Pro Trump rallies

2017 Berkeley protests

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 2017 Berkeley protests refer to a series of protests occurred in the city of Berkeley, California in the vicinity of University of California, Berkeley. Violence has occurred predominantly between anti-Trump protesters, some of whom were anarchists, Antifa (anti-fascists)[1][2] and other far-left radicals, and supporters of Donald Trump and the alt-right.

The first event occurred on February 1 when Milo Yiannopoulos was scheduled to give a speech. Two incidents, which occurred on March 4 and April 15, were pro-Trump rallies met with counter-protesters. Another rally occurred on April 27; hosted by Kyle Chapman, Brittany Pettibone, Lauren Southern, and others at Martin Luther King Jr. Civic Center Park. This was scheduled after a planned speech by Ann Coulter was cancelled.

Timeline of protests[edit]

February 1[edit]

On February 1, Milo Yiannopoulos was scheduled to make a speech at the University of California, Berkeley at 8:00 pm. Prior, more than 100 UC Berkeley faculty signed a petition urging the university to cancel the event.[3]

Over 1,500 people gathered on the steps of Sproul Hall to protest the event. The university said in a statement that the protest had been non-violent until it was interrupted by a group of around 150 people who they believe came from outside of the campus.[4][3] The interrupting protesters, some identifying themselves as members of BAMN,[5] set fires, damaged property, threw fireworks, attacked members of the crowd, and threw rocks at the police.[3] Within twenty minutes of the start of the violence, the Yiannopolous event was officially canceled by the university police department due to security concerns, and protesters were ordered to disperse.[4][6] The protests continued for several hours afterwards, with some protesters moving into downtown Berkeley.[5] Among those assaulted were a Syrian Muslim who was pepper sprayed and hit with a rod by a protester who said “You look like a Nazi”,[7] and a white woman, Kiara Robles, who was pepper sprayed while being interviewed by a TV reporter.[8] One person was arrested for failure to disperse, and there was an estimated $100,000 in damage.[9]

March 4[edit]

A pro-Donald Trump march in Berkeley on March 4 resulted in seven injuries and ten arrests after confrontations with counter-protesters. Police confiscated several weapons from attendees of the rally including baseball bats, bricks, metal pipes, pieces of lumber, and a dagger.[10][11]

April 15[edit]

Protesters during the April 15 rally

On April 15, several groups, including approximately 50 Oath Keepers, held a pro-Trump rally and were met by counter-protesters.[12] Planned speakers included Brittany Pettibone and Lauren Southern.[13] The event was organized as a free speech rally by Rich Black, who also organized the March 4 Trump event.[14][15]

At Martin Luther King Jr. Civic Center Park a “large number of fights” broke out, smoke bombs and fireworks were thrown into the melee, and pepper spray was used in the crowd.[16][17] According to the Los Angeles Times, “Both groups threw rocks and sticks at each other and used a large trash bin as a battering ram as the crowd moved around the perimeter of the park.”[16] Eleven people were injured, six of whom were hospitalized, including one person who was stabbed.[16] Police “seized a handful of cans of peppers spray, some knives, and dozens of sign and flag poles, skateboards, and other blunt objects” from members of the crowd.[17]

A Reuters reporter estimated that between 500 and 1,000 people were in the park at the peak of the rally.[18] Various far-right activists in the crowd held up antisemitic signs,[19][20] and some made Nazi salutes and used other neo-Nazi symbolism.[21][17]

During the event, Nathan Damigo—a 30-year-old Cal State Stanislaus student and the founder of the white supremacist group Identity Evropa—punched a 20-year-old woman in the face, then ran into the crowd. The attack was captured on video and prompted calls for Damigo’s arrest or expulsion.[22] Cal State Stanislaus stated that that they would investigate Damigo.[22]

April 27[edit]

On April 18, 2017 administrators at UC Berkeley canceled a planned April 27 appearance on the campus by conservative columnist Ann Coulter, citing safety concerns. Coulter tweeted on April 19 that she would be coming to Berkeley to speak on that date regardless.[23][24] On April 20, the University stated that they would host Coulter on May 2 at a “protected venue” that would be disclosed at a later date.[25] Coulter declined to reschedule, noting that she was unavailable on May 2 and that UC Berkeley had no classes scheduled for that week, and said she would hold her speech on April 27 with or without the university’s consent. She later said that she did not intend to speak, but said she might attend the April 27 event.[26][27] Alt-right activist Brittany Pettibone delivered remarks that promised that conservatives will refuse to stand down, which was met with applause from the crowd. Vice co-founder Gavin McInnes gave Ann Coulter’s planned speech at the event.[28] Other speakers at the rally included Lauren Southern, a conservative-libertarian writer.[29][30][31][32] There was concern the gathering would turn violent based on “social media feeds of militant left-wing and right-wing activists abuzz with plans to proceed with demonstrations and counter-demonstrations over the Coulter-Berkeley controversy.”[33]

The International Socialist Organization organized an “Alt-Right Delete” rally at Sproul Plaza. About 150 people attended the rally and 70 police officers monitored the situation.[28] Several hundred attended a “Freedom of Speech” rally at the Martin Luther King Jr. Civic Center Park in Berkeley. The demonstrations were relatively peaceful; however, there was some tension as five were arrested, one for a weapons violation and another for drug possession.[34]

Aftermath[edit]

Following the February 1 protest, a lawyer representing a local police union criticized the police administration for their “hands off” policy which prevented officers from preventing crime or making arrests. A police representative responded that they did not want to further escalate violence, and that the campus police were inexperienced in dealing with black bloc tactics.[35] According to Berkeley Police chief Margo Bennett, they were waiting for reinforcements to come from Oakland Police and the Alameda County Sheriff before dispersing the crowds.[36]

Following the February events, President Trump criticized the UC Berkeley on Twitter, asserting that it “does not allow free speech” and threatening to de-fund the university.[37][38] After the incident, Yiannopoulos’ upcoming book, Dangerous, returned to number one for a few days on Amazon‘s “Best Sellers” list.[39] According to Yiannopoulos’ Facebook post, he plans to return to Berkeley “hopefully within the next few months.”[40]

After the April events, several news organizations noted that the fighting demonstrated an increasing use of violence between members of both the far-right and the far-left.[21]

Advertisements

Musical selections at events

Music by the following artists and groups was used[358][359][360][361][362][363][364][365][366] at various Trump campaign rallies during 2015 and 2016: Elton John, The Beatles, Adele, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Pavarotti / Puccini, Journey, R.E.M., Neil Young, Twisted Sister, Rolling Stones, Queen, Aerosmith, Wagner, Kenny G, Johnny Cash, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Billy Joel, Bill Conti, John Mellencamp, Joe Esposito, Eye of the Tiger, The Shangri-Las, Cab Calloway, Frankie Valli, The Alan Parsons Project, Paul Rodgers, Travie McCoy, Bruce Springsteen, Led Zeppelin, the London Bach Choir, and the songs of Victor Hugo‘s Les Miserables.

