
realms gods hells human hungry ghosts demons

 

The Five Elements of Bön

Bön is the oldest spiritual tradition in Tibet.  The five elements  are the energies that all that happens, all that exists…our bodies, our emotions, and the physical world—are composed of.  Historians have discovered that Tibetan prayer flags also originate from the Bön culture.  The flags symbolize the balance and union of the elements.  Tibetan prayer flags come in sets of five, one corresponding to each color of one of the five elements.  The flags are arranged from right to left in the following sequence of colors:  blue, symbolizing space; white, symbolizing air; red, symbolizing fire; green, symbolizing water; and yellow, symbolizing earth.  Vertically placed the yellow flag goes at the bottom, the blue flag on top.

Earth Water Fire Air Space
physical property solidity cohesion temperature motion the dimension that contains the other four elements
organ spleen kidneys liver lungs
sense smell taste sight touch hearing
Khandro (goddess — pure aspect of the element) yellow khandrogrounded blue khandrocalm and comfort red khandrojoy and creativity green khandroflexibility white khandrothe great mother from whom the other elements come
qualities strength, steadiness, security, focus, connection calm, comfortable, sensuous, relaxed, peaceful, flowing energy, warmth, strong will, inspiration, creativity, bliss flexibility, liveliness, freshness, quickness ease, clarity, expansiveness, vastness
meditation image powerful, solid mountains vast, calm lake fiery volcano fresh wind through the valley and across the mountains vast open sky over the desert or plains

The Six Tastes are represented by a combination of the elements:

  • Sweet – earth and water
  • Sour – fire and earth
  • Salty – water and fire
  • Astringent/Pungent – wind and water
  • Bitter – wind and earth
  • Hot/Spicy – fire and wind

 

The Early Moon

In Babylon, the Moon god Sin was referred to as the Lord of Wisdom and He Who Would Open the Gate to Heaven. At first glance this is a valuable statement. How is heaven defined? Is it “a condition or place happiness?” Or is the term heaven, just a reference to the sky? Why does that wisdom apply to the Babylonian Moon? Could it be that an astrological view, wisdom and thus happiness, resulted from acquiring invaluable knowledge gained, not by following the Sun or planets, but primarily observing the Moon’s nocturnal position as it moved across the sky?

In Egypt the Moon was associated with an eye because of its association with the retina and its appearance to blink over a period of time, opening after the new Moon and closing after the full Moon. The Moon was known as Khons, the Eye of Horus, Osiris, Ptah and was sometimes associated with Min. The Egyptian Moon’s energy symbolized the goddess power and believed to be transmitted to only those on Earth who understood its magic. of supreme

The ancient Egyptian preceptors believed that there were two minds within the human being the solar and lunar. The solar mind represented the autonomic system regulating the heart and blood, intestines and glands that comprise the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The lunar mind regulated the hypothalamic and cranial glands and functioned in terms of reflected light through the retina (Lawler).

Historically, the Chinese, Hindu, Arabic and Babylonian societies all relied heavily on the Moon for their predictive work and omina. Today, when Hindu or Chinese astrologers may ask about the time of birth, they are much more interested in the Moon’s position than any other planet. What is really amazing is that early literature about the Moon is very rare and nearly impossible to find even though the concept of the daily lunar mansion, the Moon’s motion was used extensively in ancient astrology.

With all this, there had to be more than just watching the Moon at night. Through the millennia the Babylonian/Chaldean culture and, to a small extent, the Egyptians continued to adjust their entire way of life to the whimsical lunar calendar. The Babylonians followed the Moon’s irregular course for over 40 centuries and yet the Moon remained their Lord of Wisdom. Why the so long? What magic and what wisdom does it have to offer? The lack of available information, either contemporary or ancient, is surprising because lunar progressions are a powerful predictive tool. Any astrologer who is unaware of the power of the Moon is missing a very important facet in his predictive work.

All the above ideas relate to the ancient belief that the Moon was the Earth’s offspring. For this reason the ever-changing Moon came to symbolize the child. If we look at the Moon’s location in the Egyptian cosmology chart, we notice the Moon is located near the “out of control” angle of the fourth house cusp. This position of the Moon symbolizes the idea o

The Early Moon

In Babylon, the Moon god Sin was referred to as the Lord of Wisdom and He Who Would Open the Gate to Heaven. At first glance this is a valuable statement. How is heaven defined? Is it “a condition or place happiness?” Or is the term heaven, just a reference to the sky? Why does that wisdom apply to the Babylonian Moon? Could it be that an astrological view, wisdom and thus happiness, resulted from acquiring invaluable knowledge gained, not by following the Sun or planets, but primarily observing the Moon’s nocturnal position as it moved across the sky?

In Egypt the Moon was associated with an eye because of its association with the retina and its appearance to blink over a period of time, opening after the new Moon and closing after the full Moon. The Moon was known as Khons, the Eye of Horus, Osiris, Ptah and was sometimes associated with Min. The Egyptian Moon’s energy symbolized the goddess power and believed to be transmitted to only those on Earth who understood its magic. of supreme

The ancient Egyptian preceptors believed that there were two minds within the human being the solar and lunar. The solar mind represented the autonomic system regulating the heart and blood, intestines and glands that comprise the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The lunar mind regulated the hypothalamic and cranial glands and functioned in terms of reflected light through the retina (Lawler).

Historically, the Chinese, Hindu, Arabic and Babylonian societies all relied heavily on the Moon for their predictive work and omina. Today, when Hindu or Chinese astrologers may ask about the time of birth, they are much more interested in the Moon’s position than any other planet. What is really amazing is that early literature about the Moon is very rare and nearly impossible to find even though the concept of the daily lunar mansion, the Moon’s motion was used extensively in ancient astrology.

With all this, there had to be more than just watching the Moon at night. Through the millennia the Babylonian/Chaldean culture and, to a small extent, the Egyptians continued to adjust their entire way of life to the whimsical lunar calendar. The Babylonians followed the Moon’s irregular course for over 40 centuries and yet the Moon remained their Lord of Wisdom. Why the so long? What magic and what wisdom does it have to offer? The lack of available information, either contemporary or ancient, is surprising because lunar progressions are a powerful predictive tool. Any astrologer who is unaware of the power of the Moon is missing a very important facet in his predictive work.

All the above ideas relate to the ancient belief that the Moon was the Earth’s offspring. For this reason the ever-changing Moon came to symbolize the child. If we look at the Moon’s location in the Egyptian cosmology chart, we notice the Moon is located near the “out of control” angle of the fourth house cusp. This position of the Moon symbolizes the idea of seeking guidance and/or being a guide.

Of course, the nature of the Moon is such that in order to be seen it needs the Sun’s light to do so. In this fashion we see the Moon’s position in the birth chart as that of an addiction in seeking nurture and protection to preserve its own nature. This is readily seen in the case of the performing arts. Its position in the chart indicates a basic need and inclination to please people, wanting to be liked and accepted by them. On the other hand, in both the birth and sunset charts, an afflicted Moon by association to harsher planets, such as Mars, Saturn and sometimes even the Sun or Jupiter, manifests as a marked propensity toward an antagonistic or even a shy attitude toward people. In either case we voluntarily give up some form of our sovereignty and go out of our way to please or displease others, because at the moment it seems the right thing to do.
Lunar Awareness

The degree of one’s sensitivity is registered by the Moon’s position by decanate. The Moon’s influence changes by virtue of its degree of longitude. The Moon located in the first ten-degree decanate indicates the development of understanding “emotional buttons.” The child learns early to assimilate knowledge concerning emotive reactions. In the second or “teen-degree” decanate, the decanate of change, the native feels that that his emotional needs may never be fulfilled, this Moon placement is its most risky position. The Moon in the second decanate is “constantly inconstant,” or desiring change for the sake of change. This restlessness is reflected in all parts of the lifestyle as a constant search for an ephemeral “something.” The native often avoids close personal relationships because he feels if someone really got to know him they may find that, emotionally, “no one is home.”

In the third decanate of goal seeking, the Moon higher than twenty-degrees reflects as “seeking guidance” to find answers to satisfy emotional objectives. Often an individual with a third decanate Moon placement will rarely reveal any weak position in a given situation. At times, when involved in conversation, the native may not be “up to par” on a given subject. And with this Moon placement he will probably wait to see if, further in the conversation, the speaker will reveal more information without the native having to ask for it. In this way, he feels that he is in control and maintains his idea of self-esteem. The Moon in this decanate usually reflects as the “perfect student” who synthesizes his mentor’s doctrine and infuses it with his own ideas. Later the student in return challenges his teacher’s original ideas intellectually. As with other planets, we should scrutinize the Moon’s arena very carefully.

The Moon is our main source of information through recognizing emotional responses. Review your own past circumstances or that of a client to indicate behavior patterns that may reveal future tendencies. Examine the first and last aspect the Moon makes. Later on this page, we will find that it is most importantto note the initial aspect the Moon makes by rogression and as well as all the Moon’s aspects throughout the rogression. Pay close attention to the Moon there will always be some lunar aspect in connection with events that are important to you.
The 24-Hour Lunar Arc

The numbers eighteen and twenty-eight have long been associated with the Moon. Additionally, during a Saros cycle of eighteen years and eleven days, there are no less than twenty-eight eclipses during that period somewhere on the planet. The daily motion of the Moon is found by observing the Moon’s motion measured by longitude from the beginning to the end of each 24-hour period.

It is very important to remember that the Moon travels about one degree of longitude every two hours, or approximately 12 degrees in 24 hours, this known as its rate of motion usually abbreviated as ROM. However, for a more accurate measurement, it is better to calculate the actual rate of motion of the Moon’s ROM than just using 12* as an average motion. This is accomplished by the usual procedure of deducting the Moon’s longitude from the previous day of birth using the exact time of day on both occasions. You will find the rate of motion by subtracting the longitude of the previous day from the longitude of the birthday. The distance the Moon travels by degree during that 24-hour period is called the lunar arc, its ROM or, in this work, the lunar mansion.
The Lunar Mansion

Today, there are three systems correlating to the twenty-eight lunar mansions. They are called Nakshastras in the Hindu/Vedic astrology system, Sieu in the Chinese system and Manzils (mansions) in the Arabic system. Each mansion begins with a fiduciary or reference star as its starting point. The reason the number 28 is assigned or fixed as lunar “stations” or mansions in contemporary analysis (not this work however), is derived by dividing the average ROM of 12° 51′ into 360. To list these fiducial points would be meaningless and would require too much space.

Additionally, and I think most importantly, the idea of positioning the lunar mansion as fixed points of reference reduces the Moon’s emotional influence into a static and boxed state without any personal consideration of the client. That is definitely something the Moon is not. The origin of fixed lunar mansions is probably derived from the term “Manzils,” the Arabic term for mansions by al Biruni, the tenth-century Arabian astrologer. The rate of daily lunar motion can vary from as little as 11° 36″ to as much as 15° 06″. One’s personal lunar mansion is described by the longitudinal motion the Moon travels during the complete 24-hour period of the day of birth. This format could be the probable Chaldean lunar mansion, which was not fixed, but measured by the Moon’s variable distance by its daily motion as it traveled through the zodiac between sunset to sunset.

In this work we, too, measure the lunar mansion by the variable daily motion and distance the Moon travels through the zodiac during the sunset to sunset period.

Astrologically, we can relate celestial mechanics with the Moon’s motion and the motion of the Sun. The Sun requires approximately two hours of real time to travel the distance of 30° in longitude or one house. The Moon also requires approximately two hours of real time to travel one degree of longitude. Based on the “aging” process known as “rogression.”, the Sun will move one house every six years and the Moon will generally advance but only by one degree or preferably, by its calculated hourly rate. The advancement by the Moon of one degree for each house the Sun travels is important to remember when the chart is rogressed.

The personal rate of motion of the lunar mansion describes the emotional demeanor of the person as noted in the chart by the first and last aspects the Moon makes. It is also a very important indicator of the person’s emotional journey because its placement clearly indicates life’s state of affairs.

The emotional “urge” is directed and best described as an inner recognition of the basic need that has been imprinted on the child during the formative years.This imprint is indicated by the Moon’s firstexact aspect to a planet or angle. Thecharacteristic manifestation is reflected by the Moon’s last exact aspect to a planet or angle. The last aspect made by the Moon indicates the individual’s attitude in acquiring the Moon’s first aspect’s basic need. Those with Jupiter as the first or last aspect just expect good things to happen, regardless of their situations. Those with Mercury feel that they can think or talk things through to resolution. Saturn, as the first or last aspect, promotes a reluctance to see things positively or the need to control them. With Mars, the native thinks with his fist or has a “might makes right” macho attitude.

Emotional “urges,” as seen by the lunar mansion, coupled with the lunar progressions, clearly dictates the direction of the native and the native’s changing circumstances. This is easy to follow because the Moon will continue to aspect the other planets as it advances one degree every six years. Very often, transitswill trigger a situation based only on the position of the rogressed Moon.

The lunar mansion then, is defined as the Moon’s first and last aspect to the planets or angles made during the 24 hours of the native’s birth. And those aspects indicate the emotional needs for fulfillment and quality of the native’s emotional life. During the life, other aspects made by the rogressed Moon represent the conditions and circumstances to which the native feels drawn.
Imprinting: First and Last Lunar Expression

Remember I mentioned that the Moon advances one degree every six years. While working with the lunar mansion, we are primarily interested in watching for two items.

 

(1) The house and the present lunar position by degree
(2) We want to find out in what time frame or how old the individual was when the Moon reached its first aspect to another planet by degree and the nature of the aspect. The age tells us the importance of imprinting as it happened to the native.
(3) What planet does the Moon last aspect by exact degree and its nature.

 

As a recap, the last planet the Moon aspects indicate how the native expects his hopes, wishes and dreams to manifest. The Sun, Venus or Jupiter represents more of a sense of ebullience than that of Mars or Saturn. The last aspect also indicates the overall emotional state and the inner sense regarding the conditions at the end of life and death. The Sun, Venus or Jupiter shows a willing or peaceful transition, Saturn or Neptune may indicate chronic illness, Uranus, Pluto or Mars a quick death.

Remember: The Moon’s first aspect identifies the most basic emotional urge for satisfying one’s self-expression and is designated by the planet and aspect by the Moon. Planets placed between the first and last aspects represent important changes in the lifestyle or crossroads experiences during the life. But alwayskeep in mind that the Moon’s first aspect is the native’s imprint, a deep-seated desire for emotional fulfillment. The nature of the planet and its type of aspect delineate this point. The last aspect represents the characteristic manifestationthe expected end result of his desires as signified by the planet and it’s aspect.

For example, say a client’s Moon makes its first aspect to Mercury. His emotional nature would be Mercurial and changeable with the need for self-expression, either verbally or in writing. Should Saturn be the last planet aspect made by the Moon, this would be toned down by intellectualism or perhaps even labored. With Jupiter as its last aspect there is more vitality and fervor.

To determine the individual’s emotional state when viewing the age of an incident by year, advance the sunset chart to the house that represents the age of the event. By counting the number of houses the Sun has rogressed by age, add the number of houses to the degree of longitude of the Moon, then look for any planet that has the same degree, either by rogression or transit. Note the planet’s enclitic influence as the Moon assimilates those energies as if it were its own process.

This can be likened to an earlier astrological custom of the translation and collection of light where the Moon picks up the energy pattern from the last planet it was in contact with and transfers that pattern of energy to the next planet it aspects. We call this function enclitic.

For example, should the Moon aspect Venus by conjunction and later sextile Jupiter, the now enclitic Moon will act as if it were Venus-oriented when it aspects Jupiter. This circumstance, taken alone, would describe someone either with an abundance of charm, a loving, charitable person or possibly someone with an artistic nature wishing to express it in a global way. If Venus the first and Jupiter was the last aspect respectively made by the Moon, with a harmonious Sun and/or planet placement(s), we would notice a distinctively warm and friendly individual. With a negative Sun or inharmonious planet placement, we might notice an inclination to laziness, conceit and perhaps negligence. In either case the individual would have “film star mannerisms” with a tendency to gain in popularity in spite of himself.

Origins of the Lunar Mansion

To begin, there are three Zodiacs. The Solar zodiac where the Sun travels in its apparent orbit through the tropical signs (and sidereal constellations). The Lunar zodiac where the Moon has a much wider path of 5.5 degrees above and below the Solar ecliptic (Latitude) giving a total of 10+ degrees in width. And a planetary zodiac where the planets travel, yet again, in a different path around the Sun, this is because the planets pass through many more signs than the Sun does seen from the viewpoint of Earth!

Sidereally, the Sun passes through 13 signs counting Ophiuchus. The Moon currently passes through 20 signs (constellations); however in Babylonian times, there were only 18 accounted for. The planetary zodiac is contained within 17 degrees North and South of the Sun’s ecliptic giving a wider band of 34 degrees over which the planets pass (counting Pluto).

The reason for the existence of these three zodiacs is simply that the Moon’s and the planets’ orbits appear a little tilted in comparison of each other due to the Earth’s 23+ degree axis compared to the Sun’s ecliptic.

As mathematical calculations were understood by less than .04 percent of the population, the ancients devised ways to substitute the degrees of longitude and latitude with associated names of either circumstances of the year or with attributes of animals. With this idea in mind, we can recognize this process becoming the animated Zodiac many centuries later by different cultures.

To wit, the word for Sun in Accadian was used in two different ways; one for astronomy and the second for astrological purposes. This process was the same for all the monthly and planetary names.

Thus, if we examine the associated, numberless monthly names for the Babylonian year plus the planet’s various names, we find a distinct association between Babylonian Epochal writings and poems with the planetary passages through the signs. As a matter of fact, we can find these same associations of astronomical reasons in the Siege of Troy or the wanderings of Ulysses in the Odyssey! In Fact many stories in legendary times correspond to a sign of the Zodiac and consequently to a month within a year which agrees to the character of each particular myth.

From this idea, we can conclude that the different names for the planets were used to associate a planet’s location with an asterism; a source of major confusion for archeologist in the past as there were many different names for the same planet found in Babylonian texts.

If we take that step up one rung of the ladder we can easily recognize how the Lunar Mansions may have begun. Calling the Moon’s position “resting places” would be the one concept that, considering the time that this concept arose, the Lunar Mansion idea would have been an easy way to simply identify the Moons position without any mathematical calculations. Much the same as the earlier Babylonians had done.

With this, we find considerable evidence that the Lunar Draconic system then developed into 28 “houses” with the associated monthly or animal nomenclature while the Solar Zodiac remained with only twelve.
At the time of the Babylonians, the lunar mansions didn’t exist as we know them today. The ancients assigned the lunar diurnal position using ‘star signposts’ during their nightly watch.
In this fashion, the Chaldeans gave us fixed star observations. The Mul.Apin tablets contain the most comprehensive surviving Babylonian star and constellation catalogue from before 600 BC.
The 33 stars on the path of Enlil
The 23 stars on the path of Ea
The 15 stars on the path of Anu

Egypt, on the other hand, developed some 300 years after the Babylonians and had a similar process, called “working stars,” possibly derived from the Babylonians. These ‘working stars’ were based on their Heliacal rising at10 day intervals.

The Chaldean lunar calendar considered the first quarter, full moon, last quarter and new Moon as evil days. The Egyptians carried this idea to an extreme by assigning their deities to a yearly, monthly, weekly, daily, hourly and even in some cases smaller segments of time we would consider as minutes today.

As Egyptian deities were considered favorable and unfavorable, there would be variable times when these deities would come into conflict thereby creating a inauspicious time to accomplish any endeavor considered worthwhile.

Enter the Chinese. Traditionally, their “Tzu Wei Tou Shu” system is supposed to date back four and a half millennia, to the reign of Emperor Huáng Dì. “Oracle bones” have survived from the Shang dynasty from about 1200-1045 BC. Some Astrological texts on predictions exist in the Chinese historical records ca. 206 BC – AD 220. The Chinese Zodiac simply related to the yearly sojourn of the Sun and not the monthly Solar zodiac found in the West. > Interestingly, the earliest reference to the Lunar mansions is with China dating back to 3117 BC ! This information comes to us VIA the Great Chinese wall thought to be a megalith similar to Stonehenge. The wall begins with the constellation of beta-Hydra, the Great Dragon, the 28th Xiu marking the Solstice of 3117 BC.

The Grecian occupation of both Persian and Egyptian soil eventually conflated all the different cultural “star programs” and converted both systems into a singular, noetic set of interrelated principles. The intellectual mental climate of Greece organized the different ‘star principles’ into a method of orderly interaction in connection with the seasonal changes.

Most likely, the Lunar mansions started much later than the Hellenistic period (323 BC to 146 BC) as there are no records indicating that the Lunar mansions, as we know them here in the West, were used before or during, that period.