List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of rallies held by Donald Trump for his 2016 campaign.

Primary season[edit source]

Laconia, NH, 07/15/2015

Myrtle Beach, SC, 11/24/2015

Des Moines, IA, 12/11/2015

Mesa, AZ, 12/16/2015

Reno, NV, 01/10/2016

Ames, IA, 01/19/2016

Muscatine, IA, 01/24/2016

Las Vegas, NV, 02/22/2016

Fountain Hills, AZ, 03/18/2016
Primary rallies (June 2015–June 2016)
Date of Rally City State Venue Estimated Visitors Source
Wednesday, June 17, 2015 Manchester NH Manchester Community College 300 [1]
Saturday, July 11, 2015 Phoenix AZ Phoenix Convention Center 15,000 [2]
Tuesday, July 21, 2015 Sun City SC Magnolia Hall 500 [3]
Saturday, July 25, 2015 Oskaloosa IA Oskaloosa High School 1,000 [4]
Friday, August 14, 2015 Hampton NH Winnacunnet High School 3,000 [5]
Friday, August 21, 2015 Mobile AL Ladd-Peebles Stadium 15,000-30,000 [6]
Tuesday, August 25, 2015 Dubuque IA Grand River Center 3,000 [7]
Thursday, August 27, 2015 Greenville SC TD Convention Center 1,400 [8]
Monday, September 14, 2015 Dallas TX American Airlines Center 15,000 [9]
Friday, September 25, 2015 Oklahoma City OK Oklahoma State Fair 15,000 [10]
Wednesday, September 30, 2015 Keene NH Keene High School 3,500 [11]
Saturday, October 3, 2015 Franklin TN The Factory at Franklin Thousands [12]
Wednesday, October 7, 2015 Waterloo IA Electric Park Ballroom 1,100 [13]
Saturday, October 10, 2015 Norcross GA North Atlanta Trade Center 7,700 [14]
Monday, October 19, 2015 Anderson SC Civic Center of Anderson 5,000 [15]
Saturday, October 24, 2015 Jacksonville FL Jacksonville Landing 20,000 [16]
Tuesday, October 27, 2015 Sioux City IA West High School 2,200 [17]
Thursday, October 29, 2015 Sparks NV Nugget Casino Resort 2,000 [18]
Saturday, October 31, 2015 Norfolk VA USS Wisconsin 2,000 [19]
Monday, November 9, 2015 Springfield IL Prairie Capital Convention Center 10,200 [20]
Thursday, November 12, 2015 Fort Dodge IA Iowa Central Community College 1,500 [21]
Saturday, November 14, 2015 Beaumont TX Ford Arena [22][23]
Monday, November 16, 2015 Knoxville TN Knoxville Convention Center 5,000 [24][25]
Wednesday, November 18, 2015 Worcester MA DCU Center 10,500 [26]
Thursday, November 19, 2015 Newton IA Maytag Auditorium, DMACC Newton Campus 400 [27]
Saturday, November 21, 2015 Birmingham AL Birmingham–Jefferson Convention Complex 3,000 [28]
Monday, November 23, 2015 Columbus OH Greater Columbus Convention Center 14,000 [29]
Tuesday, November 24, 2015 Myrtle Beach SC Myrtle Beach Convention Center 8,000 [30][31]
Saturday, November 28, 2015 Sarasota FL Robarts Arena 9,000 [32]
Monday, November 30, 2015 Macon GA Macon Coliseum 6,000 [33]
Tuesday, December 1, 2015 Waterville Valley NH White Mountain Athletic Club 900 [34]
Wednesday, December 2, 2015 Manassas VA Prince William County Fairgrounds [35]
Friday, December 4, 2015 Raleigh NC Dorton Arena 8,000 [36][37]
Saturday, December 5, 2015 Davenport IA Mississippi Valley Fairgrounds 1,700 [38]
Saturday, December 5, 2015 Spencer IA Clay County Regional Events Center 1,300 [39]
Monday, December 7, 2015 Mount Pleasant SC USS Yorktown [40]
Friday, December 11, 2015 Des Moines IA Varied Industries Building, Iowa State Fairgrounds 2,500 [41]
Saturday, December 12, 2015 Aiken SC USC Aiken Convocation Center [42]
Monday, December 14, 2015 Las Vegas NV Westgate Las Vegas Resort & Casino [43]
Wednesday, December 16, 2015 Mesa AZ Phoenix–Mesa Gateway Airport 3,100 [44]
Saturday, December 19, 2015 Cedar Rapids IA Veterans Memorial Coliseum 1,200 [45]
Monday, December 21, 2015 Grand Rapids MI DeltaPlex Arena 7,000 [46]
Monday, December 28, 2015 Nashua NH Pennichuck Middle School 1,000 [47]
Tuesday, December 29, 2015 Council Bluffs IA Mid-America Center [48]
Wednesday, December 30, 2015 Hilton Head SC The Westin Hilton Head Island Resort & Spa 2,500 [49]
Saturday, January 2, 2016 Biloxi MS Mississippi Coast Coliseum 15,000 [50]
Monday, January 4, 2016 Lowell MA Tsongas Center Thousands [51]
Tuesday, January 5, 2016 Claremont NH Stevens High School 1,200 [52]
Thursday, January 7, 2016 Burlington VT Flynn Center for the Performing Arts 1,400 [53]
Friday, January 8, 2016 Rock Hill SC Winthrop Coliseum 6,500 [54]
Saturday, January 9, 2016 Clear Lake IA Surf Ballroom 1,700 [55]
Saturday, January 9, 2016 Ottumwa IA Bridgeview Center [56]
Sunday, January 10, 2016 Reno NV Reno Events Center 4,000 [57]
Monday, January 11, 2016 Windham NH Castleton Banquet and Conference Center 550 [58]
Tuesday, January 12, 2016 Cedar Falls IA West Gymnasium, University of Northern Iowa 2,000 [59]
Wednesday, January 13, 2016 Pensacola FL Pensacola Bay Center 10,000 [60]
Friday, January 15, 2016 Urbandale IA Living History Farms Visitor Center 100 [61]
Monday, January 18, 2016 Concord NH Concord High School 700 [62]
Monday, January 18, 2016 Lynchburg VA Vines Center, Liberty University 10,000 [63]
Tuesday, January 19, 2016 Ames IA Hansen Agriculture Student Learning Center, Iowa State University 2,000 [64]
Wednesday, January 20, 2016 Norwalk IA The Wright Place 300 [65]
Wednesday, January 20, 2016 Tulsa OK Mabee Center, Oral Roberts University 9,000 [66]
Thursday, January 21, 2016 Las Vegas NV South Point Hotel, Casino & Spa 3,000 [67]
Saturday, January 23, 2016 Pella IA Douwstra Auditorium, Central College 400 [68]
Saturday, January 23, 2016 Sioux Center IA B. J. Haan Auditorium, Dordt College 2,600 [69]
Sunday, January 24, 2016 Muscatine IA Muscatine High School 1,000 [70]
Monday, January 25, 2016 Farmington NH Farmington Senior High School 1,000 [71]
Tuesday, January 26, 2016 Iowa City IA Iowa Field House, University of Iowa 2,000 [72]
Tuesday, January 26, 2016 Marshalltown IA Roundhouse Gymnasium, Marshalltown High School 2,149 [73]
Wednesday, January 27, 2016 Gilbert SC The Barn at Harmon’s 400 [74]
Thursday, January 28, 2016 Des Moines IA Sheslow Auditorium, Drake University 700 [75][76][77]
Friday, January 29, 2016 Nashua NH Radisson Hotel Nashua 850 [78]
Saturday, January 30, 2016 Clinton IA Clinton Middle School 1,000 [79]
Saturday, January 30, 2016 Davenport IA Adler Theatre 2,400 [80]
Saturday, January 30, 2016 Dubuque IA Dubuque Regional Airport 1,200 [81]
Sunday, January 31, 2016 Council Bluffs IA Gerald W. Kirn Middle School 2,000 [82]
Monday, February 1, 2016 Cedar Rapids IA DoubleTree Hotel Cedar Rapids Convention Complex 1,500 [83]
Monday, February 1, 2016 Waterloo IA Ramada Waterloo Hotel and Convention Center 300 [83]
Tuesday, February 2, 2016 Milford NH Hampshire Hills Athletic Club [84]
Wednesday, February 3, 2016 Little Rock AR Barton Coliseum 11,500 [85]
Thursday, February 4, 2016 Exeter NH Exeter Town Hall [86]
Thursday, February 4, 2016 Portsmouth NH Great Bay Community College 500 [87]
Friday, February 5, 2016 Florence SC Florence Civic Center Thousands [88]
Sunday, February 7, 2016 Holderness NH ALLWell North, Plymouth State University 2,500 [89]
Monday, February 8, 2016 Londonderry NH Londonderry Lions Club 200 [90]
Monday, February 8, 2016 Manchester NH Verizon Wireless Arena 5,000 [91]
Monday, February 8, 2016 Salem NH Derry-Salem Elks Lodge 200 [92]
Wednesday, February 10, 2016 Pendleton SC T. Ed Garrison Arena, Clemson University 5,000 [93]
Thursday, February 11, 2016 Baton Rouge LA Baton Rouge River Center 10,000 [94]
Friday, February 12, 2016 Tampa FL USF Sun Dome, University of South Florida 10,000 [95]
Monday, February 15, 2016 Greenville SC TD Convention Center Thousands [96]
Tuesday, February 16, 2016 Beaufort SC Beaufort High School Performing Arts Center 20,000 [97]
Tuesday, February 16, 2016 North Augusta SC Riverview Park Activities Center 2,000 [98]
Wednesday, February 17, 2016 Sumter SC Sumter County Civic Center 4,000 [99]
Wednesday, February 17, 2016 Walterboro SC Randy and Sara White’s farm 4,000 [100]
Thursday, February 18, 2016 Gaffney SC Broad River Electric Cooperative [101][102]
Thursday, February 18, 2016 Kiawah SC Turtle Point Clubhouse, Kiawah Island Golf Resort [103][104]
Friday, February 19, 2016 North Charleston SC North Charleston Convention Center 2,000 [105]
Friday, February 19, 2016 Myrtle Beach SC Myrtle Beach Sports Center 12,000 [106]
Friday, February 19, 2016 Pawleys Island SC Pawley’s Plantation Golf & Country Club 1,000 [107]
Sunday, February 21, 2016 Atlanta GA Georgia World Congress Center [108][109]
Monday, February 22, 2016 Las Vegas NV South Point Hotel, Casino & Spa [110][111]
Tuesday, February 23, 2016 Sparks NV Rose Ballroom 3,016 [112]
Friday, February 26, 2016 Oklahoma City OK Cox Convention Center 7,000 [113]
Saturday, February 27, 2016 Highfill AR Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport 5,000 [114]
Saturday, February 27, 2016 Fort Worth TX Fort Worth Convention Center 8,000 [115]
Saturday, February 27, 2016 Millington TN Millington Regional Jetport 10,000 [116]
Sunday, February 28, 2016 Madison AL Madison City Schools Stadium [117][118]
Monday, February 29, 2016 Radford VA Dedmon Center, Radford University 11,000 [119]
Monday, February 29, 2016 Valdosta GA The Complex, Valdosta State University 7,500 [120]
Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Columbus OH Port Columbus International Airport 4,000 [29]
Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Louisville KY Kentucky International Convention Center 5,000 [121]
Thursday, March 3, 2016 Portland ME The Westin Portland Harborview Hotel 1,100 [122]
Friday, March 4, 2016 Warren MI Sports & Expo Center, Macomb Community College 4,000 [123]
Friday, March 4, 2016 Cadillac MI Wexford County Civic Center 3,500 [124]
Friday, March 4, 2016 New Orleans LA Lakefront Airport 4,000 [125][126]
Saturday, March 5, 2016 Orlando FL CFE Arena, University of Central Florida 10,000 [127][128][129][130][131][132][133]
Saturday, March 5, 2016 Wichita KS Century II Performing Arts & Convention Center [134]
Monday, March 7, 2016 Concord NC Cabarrus Arena & Events Center 3,000 [135]
Monday, March 7, 2016 Madison MS Madison Central High School 9,000 [136]