The Babylonian Spring Equinox began with the Sun in Taurus. As such, the moon stations were adopted into India later, perhaps everywhere, from the Mesopotamian literature we find in the Mul Apin. The Mul.Apin lists the names of 66 stars and constellations and further gives a number of indications, such as rising, setting and culmination dates, that help to map out the basic structure of the Babylonian star map.

Scholars mostly agree that the Arabic “Al Manazil al Kamr” or ‘The resting place of the Moon’ is more than likely the origin of the Lunar mansions of today. The Lunar mansion beginning with Al Nath and Al Butain begin in Aries suggesting that The Lunar Mansions were developed at a much later date than Mesopotamian astronomy would indicate.•

Arthyr Chadbourne
June 29, 2008

“Courteous Reader, Astrology is one of the most ancient Sciences, held in high esteem of old, by the Wise and the Great. Formerly, no Prince would make War or Peace, nor any General fight in Battle, in short, no important affair was undertaken without first consulting an Astrologer.”
-BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

 

f seeking guidance and/or being a guide.

 

 

The mansion

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Moon Mansions: The 28 Mansions of the Moon

“And in these twenty eight Mansions do lie hid many secrets of the wisdom of the antients, by the which they wrought wonders on all things which are under the circle of the Moon; and they attributed to every Mansion his resemblances, images, and seals, and his president intelligences, and worked by the virtue of them after different manners.” (“The MAGUS or CELESTIAL INTELLIGENCER” by Francis Barrett)

The ancient astrologers knew and used in their work aside from the 12 zodiacal signs of the Sun, also 28 mansions of the Moon or lunar mansions.

They represent an ancient wisdom, now very little spread among the astrologers, yet they are of great use both in natal and electional astrology as well as in magical purposes.

These mansions are subdivisions of the zodiac, equal in size, which start at 0º Aries and last 12º51´26´´ each.

The monthly transit of the Moon through each of these mansions generates a different influence as follows:

 

Influence of the Moon Mansions

Texts from “The MAGUS or CELESTIAL INTELLIGENCER” by Francis Barrett, London, 1801

  • The Moon in the 1st mansion – it causes discords, and journies; (0 Aries to 12 Aries 51)
  • The Moon in the 2nd mansion – it conduces to the finding of treasures, and to the retaining [of] captives; (12 Aries 51 to 25 Aries 42)
  • The Moon in the 3rd mansion – it is profitable to sailors, huntsmen, and alchymists; (25 Aries 42 to 8 Taurus 34)
  • The Moon in the 4th mansion – it causes the destruction and hindrances of buildings, fountains, wells, gold mines, the flight of creeping things, and begets discord. (8 Taurus 34 to 21 Taurus 25)
  • The Moon in the 5th mansion – it confirms edifices, it gives health and good-will; (21 Taurus 25 to 4 Gemini 17)
  • The Moon in the 6th mansion – it conduces to hunting, and besieging of towns, and revenge of princes, it destroys harvests and fruits and hinders the operation of the physician; (4 Gemini 17 to 17 Gemini 8)
  • The Moon in the 7th mansion – it confers gain and friendship, its profitable to lovers, it scares flies, destroys magistracies; (17 Gemini 8 to 0 Cancer)
  • The Moon in the 8th mansion – it causes love, friendship, and society of fellow travellers, it drives away mice ands afflicts captives, confirming their imprisonment; (0 Cancer to 12 Cancer 51)
  • The Moon in the 9th mansion – it hinders harvests and travelers, and puts discord between men; (12 Cancer 51 to 25 Cancer 42)
  • The Moon in the 10th mansion – it strengthens buildings, yields love, benevolence and help against enemies; (25 Cancer 42 to 8 Leo 34)
  • The Moon in the 11th mansion – it is good for voyages, and gain by merchandise, and for redemption of captives; (8 Leo 34 to 21 Leo 25)
  • The Moon in the 12th mansion – it gives prosperity to harvests, and plantations, but hinders seamen, and is good for the bettering of servants, captives and companions; (21 Leo 25 to 4 Virgo 17)
  • The Moon in the 13th mansion – it is prevalent for benevolence, gain, voyages, harvests, and freedom of captives; (17 to 17 Virgo 8)
  • The Moon in the 14th mansion – it causes the love of married folks, it cures the sick, is profitable to sailors, but hinders journies by land; and in these the second quarter of Heaven is completed; (17 Virgo 8 to 0 Libra)
  • The Moon in the 15th mansion – its profitable for the extracting of treasures, for digging of pits, it assists divorce, discord, and the destruction of houses and enemies, and hinders travelers; (0 Libra to 12 Libra 5)
  • The Moon in the 16th mansion – it hinders journies and wedlock, harvests and merchandise, it prevails for redemption of captives; (12 Libra 51 to 25 Libra 42)
  • The Moon in the 17th mansion – it betters a bad fortune, makes love durable, strengthens buildings, and helps seamen; (25 Libra 42 to 8 Scorpio 34)
  • The Moon in the 18th mansion – it causes discord, sedition, conspiracy against princes and mighty ones, and revenge from enemies, but it frees captives and helps edifices; (8 Scorpio 34 to 21 Scorpio 25)
  • The Moon in the 19th mansion – it helps in the besieging of cities and taking of towns, and in the driving of men from their places, and for the destruction of seamen, and perdition of captives; (21 Scorpio 25 to 4 Sagittarius 17)
  • The Moon in the 20th mansion – it helps for the taming of wild beasts, for the strengthening of prisons, it destroys the wealth of societies, it compels a man to come to a certain place; (4 Sagittarius 17 to 17 Sagittarius 8)
  • The Moon in the 21st mansion – it is good for harvests, gain, buildings and travellers, and causes divorce; and in this is the third quarter of Heaven is completed; (17 Sagittarius 8 to 0 Capricorn)
  • The Moon in the 22nd mansion – it promotes the flight of servants and captives, that they may escape, and helps the curing of diseases; (0 Capricorn to 12 Capricorn 51)
  • The Moon in the 23rd mansion – it is for divorce, liberty of captives and the health of the sick; (12 Capricorn 51 to 25 Capricorn 42)
  • The Moon in the 24th mansion – it is prevalent for the benevolence of married people, for the victory of soldiers, it hurts the execution of government, and prevents it being exercised; (25 Capricorn 42 to 8 Aquarius 34)
  • The Moon in the 25th mansion – it favors besieging and revenge, it destroys enemies, causes divorce, confirms prisons and buildings, hastens messengers, it conduces to spells against copulation, and so binds every member of man, that it cannot perform its duty; (8 Aquarius 34 to 21 Aquarius 25)
  • The Moon in the 26th mansion – it causes union, health of captives, destroys buildings and prisons; (21 Aquarius 25 to 4 Pisces 17)
  • The Moon in the 27th mansion – it increases harvests, revenues, gain, and heals infirmities, but hinders buildings, prolongs prisons, causes danger to seamen, and helps to infer mischiefs on whom you shall please; (4 Pisces 17 to 17 Pisces 8)
  • The Moon in the 28th mansion – it increases harvests and merchandise, it secures travellers through dangerous places; it makes for the joy of married couples, but it strengths prisons, and causes loss of treasures; (17 Pisces 8 to 0 Aries)

The angels and the Moon mansions

There are twenty-eight angels, who rule in the twenty-eight mansions of the moon, whose names are these; Geniel, Enediel, Anixiel, Azariel, Gabriel, Dirachiel, Scheliel, Amnediel, Barbiel, Ardefiel, Neciel, Abdizuel, Jazeriel, Ergediel, Atliel, Azeruel, Adriel, Egibiel, Amutiel, Kyriel, Bethnael, Geliel, Requiel, Abrinael, Agiel, Tagriel, Atheniel, Amnixiel.

Symbolic images for the Moon’s influence in each mansion

  • In the first, for the destruction of some one, they made, in an iron ring, the image of a black man, in a garment of hair, and girdled round, casting a small lance with his right hand: they sealed this in black wax, and perfumed it with liquid storax, and wished some evil to come.
  • In the second, against the wrath of the prince, and for reconciliation with him, they sealed, in white wax and mastich, the image of a king crowned, and perfumed it with lignum aloes.
  • In the third, they made an image in a silver ring, whose table was square; the figure of which was a woman, well clothed, sitting in a chair, her right hand being lifted up on her head; they sealed it, and perfumed it with musk, camphire, and calamus aromaticus. They affirmed that this gives happy fortune, and every good thing.
  • In the fourth, for revenge, separation, enmity, and ill-will, they sealed, in red wax, the image of a soldier sitting on a horse, holding a serpent in his right hand: they perfumed it with red myrrh and storax.
  • In the fifth, for the favour of kings and officers, and good entertainment, they sealed, in silver, the head of a man, and perfumed it with red sanders.
  • In the sixth, to procure love between two, they sealed, in white wax, two images, embracing one another, and perfumed them with lignum aloes and amber.
  • In the seventh, to obtain every good thing, they scaled, in silver, the image of a man, well clothed, holding up his hands to Heaven, as it were, praying and supplicating, and perfumed it with good odours.
  • In the eighth, for victory in war, they made a seal in tin, being an image of an eagle, having the face of a man, and perfumed it with brimstone.
  • In the ninth, to cause infirmities, they made a seal of lead, being the image of a man wanting his privy parts, covering his eyes with his hands; and they perfumed it with rosin of the pine.
  • In the tenth, to facilitate child bearing, and to cure the sick, they made a seal of gold, being the head of a lion, and perfumed it with amber.
  • In the eleventh, for fear, reverence, and worship, they made a seal of a plate of gold, being the image of a man riding on a lion, holding the ear thereof in his left hand, and in his right holding forth a bracelet of gold; and they perfumed it with good odours and saffron.
  • In the twelfth, for the separation of lovers, they made a seal of black lead, being the image of a dragon fighting with a man; and they perfumed it with the hairs of a lion, and assafœtida.
  • In the thirteenth, for the agreement of married people, and for dissolving of all the charms against copulation, they made a seal of the images of both (of the man in red wax, and the woman in white), and caused them to embrace one another; perfuming it with lignum aloes and amber.
  • In the fourteenth, for divorce and separation of the man from the woman, they made a seal of red copper, being the image of a dog. biting his tail; and they perfumed it with the hair of a black dog and a black cat.
  • In the fifteenth, to obtain friendship and good will, they made the image of a man sitting, and inditing letters, and perfumed it with frankincense and nutmegs.
  • In the sixteenth, for gaining much merchandising, they made a seal of silver, being the image of a man, sitting on a chair, holding a balance in his hand; and they perfumed it with well smelling spices.
  • In the seventeenth, against thieves and robbers, they sealed with an iron seal the image of an ape, and perfumed it with the air of an ape.
  • In the eighteenth, against fevers and pains of the belly, they made a seal of copper, being the image of a snake with his tail above his head; and they perfumed it with hartshorn; and said this same seal put to flight serpents, and all venomous creatures, from the place where it is buried.
  • In the nineteenth, for facilitating birth, and provoking the menstrues, they made a seal of copper, being the image of a woman holding her hands upon her face; and they perfumed it with liquid storax.
  • In the twentieth, for hunting, they made a seal of tin, being the image of Sagittary, half a man and half a horse; and they perfumed it with the head of a wolf.
  • In the twenty-first, for the destruction of some body, they made the image of a man, with a double countenance before and behind; and they perfumed it with brimstone and jet, and put it in a box of brass, and with it brimstone and jet, and the hair of him whom they would hurt.
  • In the twenty-second, for the security of runaways, they made a seal of iron, being the image of a man, with wings on his feet, bearing a helmet on his head; and they perfumed it with argent vive.
  • In the twenty-third, for destruction and wasting, they made a seal of iron, being the image of a cat, having a dog’s head; and they perfumed it with dog’s hair taken from the head, and buried it in the place where they intended the hurt.
  • In the twenty-fourth, for multiplying herds of cattle, they took the horn of a ram, bull, or goat, or of that sort of cattle they would increase, and sealed in it, burning, with an iron seal, the image of a woman giving suck to her son; and they

 

  • hanged it on the neck of that cattle who was the leader of the flock, or they sealed it in his horn.
  • In the twenty-fifth, for the preservation of trees and harvest, they sealed, in the wood of a fig tree, the image of a man planting and they perfumed it with the flowers of the fig tree, and hung it on the tree.
  • In the twenty-sixth, for love and favour, they sealed, in white wax and mastich, the figure of a woman washing and combing her hair; and they perfumed it with good odours.
  • In the twenty-seventh, to destroy fountains, pits, medicinal waters, and baths, they made, of red earth, the image of a man winged, holding in his hand an empty vessel, and perforated; and the image being burnt, they put in the vessel assafœtida and liquid storax, and they buried it in the pond or fountain which they would destroy.
  • In the twenty-eighth, for getting fish together, they made a seal of copper, being the image of a fish; and they perfumed it with the skin of a sea fish, and cast it into the water where they would

 

  • have the fish gathered

 

  • .
The 27 Nakshatras
The nakshatras are one of the oldest references we have to astrology from the Rig Veda, dating back about 5,000 years ago. The Vedas are the religious scriptures of the great seers and sages of India. The nakshatras are like the zodiacal signs but more specific. Their meanings are derived from the constellations, fixed stars and the mythology behind these portions in the sky. They are rich in meaning and have ruling deities that reveal the stories or myths that bring to life the symbology referred to in our own lives.The nakshatras are divisions of 13 degrees 20 minutes starting from zero Aries and ending at 30 degrees of Pisces, 13.20 divided into the 12 signs is 27. The nakshatras are referred to as the lunar mansions because the Moon moves approximately 13.20 per day, therefore, resides in one nakshatra per day. The personal planet in which the nakshatra resides will reveal deep information about the individual in relation to the meanings of the houses (area of life), and what houses the planet rules.

For example, the planet that rules the 7th house (indicating a person’s spouse), will reveal detailed information about the spouse by the description of that nakshatra. If Aries is the sign of the 7th house, then Mars, the ruler of Aries (the nakshatra where Mars resides) will describe the spouse. If Mars is in the nakshatra Magha, the spouse would have all the kingly qualities of Magha.

 

Ashwini “the horse woman” 0.00 to 13.20 Aries
Symbol horse’s head
Deity Ashwini Kumaras the horse headed twins who, as physicians to the gods, perform medical miracles
Stars El Sharatan, the horn of the Ram. Its qualities are violent, outspoken, and brazen
Mythology Sanjna is the name of the goddess who disguised herself as a horse and fled from her husband because he betrayed her. He caught up with her, and their offspring produced the Ashwini Kumaras, the horse-headed twins. Each day the twins bring the dawn as their chariot speeds through the sky
Indications The “star of transport,” they are pioneers, explorers, always ready to try something new. They have zeal, and a zest for life. Heroic and very courageous, some will want to join the armed forces. Their restless and impatient nature has them rushing off quickly without planning ahead. Speed, not efficiency, is their preference. Their speech may be quick and halting, possibly stuttering, for the words can’t match the speed of their thoughts. They are the true trailblazers, headstrong and stubborn. As the symbol for new beginnings, they can represent a baby who goes after what it wants, not considering the inconveniences to others. They can be childish, irresponsible and inconsiderate. Ashwini rules all forms of transportation and fast travel. They are probably known for getting speeding tickets. Healers performing miracle healings are one of Ashwini’s gifts.
Bharani “the bearer of new life” 13.20 to 26.40 Aries
Symbol yoni, the female organ for reproduction
Deity Yama, god of death, or Dharma
Stars A binary star in the left foot of Andromenda, Almach gives honor and artistic ability.Menkar, placed in the jaw of the whale indicates disgrace, trouble with legacies, and dishonor.

 