Wednesday, March 9, 2016 Fayetteville NC Crown Coliseum 11,000 [137]
Friday, March 11, 2016 St. Louis MO Peabody Opera House 3,100 [138]
Saturday, March 12, 2016 Cleveland OH I-X Center 29,000 [139]
Saturday, March 12, 2016 Dayton OH Dayton International Airport 20,000 [139]
Saturday, March 12, 2016 Kansas City MO Midland Theatre 7,000 [140]
Sunday, March 13, 2016 Bloomington IL Synergy Flight Center, Central Illinois Regional Airport 3,000 [141]
Sunday, March 13, 2016 Boca Raton FL Sunset Cove Amphitheater, Sugar Sand Park 6,000 [142]
Monday, March 14, 2016 Tampa FL Tampa Convention Center 1,500 [143]
Monday, March 14, 2016 Vienna OH Winner Aviation, Youngstown–Warren Regional Airport 2,500 [144]
Friday, March 18, 2016 Salt Lake City UT Inifinity Event Center 1,200 [145]
Saturday, March 19, 2016 Fountain Hills AZ Fountain Park 10,000 [146]
Saturday, March 19, 2016 Tucson AZ Tucson Convention Center 5,000 [147]
Tuesday, March 29, 2016 Janesville WI Janesville Conference Center 1,000 [148]
Wednesday, March 30, 2016 Appleton WI Radisson Paper Valley Hotel 1,000 [149]
Wednesday, March 30, 2016 De Pere WI Byron L. Walter Theatre, St. Norbert College 750 [150]
Saturday, April 2, 2016 Eau Claire WI Memorial High School 1,500 [151]
Saturday, April 2, 2016 Racine WI Memorial Hall 1,200 [152]
Saturday, April 2, 2016 Rothschild WI Central Wisconsin Convention & Expo Center 1,700 [153]
Sunday, April 3, 2016 West Allis WI Nathan Hale High School 1,000 [154]
Monday, April 4, 2016 La Crosse WI La Crosse Center 1,700 [155]
Monday, April 4, 2016 Milwaukee WI Milwaukee Theatre [156][157]
Monday, April 4, 2016 Superior WI Richard I. Bong Airport 1,000 [158]
Wednesday, April 6, 2016 Bethpage NY Grumman Studios 10,000 [159]
Sunday, April 10, 2016 Rochester NY JetSmart Aviation Services, Greater Rochester International Airport 9,000 [160]
Monday, April 11, 2016 Albany NY Times Union Center 10,000 [161]
Tuesday, April 12, 2016 Rome NY Griffiss International Airport 5,000 [162]
Wednesday, April 13, 2016 Pittsburgh PA David L. Lawrence Convention Center 4,500 [163]
Friday, April 15, 2016 Hartford CT Connecticut Convention Center 7,000 [164]
Friday, April 15, 2016 Plattsburgh NY Crete Civic Center 3,000 [165]
Saturday, April 16, 2016 Syracuse NY Nicholas J. Pirro Convention Center 5,000 [166]
Saturday, April 16, 2016 Watertown NY Watertown International Airport 2,000 [167]
Sunday, April 17, 2016 Poughkeepsie NY Mid-Hudson Civic Center [168]
Monday, April 18, 2016 Buffalo NY First Niagara Center 11,400 [169]
Wednesday, April 20, 2016 Indianapolis IN Elements Financial Blue Ribbon Pavilion, Indiana State Fairgrounds 4,000 [170]
Wednesday, April 20, 2016 Berlin MD Stephen Decatur High School 3,000 [171]
Thursday, April 21, 2016 Harrisburg PA Pennsylvania Farm Show Complex & Expo Center 6,000 [172]
Friday, April 22, 2016 Harrington DE Quillen Arena, Delaware State Fairgrounds 8,200 [173]
Saturday, April 23, 2016 Bridgeport CT Klein Memorial Auditorium 1,400 [174]
Saturday, April 23, 2016 Waterbury CT Crosby High School 3,000 [175]
Sunday, April 24, 2016 Hagerstown MD Rider Jet Center, Hagerstown Regional Airport 5,000 [176]
Monday, April 25, 2016 Warwick RI Crowne Plaza Hotel Providence-Warwick 1,000 [177]
Monday, April 25, 2016 West Chester PA West Chester University 3,500 [178]
Monday, April 25, 2016 Wilkes-Barre PA Mohegan Sun Arena at Casey Plaza 10,000 [179]
Wednesday, April 27, 2016 Indianapolis IN Indiana Farmers Coliseum 5,000 [180]
Thursday, April 28, 2016 Costa Mesa CA Pacific Amphitheatre, OC Fair & Event Center [181][182]
Thursday, April 28, 2016 Evansville IN Old National Events Plaza 12,000 [183]
Sunday, May 1, 2016 Fort Wayne IN Allen County War Memorial Coliseum 8,000 [184]
Sunday, May 1, 2016 Terre Haute IN Indiana Theatre 2,100 [185]
Monday, May 2, 2016 Carmel IN The Palladium at the Center for the Performing Arts 1,800 [186]
Monday, May 2, 2016 South Bend IN Century Center 8,000 [187]
Thursday, May 5, 2016 Charleston WV Charleston Civic Center [188][189]
Friday, May 6, 2016 Eugene OR Lane Events Center 5,000 [190]
Friday, May 6, 2016 Omaha NE Werner Enterprises Hangar, Eppley Airfield 3,500 [191]
Saturday, May 7, 2016 Lynden WA Northwest Washington Fair and Event Center 7,500 [192]
Saturday, May 7, 2016 Spokane WA Spokane Convention Center 10,000 [193]
Tuesday, May 24, 2016 Albuquerque NM Albuquerque Convention Center 8,000 [194]
Wednesday, May 25, 2016 Anaheim CA Anaheim Convention Center 3,000 [195]
Thursday, May 26, 2016 Billings MT Rimrock Auto Arena at MetraPark 7,000 [196]
Friday, May 27, 2016 Fresno CA Selland Arena 7,000 [197]
Friday, May 27, 2016 San Diego CA San Diego Convention Center [198][199]
Wednesday, June 1, 2016 Sacramento CA Sacramento Jet Center, Sacramento International Airport 5,000 [200]
Thursday, June 2, 2016 San Jose CA South Hall, San Jose Convention Center [201][202]
Friday, June 3, 2016 Redding CA Redding Municipal Airport 4,000 [203]