Mythology This part of the sky was called Apabharani, which means “the waters that carry things away”. This refers to all the souls that will transit here when they die. Yama is like Pluto and leads the dead to the other world. Yama was the first man sent to earth and the first man to die
Indications Considered the “star of restraint,” this is a difficult nakshatra. It denotes struggles and obstacles that result in personal breakthroughs. It is symbolic of the birthing process where one has grown out of the present conditions and must go through the pain of a new birth to create a new life. It is about personal transformation. Since Yama was the first to come to earth, and the first to die, they may be the first to try or do things. Social reformers, activists and philosophers are prominent here. There is a tendency towards jealousy or being plagued by the jealousy of others. Because the womb is so confining, in the end there is a feeling of restriction or confinement for these individuals. They feel oppressed by others, large groups and restrictive laws imposed by the government. It can also refer to those who inflict oppression on others. Here is the mystery of life and death. They may be attracted to a position such as an OBGYN physician or a mortician. They can be fanatical and intolerant of others who have different opinions. They are excessive and indulgent sexually. Their inner struggles can become a spiritual transformation leading to enlightenment.
Krittika “the one who cuts” 26.40 to 10.00 Taurus
Symbol a knife, or a razor
Deity Agni, god of fire
Stars The Pleiades, (The “Weeping Sisters”) Alceyone one of the six Pleiades, is the star of sorrow, success and prominence. Algol is one of the most violent evil stars, which deals with decapitation or symbolically loosing your head.
Mythology Karttikeya, a powerful warrior, was born in the Pleiades and nursed by the six sisters who were falsely accused of infidelity.
Indications The “star of fire” is sharp, piercing and penetrating. People with this nakshatra have a cutting wit and can be sarcastic and critical. They are proud, ambitious and determined. They are passionate crusaders. As the nursemaids nurtured and protected Karttikeya, there is a protective influence, and they seem to adopt and care for children not their own. Their need to protect is where the warrior comes out. They are stubborn, aggressive and can be very angry. This nakshatra rules war, battles, and disputes. Since Agni is the ruling deity, these people have fast metabolisms and good digestion, and are usually good cooks. They have frequent ups and downs in life. Their passions can lead them to illicit sexual affairs, as the Pleiades were falsely accused. They are bigger than life and can rise to a place of fame and prominence.
Rohini “the red one” 10.00 to 23.20 Taurus
Symbol cart or a chariot, temple, banyan tree
Deity Brahma, or Prajapati, the creator
Stars There are five stars of the head of the Bull (the Hyades). Aldebaran is the red eye of the bull. This star gives enthusiasm, intelligence, eloquence, and public honors, but there can be sickness and violence.
Mythology Of the 27 daughters, Rohini was the Moon’s (Soma) favorite wife. He spent more time in this nakshatra, because of her beauty and seductive qualities. The others sisters became jealous and the father (Prajapati) cast a spell on Soma, where he becomes ill each month but recovers. This is why the Moon waxes and wanes each month.
Indications The “star of ascent,” the myth implies the suffering our intense desires may bring, for the Moon could not help his desire for Rohini. This is a passionate, sexually seductive nakshatra. These people are very attractive, alluring, and beautiful. They love luxury, art, music and all the finer things life has to offer. They are extremely materialistic and frown on those who don’t measure up to their taste and high culture. They can be spoiled, for nothing ever seems to be good enough for their high standards. They can be extremely critical of others, looking down at their seeming low class. As the myth implies, they can be over sexed, and use sex to get what they want. They can be very artistic and have an appreciation for beauty and the fine arts. This is a growth-oriented nakshatra, ruling crops and fertility. This implies they can rise to the top and achieve their desires. Also there is fertility for procreation, meaning they have children. This nakshatra gives wealth, but they must harness their worldly materialistic desires.
Mrigashira “head of a deer” 23.20 Taurus to 6.40 Gemini
Symbol deer’s head (Antelope)
Deity Soma, the Moon god (Chandra)
Stars Orion, a group of three stars that represent the head of the hunter in the sky. Bellatrix is on the left shoulder of Orin means “female warrior” gives military honors.
Mythology Orion was the sky god Prajapati the world maker. He became obsessed with his beautiful daughter Rohini and chased her though this part of the sky, changing forms for swiftness. One of the forms was the antelope. To save Rohini, Shiva shot an arrow through Prajapati sending him crashing down to earth, destroying the oneness of the Universe.
Indications This is referred to as the “star of searching”. These individuals are constantly searching or looking for something. They are restless, nervous types always traveling. They are collectors looking for one more piece to add to their collections. They love to shop and fine that special deal, and the shopping or searching never ends. Like the deer they are gentle, peaceful, tender and have large soft doe like eyes. They are seekers and are powerful investigators and researchers. Highly intelligent their quest will eventually take them to spiritual dimensions of their soul. There is a sensual provocative side that can lead to incestuous relationships as the myth suggests. The fun is in the chase or the journey not the destination, for then the trill is over. They are known for having beautiful children.
Ardra “the moist one” 6.40 to 20.00 Gemini
Symbol teardrop, diamond, a human head
Deity Rudra the storm god, “the howler” and god of destruction, another form of Shiva.
Stars Betelgeuse is situated on the shoulder of Orion. A star of power, it gives an active mind, with ups and downs in career, and marital wealth and honors.
Mythology Rudra the destroyer is a form of Shiva who brought down Prajapati (Orion) to save Rohini from the sexual violation of the daughter. This destroyed the unity of the cosmos.
Indications There is sadness as the symbol of the teardrop suggests. There is a very destructive quality here, but the destruction is necessary to save grace for the future. They create destruction and havoc wherever they go, sometimes even destroying themselves. This is the place of the dark night of the soul, for there is a new dawn or new beginning after the seeming tragedy. After the worse storms comes the beautiful sunny day, for the following nakshatra (Purnarvasu) means “return of the light.” The rain the storm clouds produce brings growth and fertileness. These individuals are good at creating things out of destruction. They like to renovate old discarded things. This can refer to fixing up old houses or cars. They do have a lust for power and material things, and can appear cold and calculating. Their violent temperament causes many tears and depression, which can lead to their early destruction and death. They need to develop a sense of gratitude and appreciation for this will heal many wounds. Their real satisfaction comes as they overcome their hardships, and the truth and realization that comes through their suffering.
Punarvasu “return of the light” 20.00 Gemini to 3.20 Cancer
Symbol bow and quiver (case that contains the arrows)
Deity Aditi, the mother of the gods, she is boundless, vast and limitless, goddess of abundance
Stars Castor and Pollux the Gemini twins; the full meaning is “the two who give back the good.” Castor was the mortal twin known for his skill in horsemanship. This star suggests intellect, sudden fame and honor, sometimes followed by sudden loss. Pollux the immortal twin is known for his skill in boxing. This star gives a courageous nature but cold and heartless.
Mythology Goddess Aditi is as vast and limitless as the sky. Her ability is the power to gain wealth and abundance. She is the earth goddess for productivity. Aditi is associated with virtues and strives to act nobly. She has 12 sons called the Adityas. The Adityas are related to the 12 months of the year and represent the 12 sovereign principles. Because of this she is worshiped for blessings and protection of children.
Indications This is referred to as the “Star of Renewal”. After the bleak storms of Ardra the light appears again. Those with this nakshata have the ability to bounce back again, for they have deep limitless inner resources, and no boundaries as to what they can accomplish. They are deeply philosophical, inspirational, and spiritual with a true genuine understanding, which gives them their wisdom. There hardly seems to be a shadow side. They are likable, and charming. Because of their forgiving ways, others seem to forgive them easily. They love to travel, but just as the arrow is returned to the quiver so must these natives have a home base with family to return. There is a definite theme of return and renewal. As they give back to the world their prosperity doubles. This is a very prosperous nakshatra. They don’t have the need for a lot, they are content with little.
Pushya “to nourish” 3.20 to 16.40 Cancer
Symbol cow’s utter (milk producing), the lotus, an arrow and a circle
Deity Brihaspati, or Jupiter the priest of the gods
Stars Three stars in the constellation of Cancer, North and South Asellis refer to giving care and nourishment.
Mythology Brihaspati is the guru or teacher of the gods and is lord of speech and prayer. Shiva made Brihaspati into the planet Jupiter. Brihhaspati had his wife Tara stolen by Soma, and she bore a child from this affair (Budha). Brihaspati was taken by the charm of this child and raised it as his own.
Indications Those who have this nakshatra are very religious, but usually in a conventional way. There is a helping, caring nature. They are very wealthy, abundant, sometimes to the point of opulence. They have close nit families. Since they are so high minded they come to believe they know it all, and can be very arrogant as to their orthodox beliefs. They believe they know all the rules, and they must make sure others follow their laws. They can be smug and believe they are the only ones who are right and the whole world is wrong, of course this indicates insecurity. The nourishment and abundance principle can create overweight problems. They are philosophers, and spiritual with boundless devotion. They want to share their inner wealth, so they are frequently teachers, preachers and professors
Ashlesha ‘the embracer” 16.40 to 30.00 Cancer
Symbol serpent, a curled up or coiled snake
Deity Sarpas, or the Nagas, deified snakes
Stars The ring of stars that form the head of the Hydra (a serpent like creature) Acubens situated on the southern claw of the crab, is good for writing, study of astrology and public affairs
Mythology The serpent is the symbol of great wisdom, found in the occult sciences such as astrology or psychology. The snake has been referred to as the kundalini energy that rises through the spine in bringing spiritual enlightenment and magical powers.
Indications These are penetrating and intense individuals, with hypnotic eyes. They can hypnotize you with their glare and presence. It has been referred to as the “Clinging Star”, implying they can squeeze the life out of you. They are profound and full of wisdom, but have been know to use it to the contrary, like black magic. They can be sneaky, crafty, devious liars. They attack when you lest expect it, are cold blooded, and dangerous. The end result is their convincing ways turn on them and they suffer the consequences of poisoning themselves. They cannot tolerate any criticism or humiliation. They are extremely sexual and may use it to manipulate and control others. When they become so distrustful, fearful and hurt they learn to turn their manipulative energy to divine wisdom and use their magic to achieve enlightenment. There can be interest in poisons in terms of medicines that heals.
Magha “the great one” 0.00 to 13. 20 Leo
Symbol royal throne
Deity Pitris, family ancestors, “The Fathers”
Stars Regulus, the heart of the lion, gives fame, lofty big ideals, with a thirst for power.
Mythology This is the constellation believed to be the where our ancestors dwell and await their opportunity to reincarnate back with their families on earth.
Indications They are noble and eminent persons with leadership abilities. In this nakshatra kings or presidents are born, or simply those who rule or take charge. There is a drive for power and wealth. They are traditional with strong values and strong ambitions leading to restlessness. They are attached to their heritage and ancestry, and will usually seek out their family tree or origins. Worldly power and a need for recognition can obsess them. They have a generous hart, and deep loyalty with possible arrogance and egotism. Elitism and class-consciousness can make them quite snobby. There is a sense of emptiness that drives them towards enlightenment.
Purva Phalguni “the former reddish one” 13.20 to 26.40 Leo
Symbol bed (the front legs), hammock, fig tree
Deity Bhaga god of bliss (marital) and prosperity
Stars Zosma, located in the back of the Lion, is a star of egotism and self-indulgence
Mythology The Phalgunis are the “marriage mansions”. Where the power of love and attraction start with Rohini , here it results in the settling down in marriage. Bhaga protects marital happiness and bestows family inheritance. Lord Shiva started his marriage precession under this star.
Indications This nakshatra implies by the bed or hammock it is a time of rest and relaxation. These individuals are usually carefree, never worry and rely on their luck. They are attractive, sensual, and affectionate. They are very social, with the ability to influence others, with their communicative skills. Social events and parties are their favorite activity. This has been called the party nakshatra. They are kind, generous, and loyal, and are seldom alone. They are usually married or in a long term relationship. Their joyousness can lead to excesses, going to the extremes. They are very sexual and passionate. They have robust health. They may be lazy and indulgent, lending to vanity and narcissism. They can be very artistic and often express themselves through music and dance. There is often a substantial family inheritance.
Uttara Phalguni “the later reddish one” 26.40 Leo to 10.00 Virgo
Symbol bed (four legs), or hammock
Deity Aryaman, one of the Adityas, rules patronage, kindness, and favors. Bhaga and Aryaman are invoked together
Stars Denebola, situated in the Lion’s tail, quick mind, noble, generous, with high honors, but has an association with people with bad reputations.
Mythology Aryaman governs marriage contracts, and protects family inheritance. Shiva and Shakti were married under this asterism.
Indications Friendship is important to these helpful, kind individuals. They are happiest when married. Relationships and family unity are important. The meanings of Purva Phalguni apply here as well, just a little subdued. It is called the “Star of Patronage” for their love of humanity and caring sincere nature. They want to alleviate the suffering in society. Basically the Phalguni’s are known to have a happy marriage. But, since this nakshatra cannot stand to be alone, they may settle for anybody, and become involved in a co-dependent relationship, leading to resentments and marriage problems. They are courageous and good with people, leading them into powerful positions. There is a tendency to be controlling and very stubborn.
Hasta “the hand” 10.00 to 23.20 Virgo
Symbol hand, or fist
Deity Savitri or Surya, the Sun
Stars There are five stars representing the five fingers on the hand. Algorab is a double star situated in Corvus on the right wing of the crow. This star brings business success, charm, but eventual fall from favor.
Mythology Savitar, the Sun God has the ability to manifest what we are seeking and place it in our hands. He gives life, and assists in childbirth. Savitar is “golden handed” everything he touches turns to light.
Indications The hand symbolizes skill with the hands, as in craftsmanship and the arts. They may use their hands for healing, possibly as a doctor or massage therapist. They can be a comedian with their great clever wit, and good sense of humor. They are entertaining and good speakers. Their early life may be plagued by hardships restraints and possible impediments. The fist indicates an ability to grasp ideas, and hold on to things material or spiritual. Sometimes it is hard for them to let go. The crafty hand can indicate a thief, as well as a pickpocket, for they may be plagued by poverty or lack of success, until they focus on the spiritual path. There is an innate desire to be helpful and serve, as in a counseling profession. They are highly intelligent, attracted to mysticism, possibly palmistry being their specialty.
Chitra “the bright one” 23.20 Virgo to 6.40 Libra
Symbol bright jewel, or pearl
Deity Tvashtar or Vishvakarma the celestial architect
Stars Spica, the bright star in the wheat ear of Virgo, this is one of the most auspicious stars of all denoting success, riches, and a love of the sciences and arts.
Mythology Tavashtar is the celestial architect that can shape how humanity will see the world. He creates the Universe by blowing the creatures into existence, fanning them with his wings. He is the master of maya and magic, and represents regenerative power and longevity.
Indications This is the “star of opportunity”. These individuals posses charisma, personal charm, and can be flashy and glamorous. They love bright colors and usually have very beautiful eyes with well-proportioned bodies. This is one of the most mystical nakshatras of all. They have deep spiritual depth and with sudden flashes of insight. They are wonderful conversationalist; they say the right thing at the right time. Chitra rules creation, indicating artistic ability, and organizational ability as in architectural design. Many artists are born in this asterism. With an affinity to jewels they may deal with gemstones. Chitra reflects the world of maya and delusions, which they are to over come.
Swati “the sword” or “independence” 6.40 to 20.00 Libra
Symbol young sprout swaying in the wind, coral
Deity Vayu, the wind god
Stars Acturus situated in the left knee of Bootes, denotes riches, renown, prosperity, success in the fine arts, and self-determination.
Mythology Vayu is the purifier that represents the pranayama (breath) that sustains all life. The goddess, Saraswati is associated with this nakshatra. She is the goddess of learning, education, and the arts.
Indications They excel in the fields of music, literature and art. Financial and business successes are part of their gifts. They are blessed with the art of communication, revealing their knowledge and interest. Their ability to ride with the wind makes them extremely flexible. They are curious and eager to learn. Some are very psychic and intuitive. They are vulnerable, striving for independence, but are always survivors. Swati also translates as “the priest” and are learned in theology. Sometimes they can be high strung, and shallow. Because of their Vata nature must be careful of their diet causing too much wind.
Vishaka “the forked shaped” 20.00 Libra to 3.20 Scorpio
Symbol Triumphal arch, potter’s wheel
Deity Indagni, a pair of deities Indra is the chef of the gods, and Agni is fire deified.
Stars The four stars forming the scales in the constellation of Libra. Zuben el Genubi gives the ability to concentrate on goals, and overcome obstacles. It is social, clever, but unforgiving and revengeful.
Mythology Indra the king of the gods, combined with Agni fire provides the energy, strength and powerful potential in this nakshatra.
Indications This is the “Star of Purpose”. They are very goal oriented, and don’t give up until they achieve success. Ambition, and concentrated power will conquer any obstacles or rivals. They are extremely competitive. With their hash opinions they may force their will and ideas on others. The end result or their bottom line may involve stepping on or either using others to get what they want. They need to be careful not to win the battle, but loose the war, by pushing their agendas too hard. If you have what they want, it will be hard for them to hide their feelings of envy and jealousy. They can become frustrated and angry when they don’t get what they want. They are always hopeful of success and their determination will persevere. They are patient, persistent and determined. They experience success in the second half of their life. As the warrior spirit they will get what they want, their best solution is to be the spiritual warrior.
Anurada “the disciple of the divine spark” 3.20 to 16.40 Scorpio
Symbol triumphal archway, or a lotus
Deity Mitra as one of the Adityas is responsible for friendship and partnership.
Stars There are three stars in the body of the Scorpion. Isidis is situated in the right claw of the Scorpion. It gives a mystical interest, especially in astrology, immortality and shamelessness.
Mythology Mitra is the god of friendship and promotes cooperation in humanity. Any contracts or agreements are Mitra’s duty to protect. Mitra gives compassion devotion and love. Rada (the cowherd maiden) who is the friend and lover of Krishna is his devoted companion, always following him.
Indications This nakshatra promotes balance in a relationship. They are focused in their goals, but are able to maintain and balance friendships. Their friendly cooperation with others can bring them fame and recognition. They have superb leadership and organizational skills especially with large groups of people, like in organizations. Sensual and loving they know how to share and accommodate others; their gift is dealing with people. Also they have an ability to work with numbers. Traditionally they have difficult relationships with their mothers. Faithful and dedicated to the ones they love, they do have a melancholy side. There can be a jealous streak with a controlling angry side. They have been known to live far from their place of birth. There are many opportunities for travel, for they love variety.
Jyeshta “the eldest” 16.40 to 30.00 Scorpio
Symbol circular amulet, umbrella, earring
Deity Indri, chef of the gods
Stars Antares is the heart of the Scorpion. Antares means, “rival of Mars”. This is a military, political star, gives a drive for power, honors with possible sudden loss.
Mythology Jyeshta was the oldest of the 27 sisters and felt betrayed and jealous of the fact that Soma their husband favored her younger sister Rohini.
Indications There is a sense of betrayal and abandonment indicated by the myth. They have a sense of seniority and superiority due to age and experience. They are very protective of themselves and loved ones. They possess hidden occult powers. They are the wise ones who have the wisdom that only age and experience can give. As the patriarch or matriarch of the family they are the ones who will run the show. They know how to deal with wealth and power. Their lives are not easy and some may experience hardship and poverty. They are reclusive, secretive with few friends. Their inventive profound minds provoke them to seek the deeper meaning on life. At times they can be arrogant and hypocritical, because of their low self-esteem.
Mula “the root” 0. 00 to 13. 20 Sagittarius
Symbol bunch of roots tied together, or an elephant goad, (gives the elephant direction)
Deity Nirriti, the god of dissolution and destruction
Stars This nakshatra is located in the tail of the Scorpion near Ophiuchus. Lesath, gives good judgment, interest in spiritual nature, brings people before the public. This is the center of the Galaxy or the galactic center.
Mythology Nirriti means “calamity”, and is the goddess of destruction who lives in the kingdom of the dead. Nirriti has the power to ruin, destroy and break things apart. It is sometimes called Alakshmi or denial of Lakshmi (prosperity). She is depicted as Kali the fierce goddess who wears a necklace of skulls and human heads dangle from her belt. Her wild dance destroys illusions; she helps us see reality, the disgusting and beautiful.
Indications Called the “Root Star” they have a passionate nature that wants to get to the bottom of things. They are good at investigation, and research. They feel bound and trapped by the circumstances of their life, and can get caught up in blaming others or their environment. There can be extreme reversals in their lives with great losses. There seems to be cruelty, pain, and sharpness. Material fortunes seem to be stripped away, the lesson of non-attachment leads to spiritual realization. Resentment and betrayal are common. The deep sense of loss forces them to look deeper and seek a higher power, transforming their experiences into enlightenment. Excesses lead to compulsive behavior. There may be an interest in healing with herbs or alternative medicine.
Purva Ashadha “early victory” or “the undefeated” 13.20 to 26. 40 Sagittarius
Symbol elephant tusk, fan, or a winnowing basket, used for ridding corn of its husks
Deity Apah or water deified as a god
Stars In the constellation of the Archer, Kaus Borealis and Kaus Australis form the archer’s bow. Kaus Borealis gives leadership abilities with altruistic, idealistic, qualities and a strong sense of justice.
Mythology Apah is the cosmic waters spreading in all directions giving rise to all humanity. It is an invigorating power. Varuna is another ruling deity because of his protection of the seas and giving rain. Water is one of the most powerful forces in nature.
Indications Called the “Invincible Star” they are invincible, proud and independent. They have influence and power over others. There is a philosophical and emotional depth. There is a strong need to always better their life or improve their situation, and can be seen as a social climber. They are fearless, aggressive, confrontational, and controlling towards achieving their goals. They want popularity and to spread their name. This nakshatra is associated with declarations of war, and their temperament is a bit angry and sharp. The formal education seems to be disrupted. There is an association with water, and rule any industry or travel pertaining to water, seas, ocean, or overseas travel. They are always successful and their success comes at an early age. Great oratory abilities make them successful at debates. Their fearlessness can lead to restlessness and an obstinate aggressive disposition. Skillful in intuiting others shadows, but somehow blinds them to their own flaws, and sense of self-denials.
Uttara Ashadha “latter victory” or “latter unconquered” 27.40 Sagittarius to 10. 00 Capricorn
Symbol elephant tusk, or a small cot or planks of a bed
Deity Vishvadevas, means all gods or Universal gods
Stars Situated on the lower part of the Lyre, Waga (Vega) gives leadership especially political or in government, musical artistic ability
Mythology The Vishvadevas are the ten sons of god Dharma. Their power is to grant unchallengeable victory. They deal with the laws of time, universal principles, karma, and right action.
Indications Called the “Universal Star” they are much like their other half Purva Ashadha but a bit softer, milder and not as intense. They are enduring, invincible, and very patient. They fight for what they believe is right, highly righteous and responsible, with the highest degree of integrity. They practice what they preach. Sincere in everyway, they cannot lie. Commitment to their ideals makes them very humanitarian. They can be driven like a workaholic, extremely persistent when excited, but if they loose interest they become lazy, introspective, and not finish what they started. They have deep powers to penetrate or quest for spiritual information. They are leaders, very ambitious which leads them to notoriety. In the latter part of their life they become more successful, and victorious. Marriage can be difficult because they are stubborn, self-centered and lose interest.
Shravana “to hear” 10. 00 to 23.20 Capricorn
Symbol ear, or three footprints in an uneven row
Deity Vishnu, the preserver of the Universe
Stars In this nakshatra there are three stars in the head of the eagle, these are also the three footprints of Vishnu. Altair, leads to positions of power and wealth but trouble with the law.
Mythology Vishnu spanned the universe in three steps denoting his expansive travels as well as his expansive travel to the three worlds.
Indications This is the star of listening, also called the “Star of Learning”. They are always questing for knowledge, and information. They can be very intellectual. Wisdom and the spoken word are very important here. They make great teachers, or perpetual students. Counseling is a gift for they have the ability to truly listen. Their sense of hearing can be very acute and sensitive. They are very traditional and want to uncover knowledge of the past. Listening and participating in gossip are common, even though they are extremely sensitive and hurt as a result. Their restless nature causes them to travel extensively, usually in a pursuit of knowledge. There seems to be trouble and disappointments early in life, and some disabilities. With age they slowly regain their sense of self-confidence. They can walk with a limp or an unusual gate.
Dhanishta “the richest one” 23.20 Capricorn to 6.40 Aquarius
Symbol drum or a flute
Deity The eight Vasus, deities of the earth that give abundance on the material plane
Stars Consists of a small group of stars located in the head of Delphinus, the Dolphin. Sadalsuud, is good for intuitive ability, they are visionaries and good for public relations.
Mythology The eight Vasus are the solar gods of light and energy. They are earth deities that give abundance on the material plane. Vasu means “light” “benefic” indicating a charitable attitude, and high virtues.
Indications The “Star of Symphony”, there is considerable material wealth, ownership of property and real estate with this nakshatra. As to the symbols of musical instruments, some do possess musical ability. The “Star of Symphony”, there is considerable material wealth, ownership of property and real estate with this nakshatra. As to the symbols of musical instruments, some do possess musical ability and love dancing, for they are able to keep a beat. With this notion they are great at timing, this can refer to having a knack for being at the right place at the right time. There seems to be emptiness from within, for the musical instruments, a drum and flute are hollow. They are constantly trying to fill this void, and this may be the cause of their problems in relationships and marital discord. Marriage may be delayed or denied. There is a tendency to live up to the expectations of others. They can be materialistic, and gain fame and recognition. They must be careful not to be too self absorbed, greedy, and narcissistic. They love the excitement of travel.
Shatabhishak “a hundred healers” 6.40 to 20.00 Aquarius
Symbol empty circle, or a thousand flowers or stars
Deity Varuna, god of the cosmic waters, of the sky and earth
Stars This nakshatra is the large group of faint stars in the Water Bearer. The water poured out of this pot is the nectar of immortality. Fomulhaut is a star of musical abilities and great spirituality. It is mixed with great fortune and misfortune.
Mythology Varuna pours out the waters of life that heals all illness and gives immortality. He is the divine healer, and is the god of maya and illusion. He gives divine grace from sincere repentance.
Indications Called the “Veiling Star”, this nakshatra is about healing the human condition spiritually and physically. They may be healers or doctors. The symbol of the empty circle represents the void of space, what is behind the veil, indicating illusions or maya, and inner vision. They are profoundly mystical, meditative, philosophical, scientific, and are visionaries. They are very secretive, and reclusive. There is an affinity to star watching, and this can apply to astronomers as well as astrologers. They can be moody, lonely and depressed. Intensely opinionated and stubborn they think they know it all and have nothing to learn from others, because they are above them. Alcoholic beverages are ruled by this nakshatra. Difficult to heal or hard to cure diseases come under this rulership. There is a connection with electricity.
Purva Bhadrapada “the former happy feet” 20.00 Aquarius to 3.20 Pisces
Symbol sword or two front legs of a funeral cot, or a man with two faces
Deity Ajaikapada the “one footed goat” a form of Rudra or and ancient fire dragon
Stars Consists of two main stars in the body of Pegasus, the winged horse. Markab and Scheat: Markab is a star of honors and success with great sorrow. Scheat gives literary and poetic ability, with extreme misfortune.
Mythology Ajaikpada is viewed as a form of Shiva, and a vehicle for the transport of Agni (fire), representing the cleansing spiritual power of fire. Ajaikapada is the unicorn, related to Rudra god of storms.
Indications This is a transformational nakshatra where they will sacrifice themselves for a higher cause, to make a difference in the world. There is a passionate nature, a bit extreme and indulgent. The symbol of the man with two faces can refer to looking to the past and the future possibly at the time of death, or can mean someone who has a dark side they conceal from the world, or just two faced. Fearful, nervous, and angry they can be very cynical. Their lives sometimes are filled with sadness and problems. They must be careful of accidents and injuries. They are radicals and non-conformist, who have excellent speaking abilities to sway the masses, regardless of the consequences.
Uttara Bhadrapada “the latter happy feet” 3.20 to 16.40 Pisces
Symbol twins, back legs of the funeral cot, a snake in the water
Deity Ahir Budhyana, the Serpent or “Dragon of the Deep”
Stars Algenib, on the tip of the wing of Pegasus, gives good oratory abilities, intelligence with a responsible nature.
Mythology Adhir Budhyana is a serpent of the deep waters representing kundalini energy, seclusion and psychic energy. Agni is important here representing the fiery nature and cleansing power of fire
Indications The “Warrior Star”, they are disciplined with writing and speaking abilities. They are somewhat like their former twin nakshatra, Purva Bhadrapada but a lot milder, and can control their anger and aggression. There can be a lazy streak. There is wealth usually as a gift or inheritance, usually latter in life. They are cheerful, generous, and self sacrificing. They tend to be extremely protective of their loved ones. They love solitude and seclusion, for they need time to contemplate. They can be incredibly psychic with profound insights. Their depth and wisdom can transcend the ego to the collective consciousness, and seem to have magical powers. They achieve a happy home life and are usually blessed with good children.
Revati “the wealthy” 16.40 to 30.00 Pisces
Symbol fish, or a pair of fish, a drum to mark time
Deity Pushan, the nourisher, the protective deity for safe travel
Stars Located in the tail of the Northern Fish, Al Pherg gives organizational ability, and a promise of success
Mythology Pushan was invoked for the protection of flocks and herds and safe travels. He also recovered lost articles and animals.
Indications This nakshatra indicates a journey, and may in fact represent our final journey from this life to the next, being the last and final nakshatra. It grants protection for safe travels. They are sweet caring responsible loving friends. They nourish and care for others. They have been known to provide foster care for others, children or animals. They have an affinity or love towards small animals. They love humanity and society. They love to be social because they sincerely love connecting to other people. They don’t have a mean or jealous bone in their body. There is a love of fine arts and they can be creative as well. Their caring for others can lead to co-dependency. There may be disappointment early in life, but this developed their compassion and sincere forgiveness of others. They are a bit weak and may be prone to childhood illnesses. They are mystics with complete faith in their beliefs and in the goodness of humanity. With their love of water, they usually benefit from living by the water. There is a deep devotion and faith to God. They are protected in all their travels especially the journey from this world to the next.

 

Days of the Week

Monday’s child is fair of face.
Tuesday’s child is full of grace.
Wednesday’s child is full of woe.
Thursday’s child has far to go.
Friday’s child is loving and giving.
Saturday’s child works hard for a living,
But the child who is born on the Sabbath Day
Is bonny and blithe and good and gay
.

The seven day week is thought to have originated among the ancient Babylonians. The week was developed by dividing each lunar month into four sections of approximately seven days each.  Each day was then associated with a planet and god. Some historians believe associating the days of the week with the planets originated with the ancient Egyptians.  Christianity and Islam adopted the seven day week from Judaism. Both chose worship days, the day of rest, separate from the Jews…the Christians chose Sunday and the Muslims chose Friday…both days touched the original Sabbath day of Saturday.  Later the Greeks and Romans and other European and Asian countries adopted the seven day week system and named the days after the Sun and Moon, planets, and various gods.

Planet God Day
Modern Babylon Greece Roman Teutonic Anglo-Saxon
Sun Shamash Helios or Apollo Sol or Apollo Sunday
Moon Sin Selene Luna Monday
Mars Nergal Ares Mars Tiwas Tiw Tuesday
Mercury Nebo Hermes Mercurius Odin Woden Wednesday
Jupiter Marduk Zeus Jupiter Donar Thor Thursday
Venus Ishtar Aphrodite Venus Frigg Frig Friday
Saturn Ninurta Chronos Saturnus Saturday

Sunday

metal: gold

energy: masculine

planet: Sun

astrological sign: Leo

angel: Michael

colors: gold, yellow, orange, white

plants: marigold, heliotrope, sunflower, buttercup, cedar, beech, oak

stones: carnelian, citrine, tiger’s eye, amber, clear quartz, red agate

oil: cedar, frankincense, neroli, rosemary

incense: lemon, frankincense

 

Monday

metal: silver

energy: feminine

planet: Moon

astrological sign: Cancer

angel: Gabriel

colors: white, silver, gray

plants: night flowers, willow root, orris root, Birch, motherwort, vervain, white rose

stones: carnelian, moonstone, aquamarine, pearl, clear quartz, fluorite, geodes

oil: jasmine, lemon, sandalwood

incense: african violet, honeysuckle, myrtle, willow, wormwood

 

Tuesday

metal: iron

energy: masculine

planet: Mars

astrological sign: Aries and Scorpio

angel: Samuel

colors: red and orange

plants: pepper, red rose, cock’s comb, pine, daisy, thyme

stones: carnelian, bloodstone, ruby, garnet, pink tourmaline

oil: basil, coriander, ginger

incense: dragon’s blood, patchouli

 

Wednesday

metal: mercury

energy: masculine

planet: Mercury and Chiron (a moon of Pluto)

astrological sign: Virgo

angel: Raphael

colors: orange, light blue, grey, yellow, violet

plants: fern, lavender, hazel, cherry, periwinkle

stones: aventurine, bloodstone, hematite, moss agate, sodalite

oil: benzoin, clary sage, eucalyptus, lavender

incense: jasmine, lavender, sweet pea

 

Thursday

metal: tin

energy: masculine

planet: Jupiter

astrological sign: Sagittarius and Pisces

angel: Sachiel

colors: purple, royal blue, indigo

plants: cinnamon, beech, buttercup, coltsfoot, oak

stones: sugilite, amethyst, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sapphire

oil: clove, lemon balm, oak moss, star anise

incense: cinnamon, musk, nutmeg, sage

 

Friday

metal: copper

energy: feminine

planet: Venus

astrological sign: Libra and Taurus

angel: Ariel

colors: green, pink, aqua

plants: ivy, birch, heather, clematis, sage, violet, water lily

stones: rose quartz, moonstone, pink tourmaline, peridot, emerald, jade

oil: cardamom, palmrosa, rose, yarrow

incense: strawberry, sandalwood, rose, saffron, vanilla

 

Saturday

metal: lead

energy: feminine

planet: Saturn

astrological sign: Capricorn and Aquarius

angel: Cassiel

colors: black, grey, indigo

plants: moss, hemlock, wolfsbane, coltsfoot, nightshade, fir

stones: jet, smokey quartz, amethyst, black onyx, snowflake obsidian, lava, pumice

oil: cypress, mimosa, myrrh, patchouli

incense: black poppy seed. myrrh

 

Esoteric astrology

Esoteric astrology is based on Alice Bailey’s “Ageless Wisdom” teachings, which she said were relayed by her Tibetan Ascended Master, Djwhal Khul.[76][77] “The Tibetan Master, Djwhal Khul, has provided a significant foundation for a more Soul-oriented approach to astrology and to the Life it seeks to symbolize and interpret.”[78]

Esoteric astrologers typically base their work on Bailey’s five-volume series, Treatise on the Seven Rays. The third book in the series, Esoteric Astrology,[79] is considered to be the foundation for esoteric astrologers world wide.”[80]

Esoteric astrology’s system of planetary rulerships differs from that of conventional astrology, involves planets not conventionally used, and replaces the house system with a system of crosses with highly individualized meanings and multiple levels of interpretation. Esoteric astrology incorporates elements of esotericism related to astrology and theory of Seven Rays.[81]

According to Bailey, the following are the houses and their planetary rulers:[82]

Personality (Mundane) Soul (Esoteric) House
Aries Mars Mercury First
Taurus Venus Vulcan Second
Gemini Mercury Venus Third
Cancer Moon Neptune Fourth
Leo Sun Sun Fifth
Virgo Mercury Moon Sixth
Libra Venus Uranus Seventh
Scorpio Mars Mars / Pluto Eighth
Sagittarius Jupiter Earth Ninth
Capricorn Saturn Saturn Tenth
Aquarius Uranus Jupiter Eleventh
Pisces Jupiter Pluto / Neptune Twelfth

The constitution of man[edit source | editbeta]

In line with previous Theosophical teachings,[83] Bailey taught that man consists of a soul of abstract mental material, working through a personality—a technical term for the physical, emotional, and less-abstract mental bodies considered holistically.[84][85] She uses traditional terms for these lower three “vehicles” or “sheaths”: physical body, astral body and mental body. There is also the etheric body which directly corresponds to the physical but is the vital energizing agent for the whole of a man in all his forms of expression. These auric aspects of the human being are defined as partial emanations or expressions of the soul, which is itself synonymous with the evolving human consciousness. The mind is not conceived to be simply an ephemeral brain effect, but as the motivating energy responsible for the inner constitution of individuals, and which also manifest as the aura.[86]

In Bailey’s writings, evolution is defined as the process of bringing the “lower nature” his physical, emotional, and mental selves into integration and alignment with the will of the soul—the “at-one-ment” of the personality.[87] It is this transformation that leads to “right human relations” and spiritual revelation or awakening. Discrete steps on the spiritual path are called initiations, which is to say that the evolving consciousness is entering into new and wider fields of awareness, relationships, responsibilities, and power.[88][89] In terms of her ray concept, the note of the soul is imposed (or superimposed) on the note of the personality.[84][90]

The Spiritual Hierarchy, Shamballa, Venus, and Sirius[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey wrote that behind all human evolution stands a brotherhood of enlightened souls who have guided and aided humanity throughout history.[91] For Bailey, the evolution of humanity was intimately bound up with its relationship to this Spiritual Hierarchy. She believed that the stimulating and uplifting influences of religions, philosophies, sciences, educational movements, and human culture in general are the result of this relationship,[92] and though in time humanity debases all these developments, they are all in their original impetus conceived as the result of the Spiritual Hierarchy working in concert with evolving human potentials.[93][94][95]

Bailey associated the spiritual hierarchy and its branches with the system of Sirius, the planet Venus, and the mythical land of Shambhala (which she spelled “Shamballa”), the residence ofSanat Kumara, “Lord of the World”. Bailey wrote, “The energy of Sirius by-passes (to use a modern word) Shamballa and is focused in the Hierarchy. […] The entire work of the Great White Lodge is controlled from Sirius….”[96] Monica Sjoo, in an essay about the New Age movement, explained her interpretation that “Bailey taught that the Hierarchy of Masters exists in Shambhala and that Venusians founded this fabled city some 18 million years ago on the sacred Gobi island, which is now in the Mongolian desert.”[97] It may be noted here that, in Bailey’s concept, “city” is figurative since she states that Shamballa is not physical in the common usage of that word but is rather located in “higher ethers.”[98]

Teachings regarding Maitreya[edit source | editbeta]

In the Alice A. Bailey material, she asserts that World War II was a cosmic conflict between good and evil. The Masters of the Ancient Wisdom, representing the Forces of Light, were on the side of the Allies; the Dark Forces were on the side of the Axis. According to Bailey, Adolf Hitler was possessed by the Dark Forces.[99] With the defeat of the axis by the allies in 1945, the stage was set for the appearance of the being traditional Theosophists call Maitreya, but whom Alice A. Bailey refers to simply as Christ, to inaugurate the New Age.

In January 1946, Bailey prophesied that since, according to her view, Christ (the name she used in her writings to refer to Maitreya) would return himself by manifesting a physical body of his own on the physical plane,[100] Bailey in her books wrote that this would be the New Age equivalent of the Christian concept of the Second Coming of Christ.[101]

She further stated that St. Germain (referred to as the Master Rakoczi or the Master R. in her books) is the manager of the executive council of Christ.[102] This executive council is a specific group of Ascended master charged with preparing the way for the Christ and the consequent inauguration of the Age of Aquarius. According to Bailey, when Christ returns, he will stay the entire approximately 2,150 year period of the Age of Aquarius, and thus the New Age equivalent of the Millennial Age will not be just a single millennium but will be the Aquarian bimillennium. During this era, said Bailey, Christ (Maitreya) will reign as the spiritual leader of Earth, the Messiah who will bring World Peace.[101]

In August 1946, DK through Bailey stated that Christ would return in an airplane, and thus fulfill the Christian prophesy of coming out of the clouds from “the place on Earth where He has been for many generations” and that after doing so, he would appear on worldwide television.[103]

The Great Invocation[edit source | editbeta]

The Great Invocation is a mantra given in 1937 to Bailey by Djwhal Khul. The mantra begins with “From the point of Light within the Mind of God, let light stream forth into the minds of men.” with the rest of the passage reinforcing this idea of men acting in accordance with the plan of God. It is well known by some followers of the New Age movement, where it is used as part of meditation, particularly in groups.[104]

The invocation has been used in the Findhorn Foundation community since the 1970s. In response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the Great Invocation was used as a central element of a new daily program at Findhorn known as the “Network of Light meditations for peace”.[105] Findhorn’s use of the Great Invocation later spun off to various other groups they had influenced, including groups interested in new age UFO philosophies.[106][107]

Rosemary Keller described the Great Invocation as a call for “the Christ to return to Earth” and wrote that Bailey-related groups purchased radio and television time to broadcast the invocation as part of their mission, and that often the invocation was recited in what Keller called “light groups”, to accomplish what Bailey’s disciples considered to be attracting and focusing “spiritual energies to benefit the planet”.[11] Researcher Hannah Newman described what she found to be an antisemitic element in the Great Invocation. According to Newman, “the Plan” named in the invocation refers to the plan authored by “the Hierarchy”, that Newman states places “high priority on removing all Jewish presence and influence from human consciousness, a goal to be achieved by eliminating Judaism.”[6]

Discipleship and service[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey elaborated the relation of humanity to the Hierarchy in her teaching on Discipleship in the New Age. A disciple is an accepted student, or chela, in the spiritual ashram of a Master. In this scheme, all awakening souls stand in some relationship—for a long time unconsciously, but eventually in full conscious awareness—to some particular Master.[108][109] The integrated personality, coming under the influence of the soul, is simultaneously coming under the influence of this Master.[110] This relationship is determined by karma, by evolutionary status, and (most importantly) by the aspirant’s capacity for work to be done on behalf of humanity.[111] This service aspect is strongly emphasized throughout Bailey’s writings.[112] In her concept, the greatly increased (“stepped-up”) evolution of consciousness that results from this Master–pupil relationship is made possible only in and through service to humanity.

Bailey’s writing downplayed the traditional devotional and aspirational aspects of the spiritual life, in favor of serving “the Plan of the Hierarchy” by serving humanity.[113] According to her, this is primary, and everything hinges upon it.[114] For Bailey, discipleship means work—service—and the evolution of those sensitivities and powers that enhance that labor. Disciples will never gain such powers or awareness unless and until they will be used solely for unselfish service. (Bailey, p. 38)

Unity and divinity of nations and groups[edit source | editbeta]

Underlying Alice Bailey’s writing is the central concepts of unity and divinity.[115][116][117][118]

Although she often identified groups of people by their race, nationality, or religion, she said the key matter was not race or religion per se, but the evolution of consciousness that transcends these labels.[119] In her writings about the races, she focused on the humanitarian concept of unity and stated that the source of human problems is the spirit of separation that causes individuals and groups to set themselves apart from the rest of humanity. (Bailey, p. 375)

Ross describes Bailey’s teachings as emphasizing the “underlying unity of all forms of life”, and the “essential oneness of all religions, of all departments of science, and of all the philosophies.”[120] Campbell notes that the New Group of World Servers was established for “… promotion of international understanding, economic sharing, and religious unity.”[50]

On fanaticism and intolerance[edit source | editbeta]

Alice Bailey wrote strongly against all forms of fanaticism and intolerance.[121] She saw this fanaticism in churches, in nationalism, and in competing esoteric schools. (Bailey pp. 15 & 453)[122]She associated this fanaticism with unintelligent devotion and holding on to old ways and ancient theologies. Bailey indicated that these problems were found mostly in the older generations, that their fanaticism would limit their personal growth and that they would mostly find a solution for that limitation through devotion, and the forward movement of spiritual evolution.[123]

Racial theories[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey upheld theories of racial differentiation that posited a division of humanity into races that are on different levels in a “ladder of evolution”. These ‘races’ do not represent a national or physical type, but a state of evolution. For example, she states that the Aryan root race (or ‘5th race’), as an “emerging new race”, are the most recently evolved people on Earth, although the term ‘Aryan’ as used by her has a quite distinct meaning from the separative and racist use of the word. It refers not only to Caucasian peoples, but to origins in Indo-Persia, and indicates a culture where thought and intellect is dominant. In her book Education in the New Age, Bailey made predictions about the use of occult racial theories in the schools of the future, which she said would be based on the idea of ‘root races’ (originally vast prehistoric spans of time covering thousands of years when a particular human facet was being developed) such as Lemurians(physically adept), Atlanteans (emotionally adept), Aryans (mentally adept), and the New Race with “group qualities and consciousness and idealistic vision.”[124] However, she holds that the forthcoming ‘sixth sub-race’ (evolving from facets of current ‘fifth race’ intellectual culture) cannot reach its peak until the ‘sixth race’ proper (due many thousands of years hence), and may therefore not be the advance some of her New Age followers wish for. In her The Destiny of the Nations, Bailey described a process by which this “new race” will evolve, after which “low grade human bodies will disappear, causing a general shift in the racial types toward a higher standard.”[125]

Her writings were criticized by Victor Shnirelman, a cultural anthropologist and ethnographer, who in a survey of modern Neopaganism in Russia, drew particular attention to “… groups [that] take an extremely negative view of multi-culturalism, object to the ‘mixture’ of kinds, [and] support isolationism and the prohibition of immigration.” He noted that a number of Bailey’s books, as well as those of her contemporary Julius Evola, had been recently translated into Russian, and said that “… racist and antisemitic trends are explicit, for example, in the occult teachings of Alice Bailey and her followers, who wish to cleanse Christianity of its ‘Jewish inheritance’ and reject the ‘Jewish Bible’ as a prerequisite for entering the Age of Aquarius.”.[126]

Monica Sjöö, a Swedish-born British artist, writer, and supporter of the Goddess movement, wrote that Bailey, through her published teachings, had a “reactionary and racist influence on the whole New Age movement.”[127] She also noted what she called Bailey’s (and Theosophy’s) “pro-fascist religious views”, such as the belief in a secret elite of “Masters” who control world events and human minds through occult means and attempt to bring about the evolution of an Aryan super race (although this is an understandably modern misunderstanding of her teaching – ‘Aryan’ as used by Bailey is easily confused with the modern terminology, and the “Masters” are not an elite, but instead are ‘enlightened’ individuals originally introduced in theosophy as having evolved beyond the human or “4th kingdom” into the fifth or “Kingdom of souls”, and who – in her view – guide the human race as a whole).[128]

On the Negro race[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey stated that the Negro race contains a large number of “child souls”, leading lives of “physical activity motivated by the desire for satisfaction of some kind, and by a shallow “wish-life” or desire nature, and almost entirely oriented towards the physical life.”[129] She also wrote of the need for the white races to train the Negroes of Africa so that they will be fitted for true self-government.[130]

She described Negro people as “creative, artistic and capable of the highest mental development when taught and trained – as capable as is the white man;” and she emphasized the need for the white races to accord the Negro “the respect and the opportunity which is due him”, stating that “The future peace of the world depends today upon enlightened, farseeing statesmanship and an appreciation of the fact that God has made all men free.”[131]

She wrote that what she described as “the Negro Problem” is divided into two areas: “the problem of the future of the African Negro and the problem of the future of the Negro in the western hemisphere.”[132]

On “the Negro problem” in Africa[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey considered the indigenous people of Africa to be in the “embryonic stage” of evolutionary development, and wrote that, “Behind the many separative religious cults of that dark land, there emerges a fundamental and pure mysticism, ranging all the way from nature worship and a primitive animism to a deep occult knowledge and an esoteric understanding which may some day make Africa the seat of the purest form of occult teaching and living.”[132] She said that “Right human relations must be firmly established between the emerging Negro empire and the rest of the world; the new ideals and the new world trends must be fostered in the receptive Negro consciousness and in this way darkest Africa will become a radiant center of light, ready for self-government and expressing true freedom.”