General election season[edit source]

2017 Pres. Trump US travels.

List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
Locations in the United States where President Donald Trump visited in 2016 presidential campaign (According to list below).

Phoenix, AZ, 06/18/2016

Cedar Rapids, IA, 07/28/2016

Phoenix, AZ, 08/31/2016

Clive, IA, 09/13/2016

Aston, PA, 09/13/2016

Melbourne, FL, 09/27/2016

Prescott Valley, AZ, 10/04/2016

Cincinnati, OH, 10/13/2016

Newtown, PA, 10/21/2016

Phoenix, AZ, 10/29/2016
General election rallies (June 2016–November 2016)
Date of Rally City State Venue Estimated Visitors Source
Friday, June 10, 2016 Richmond VA Richmond Coliseum 5,000 [204]
Saturday, June 11, 2016 Moon PA Atlantic Aviation PIT, Pittsburgh International Airport 1,500 [205]
Saturday, June 11, 2016 Tampa FL Tampa Convention Center 4,000 [206]
Tuesday, June 14, 2016 Greensboro NC Greensboro Coliseum Complex 6,150 [207]
Wednesday, June 15, 2016 Atlanta GA Fox Theatre 3,500 [208]
Thursday, June 16, 2016 Dallas TX Gilley’s Club 3,600 [209]
Friday, June 17, 2016 The Woodlands TX The Woodlands Waterway Marriott Hotel & Conference Center 5,000 [210]
Saturday, June 18, 2016 Las Vegas NV Mystère Theatre, Treasure Island Hotel and Casino 1,600 [211]
Saturday, June 18, 2016 Phoenix AZ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Arizona State Fairgrounds 6,000 [212]
Tuesday, June 28, 2016 St. Clairsville OH Health and Physical Education Center, Ohio University Eastern Campus 4,000 [213]
Wednesday, June 29, 2016 Bangor ME Cross Insurance Center 4,000 [214]
Tuesday, July 5, 2016 Raleigh NC Raleigh Memorial Auditorium, Duke Energy Center for the Performing Arts 2,250 [215]
Wednesday, July 6, 2016 Cincinnati OH Sharonville Convention Center 7,000 [216]
Tuesday, July 12, 2016 Westfield IN Grand Park Event Center, Grand Park 2,000 [217]
Monday, July 25, 2016 Winston-Salem NC Winston-Salem Fairground Annex, Dixie Classic Fairgrounds 4,728 [218]
Wednesday, July 27, 2016 Scranton PA Student Union Gymnasium, Lackawanna College 3,500 [219]
Wednesday, July 27, 2016 Toledo OH Huntington Center 8,879 [220]
Thursday, July 28, 2016 Cedar Rapids IA DoubleTree Hotel Cedar Rapids Convention Complex 3,000 [221]
Thursday, July 28, 2016 Davenport IA Adler Theatre 2,400 [221]
Friday, July 29, 2016 Colorado Springs CO Gallogly Event Center, University of Colorado Colorado Springs 2,500 [222]
Friday, July 29, 2016 Denver CO Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum 6,000 [223]
Monday, August 1, 2016 Columbus OH Greater Columbus Convention Center 1,000 [224]
Monday, August 1, 2016 Mechanicsburg PA Cumberland Valley High School 5,000 [225]
Tuesday, August 2, 2016 Ashburn VA Briar Woods High School 800 [226]
Wednesday, August 3, 2016 Daytona Beach FL Ocean Center 10,000 [227]
Wednesday, August 3, 2016 Jacksonville FL Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena 10,000 [228]
Thursday, August 4, 2016 Portland ME Merrill Auditorium 1,600 [229]
Friday, August 5, 2016 Des Moines IA Iowa Events Center 6,000 [230]
Friday, August 5, 2016 Green Bay WI KI Convention Center 3,000 [231]
Saturday, August 6, 2016 Windham NH Windham High School 1,500 [232]
Tuesday, August 9, 2016 Fayetteville NC Crown Arena 3,000 [233]
Tuesday, August 9, 2016 Wilmington NC Trask Coliseum, University of North Carolina at Wilmington [234]
Wednesday, August 10, 2016 Sunrise FL BB&T Center [235]
Thursday, August 11, 2016 Kissimmee FL Silver Spurs Arena 8,000 [236]
Friday, August 12, 2016 Altoona PA Blair County Convention Center 5,000 [237]
Friday, August 12, 2016 Erie PA Erie Insurance Arena 8,000 [238]
Saturday, August 13, 2016 Fairfield CT William H. Pitt Center, Sacred Heart University 5,000 [239]
Tuesday, August 16, 2016 West Bend WI Ziegler Family Expo Center, Washington County Fair Park & Conference Center 2,000 [240]
Thursday, August 18, 2016 Charlotte NC Charlotte Convention Center 5,000 [241]
Friday, August 19, 2016 Dimondale MI The Summit Sports and Ice Complex 5,000 [242]
Saturday, August 20, 2016 Fredericksburg VA Fredericksburg Expo & Conference Center 3,600 [243]
Monday, August 22, 2016 Akron OH James A. Rhodes Arena, University of Akron [244]
Tuesday, August 23, 2016 Austin TX Luedecke Arena 7,000 [245]
Wednesday, August 24, 2016 Tampa FL Entertainment Hall, Florida State Fairgrounds 3,000 [246]
Wednesday, August 24, 2016 Jackson MS Mississippi Coliseum [247][248][249][250]
Thursday, August 25, 2016 Manchester NH Radisson Hotel Manchester Downtown 850 [251]
Tuesday, August 30, 2016 Everett WA Xfinity Arena [252]
Wednesday, August 31, 2016 Phoenix AZ Phoenix Convention Center 7,502 [253]
Thursday, September 1, 2016 Wilmington OH Roberts Centre 5,500 [254]
Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Greenville NC Greenville Convention Center 3,000 [255]
Friday, September 9, 2016 Pensacola FL Pensacola Bay Center 12,500 [256]
Monday, September 12, 2016 Asheville NC U.S. Cellular Center 6,000 [257]
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 Clive IA 7 Flags Event Center 1,600 [258]
Wednesday, September 14, 2016 Canton OH Canton Memorial Civic Center 6,000 [259]
Thursday, September 15, 2016 Laconia NH Laconia Middle School 600 [260][261][262]
Friday, September 16, 2016 Miami FL Knight Center Complex [263][264]
Saturday, September 17, 2016 Colorado Springs CO Colorado Jet Center, Colorado Springs Airport [265]
Monday, September 19, 2016 Estero FL Germain Arena 8,000 [266]
Tuesday, September 20, 2016 High Point NC Millis Athletic Convocation Center, High Point University 2,000 [267]
Tuesday, September 20, 2016 Kenansville NC Duplin County Events Center 6,000 [268]
Wednesday, September 21, 2016 Toledo OH Stranahan Theater [269][270]
Thursday, September 22, 2016 Chester Township PA Sun Center Studios 3,000
plus 000s
[271][272]
Saturday, September 24, 2016 Roanoke VA Berglund Center 9,000 [273]
Tuesday, September 27, 2016 Melbourne FL Orlando Melbourne International Airport [274][275]
Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Council Bluffs IA Mid-America Center 1,200 [276]
Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Waukesha WI Waukesha County Expo Center 1,500 [277]
Thursday, September 29, 2016 Bedford NH NH Sportsplex 850 [278]
Friday, September 30, 2016 Novi MI Suburban Collection Showplace 6,000 [279][280]
Saturday, October 1, 2016 Manheim PA Spooky Nook Sports 6,000 [281]
Monday, October 3, 2016 Pueblo CO Pueblo Convention Center 2,000 [282]
Monday, October 3, 2016 Loveland CO Budweiser Events Center 8,000 [282]
Tuesday, October 4, 2016 Prescott Valley AZ Prescott Valley Event Center 7,000 [283]
Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Henderson NV Henderson Pavilion 7,000 [284]
Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Reno NV Reno-Sparks Convention Center [285][286]
Monday, October 10, 2016 Ambridge PA Ambridge Area High School 3,000 [287]
Monday, October 10, 2016 Wilkes-Barre PA Mohegan Sun Arena at Casey Plaza 9,000 [288]
Tuesday, October 11, 2016 Panama City Beach FL Aaron Bessant Amphitheater, Aaron Bessant Park 8,500 [289]
Wednesday, October 12, 2016 Ocala FL Southeastern Livestock Pavilion 12,000 [290]
Wednesday, October 12, 2016 Lakeland FL Lakeland Linder Regional Airport 7,000 [291]
Thursday, October 13, 2016 West Palm Beach FL South Florida Fairgrounds Expo Center 6,000 [292]
Thursday, October 13, 2016 Cincinnati OH U.S. Bank Arena [293][294]
Friday, October 14, 2016 Greensboro NC White Oak Amphitheatre 4,000 [295]
Friday, October 14, 2016 Charlotte NC Charlotte Convention Center 5,000 [296]
Saturday, October 15, 2016 Portsmouth NH Toyota of Portsmouth 7,000 [297]
Saturday, October 15, 2016 Bangor ME Cross Insurance Center 4,000 [298]
Monday, October 17, 2016 Green Bay WI KI Convention Center 3,000 [299][300]
Tuesday, October 18, 2016 Colorado Springs CO Norris-Penrose Event Center [301][302]
Tuesday, October 18, 2016 Grand Junction CO West Star Aviation, Grand Junction Regional Airport [303][304]
Thursday, October 20, 2016 Delaware OH Delaware County Fair 1,500 [305]
Friday, October 21, 2016 Fletcher NC WNC Agricultural Center 3,100 [306]
Friday, October 21, 2016 Johnstown PA Cambria County War Memorial Arena [citation needed]
Friday, October 21, 2016 Newtown Township PA Newtown Athletic Club Sports Training Center 4,000 [307]
Saturday, October 22, 2016 Virginia Beach VA Library Plaza, Regent University 10,000 [308]
Saturday, October 22, 2016 Cleveland OH I-X Center [citation needed]
Sunday, October 23, 2016 Naples FL Collier County Fairgrounds [citation needed]
Monday, October 24, 2016 St. Augustine FL St. Augustine Amphitheatre [citation needed]
Monday, October 24, 2016 Tampa FL MidFlorida Credit Union Amphitheatre [citation needed]
Tuesday, October 25, 2016 Sanford FL Million Air Orlando, Orlando Sanford International Airport 10,000 [309]
Tuesday, October 25, 2016 Tallahassee FL Tallahassee Car Museum [citation needed]
Wednesday, October 26, 2016 Kinston NC Kinston Jet Center, Kinston Regional Jetport 3,100 [310]
Thursday, October 27, 2016 Springfield OH Clark County Fairgrounds 5,000 [311]
Thursday, October 27, 2016 Toledo OH SeaGate Convention Centre 2,850 [312]
Thursday, October 27, 2016 Geneva OH Track and Field Building, SPIRE Institute 5,000 [313]
Friday, October 28, 2016 Manchester NH Radisson Hotel Manchester Downtown [citation needed]
Friday, October 28, 2016 Lisbon ME Open Door Christian Academy 1,200 [314]
Friday, October 28, 2016 Cedar Rapids IA McGrath Amphitheatre 5,000 [315]
Saturday, October 29, 2016 Golden CO Jefferson County Events Center [citation needed]
Saturday, October 29, 2016 Phoenix AZ Phoenix Convention Center 8,000 [316]
Sunday, October 30, 2016 Las Vegas NV The Venetian Las Vegas 8,400 [317]
Sunday, October 30, 2016 Greeley CO Bank of Colorado Arena, University of Northern Colorado 3,000+ [318]
Sunday, October 30, 2016 Albuquerque NM Atlantic Aviation ABQ, Albuquerque International Sunport 4,000 [319]
Monday, October 31, 2016 Grand Rapids MI DeltaPlex Arena 6,500 [320]
Monday, October 31, 2016 Warren MI Sports & Expo Center, Macomb Community College South Campus 5,000 [321][125][126]
Tuesday, November 1, 2016 Eau Claire WI W.L. Zorn Arena 3,000 [322]
Wednesday, November 2, 2016 Orlando FL CFE Arena, Central Florida Fairgrounds 10,000 [323]
Wednesday, November 2, 2016 Pensacola FL Maritime Park’s Hunter Amphitheater 6-8,000
10,000[323]
[324][325][326]
Wednesday, November 2, 2016 Miami FL Bayfront Park 2,600 [327]
Thursday, November 3, 2016 Jacksonville FL Jacksonville Equestrian Center 4,000 [328]
Thursday, November 3, 2016 Concord NC Cabarrus Arena & Events Center 4,200 [329]
Thursday, November 3, 2016 Selma NC The Farm 15,000 [330]
Friday, November 4, 2016 Atkinson NH Atkinson Country Club 1,000 [331]
Friday, November 4, 2016 Wilmington OH Airborne Maintenance & Engineering Services, Inc 3,000 [332]
Friday, November 4, 2016 Hershey PA Giant Center 13,000 [333][334]
Saturday, November 5, 2016 Tampa FL Florida State Fairgrounds 5,000
20,000[323]
[335][336]
Saturday, November 5, 2016 Wilmington NC Wilmington International Airport 5,000 [323]
Saturday, November 5, 2016 Reno NV Reno-Sparks Convention Center 8,000 [323]
Saturday, November 5, 2016 Denver CO National Western Complex 8,000 [323]
Sunday, November 6, 2016 Sioux City IA Sioux City Convention Center 4,300
4,500 [323]
[337]
Sunday, November 6, 2016 Minneapolis MN Sun Country Airlines 9,000
20,000[323]
[338]
Sunday, November 6, 2016 Sterling Heights MI Freedom Hill Amphitheater, Freedom Hill County Park 8,000 [339][340]
Sunday, November 6, 2016 Moon Township PA Atlantic Aviation 12,000 [341]
Sunday, November 6, 2016 Leesburg VA Agricultural hall, Loudoun Fairgrounds 9,000
20,000[323]
[342][323]
Monday, November 7, 2016 Sarasota FL Robarts Arena, Sarasota County Fairgrounds 5,000 [343]
Monday, November 7, 2016 Raleigh NC Dorton Arena 7,000 [344][345]
Monday, November 7, 2016 Scranton PA Lackawanna College Student Union 5,000 [346]
Monday, November 7, 2016 Manchester NH SNHU Arena 12,000 [347]
Monday, November 7, 2016 Grand Rapids MI DeVos Place Convention Center 4,200 [348]