On “the Negro problem” in the Americas[edit source | editbeta]

Regarding the relations between the Negro race and other races in the Western Hemisphere, Bailey wrote that it “constitutes a very ugly story, seriously implicates the white man and provides an outstanding disgrace”, and that “The white people face a grave responsibility and it lies in their hands to change conditions.”[133] She was a vocal advocate of humane treatment and equal rights for the Negro race, acknowledged that they had been subject to much cruelty and exploitation by the white race, but also said that good had come of this for Negroes and described reason for optimism regarding their future prospects.[132] She advocated improvement in the situation of the Negro in the United States, calling for the people of America to end discrimination, to accept the Negro population as brothers and friends and thereby bring about positive change.[133] She wrote that in the black peoples’ attempt to resolve their problem of separation in society, “the spiritual forces of the world are on the side of the Negro.”[134]

On the Jewish people[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey wrote much about the Jewish people, referring to them collectively as a race, with group karma, characteristics, and behaviors. Specifically, she was of the opinion that Jews embody the characteristics of “materialism, cruelty and a spiritual conservatism” and the “separative, selfish, lower concrete mind.”[135][136]

On the social characteristics of the Jews[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey described Jews as “the most reactionary and conservative race in the world”, explaining this as a result of their need to preserve their cultural identity as a wandering people under persecution. She wrote that, “People complain (and it is frequently true) the Jews lower the atmosphere of any district in which they reside. They hang their bedding and their clothing out of the windows. They live on the streets, sitting in groups on the sidewalks.”[16]

She wrote that Jews “take what they want, to see to it that their children get the best of everything available, no matter what the cost to others”; they “blame the non-Jewish nations for their miseries”; and, “The Jew needs to recognize his share in bringing about the dislike which hounds him everywhere.”[137]

She stated that even though the Jews are “possessed of great wealth and influence”, they create “dissension among the nations” and “almost abusive, demands for the Gentile to shoulder the entire blame and end the difficulty.”[137]

On “the Jewish problem”[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey said that what she called the “Jewish problem”[138][139] was the result of negative karma accumulated by the Jews due to “acts and deeds there claimed by him as his racial acts and deeds (conquest, terrorism and cruelty)…” and wrote that the solution to this “problem” will come “…when the races regard the Jewish problem as a humanitarian problem but also when the Jew does his share of understanding, love and right action. This he [the Jew] does not yet do, speaking racially.”[135]

Before World War II, she wrote: “The major racial problem has, for many centuries, been the Jewish, which has been brought to a critical point by Germany…”;[140] that the Jews “constitute an international minority of great aggressiveness, exceedingly vocal”;[141] and that while they are an ancient, civilized and cultured people, their problems as a “struggling minority” are the result of “certain inherent characteristics”, and the “untidy effect they have on any community”.[142]

In 1939, as World War II began, Bailey wrote that “the Jewish problem, is definitely producing cleavage as a part of the divine plan… to bring humanity to certain realizations and decisions.”[143]

In 1948, after the war and the Holocaust, she wrote that “there are eighty percent of other people in the concentration camps, only twenty percent Jews”, and that Jews have not only repudiated the Messiah, but they have forgotten their unique relation to humanity.[125][144]

Bailey wrote critically about hatred of the Jews and predicted a future in which Jews would “fuse and blend with the rest of mankind.”[145] In her autobiography, she stated that she had been on Hitler’s “blacklist”, and she believed this had been because of her defense of the Jews during her lectures throughout Europe.[146] She criticized the cruelty of “the Gentile” (non-Jewish people) for their treatment of the Jews, stating “great is his responsibility for wrong doing and cruel action.”[147]

Bailey further stated that the Jews were themselves responsible for the bad treatment they received, “Changed inner attitudes are needed on both sides, but very largely on the side of the Jews.” She was aware of and accepted the controversial nature of her comments in this regard.[137]

On interracial marriage[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey wrote regarding interracial marriage that “the best and soundest thinkers in both the white and black races at this time deplore mixed marriages. They mean no happiness for either party.” She advised against intermarriage between Caucasians and Asians but said that children of interracial unions would be unavoidable following World War II due to the actions of what she called the “inevitable promiscuity” of the armies. She wrote that “children of mixed race, as well as the half-castes and the Eurasians may be the answer to a large part of the problem. There will be hundreds of thousands of these children of mixed parentage, forming part of the world population in the next generation and immediate cycle and they are a group with which we will have to reckon.”[148]

While she believed that intermarriage would not solve what she called “the Negro problem”,[149] she implied this might change and on this issue, “I make no prophecy about the future.”[150]

Her comments on the topic of interracial marriage are conflicting: On the one hand she suggested that mixed marriages have unhappy effects, on the other hand she seemed to view them as positive and contributing to the solution of racial tensions.[151] Elsewhere she wrote that marriages are rooted in soul relationships,[152] and that intermarriage in general is not a solution to racial problems but that the solution lies in appreciation of the good qualities found in groups other than one’s own.[153] Her contrary statements thus reflect the mixed and emerging views of the time in which she was writing.

On nationalism and nations[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey criticized national groups, based on what she believed were their violations of the spirit of unity and brotherhood. She believed that an individual’s primary allegiance is to humanity and not to any subgroup within it: “I call you to no organizational loyalties, but only to love your fellowmen, be they German, American, Jewish, British, French, Negro or Asiatic.”[154]

On the United States and France[edit source | editbeta]

While praising the United States and France in some respects, Bailey saw in them political corruption.[155][156] She regarded the talk about a free press as largely an illusory ideal and stated, “… particularly is it absent in the United States, where parties and publishers dictate newspaper policies.”[157]

On Israel, Zionism, and the U.S.S.R.[edit source | editbeta]

Regarding the foundation of the modern nation of Israel after World War II, Bailey said that “The Jews, by their illegal and terrorist activities, have laid a foundation of great difficulty for those who are seeking to promote world peace.”[158]

Bailey criticized Zionism, comparing it with the Stalinist regime: “Zionism today stands for aggression and for the use of force, and the keynote is permission to take what you want irrespective of other people or of their inalienable rights. These points of view are against the position of the spiritual leaders of humanity, and therefore the leaders of the Zionist movement, and the group of men who direct and control the policies of Russia, are against the policies of the spiritual Hierarchy and are contrary to the lasting good of mankind. … The menace to world freedom today lies in the known policies of the rulers of the U.S.S.R. and in the devious and lying machinations of the Zionists.”[159]

On the “present world crisis”[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey said, “We could take the nations, one by one, and observe how this nationalistic, separative or isolationist spirit, emerging out of an historical past, out of racial complexes, out of territorial position, out of revolt and out of possession of material resources, has brought about the present world crisis and cleavage and this global clash of interests and ideals.”[160] In 1947, in listing the causes of world conflict, she cited the fight for oil, and the fight over Palestine, “[…] a fight which has greed and not any love of Palestine behind it, and which is governed by financial interests and not by the humanitarian spirit which the Zionists claim […]”.[161]

On organized religions[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey taught a form of universal spirituality that transcended denominational identification, believing that, “Every class of human beings is a group of brothers. Catholics, Jews, Gentiles, occidentals and orientals are all the sons of God.” She stated that all religions originate from the same spiritual source, and that humanity will eventually come to realize this, and as they do so, the result will be the emergence of a universal world religion and a “new world order.”[162][163] Bailey described a world where there would be no separate religions but rather “one great body of believers.” She predicted that these believers would accept unified truths based on brotherhood and “divine sonship”, and would “cooperate with the divine Plan, revealed to them by the spiritual leaders of the race.” She wrote that this was not a distant dream but a change that was actually occurring during the time of her writing. (Bailey, p 140)

Despite her focus on unity of religion, Bromley and Hammond point out that Bailey and other “occultists” “…hammered home the central idea, ‘The East is the true home of spiritual knowledge and occult wisdom.'”[164]

Author Steven Sutcliffe wrote that Bailey’s “World Goodwill” organization was promoting groups of “world servers” to, as he quotes Bailey, “serve the Plan, Humanity, the Hierarchy and the Christ.”[165]

On Judaism[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey was highly critical of Judaism. She wrote: “The word ‘love’ as it concerns relation to other people is lacking in their religious presentation, though love of Jehovah is taught with due threats; the concept of a future life, dependent upon conduct and behavior to others and on right action in the world of men, is almost entirely lacking in The Old Testament and teaching on immortality is nowhere emphasized; salvation is apparently dependent upon the keeping of numerous physical laws and rules related to physical cleanliness; they go so far as to establish retail shops where these rules are kept – in a modern world where scientific methods are applied to purity in food. All these and other factors of less importance set the Jew apart, and these he enforces no matter how obsolete they are or inconvenient to others.”[166]

Because of writings like these, the American Chassidic author Rabbi Yonassan Gershom wrote that Bailey’s plan for a New World Order and her call for “the gradual dissolution—again if in any way possible—of the Orthodox Jewish faith” revealed that “her goal is nothing less than the destruction of Judaism itself.” Gershom also wrote that “This stereotyped portrayal of Jews is followed by a hackneyed diatribe against the Biblical Hebrews, based upon the “angry Jehovah” theology of nineteenth-century Protestantism. Jews do not, and never have, worshipped an angry vengeful god, and we Jews never, ever call God “Jehovah.”[167]

On Christianity[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey wrote of “the return of the Christ”, but her concept had little in common with that of mainstream Christian churches. Bailey almost always used the phrase “the Christ” when not referring specifically to the Christian idea. For her, the leadership of the Hierarchy is an “office” (so to speak), to be occupied by Masters in the course of Their unfolding evolution. She saw the Christ as a great “Person”, embodying the energy of love, and His return as the awakening of that energy in human consciousness.[168] She also introduced the ideas that the new Christ might be “of no particular faith at all”, that he may be from any nation, race, or religion, and wrote that his purpose of returning will be to “restore man’s faith in the Father’s love” in a close personal relationship with “all men everywhere”.[169]

She stated that no one particular group can claim Him—that the New Age Christ belongs to whole world, and not to Christians alone, or to any nation or group. (Bailey, p 109) Bailey was highly critical of mainstream Christianity; she wrote that much of the Church’s teaching about Christ’s return is directly opposed to His own intentions and that “The history of the Christian nations and of the Christian church has been one of an aggressive militancy” (Bailey, p 110)

Influence[edit source | editbeta]

Alice Bailey’s influence can be seen on the groups she founded, on a variety of religious and spiritual authors, and on groups that have utilized her writings in their own teachings.

Groups founded by Bailey or her followers[edit source | editbeta]

The Arcane School, founded by Alice and Foster Bailey to disseminate spiritual teachings, organizes a worldwide “Triangles” program to bring people together in groups of three, for daily meditation and study. Their belief is that they receive divine energy through meditation; this energy is transmitted to humanity, so raising spiritual awareness.[170] John Michael Greer’s New Encyclopedia of the Occult states that the school “seeks to develop a New Group of World Servers to accomplish the work of the Hierarchy of Masters, under the guidance of its head, the Christ.”[171]

Influence on the New Age Movement[edit source | editbeta]

Bailey made extensive use of the term “New Age” in her books and some writers have described her as the founder of the New Age movement.[4][126][172] However The New Age was used as the title of a Journal of Christian liberalism and Socialism, published as early as 1894, predating Bailey’s use of the term.[173][174]

James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton, in Perspectives on the New Age wrote, “The most important—though certainly not the only—source of this transformative metaphor, as well as the term “New Age”, was Theosophy, particularly as the Theosophical perspective was mediated to the movement by the works of Alice Bailey.”[175]

Sir John Sinclair, in his book The Alice Bailey Inheritance, commented on the seminal influence of Alice Bailey, which, he said, underlies the consciousness growth movement in the 20th century.[176]

Influence on neopaganism[edit source | editbeta]

Several writers have mentioned the affinity of some of Bailey’s concepts with modern expressions of paganism.[177][178]

During the 1960s and 1970s, the neopagan author and ceremonial magic ritualist Caroll Poke Runyon published a magazine called The Seventh Ray, its name taken from the writings of Alice Bailey. In the 1990s, two volumes of collected articles from the magazine were published as The Seventh Ray Book I, The Blue Ray and The Seventh Ray Book II, the Red Ray.

Influence on women in religion[edit source | editbeta]

Author Catherine Wessinger wrote that Bailey was a liberated woman “… sixty years before it became popular”; that Bailey’s books expressed a similar “millennial view” to the works of Annie Besant; and that they were “an important source of the contemporary New Age movement.”[179]

According to the Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America, several leaders of New Age philosophy have further developed Bailey’s teachings, including the well-known personalitiesJZ Knight (who channels the entity known by the name Ramtha), Helen Schucman (author of A Course in Miracles through the process of telepathic dictation she called “scribing”),and Elizabeth Clare Prophet (who published what she referred to as “dictations from Ascended Masters”).

The “Tibetan” teacher, Djwhal Khul, whom Bailey claimed was the co-author of many of her books, has also been claimed as co-author by two new female channelers, Violet Starre and Moriah Marston. Starre claims to have channeled Bailey’s old teacher twice: the title of her first book, Diamond Light, Cosmic Psychology of Being, 4th Dimension, 7 Rays & More, owes an obvious debt to Bailey’s writings, and is sometimes listed in book catalogues under the full title “Diamond Light, Cosmic Psychology of Being, 4th Dimension, 7 Rays & More (Teachings Similar to Those Given to Alice A. Bailey) by Djwhal (channeled Through Violet Starre) Khul.”.[180] The same influence can also be seen in Starre’s The Amethyst Light: Djwhal Khul Through Violet Starre, published in 2004. Marston’s Soul Searching with Djwahl Khul, the Tibetan, was published in 2006, and according to her publisher, Airleaf Books, “She has been a conscious channel for Ascended Master Djwhal Khul since 1986.”

Influence on psychotherapy and healing[edit source | editbeta]

In 1930, with the patronage of English-Dutch spiritualist, theosophist and scholar Olga Froebe-Kapteyn, Bailey established the short-lived “School of Spiritual Research” located on Froebe-Kapteyn’s estate, Casa Gabriella, in Switzerland. (In 1932 the school was closed due to personal conflict between Bailey and Froebe-Kapteyn, at which time Froebe-Kapteyn replaced it with theEranos group.) Roberto Assagioli, founder of Psychosynthesis, was a lecturer at School of Spiritual Research.[181] He continued a close association with Bailey during the 1930s; some of his writings were published in Bailey’s magazine The Beacon; and he was a trustee of Bailey’s organization, the Lucis Trust.[182] He had developed his approach to psychology, called Psychosynthesis, beginning in 1910; his methods were later influenced by some elements of Bailey’s work.[183][184][185][186][187] However, authors John Firman and Ann Gila write that Assagioli kept what he referred to as a “wall of silence” between the areas of psychosynthesis and religion or metaphysics, insisting that they not be confused with each other.[188]

Roger J. Woolger said, in a paper presented to the “Beyond the Brain” Conference held at Cambridge University in 1999, “In Tansley as in Brennan you will find descriptions of a hierarchy of subtle bodies called the etheric, emotional, mental and spiritual that surround the physical body. (Interestingly Tansley attributed the source of his model to Alice Bailey’s theosophical commentary on The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the locus classicus of Hindu teaching.)”[189]

Bailey’s influence can be found in therapeutic communities with which she was never directly involved, such as the Human Potential Movement.[11]

Influence on UFO groups[edit source | editbeta]

Christopher Partridge wrote that the works of Bailey, Rudolf Steiner, and Theosophy in general all influenced what he called the “UFO religions“.[190] He explained that “…Theosophy has several prominent branches, and, strictly speaking, the branch which has had the most important influence on the UFO religion is that developed by Alice Bailey.”.[191] Partridge also quoted Gordon Melton, who suggested that the first UFO religion was Guy Ballard‘s “I Am” Activity,[190] which Bailey described as a “cheap comedy.”[192]

Professor Robert S. Ellwood of the University of Southern California investigated a wide range of religious and spiritual groups in the United States during the 1970s, including a nationwide group of UFO believers called Understanding, Inc., which had been founded by a contactee named Daniel Fry. He reported that, “There is no particular religious practice connected with the meeting, although interestingly the New Age Prayer derived from the Alice Bailey writings is used as an invocation.”[193]

George D. Chryssides of the University of Wolverhampton, cited Bailey’s influence on the ideas of the Order of the Solar Temple and related UFO organisations.[194]

Benjamin Creme, formerly a member of the UFO religion the Aetherius Society, became a follower of Alice A. Bailey and then proclaimed in 1975 that he had been contacted by Maitreya to prepare for the return of Maitreya to Earth that had been prophesied by Alice A. Bailey in 1946. Alice A. Bailey prophesied in January 1946 that (since Jiddu Krishnamurti had repudiated the“World Teacher Project”Christ (in her books she refers to Maitreya as The Christ or The World Teacher, not as Maitreya) would return himself by manifesting a physical body of his own on thephysical plane “sometime after AD 2025”[195] and that this would be the New Age equivalent of the Christian concept of the Second Coming of Christ[196] (See Maitreya (Benjamin Creme)).

Esoteric astrology[edit source | editbeta]

Whereas most astrology focuses on the personality, the esoteric astrology of Alice Bailey seeks to explain the soul and its desire for spiritual evolution.[197][198] Esoteric astrology is grounded in Bailey’s (Djwhal’s) Ageless Wisdom teachings.[199][200] According to one writer, “The Tibetan Master, Djwhal Khul, has provided a significant foundation for a more Soul-oriented approach to astrology and to the Life it seeks to symbolize and interpret.”[78]

The esoteric astrologers who follow the teachings of Bailey typically base their work on her five-volume Treatise on the Seven Rays, particularly volume three which focuses on astrology.[80]

In esoteric astrology the seven rays are applied to the astrological signs and planets, with a corresponding “soul urge”, in the following manner (taken from Oken[80]).

Soul Urge: “The use of spiritual will for the benefit of the collective; power utilized for the purpose of enhancing unity and beauty; the expression of will for the purposes and being of the group.” (p. 105)

Soul Urge: “The urge to bring about a sustaining, loving wholeness to any group or life situation; the ability, through magnetic attraction, to bring about healing; the focus for the stimulation of consciousness, and hence for greater love/wisdom; the ability to see beyond differences into unifying principles.” (p. 110)

Soul Urge: “The birthing of ideas to benefit humanity; the structuring of time and activities to allow for group energies to flourish; inherent, objective intelligence ready to be used in service to humanity in all ways.” (p. 114)

Soul Urge: “The ‘Divine Artist’ – one who seeks to raise humanity’s consciousness through the realization of the beauty and harmony existing in nature and in the world of forms; the mediator between heaven and earth, God and man; the Priest.” (p. 122)

Soul Urge: “Those who work to be connecting links of intelligence between the abstract world of pure ideation and the concrete world of practical application; precision and exactitude in creating those forms and inventions which allow for the outpouring of Higher-Mind Intelligence.” (p. 127)

Soul Urge: “The urge to transform selfish and personal motivation into selfless, impersonal devotion for the good of all; the bringing about of circumstances which reorient the exclusive to the inclusive for the greater expression of Love/Wisdom.” (p. 133)

Soul Urge: “The urge to gather, formulate, and harmonize various aspects of a given set of life circumstances into an ordered expression for the Will of God; the urge to make ‘heaven on earth.'” (p. 139)

The planetary and house rulers differ in esoteric astrology as compared to exoteric astrology. The esoteric planetary and house rulers are to be used when a person is analyzing the soul’s purpose or journey through life. According to Djwhal Khul (Alice Bailey), here are the rulers.[82]

Personality (Mundane) Soul (Esoteric) House
Aries Mars Mercury First
Taurus Venus Vulcan Second
Gemini Mercury Venus Third
Cancer Moon Neptune Fourth
Leo Sun Sun Fifth
Virgo Mercury Moon Sixth
Libra Venus Uranus Seventh
Scorpio Mars Mars / Pluto Eighth
Sagittarius Jupiter Earth Ninth
Capricorn Saturn Saturn Tenth
Aquarius Uranus Jupiter Eleventh
Pisces Jupiter Pluto / Neptune Twelfth

Alice Bailey wrote in Esoteric Astrology, “The human being in his eventual recognized group relationships is of more importance than appears in his individual life, which the orthodox horoscope seeks to elucidate. It only determines his little destiny and unimportant fate. Esoteric astrology indicates his group usefulness and the scope of his potential consciousness.”

Esoteric Healing[edit source | editbeta]

Esoteric healing is a major subject in the philosophical writings of Alice Bailey. It is contained in the fourth volume of “The Treatise on the Seven Rays”.[201] The primary emphasis of esoteric healing is not on the physical body or any of the three personality bodies of the human being (physical, emotional, mental), but on the soul. It is the soul that heals. This is stated in the “Law One of Esoteric Healing”: “All disease is the result of inhibited soul life. This is true of all forms in all kingdoms. The art of the healer consists in releasing the soul so that its life can flow through the aggregate of organisms which constitute any particular form.” The primary healing ray is ray two. More advanced esoteric healing allows the practitioner to work with their own soul ray and the soul ray of the patient. Volume IV (Esoteric Healing) was first published in 1953. It took until the 1970s for a group to adequately assimilate the teachings and begin to put it into practice. Brenda Johnston founded the International Health Research Network in 1971. In 1984 the group became a registered charity in UK, with its name changed to the International Network of Esoteric Healing (INEH). The international group remains small but it has spread to about 20 countries with training of students by trained teachers of esoteric healing, esoteric healing clinics, national and international conferences annually. They also have a biannual Journal. Although INEH requires membership of its organization, esoteric healing remains open to anyone wishing to practice the art.

Zodiac flower signs are based on the astrological zodiac signs. These are provided here as another method of self-discovery. Flowers offer us a blossoming perspective into our personalities. When we see ourselves as ever expanding and growing flowers, we know that we are infused with infinite potential. Associating our personality with our zodiac flower signs also allows us to accept various phases in our lives. Even though our personalities can be trying at times, our flower signs remind us that every season has its peaks and valleys. Our flower signs are born, grow, and wither only to re-germinate and start the business of growth and expansion once again. As you read through your zodiac flower sign, remember these cycles. Remember that just like the flowers of the field we all grow at our own pace. We cannot force the flower to blossom, and so we must accept our own soul-growth at its own pace too. Also, when we are first learning about astrology and the signs of the zodiac, it sometimes help to assign the traditional signs with corresponding symbols like these flowers. For example, some people will remember Below I have provided zodiac flower signs according to date of birth. I also give a catch phrase that your flower sign might use as a motto. A brief personality summary follows each sign. Keep in mind, this is just a reference. Your zodiac flower sign personality may differ according to the conditions of your soil, water, sunlight, and weather conditions. 🙂 Oh, and if you love flowers, don’t miss my pages on Flower Meanings (general), and Flower Color Meanings. Celtic tree astrology is based on the ancient idea that the time of our births is pivotal to the formation of our personality and behavior.

The spiritually savvy Celts, particularly the druids were expert observers. Over time, they recognized that a child born within a certain season would develop certain qualities. Further, the druids observed patterns in the color and shape of a person’s life according to the motions of the moon (their calendar being based on a lunar year) and the season in which we are born. The system of Celtic tree astrology was developed out of a natural connection with the druid’s knowledge of earth cycles and their reverence for the sacred knowledge held by trees. As mentioned on my Celtic Meaning of Trees Page, the druids had a profound connection with trees and believed they were vessels of infinite wisdom. Carrying this concept a step forward, we can associate the likeness and personality of trees to our own human nature. By doing so, we gather inspired insight and clarity into who we are. Below I have provided my interpretation of the Celtic tree astrology signs. I hope you enjoy these perspectives as much as I did while writing them. Oh, and don’t miss my page on Celtic Animal Zodiac Signs here. Click on the pictures or links for each sign to learn more about the tree within the Celtic Ogham context

Honeysuckle
“My vines climb to great heights.”
March 21 – April 19
If you are born under the sign of the honeysuckle you are sweet to the senses of others. Meaning, you naturally entice others with your charm and grace. You have a smooth confidence that attracts a wide variety of friends and business partners. Just as bees can’t resist the lure of the honeysuckle – people can’t resist your energy. You are the first of the flower signs and so you are assertive and a natural leader of the vine. Honeysuckle people are strong and determined, weaving their way through any challenge, and are quite deft at finding innovative solutions.See Aries.
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Poppy
“I provide beauty to your senses.”
April 20 – May 19
If you are a poppy among the zodiac flower signs you love the finer things in life, and you love to share them with other people. You have a flare for design, a good eye for detail, and a knack for putting things together with style. Refinery comes natural to you, and you have a classy way about you that others find alluring. Poppy people are about pleasure: giving and receiving it. You enjoy security and comfort. Those with the flower sign of the poppy are very resilient too, and can weather any storm because of their patience and headstrong nature. See Taurus.
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Lavender
“My beautiful expanse will inspire you.”
May 20 – June 20
If you are a lavender flower sign you freckle your landscape with beautiful ideas. You love to share these ideas with other people and get more new insights as you do so. You are expansive in your expressions, and you always seem to be able to find your muse. You are amazingly productive, creative and have an active mind. Sometimes you feel pulled in too many directions, but part of the lavender’s beauty is that it spreads itself far and wide for all to enjoy. See Gemini.
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Accanthus
“Look to my petals for your nurturing.”
June 21 – July 22
Sensitivity is the watchword for accanthus flower signs. You are perceptive, and have high intuition in matters of the heart, and environment. You often react to others (even when they don’t speak their feelings, you still know what is going on inside their hearts), and your surroundings. You are warm and sympathetic, and a natural healer too. Accanthus zodiac flower signs are highly influenced by outside forces – especially the pull of the moon. A secure home life, surrounded by friends and family who love you and you love back often help ground you and keep you from falling prey to negative influences.See Cancer.
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Sunflower
“I will brighten your darkness.”
July 23 – August 21
Sunflower signs are warm, open, and natural leaders. You rise to any occasion with confidence and assurance – you have no doubt that you are the perfect person for any challenge, and you know how to reach to the top. You tend to be the center of attention and others look to you for advice and mentoring. You are a loving, faithful and tenderhearted friend. You are generous and enjoy a wide range of intellectual gifts. See Leo.
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Morning Glory
“I bring you clarity.”
August 22 – September 22
Morning glory zodiac flower signs are thoughtful and reflective. You tend to think and plan first before you take any action. You are organized and very observant. You have a natural eye for detail, and can be very analytical. You love to help people, and often use your organization skills to help others who struggle in “getting their act together.” You bloom beautifully right where you are planted, and you have a neat way of making things right and tidy. People come to you for guidance and healing. See Virgo.
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Rose
“I will balance you in my beauty.”
September 23 – October 22
The rose zodiac flower sign exposes the truth in all things. If you have this flower sign you have a unique ability to see the hidden meanings in things and expose the underlying evidence for what it is. You have an eye for classic beauty, and you love to surround yourself with beautiful things too. You are attracted to philosophy, poetry and art. Because you see the beauty and truth in all things, you do not tolerate injustice or cruelty. You are most happy when you are with friends and family – taking a walk and enjoying nature. See Libra. Also see rose symbolic meanings here.
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Chrysanthemum
“My mysteries are forever unfolding.”
October 23 – November 21
You have many layers to you, and just as soon as someone thinks they have you identified, you pop out with another blossom of surprises. You like clarity and honesty in all things. In fact, when situations are murky or unhealthy you are the perfect sign to come in and clear the air or heal the situation. You are focused and tend to be serious in your emotions, but you are very intuitive and help others identify areas they need to work on for their own emotional growth. You are active and amorous with no end to suitors. See Scorpio.
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Narcissus
“Escape into my dreamy depth.”
November 22 – December 21
Narcissus zodiac flower signs can be very influential and enjoy sharing their philosophical ideas with others. You are direct, to the point, trustworthy and honest. You are naturally wise, and you also are gifted with good luck. You come on strong, but have a sensitive side you don’t share with too many people. You have an active imagination and love to dream the days away. See Sagittarius.
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Carnation
“Simplicity is its own reward.”
December 22 – January 21
Those with the carnation flower sign are beautifully adept at putting things in order, and organizing. You are strong willed and determined for others to see your point of view. You are a natural leader, and others look to you to lean on. You can be driven and determined and this makes you a strong personality. You are no stranger to hard work, and you like to get things done your way. You like security, particularly if you are building a comfort zone with your own two hands. See Capricorn.
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Orchid
“My uniqueness is my effectiveness.”
January 21 – February 19
Those with the zodiac flower sign of the orchid are curious and inventive. You can be contradictory but you know exactly where you are coming from. You have a dreamy persona and people are attracted to your unique, sometimes eccentric ways. You have a different way of looking at the world. You are a natural humanitarian, and love to unravel mysteries. You are also very good at organizing or completing tasks that allow you to establish order. See Aquarius,
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Water Lily
“My roots touch unseen knowledge.”
February 20 – March 20
Water lily flower signs are perceptive and deeply psychic. Water runs through all the flower signs but especially through yours and this accentuates your intuitive abilities. You are sometimes able to absorb ideas and thoughts of those around you. You can be emotionally swayed by other people’s feelings too. Sometimes your emotions can run out of control, but you can turn to your natural creative abilities to help you get grounded. You are a natural artist, dancer, and musician. You are also an excellent communicator, and may be drawn to other languages too.See Pisces. Also see

. Elder – The Seeker
November 25 – December 23

Elder archetypes among Celtic tree astrology tend to be freedom-loving, and sometimes appear to be a bit wild to the other signs of the zodiac. In younger years you may have lived life in the fast lane, often identified as a “thrill seeker.” At the time of your birth the light of the sun was fast fleeting and so you take the same cue from nature. You are often misjudged as an outsider as you have a tendency to be withdrawn in spite of your extroverted nature. In actuality, you are deeply thoughtful with philosophical bent. You also tend to be very considerate of others and genuinely strive to be helpful. These acts of assistance are sometimes thwarted by your brutal honestly (which you openly share solicited or otherwise). Elder Celtic tree astrology signs fit well with Alder’s and Holly’s

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Birch – The Achiever
December 24 – January 20

If you were born under the energy of the Birch you can be highly driven, and often motivate others they become easily caught in your zeal, drive and ambition. You are always reaching for more, seeking better horizons and obtaining higher aspirations. The Druids attributed this to your time of birth, which is a time of year shrouded by darkness, so consequently you are always stretching out to find the light. Birch signs (just like the tree) are tolerant, tough, and resilient. You are cool-headed and are natural-born rulers, often taking command when a situation calls for leadership. When in touch with your softer side, you also bring beauty in otherwise barren spaces, brightening up a room with you guile, and charming crowds with you quick wit. Celtic tree astrology Birch signs are compatible with Vine signs and Willow signs.
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Rowan – The Thinker
January 21 – February 17

Celtic tree astrology recognizes Rowan signs as the philosophical minds within the zodiac. If you were born under the Rowan energy, you are likely a keen-minded visionary, with high ideals. Your thoughts are original and creative, so much so, that other’s often misunderstand from where you are coming. This sometimes makes you aloof when interacting with others as you feel they wouldn’t understand where you are coming from anyway. Nevertheless, although you may appear to have a cool exterior, you are burning within from your passionate ideals. This inner passion provides inner motivation for you as you make your way through life. You have a natural ability to transform situations and people around you by your mere presence. You are highly influential in a quiet way and others look to you for your unique perspectives. Rowan pairs well with Ivy and Hawthorn signs.
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Ash – The Enchanter
February 18 – March 17

Those born under the Celtic tree astrology sign of the Ash are free thinkers. Imaginative, intuitive, and naturally artistic, you see the world in water-color purity. You have a tendency to moody and withdrawn at times, but that’s only because your inner landscape is in constant motion. You are in touch with your muse, and you are easily inspired by nature. Likewise, you inspire all that you associate with and people seek you out for your enchanting personality. Art, writing (especially poetry), science, and theology (spiritual matters) are areas that strongly interest you. Others may think you are reclusive, but in all honesty, you are simply immersed in your own world of fantastic vision and design. You are in a constant state of self-renewal and you rarely place a value on what others think about you. Ash signs partner well with Willow and Reed signs.
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Alder – The Trailblazer
March 18 – April 14
If you are an Alder sign within the Celtic tree astrology system, you are a natural-born pathfinder. You’re a mover and a shaker, and will blaze a trail with fiery passion often gaining loyal followers to your cause. You are charming, gregarious and mingle easily with a broad mix of personalities. In other words, Alder signs get along with everybody and everybody loves to hang around with you. This might be because Alder’s are easily confident and have a strong self-faith. This self-assurances is infectious and other people recognize this quality in you instantly. Alder Celtic tree astrology signs are very focused and dislike waste. Consequently, they can see through superficialities and will not tolerate fluff. Alder people place high value on their time, and feel that wasting time is insufferable. They are motivated by action and results. Alder’s pair well with Hawthorns, Oaks or even Birch signs.
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Willow – The Observer
April 15 – May 12
If you are a Willow sign, you are ruled by the moon, and so your personality holds hands with many of the mystical aspects of the lunar realm. This means you are highly creative, intuitive (highly psychic people are born under the sign of the Willow) and intelligent. You have a keen understanding of cycles, and you inherently know that every situation has a season. This gives you a realistic perspective of things, and also causes you to be more patient than most tree signs. With your intelligence comes a natural ability to retain knowledge and you often impress your company with the ability to expound on subjects from memory. Willow Celtic tree astrology signs are bursting with potential, but have a tendency to hold themselves back for fear of appearing flamboyant or overindulgent. It is your powers of perception that ultimately allow your true nature to shine, and what leads you to success in life. Willow signs join well with the Birch and the Ivy.
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Hawthorn – The Illusionist
May 13 – June 9
Hawthorn signs in Celtic tree astrology are not at all what they appear to be. Outwardly, they appear to be a certain persona, while on the inside Hawthorn’s are quite different. They put the term “never judge a book by its cover” to the test. They live seemingly average lives while on the inside they carry fiery passions and inexhaustible creative flame. They are well adjusted and can adapt to most life situations well – making themselves content and comforting others at the same time. You are naturally curious, and have an interest in a broad range of topics. You are an excellent listener, and people seek you out as an outlet to release their burdens. You have a healthy sense of humor, and have a clear understanding of irony. You tend to see the big picture, and have amazing insight – although you typically won’t give yourself enough credit for your observations. Hawthorn signs match up nicely with Ash and Rowan’s.
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<> <>Oak – The Stabilizer
June 10 – July 7
Those born under the Celtic tree astrology sign of the Oak have a special gift of strength. They are protective people and often become a champion for those who do not have a voice. In other words, the Oak is the crusader and the spokesperson for the underdog. Nurturing, generous and helpful, you are a gentle giant among the Celtic zodiac signs. You exude an easy confidence and naturally assume everything will work out to a positive outcome. You have a deep respect for history and ancestry, and many people with this sign become teachers. You love to impart your knowledge of the past to others. Oak signs have a need for structure, and will often go to great lengths to gain the feeling of control in their lives. Healthy Oak signs live long, full, happy lives and enjoy large family settings and are likely to be involved with large social/community networks. Oak signs pair off well with the Ash and Reed, and are known to harmoniously join with Ivy signs too.
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<> <>Holly – The Ruler
July 8 – August 4
Among the Celtic tree astrology signs the Holly is one of regal status. Noble, and high-minded, those born during the Holly era easily take on positions of leadership and power. If you are a Holly sign you take on challenges easily, and you overcome obstacles with rare skill and tact. When you encounter setbacks, you simply redouble your efforts and remain ever vigilant to obtain your end goals. Very seldom are you defeated. This is why many people look up to you and follow you as their leader. You are competitive and ambitious even in the most casual settings. You can appear to be arrogant but in actuality you’re just very confident in your abilities. Truth be known, you are quite generous, kind and affectionate (once people get to know you). Highly intelligent, you skate through academics where others may struggle. Because many things come to you so easily, you may have a tendency to rest on your laurels. In other words, if not kept active, you may slip into an unhealthy and lazy lifestyle. Holly signs may look to Ash and Elder signs for balance and partnership.
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<> <>Hazel – The Knower
August 5 – September 1
If you are born under the energy of the Hazel, you are highly intelligent, organized and efficient. Like the Holly, you are naturally gifted in academia, and excel in the classroom. You also have the ability to retain information and can recall, recite and expound on subjects you’ve memorized with amazing accuracy. You know your facts, and you are always well informed. This sometimes makes you appear like a know-it-all to others, but you can’t help that; you’re genuinely smart and usually know the right course of action because of your impressive knowledge base. You have an eye for detail, and like things to be “just so.” Sometimes this need for order and control can lead to compulsive behaviors if left unchecked. You have a knack for numbers, science and things that utilize your analytical skills. You like rules, although you are typically making them rather than playing by them. The Celtic tree astrology sign of Hazel joins harmoniously with Hawthorn and Rowan’s.
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<> Vine – The Equalizer
September 2 – September 29
Vine signs are born within the autumnal equinox, which makes your personality changeable and unpredictable. You can be full of contradictions, and are often indecisive. But this is because you can see both sides of the story, and empathize with each equally. It is hard for you to pick sides because you can see the good points on each end. There are, however, areas in your life that you are quite sure about. These include the finer things of life like food, wine, music, and art. You have very distinctive taste, and are a connoisseur of refinement. Luxury agrees with you, and under good conditions you have a Midas touch for turning drab into dramatic beauty. You are charming, elegant, and maintain a level of class that wins you esteem from a large fan base. Indeed, you often find yourself in public places where others can admire your classic style and poise. Vine signs pair well with Willow and Hazel signs.
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<> Ivy – The Survivor
September 30 – October 27
Among other cherished qualities of the Ivy Celtic tree astrology sign, most prized is your ability to overcome all odds. You have a sharp intellect, but more obvious is your compassion and loyalty to others. You have a giving nature, and are always there to lend a helping hand. You are born at a time of the waning sun so life can be difficult for you at times. This sometimes seems unfair because it appears that obstacles are coming at with no prompting on your part. Nevertheless, you endure troubling times with silent perseverance and soulful grace. Indeed, Ivy signs have a tendency to be deeply spiritual and cling to a deep-rooted faith that typically sees them trough adversity. You are soft spoken, but have a keen wit about you. You are charming, charismatic, and can effectively hold your own in most social settings. Ivy signs are attracted to the Celtic tree astology sign of Oak and Ash signs.

Days of the Week

Monday’s child is fair of face.
Tuesday’s child is full of grace.
Wednesday’s child is full of woe.
Thursday’s child has far to go.
Friday’s child is loving and giving.
Saturday’s child works hard for a living,
But the child who is born on the Sabbath Day
Is bonny and blithe and good and gay
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The seven day week is thought to have originated among the ancient Babylonians. The week was developed by dividing each lunar month into four sections of approximately seven days each.  Each day was then associated with a planet and god. Some historians believe associating the days of the week with the planets originated with the ancient Egyptians.  Christianity and Islam adopted the seven day week from Judaism. Both chose worship days, the day of rest, separate from the Jews…the Christians chose Sunday and the Muslims chose Friday…both days touched the original Sabbath day of Saturday.  Later the Greeks and Romans and other European and Asian countries adopted the seven day week system and named the days after the Sun and Moon, planets, and various gods.