“USA Thank You” tour[edit source]

[349]

Des Moines, IA, 12/08/2016

Baton Rouge, LA, 12/09/2016

Hershey, PA, 12/15/2016
Victory rallies (December 2016)
Date of Rally City State Venue Estimated Visitors Source
Thursday, December 1, 2016 Cincinnati OH U.S. Bank Arena [349]
Tuesday, December 6, 2016 Fayetteville NC Crown Coliseum [350]
Thursday, December 8, 2016 Des Moines IA Iowa Events Center [351]
Friday, December 9, 2016 Baton Rouge LA Dow Chemical Hangar, Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport [352]
Friday, December 9, 2016 Grand Rapids MI DeltaPlex Arena [353]
Tuesday, December 13, 2016 West Allis WI Wisconsin Exposition Center, Wisconsin State Fair Park [354]
Thursday, December 15, 2016 Hershey PA Giant Center [355]
Friday, December 16, 2016 Orlando FL Central Florida Fairgrounds [356]
Saturday, December 17, 2016 Mobile AL Ladd-Peebles Stadium [357]

List of post election Donald Trump rallies


Thank You Tour
[edit source]This is a list of rallies held by Donald Trump after his 2016 election.

Des Moines, IA, 12/08/2016

Baton Rouge, LA, 12/09/2016

Hershey, PA, 12/15/2016

Victory rallies (December 2016)
Date of Rally City State Venue Estimated Visitors Source
Thursday, December 1, 2016 Cincinnati OH U.S. Bank Arena [1]
Tuesday, December 6, 2016 Fayetteville NC Crown Coliseum [2]
Thursday, December 8, 2016 Des Moines IA Iowa Events Center [3]
Friday, December 9, 2016 Baton Rouge LA Dow Chemical Hangar, Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport [4]
Friday, December 9, 2016 Grand Rapids MI DeltaPlex Arena [5]
Tuesday, December 13, 2016 West Allis WI Wisconsin Exposition Center, Wisconsin State Fair Park [6]
Thursday, December 15, 2016 Hershey PA Giant Center [7]
Friday, December 16, 2016 Orlando FL Central Florida Fairgrounds [8]
Saturday, December 17, 2016 Mobile AL Ladd-Peebles Stadium [9]

Post Inauguration Rallies[edit source]

Post Inauguration Rallies
Date of Rally City State Venue Estimated Visitors Source
Saturday, February 18, 2017 Melbourne FL Orlando Melbourne International Airport 9,000 [10]
Wednesday, March 15, 2017 Nashville TN Nashville Municipal Auditorium 6,500-7,000 [11]
Monday, March 20, 2017 Louisville KY Kentucky Exposition Center 18,000 [12]
Saturday, April 29, 2017 Harrisburg PA Pennsylvania Farm Show Complex & Expo Center TBD [13]

Immigration policy of Donald Trump

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Illegal immigration was a signature issue of US President Donald Trump‘s presidential campaign, and his proposed reforms and remarks about this issue generated much publicity.[1] A hallmark promise of his campaign was to build a substantial wall on the United States-Mexico border. Trump has also expressed support for a variety of “limits on legal immigration and guest-worker visas”,[1][2] including a “pause” on granting green cards, which Trump says will “allow record immigration levels to subside to more moderate historical averages”.[3][4][5] Trump’s proposals regarding H-1B visas frequently changed throughout his presidential campaign, but as of late July 2016, he appears to oppose the H-1B visa program.[6] Trump has questioned official estimates of the number of undocumented immigrants in the United States (between 11 and 12 million), insisting the number is much higher (between 30 and 34 million).