Planet God Day
Modern Babylon Greece Roman Teutonic Anglo-Saxon
Sun Shamash Helios or Apollo Sol or Apollo Sunday
Moon Sin Selene Luna Monday
Mars Nergal Ares Mars Tiwas Tiw Tuesday
Mercury Nebo Hermes Mercurius Odin Woden Wednesday
Jupiter Marduk Zeus Jupiter Donar Thor Thursday
Venus Ishtar Aphrodite Venus Frigg Frig Friday
Saturn Ninurta Chronos Saturnus Saturday

Sunday

metal: gold

energy: masculine

planet: Sun

astrological sign: Leo

angel: Michael

colors: gold, yellow, orange, white

plants: marigold, heliotrope, sunflower, buttercup, cedar, beech, oak

stones: carnelian, citrine, tiger’s eye, amber, clear quartz, red agate

oil: cedar, frankincense, neroli, rosemary

incense: lemon, frankincense

 

Monday

metal: silver

energy: feminine

planet: Moon

astrological sign: Cancer

angel: Gabriel

colors: white, silver, gray

plants: night flowers, willow root, orris root, Birch, motherwort, vervain, white rose

stones: carnelian, moonstone, aquamarine, pearl, clear quartz, fluorite, geodes

oil: jasmine, lemon, sandalwood

incense: african violet, honeysuckle, myrtle, willow, wormwood

 

Tuesday

metal: iron

energy: masculine

planet: Mars

astrological sign: Aries and Scorpio

angel: Samuel

colors: red and orange

plants: pepper, red rose, cock’s comb, pine, daisy, thyme

stones: carnelian, bloodstone, ruby, garnet, pink tourmaline

oil: basil, coriander, ginger

incense: dragon’s blood, patchouli

 

Wednesday

metal: mercury

energy: masculine

planet: Mercury and Chiron (a moon of Pluto)

astrological sign: Virgo

angel: Raphael

colors: orange, light blue, grey, yellow, violet

plants: fern, lavender, hazel, cherry, periwinkle

stones: aventurine, bloodstone, hematite, moss agate, sodalite

oil: benzoin, clary sage, eucalyptus, lavender

incense: jasmine, lavender, sweet pea

 

Thursday

metal: tin

energy: masculine

planet: Jupiter

astrological sign: Sagittarius and Pisces

angel: Sachiel

colors: purple, royal blue, indigo

plants: cinnamon, beech, buttercup, coltsfoot, oak

stones: sugilite, amethyst, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sapphire

oil: clove, lemon balm, oak moss, star anise

incense: cinnamon, musk, nutmeg, sage

 

Friday

metal: copper

energy: feminine

planet: Venus

astrological sign: Libra and Taurus

angel: Ariel

colors: green, pink, aqua

plants: ivy, birch, heather, clematis, sage, violet, water lily

stones: rose quartz, moonstone, pink tourmaline, peridot, emerald, jade

oil: cardamom, palmrosa, rose, yarrow

incense: strawberry, sandalwood, rose, saffron, vanilla

 

Saturday

metal: lead

energy: feminine

planet: Saturn

astrological sign: Capricorn and Aquarius

angel: Cassiel

colors: black, grey, indigo

plants: moss, hemlock, wolfsbane, coltsfoot, nightshade, fir

stones: jet, smokey quartz, amethyst, black onyx, snowflake obsidian, lava, pumice

oil: cypress, mimosa, myrrh, patchouli

incense: black poppy seed. myrrh

 

The zodic of Mark

Mark.1       ariese

[1] The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God;
[2] As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.
[3] The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
[4] John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.
[5] And there went out unto him all the land of Judaea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins.
[6] And John was clothed with camel’s hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his loins; and he did eat locusts and wild honey;
[7] And preached, saying, There cometh one mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose.
[8] I indeed have baptized you with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost.
[9] And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan.
[10] And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon him:
[11] And there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.
[12] And immediately the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness.
[13] And he was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.
[14] Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God,
[15] And saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel.
[16] Now as he walked by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew his brother casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers.
[17] And Jesus said unto them, Come ye after me, and I will make you to become fishers of men.
[18] And straightway they forsook their nets, and followed him.
[19] And when he had gone a little further thence, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, who also were in the ship mending their nets.
[20] And straightway he called them: and they left their father Zebedee in the ship with the hired servants, and went after him.
[21] And they went into Capernaum; and straightway on the sabbath day he entered into the synagogue, and taught.
[22] And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes.
[23] And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out,
[24] Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.
[25] And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him.
[26] And when the unclean spirit had torn him, and cried with a loud voice, he came out of him.
[27] And they were all amazed, insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying, What thing is this? what new doctrine is this? for with authority commandeth he even the unclean spirits, and they do obey him.
[28] And immediately his fame spread abroad throughout all the region round about Galilee.
[29] And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John.
[30] But Simon’s wife’s mother lay sick of a fever, and anon they tell him of her.
[31] And he came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them.
[32] And at even, when the sun did set, they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils.
[33] And all the city was gathered together at the door.
[34] And he healed many that were sick of divers diseases, and cast out many devils; and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew him.
[35] And in the morning, rising up a great while before day, he went out, and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed.
[36] And Simon and they that were with him followed after him.
[37] And when they had found him, they said unto him, All men seek for thee.
[38] And he said unto them, Let us go into the next towns, that I may preach there also: for therefore came I forth.
[39] And he preached in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and cast out devils.
[40] And there came a leper to him, beseeching him, and kneeling down to him, and saying unto him, If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.
[41] And Jesus, moved with compassion, put forth his hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, I will; be thou clean.
[42] And as soon as he had spoken, immediately the leprosy departed from him, and he was cleansed.
[43] And he straitly charged him, and forthwith sent him away;
[44] And saith unto him, See thou say nothing to any man: but go thy way, shew thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing those things which Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.
[45] But he went out, and began to publish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter, insomuch that Jesus could no more openly enter into the city, but was without in desert places: and they came to him from every quarter.

Mark.2

[1] And again he entered into Capernaum, after some days; and it was noised that he was in the house.
[2] And straightway many were gathered together, insomuch that there was no room to receive them, no, not so much as about the door: and he preached the word unto them.
[3] And they come unto him, bringing one sick of the palsy, which was borne of four.
[4] And when they could not come nigh unto him for the press, they uncovered the roof where he was: and when they had broken it up, they let down the bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay.
[5] When Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee.
[6] But there were certain of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts,
[7] Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? who can forgive sins but God only?
[8] And immediately when Jesus perceived in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, he said unto them, Why reason ye these things in your hearts?
[9] Whether is it easier to say to the sick of the palsy, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, and take up thy bed, and walk?
[10] But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (he saith to the sick of the palsy,)
[11] I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy bed, and go thy way into thine house.
[12] And immediately he arose, took up the bed, and went forth before them all; insomuch that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, We never saw it on this fashion.
[13] And he went forth again by the sea side; and all the multitude resorted unto him, and he taught them.
[14] And as he passed by, he saw Levi the son of Alphaeus sitting at the receipt of custom, and said unto him, Follow me. And he arose and followed him.
[15] And it came to pass, that, as Jesus sat at meat in his house, many publicans and sinners sat also together with Jesus and his disciples: for there were many, and they followed him.
[16] And when the scribes and Pharisees saw him eat with publicans and sinners, they said unto his disciples, How is it that he eateth and drinketh with publicans and sinners?
[17] When Jesus heard it, he saith unto them, They that are whole have no need of the physician, but they that are sick: I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.
[18] And the disciples of John and of the Pharisees used to fast: and they come and say unto him, Why do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not?
[19] And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? as long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast.
[20] But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.
[21] No man also seweth a piece of new cloth on an old garment: else the new piece that filled it up taketh away from the old, and the rent is made worse.
[22] And no man putteth new wine into old bottles: else the new wine doth burst the bottles, and the wine is spilled, and the bottles will be marred: but new wine must be put into new bottles.
[23] And it came to pass, that he went through the corn fields on the sabbath day; and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of corn.
[24] And the Pharisees said unto him, Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful?
[25] And he said unto them, Have ye never read what David did, when he had need, and was an hungred, he, and they that were with him?
[26] How he went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high priest, and did eat the shewbread, which is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave also to them which were with him?
[27] And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath:
[28] Therefore the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.

Mark.3

[1] And he entered again into the synagogue; and there was a man there which had a withered hand.
[2] And they watched him, whether he would heal him on the sabbath day; that they might accuse him.
[3] And he saith unto the man which had the withered hand, Stand forth.
[4] And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill? But they held their peace.
[5] And when he had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it out: and his hand was restored whole as the other.
[6] And the Pharisees went forth, and straightway took counsel with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him.
[7] But Jesus withdrew himself with his disciples to the sea: and a great multitude from Galilee followed him, and from Judaea,
[8] And from Jerusalem, and from Idumaea, and from beyond Jordan; and they about Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, when they had heard what great things he did, came unto him.
[9] And he spake to his disciples, that a small ship should wait on him because of the multitude, lest they should throng him.
[10] For he had healed many; insomuch that they pressed upon him for to touch him, as many as had plagues.
[11] And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son of God.
[12] And he straitly charged them that they should not make him known.
[13] And he goeth up into a mountain, and calleth unto him whom he would: and they came unto him.
[14] And he ordained twelve, that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach,
[15] And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils:
[16] And Simon he surnamed Peter;
[17] And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and he surnamed them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder:
[18] And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Canaanite,
[19] And Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him: and they went into an house.
[20] And the multitude cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread.
[21] And when his friends heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him: for they said, He is beside himself.
[22] And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem said, He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils casteth he out devils.
[23] And he called them unto him, and said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan?
[24] And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand.
[25] And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand.
[26] And if Satan rise up against himself, and be divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end.
[27] No man can enter into a strong man’s house, and spoil his goods, except he will first bind the strong man; and then he will spoil his house.
[28] Verily I say unto you, All sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme:
[29] But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation:
[30] Because they said, He hath an unclean spirit.
[31] There came then his brethren and his mother, and, standing without, sent unto him, calling him.
[32] And the multitude sat about him, and they said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren without seek for thee.
[33] And he answered them, saying, Who is my mother, or my brethren?
[34] And he looked round about on them which sat about him, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren!
[35] For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother.

Mark.4  tarus

[1] And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land.
[2] And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine,
[3] Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow:
[4] And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up.
[5] And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth:
[6] But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away.
[7] And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.
[8] And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred.
[9] And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
[10] And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable.
[11] And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables:
[12] That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them.
[13] And he said unto them, Know ye not this parable? and how then will ye know all parables?
[14] The sower soweth the word.
[15] And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard, Satan cometh immediately, and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts.
[16] And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with gladness;
[17] And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word’s sake, immediately they are offended.
[18] And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word,
[19] And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.
[20] And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred.
[21] And he said unto them, Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick?
[22] For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested; neither was any thing kept secret, but that it should come abroad.
[23] If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.
[24] And he said unto them, Take heed what ye hear: with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you: and unto you that hear shall more be given.
[25] For he that hath, to him shall be given: and he that hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he hath.
[26] And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground;
[27] And should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how.
[28] For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear.
[29] But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come.
[30] And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it?
[31] It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown in the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth:
[32] But when it is sown, it groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs, and shooteth out great branches; so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it.
[33] And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it.
[34] But without a parable spake he not unto them: and when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples.

gemini
[35] And the same day, when the even was come, he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side.
[36] And when they had sent away the multitude, they took him even as he was in the ship. And there were also with him other little ships.
[37] And there arose a great storm of wind, and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full.
[38] And he was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow: and they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish?
[39] And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still. And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm.
[40] And he said unto them, Why are ye so fearful? how is it that ye have no faith?
[41] And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another, What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?

Mark.5

[1] And they came over unto the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes.
[2] And when he was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit,
[3] Who had his dwelling among the tombs; and no man could bind him, no, not with chains:
[4] Because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces: neither could any man tame him.
[5] And always, night and day, he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting himself with stones.
[6] But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped him,
[7] And cried with a loud voice, and said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the most high God? I adjure thee by God, that thou torment me not.
[8] For he said unto him, Come out of the man, thou unclean spirit.
[9] And he asked him, What is thy name? And he answered, saying, My name is Legion: for we are many.
[10] And he besought him much that he would not send them away out of the country.
[11] Now there was there nigh unto the mountains a great herd of swine feeding.
[12] And all the devils besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them.
[13] And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And the unclean spirits went out, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea, (they were about two thousand;) and were choked in the sea.
[14] And they that fed the swine fled, and told it in the city, and in the country. And they went out to see what it was that was done.
[15] And they come to Jesus, and see him that was possessed with the devil, and had the legion, sitting, and clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid.
[16] And they that saw it told them how it befell to him that was possessed with the devil, and also concerning the swine.
[17] And they began to pray him to depart out of their coasts.
[18] And when he was come into the ship, he that had been possessed with the devil prayed him that he might be with him.
[19] Howbeit Jesus suffered him not, but saith unto him, Go home to thy friends, and tell them how great things the Lord hath done for thee, and hath had compassion on thee.
[20] And he departed, and began to publish in Decapolis how great things Jesus had done for him: and all men did marvel.
[21] And when Jesus was passed over again by ship unto the other side, much people gathered unto him: and he was nigh unto the sea.
[22] And, behold, there cometh one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name; and when he saw him, he fell at his feet,
[23] And besought him greatly, saying, My little daughter lieth at the point of death: I pray thee, come and lay thy hands on her, that she may be healed; and she shall live.
[24] And Jesus went with him; and much people followed him, and thronged him.
[25] And a certain woman, which had an issue of blood twelve years,
[26] And had suffered many things of many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse,
[27] When she had heard of Jesus, came in the press behind, and touched his garment.
[28] For she said, If I may touch but his clothes, I shall be whole.
[29] And straightway the fountain of her blood was dried up; and she felt in her body that she was healed of that plague.
[30] And Jesus, immediately knowing in himself that virtue had gone out of him, turned him about in the press, and said, Who touched my clothes?
[31] And his disciples said unto him, Thou seest the multitude thronging thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me?
[32] And he looked round about to see her that had done this thing.
[33] But the woman fearing and trembling, knowing what was done in her, came and fell down before him, and told him all the truth.
[34] And he said unto her, Daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace, and be whole of thy plague.
[35] While he yet spake, there came from the ruler of the synagogue’s house certain which said, Thy daughter is dead: why troublest thou the Master any further?
[36] As soon as Jesus heard the word that was spoken, he saith unto the ruler of the synagogue, Be not afraid, only believe.
[37] And he suffered no man to follow him, save Peter, and James, and John the brother of James.
[38] And he cometh to the house of the ruler of the synagogue, and seeth the tumult, and them that wept and wailed greatly.
[39] And when he was come in, he saith unto them, Why make ye this ado, and weep? the damsel is not dead, but sleepeth.
[40] And they laughed him to scorn. But when he had put them all out, he taketh the father and the mother of the damsel, and them that were with him, and entereth in where the damsel was lying.
[41] And he took the damsel by the hand, and said unto her, Talitha cumi; which is, being interpreted, Damsel, I say unto thee, arise.
[42] And straightway the damsel arose, and walked; for she was of the age of twelve years. And they were astonished with a great astonishment.
[43] And he charged them straitly that no man should know it; and commanded that something should be given her to eat.

Mark.6

[1] And he went out from thence, and came into his own country; and his disciples follow him.
[2] And when the sabbath day was come, he began to teach in the synagogue: and many hearing him were astonished, saying, From whence hath this man these things? and what wisdom is this which is given unto him, that even such mighty works are wrought by his hands?
[3] Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at him.
[4] But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, but in his own country, and among his own kin, and in his own house.
[5] And he could there do no mighty work, save that he laid his hands upon a few sick folk, and healed them.
[6] And he marvelled because of their unbelief. And he went round about the villages, teaching.
[7] And he called unto him the twelve, and began to send them forth by two and two; and gave them power over unclean spirits;
[8] And commanded them that they should take nothing for their journey, save a staff only; no scrip, no bread, no money in their purse:
[9] But be shod with sandals; and not put on two coats.
[10] And he said unto them, In what place soever ye enter into an house, there abide till ye depart from that place.
[11] And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear you, when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them. Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than for that city.
[12] And they went out, and preached that men should repent.
[13] And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them.
[14] And king Herod heard of him; (for his name was spread abroad:) and he said, That John the Baptist was risen from the dead, and therefore mighty works do shew forth themselves in him.
[15] Others said, That it is Elias. And others said, That it is a prophet, or as one of the prophets.
[16] But when Herod heard thereof, he said, It is John, whom I beheaded: he is risen from the dead.
[17] For Herod himself had sent forth and laid hold upon John, and bound him in prison for Herodias’ sake, his brother Philip’s wife: for he had married her.
[18] For John had said unto Herod, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother’s wife.
[19] Therefore Herodias had a quarrel against him, and would have killed him; but she could not:
[20] For Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just man and an holy, and observed him; and when he heard him, he did many things, and heard him gladly.
[21] And when a convenient day was come, that Herod on his birthday made a supper to his lords, high captains, and chief estates of Galilee;
[22] And when the daughter of the said Herodias came in, and danced, and pleased Herod and them that sat with him, the king said unto the damsel, Ask of me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it thee.
[23] And he sware unto her, Whatsoever thou shalt ask of me, I will give it thee, unto the half of my kingdom.
[24] And she went forth, and said unto her mother, What shall I ask? And she said, The head of John the Baptist.
[25] And she came in straightway with haste unto the king, and asked, saying, I will that thou give me by and by in a charger the head of John the Baptist.
[26] And the king was exceeding sorry; yet for his oath’s sake, and for their sakes which sat with him, he would not reject her.
[27] And immediately the king sent an executioner, and commanded his head to be brought: and he went and beheaded him in the prison,
[28] And brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel: and the damsel gave it to her mother.
[29] And when his disciples heard of it, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb.

cancer
[30] And the apostles gathered themselves together unto Jesus, and told him all things, both what they had done, and what they had taught.
[31] And he said unto them, Come ye yourselves apart into a desert place, and rest a while: for there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat.
[32] And they departed into a desert place by ship privately.
[33] And the people saw them departing, and many knew him, and ran afoot thither out of all cities, and outwent them, and came together unto him.
[34] And Jesus, when he came out, saw much people, and was moved with compassion toward them, because they were as sheep not having a shepherd: and he began to teach them many things.
[35] And when the day was now far spent, his disciples came unto him, and said, This is a desert place, and now the time is far passed:
[36] Send them away, that they may go into the country round about, and into the villages, and buy themselves bread: for they have nothing to eat.
[37] He answered and said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they say unto him, Shall we go and buy two hundred pennyworth of bread, and give them to eat?
[38] He saith unto them, How many loaves have ye? go and see. And when they knew, they say, Five, and two fishes.
[39] And he commanded them to make all sit down by companies upon the green grass.
[40] And they sat down in ranks, by hundreds, and by fifties.
[41] And when he had taken the five loaves and the two fishes, he looked up to heaven, and blessed, and brake the loaves, and gave them to his disciples to set before them; and the two fishes divided he among them all.
[42] And they did all eat, and were filled.
[43] And they took up twelve baskets full of the fragments, and of the fishes.
[44] And they that did eat of the loaves were about five thousand men.
[45] And straightway he constrained his disciples to get into the ship, and to go to the other side before unto Bethsaida, while he sent away the people.
[46] And when he had sent them away, he departed into a mountain to pray.
[47] And when even was come, the ship was in the midst of the sea, and he alone on the land.
[48] And he saw them toiling in rowing; for the wind was contrary unto them: and about the fourth watch of the night he cometh unto them, walking upon the sea, and would have passed by them.
[49] But when they saw him walking upon the sea, they supposed it had been a spirit, and cried out:
[50] For they all saw him, and were troubled. And immediately he talked with them, and saith unto them, Be of good cheer: it is I; be not afraid.
[51] And he went up unto them into the ship; and the wind ceased: and they were sore amazed in themselves beyond measure, and wondered.
[52] For they considered not the miracle of the loaves: for their heart was hardened.
[53] And when they had passed over, they came into the land of Gennesaret, and drew to the shore.
[54] And when they were come out of the ship, straightway they knew him,
[55] And ran through that whole region round about, and began to carry about in beds those that were sick, where they heard he was.
[56] And whithersoever he entered, into villages, or cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought him that they might touch if it were but the border of his garment: and as many as touched him were made whole.

Mark.7

[1] Then came together unto him the Pharisees, and certain of the scribes, which came from Jerusalem.
[2] And when they saw some of his disciples eat bread with defiled, that is to say, with unwashen, hands, they found fault.
[3] For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders.
[4] And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables.
[5] Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands?
[6] He answered and said unto them, Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me.
[7] Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctines the commandments of men.
[8] For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do.
[9] And he said unto them, Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition.
[10] For Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, Whoso curseth father or mother, let him die the death:
[11] But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free.
[12] And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or his mother;
[13] Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye.
[14] And when he had called all the people unto him, he said unto them, Hearken unto me every one of you, and understand:
[15] There is nothing from without a man, that entering into him can defile him: but the things which come out of him, those are they that defile the man.
[16] If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.
[17] And when he was entered into the house from the people, his disciples asked him concerning the parable.
[18] And he saith unto them, Are ye so without understanding also? Do ye not perceive, that whatsoever thing from without entereth into the man, it cannot defile him;
[19] Because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging all meats?
[20] And he said, That which cometh out of the man, that defileth the man.
[21] For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders,
[22] Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness:
[23] All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.
[24] And from thence he arose, and went into the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and entered into an house, and would have no man know it: but he could not be hid.
[25] For a certain woman, whose young daughter had an unclean spirit, heard of him, and came and fell at his feet:
[26] The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation; and she besought him that he would cast forth the devil out of her daughter.
[27] But Jesus said unto her, Let the children first be filled: for it is not meet to take the children’s bread, and to cast it unto the dogs.
[28] And she answered and said unto him, Yes, Lord: yet the dogs under the table eat of the children’s crumbs.
[29] And he said unto her, For this saying go thy way; the devil is gone out of thy daughter.
[30] And when she was come to her house, she found the devil gone out, and her daughter laid upon the bed.
[31] And again, departing from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, he came unto the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the coasts of Decapolis.
[32] And they bring unto him one that was deaf, and had an impediment in his speech; and they beseech him to put his hand upon him.
[33] And he took him aside from the multitude, and put his fingers into his ears, and he spit, and touched his tongue;
[34] And looking up to heaven, he sighed, and saith unto him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened.
[35] And straightway his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue was loosed, and he spake plain.
[36] And he charged them that they should tell no man: but the more he charged them, so much the more a great deal they published it;
[37] And were beyond measure astonished, saying, He hath done all things well: he maketh both the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak.

Mark.8

[1] In those days the multitude being very great, and having nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples unto him, and saith unto them,
[2] I have compassion on the multitude, because they have now been with me three days, and have nothing to eat:
[3] And if I send them away fasting to their own houses, they will faint by the way: for divers of them came from far.
[4] And his disciples answered him, From whence can a man satisfy these men with bread here in the wilderness?
[5] And he asked them, How many loaves have ye? And they said, Seven.
[6] And he commanded the people to sit down on the ground: and he took the seven loaves, and gave thanks, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and they did set them before the people.
[7] And they had a few small fishes: and he blessed, and commanded to set them also before them.
[8] So they did eat, and were filled: and they took up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets.
[9] And they that had eaten were about four thousand: and he sent them away.
[10] And straightway he entered into a ship with his disciples, and came into the parts of Dalmanutha.
[11] And the Pharisees came forth, and began to question with him, seeking of him a sign from heaven, tempting him.
[12] And he sighed deeply in his spirit, and saith, Why doth this generation seek after a sign? verily I say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation.
[13] And he left them, and entering into the ship again departed to the other side.
[14] Now the disciples had forgotten to take bread, neither had they in the ship with them more than one loaf.
[15] And he charged them, saying, Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and of the leaven of Herod.
[16] And they reasoned among themselves, saying, It is because we have no bread.
[17] And when Jesus knew it, he saith unto them, Why reason ye, because ye have no bread? perceive ye not yet, neither understand? have ye your heart yet hardened?
[18] Having eyes, see ye not? and having ears, hear ye not? and do ye not remember?
[19] When I brake the five loaves among five thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up? They say unto him, Twelve.
[20] And when the seven among four thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up? And they said, Seven.
[21] And he said unto them, How is it that ye do not understand?
[22] And he cometh to Bethsaida; and they bring a blind man unto him, and besought him to touch him.
[23] And he took the blind man by the hand, and led him out of the town; and when he had spit on his eyes, and put his hands upon him, he asked him if he saw ought.
[24] And he looked up, and said, I see men as trees, walking.
[25] After that he put his hands again upon his eyes, and made him look up: and he was restored, and saw every man clearly.
[26] And he sent him away to his house, saying, Neither go into the town, nor tell it to any in the town.
[27] And Jesus went out, and his disciples, into the towns of Caesarea Philippi: and by the way he asked his disciples, saying unto them, Whom do men say that I am?
leo

[28] And they answered, John the Baptist: but some say, Elias; and others, One of the prophets.
[29] And he saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? And Peter answereth and saith unto him, Thou art the Christ.
[30] And he charged them that they should tell no man of him.
[31] And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.
[32] And he spake that saying openly. And Peter took him, and began to rebuke him.
[33] But when he had turned about and looked on his disciples, he rebuked Peter, saying, Get thee behind me, Satan: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of men.
[34] And when he had called the people unto him with his disciples also, he said unto them, Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.
[35] For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel’s, the same shall save it.
[36] For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?
[37] Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?
[38] Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation; of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.

Mark.9

[1] And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here, which shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power.
[2] And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up into an high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them.
[3] And his raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them.
[4] And there appeared unto them Elias with Moses: and they were talking with Jesus.
[5] And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias.
[6] For he wist not what to say; for they were sore afraid.
[7] And there was a cloud that overshadowed them: and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him.
[8] And suddenly, when they had looked round about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only with themselves.
[9] And as they came down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen from the dead.
[10] And they kept that saying with themselves, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean.
[11] And they asked him, saying, Why say the scribes that Elias must first come?
[12] And he answered and told them, Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth all things; and how it is written of the Son of man, that he must suffer many things, and be set at nought.
[13] But I say unto you, That Elias is indeed come, and they have done unto him whatsoever they listed, as it is written of him.
[14] And when he came to his disciples, he saw a great multitude about them, and the scribes questioning with them.
[15] And straightway all the people, when they beheld him, were greatly amazed, and running to him saluted him.
[16] And he asked the scribes, What question ye with them?
[17] And one of the multitude answered and said, Master, I have brought unto thee my son, which hath a dumb spirit;
[18] And wheresoever he taketh him, he teareth him: and he foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth, and pineth away: and I spake to thy disciples that they should cast him out; and they could not.
[19] He answereth him, and saith, O faithless generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him unto me.
[20] And they brought him unto him: and when he saw him, straightway the spirit tare him; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming.
[21] And he asked his father, How long is it ago since this came unto him? And he said, Of a child.
[22] And ofttimes it hath cast him into the fire, and into the waters, to destroy him: but if thou canst do any thing, have compassion on us, and help us.
[23] Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth.
[24] And straightway the father of the child cried out, and said with tears, Lord, I believe; help thou mine unbelief.
[25] When Jesus saw that the people came running together, he rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I charge thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him.
[26] And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, and came out of him: and he was as one dead; insomuch that many said, He is dead.
[27] But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted him up; and he arose.
[28] And when he was come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, Why could not we cast him out?
[29] And he said unto them, This kind can come forth by nothing, but by prayer and fasting.

virgo
[30] And they departed thence, and passed through Galilee; and he would not that any man should know it.
[31] For he taught his disciples, and said unto them, The Son of man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and after that he is killed, he shall rise the third day.
[32] But they understood not that saying, and were afraid to ask him.
[33] And he came to Capernaum: and being in the house he asked them, What was it that ye disputed among yourselves by the way?
[34] But they held their peace: for by the way they had disputed among themselves, who should be the greatest.
[35] And he sat down, and called the twelve, and saith unto them, If any man desire to be first, the same shall be last of all, and servant of all.
[36] And he took a child, and set him in the midst of them: and when he had taken him in his arms, he said unto them,
[37] Whosoever shall receive one of such children in my name, receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me, receiveth not me, but him that sent me.
[38] And John answered him, saying, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he followeth not us: and we forbad him, because he followeth not us.
[39] But Jesus said, Forbid him not: for there is no man which shall do a miracle in my name, that can lightly speak evil of me.
[40] For he that is not against us is on our part.
[41] For whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink in my name, because ye belong to Christ, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward.
[42] And whosoever shall offend one of these little ones that believe in me, it is better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the sea.
[43] And if thy hand offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched:
[44] Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.
[45] And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter halt into life, than having two feet to be cast into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched:
[46] Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.
[47] And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out: it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire:
[48] Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.
[49] For every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt.
[50] Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one with another.

Mark.10 libra

[1] And he arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of Judaea by the farther side of Jordan: and the people resort unto him again; and, as he was wont, he taught them again.
[2] And the Pharisees came to him, and asked him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? tempting him.
[3] And he answered and said unto them, What did Moses command you?
[4] And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away.
[5] And Jesus answered and said unto them, For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept.
[6] But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female.
[7] For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife;
[8] And they twain shall be one flesh: so then they are no more twain, but one flesh.
[9] What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.
[10] And in the house his disciples asked him again of the same matter.
[11] And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her.
[12] And if a woman shall put away her husband, and be married to another, she committeth adultery.
[13] And they brought young children to him, that he should touch them: and his disciples rebuked those that brought them.
[14] But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God.
[15] Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein.
[16] And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them.
[17] And when he was gone forth into the way, there came one running, and kneeled to him, and asked him, Good Master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?
[18] And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God.
[19] Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Defraud not, Honour thy father and mother.
[20] And he answered and said unto him, Master, all these have I observed from my youth.
[21] Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, take up the cross, and follow me.
[22] And he was sad at that saying, and went away grieved: for he had great possessions.
[23] And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God!
[24] And the disciples were astonished at his words. But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God!
[25] It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.
[26] And they were astonished out of measure, saying among themselves, Who then can be saved?
[27] And Jesus looking upon them saith, With men it is impossible, but not with God: for with God all things are possible.
[28] Then Peter began to say unto him, Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee.
[29] And Jesus answered and said, Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the gospel’s,
[30] But he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life.
[31] But many that are first shall be last; and the last first.

scorpion
[32] And they were in the way going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus went before them: and they were amazed; and as they followed, they were afraid. And he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what things should happen unto him,
[33] Saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles:
[34] And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again.
[35] And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire.
[36] And he said unto them, What would ye that I should do for you?
[37] They said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory.
[38] But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask: can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?
[39] And they said unto him, We can. And Jesus said unto them, Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of; and with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized:
[40] But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give; but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared.
[41] And when the ten heard it, they began to be much displeased with James and John.
[42] But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them.
[43] But so shall it not be among you: but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister:
[44] And whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be servant of all.
[45] For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.
[46] And they came to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho with his disciples and a great number of people, blind Bartimaeus, the son of Timaeus, sat by the highway side begging.
[47] And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out, and say, Jesus, thou Son of David, have mercy on me.
[48] And many charged him that he should hold his peace: but he cried the more a great deal, Thou Son of David, have mercy on me.
[49] And Jesus stood still, and commanded him to be called. And they call the blind man, saying unto him, Be of good comfort, rise; he calleth thee.
[50] And he, casting away his garment, rose, and came to Jesus.
[51] And Jesus answered and said unto him, What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? The blind man said unto him, Lord, that I might receive my sight.
[52] And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.

Mark.11 sagittarus

[1] And when they came nigh to Jerusalem, unto Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount of Olives, he sendeth forth two of his disciples,
[2] And saith unto them, Go your way into the village over against you: and as soon as ye be entered into it, ye shall find a colt tied, whereon never man sat; loose him, and bring him.
[3] And if any man say unto you, Why do ye this? say ye that the Lord hath need of him; and straightway he will send him hither.
[4] And they went their way, and found the colt tied by the door without in a place where two ways met; and they loose him.
[5] And certain of them that stood there said unto them, What do ye, loosing the colt?
[6] And they said unto them even as Jesus had commanded: and they let them go.
[7] And they brought the colt to Jesus, and cast their garments on him; and he sat upon him.
[8] And many spread their garments in the way: and others cut down branches off the trees, and strawed them in the way.
[9] And they that went before, and they that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna; Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord:
[10] Blessed be the kingdom of our father David, that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest.
[11] And Jesus entered into Jerusalem, and into the temple: and when he had looked round about upon all things, and now the eventide was come, he went out unto Bethany with the twelve.
[12] And on the morrow, when they were come from Bethany, he was hungry:
[13] And seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came, if haply he might find any thing thereon: and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves; for the time of figs was not yet.
[14] And Jesus answered and said unto it, No man eat fruit of thee hereafter for ever. And his disciples heard it.
[15] And they come to Jerusalem: and Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves;
[16] And would not suffer that any man should carry any vessel through the temple.
[17] And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called of all nations the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves.
[18] And the scribes and chief priests heard it, and sought how they might destroy him: for they feared him, because all the people was astonished at his doctrine.
[19] And when even was come, he went out of the city.
[20] And in the morning, as they passed by, they saw the fig tree dried up from the roots.
[21] And Peter calling to remembrance saith unto him, Master, behold, the fig tree which thou cursedst is withered away.
[22] And Jesus answering saith unto them, Have faith in God.
[23] For verily I say unto you, That whosoever shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have whatsoever he saith.
[24] Therefore I say unto you, What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them.
[25] And when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have ought against any: that your Father also which is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.
[26] But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses.

capricorn
[27] And they come again to Jerusalem: and as he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders,
[28] And say unto him, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority to do these things?
[29] And Jesus answered and said unto them, I will also ask of you one question, and answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things.
[30] The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men? answer me.
[31] And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then did ye not believe him?
[32] But if we shall say, Of men; they feared the people: for all men counted John, that he was a prophet indeed.
[33] And they answered and said unto Jesus, We cannot tell. And Jesus answering saith unto them, Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things.

Mark.12

[1] And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.
[2] And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard.
[3] And they caught him, and beat him, and sent him away empty.
[4] And again he sent unto them another servant; and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully handled.
[5] And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some.
[6] Having yet therefore one son, his wellbeloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son.
[7] But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours.
[8] And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard.
[9] What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others.
[10] And have ye not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner:
[11] This was the Lord’s doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes?
[12] And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared the people: for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him, and went their way.
[13] And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in his words.
[14] And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?
[15] Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt ye me? bring me a penny, that I may see it.
[16] And they brought it. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said unto him, Caesar’s.
[17] And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s. And they marvelled at him.
[18] Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say there is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying,
[19] Master, Moses wrote unto us, If a man’s brother die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.
[20] Now there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed.
[21] And the second took her, and died, neither left he any seed: and the third likewise.
[22] And the seven had her, and left no seed: last of all the woman died also.
[23] In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise, whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven had her to wife.
[24] And Jesus answering said unto them, Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures, neither the power of God?
[25] For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven.
[26] And as touching the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?
[27] He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living: ye therefore do greatly err.
[28] And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all?
[29] And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:
[30] And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.
[31] And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these.
[32] And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he:
[33] And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.
[34] And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question.
[35] And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the Son of David?
[36] For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
[37] David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son? And the common people heard him gladly.
[38] And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing, and love salutations in the marketplaces,
[39] And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts:
[40] Which devour widows’ houses, and for a pretence make long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation.
[41] And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the people cast money into the treasury: and many that were rich cast in much.
[42] And there came a certain poor widow, and she threw in two mites, which make a farthing.
[43] And he called unto him his disciples, and saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That this poor widow hath cast more in, than all they which have cast into the treasury:
[44] For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her living.

Mark.13 aquarius

[1] And as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see what manner of stones and what buildings are here!
[2] And Jesus answering said unto him, Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.
[3] And as he sat upon the mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately,
[4] Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled?
[5] And Jesus answering them began to say, Take heed lest any man deceive you:
[6] For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.
[7] And when ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, be ye not troubled: for such things must needs be; but the end shall not be yet.
[8] For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be earthquakes in divers places, and there shall be famines and troubles: these are the beginnings of sorrows.
[9] But take heed to yourselves: for they shall deliver you up to councils; and in the synagogues ye shall be beaten: and ye shall be brought before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them.
[10] And the gospel must first be published among all nations.
[11] But when they shall lead you, and deliver you up, take no thought beforehand what ye shall speak, neither do ye premeditate: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye: for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost.
[12] Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the father the son; and children shall rise up against their parents, and shall cause them to be put to death.
[13] And ye shall be hated of all men for my name’s sake: but he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.
[14] But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains:
[15] And let him that is on the housetop not go down into the house, neither enter therein, to take any thing out of his house:
[16] And let him that is in the field not turn back again for to take up his garment.
[17] But woe to them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days!
[18] And pray ye that your flight be not in the winter.
[19] For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be.
[20] And except that the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect’s sake, whom he hath chosen, he hath shortened the days.
[21] And then if any man shall say to you, Lo, here is Christ; or, lo, he is there; believe him not:
[22] For false Christs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect.
[23] But take ye heed: behold, I have foretold you all things.
[24] But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light,
[25] And the stars of heaven shall fall, and the powers that are in heaven shall be shaken.
[26] And then shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory.
[27] And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven.
[28] Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When her branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is near:
[29] So ye in like manner, when ye shall see these things come to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the doors.
[30] Verily I say unto you, that this generation shall not pass, till all these things be done.
[31] Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not pass away.
[32] But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.
[33] Take ye heed, watch and pray: for ye know not when the time is.
[34] For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch.
[35] Watch ye therefore: for ye know not when the master of the house cometh, at even, or at midnight, or at the cockcrowing, or in the morning:
[36] Lest coming suddenly he find you sleeping.
[37] And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch.

Mark.14

[1] After two days was the feast of the passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death.
[2] But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar of the people.
[3] And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious; and she brake the box, and poured it on his head.
[4] And there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said, Why was this waste of the ointment made?
[5] For it might have been sold for more than three hundred pence, and have been given to the poor. And they murmured against her.
[6] And Jesus said, Let her alone; why trouble ye her? she hath wrought a good work on me.
[7] For ye have the poor with you always, and whensoever ye will ye may do them good: but me ye have not always.
[8] She hath done what she could: she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying.
[9] Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her.
[10] And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went unto the chief priests, to betray him unto them.
[11] And when they heard it, they were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought how he might conveniently betray him.
[12] And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou mayest eat the passover?
[13] And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him.
[14] And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?
[15] And he will shew you a large upper room furnished and prepared: there make ready for us.
[16] And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.

pisces
[17] And in the evening he cometh with the twelve.
[18] And as they sat and did eat, Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, One of you which eateth with me shall betray me.
[19] And they began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? and another said, Is it I?
[20] And he answered and said unto them, It is one of the twelve, that dippeth with me in the dish.
[21] The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had never been born.
[22] And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body.
[23] And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them: and they all drank of it.
[24] And he said unto them, This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many.
[25] Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God.
[26] And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.
[27] And Jesus saith unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered.
[28] But after that I am risen, I will go before you into Galilee.
[29] But Peter said unto him, Although all shall be offended, yet will not I.
[30] And Jesus saith unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.
[31] But he spake the more vehemently, If I should die with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise. Likewise also said they all.
[32] And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane: and he saith to his disciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray.
[33] And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy;
[34] And saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death: tarry ye here, and watch.
[35] And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him.
[36] And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou wilt.
[37] And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping, and saith unto Peter, Simon, sleepest thou? couldest not thou watch one hour?
[38] Watch ye and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. The spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is weak.
[39] And again he went away, and prayed, and spake the same words.
[40] And when he returned, he found them asleep again, (for their eyes were heavy,) neither wist they what to answer him.
[41] And he cometh the third time, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: it is enough, the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.
[42] Rise up, let us go; lo, he that betrayeth me is at hand.
[43] And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders.
[44] And he that betrayed him had given them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he; take him, and lead him away safely.
[45] And as soon as he was come, he goeth straightway to him, and saith, Master, master; and kissed him.
[46] And they laid their hands on him, and took him.
[47] And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear.
[48] And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and with staves to take me?
[49] I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: but the scriptures must be fulfilled.
[50] And they all forsook him, and fled.
[51] And there followed him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him:
[52] And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.
[53] And they led Jesus away to the high priest: and with him were assembled all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes.
[54] And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the high priest: and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire.
[55] And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found none.
[56] For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together.
[57] And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying,
[58] We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands.
[59] But neither so did their witness agree together.
[60] And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee?
[61] But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?
[62] And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
[63] Then the high priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further witnesses?
[64] Ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? And they all condemned him to be guilty of death.
[65] And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands.
[66] And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the high priest:
[67] And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth.
[68] But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew.
[69] And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one of them.
[70] And he denied it again. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilaean, and thy speech agreeth thereto.
[71] But he began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man of whom ye speak.
[72] And the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept.

Mark.15

[1] And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate.
[2] And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering said unto him, Thou sayest it.
[3] And the chief priests accused him of many things: but he answered nothing.
[4] And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they witness against thee.
[5] But Jesus yet answered nothing; so that Pilate marvelled.
[6] Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.
[7] And there was one named Barabbas, which lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection.
[8] And the multitude crying aloud began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them.
[9] But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
[10] For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy.
[11] But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them.
[12] And Pilate answered and said again unto them, What will ye then that I shall do unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews?
[13] And they cried out again, Crucify him.
[14] Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him.
[15] And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.
[16] And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Praetorium; and they call together the whole band.
[17] And they clothed him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head,
[18] And began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews!
[19] And they smote him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him.
[20] And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him.
[21] And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross.
[22] And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull.
[23] And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not.
[24] And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.
[25] And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.
[26] And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS.
[27] And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left.
[28] And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors.
[29] And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days,
[30] Save thyself, and come down from the cross.
[31] Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save.
[32] Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him.
[33] And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.
[34] And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
[35] And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias.
[36] And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down.
[37] And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.
[38] And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.
[39] And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.
[40] There were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome;
[41] (Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him;) and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem.
[42] And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath,
[43] Joseph of Arimathaea, and honourable counseller, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus.
[44] And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead.
[45] And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph.
[46] And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.
[47] And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.

Mark.16

[1] And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.
[2] And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.
[3] And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?
[4] And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.
[5] And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.
[6] And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.
[7] But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.
[8] And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.
[9] Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.
[10] And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept.
[11] And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
[12] After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.
[13] And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.
[14] Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.
[15] And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.
[16] He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.
[17] And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues;
[18] They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.
[19] So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.
[20] And they went forth, and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.