Positions on immigration[edit source]

Trump has questioned official estimates of the number of undocumented immigrants in the United States (between 11 and 12 million), asserting that the number is actually between 30 and 34 million.[7] PolitiFact ruled that his statement was “Pants on Fire”, citing experts who noted that no evidence supported an estimate in that range.[7] For example, the Pew Research Center reported in March 2015 that the number of undocumented immigrants overall declined from 12.2 million in 2007 to 11.2 million in 2012. The number of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. labor force ranged from 8.1 million to 8.3 million between 2007 and 2012, approximately 5% of the U.S. labor force.[8]

Birthright citizenship[edit source]

Trump proposes rolling back birthright citizenship – a historically broadened interpretation of the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment that all persons born on U.S. soil are citizens – so as not to grant citizenship to US-born children of undocumented immigrants (whom he refers to as “anchor babies“). The mainstream view of the Fourteenth Amendment among legal experts is that everyone born on U.S. soil, regardless of parents’ citizenship, is automatically an American citizen.[9][10]

Kate’s Law[edit source]

Trump during his campaign promised to ask Congress to pass Kate’s Law to ensure that criminal aliens convicted of undocumented reentry receive strong, mandatory minimum sentences. The law is named after Kate Steinle who was allegedly shot and killed in July 2015 by Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez, who was deported by the US a total of five times.[11]

A Senate version of the bill was previously introduced by Ted Cruz in July 2016 and was filibustered by the senate.[12][13][14][15]

Border security[edit source]

Trump has emphasized U.S. border security and undocumented immigration to the United States as a campaign issue.[16][17] During his announcement speech he stated in part, “When Mexico sends its people, they’re not sending their best. They’re not sending you. They’re sending people that have lots of problems, and they’re bringing those problems…. They’re bringing drugs. They’re bringing crime. They’re rapists. And some, I assume, are good people.”[18] On July 6, 2015, Trump issued a written statement[19] to clarify his position on undocumented immigration, which drew a reaction from critics. It read in part:

The Mexican Government is forcing their most unwanted people into the United States. They are, in many cases, criminals, drug dealers, rapists, etc. This was evident just this week when, as an example, a young woman in San Francisco was viciously killed by a 5-time deported Mexican with a long criminal record, who was forced back into the United States because they didn’t want him in Mexico. This is merely one of thousands of similar incidents throughout the United States. In other words, the worst elements in Mexico are being pushed into the United States by the Mexican government. The largest suppliers of heroin, cocaine and other illicit drugs are Mexican cartels that arrange to have Mexican immigrants trying to cross the borders and smuggle in the drugs. The Border Patrol knows this. Likewise, tremendous infectious disease is pouring across the border. The United States has become a dumping ground for Mexico and, in fact, for many other parts of the world. On the other hand, many fabulous people come in from Mexico and our country is better for it. But these people are here legally, and are severely hurt by those coming in illegally. I am proud to say that I know many hard working Mexicans—many of them are working for and with me … and, just like our country, my organization is better for it.”[20]

A study published in Social Science Quarterly in May 2016 tested Trump’s claim that immigrants are responsible for higher levels of violent and drug-related crime in the United States.[21] It found no evidence that links Mexican or undocumented Mexican immigrants specifically to violent or drug-related crime.[21] It did however find a small but significant association between undocumented immigrant populations (including non-Mexican undocumented immigrants) and drug-related arrests.[21]

In addition to his proposals to construct a border wall (see below), Trump has called for tripling the number of Border Patrol agents.[22]

U.S.–Mexico border wall proposal[edit source]

Trump speaking about his immigration policy in Phoenix, Arizona, August 31, 2016.

Trump has repeatedly pledged to build a wall along the U.S.’s southern border, and has said that Mexico would pay for its construction through increased border-crossing fees and NAFTA tariffs.[23] In his speech announcing his candidacy, Trump pledged to “build a great, great wall on our southern border. And I will have Mexico pay for that wall. Mark my words.”[24][25] Trump also said “nobody builds walls better than me, believe me, and I’ll build them very inexpensively.”[25] The concept for building a barrier to keep undocumented immigrants out of the U.S. is not new; 670 miles of fencing (about one-third of the border) was erected under the Secure Fence Act of 2006, at a cost of $2.4 billion.[25] Trump said later that his proposed wall would be “a real wall. Not a toy wall like we have now.”[26] In his 2015 book, Trump cites the Israeli West Bank barrier as a successful example of a border wall.[27] “Trump has at times suggested building a wall across the nearly 2,000-mile border and at other times indicated more selective placement.”[28] After a meeting with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto on August 31, 2016, Trump said that they “didn’t discuss” who would pay for the border wall that Trump has made a centerpiece of his presidential campaign.[29] Nieto contradicted that later that day, saying that he at the start of the meeting “made it clear that Mexico will not pay for the wall”.[30] Later that day, Trump reiterated his position that Mexico will pay to build an “impenetrable” wall on the Southern border.[31]

John Cassidy of The New Yorker wrote that Trump is “the latest representative of an anti-immigrant, nativist American tradition that dates back at least to the Know-Nothings” of the 1840s and 1850s.[32] Trump says “it was legal immigrants who made America great,”[33] that the Latinos who have worked for him have been “unbelievable people”, and that he wants a wall between the U.S. and Mexico to have a “big, beautiful door” for people to come legally and feel welcomed in the United States.[34]

According to experts and analyses, the actual cost to construct a wall along the remaining 1,300 miles of the border could be as high as $16 million per mile, with a total cost of up to $25 billion, with the cost of private land acquisitions and fence maintenance pushing up the total cost further.[28] Maintenance of the wall could cost up to $750 million a year, and if the Border Patrol agents were to patrol the wall, additional funds would have to be expended.[28] Rough and remote terrain on many parts of the border, such as deserts and mountains, would make construction and maintenance of a wall expensive, and such terrain may be a greater deterrent than a wall in any case.[28] Experts also note that on federally protected wilderness areas and Native American reservations, the Department of Homeland Security may have only limited construction authority, and a wall could cause environmental damage.[28]

Despite campaign promises to Build a full Wall, Trump later stated that he favors putting up some fences.[35]

In February 2017, Reuters reported that an internal report by the Department of Homeland Security estimated that Trump’s proposed border wall would cost $21.6 billion and take 3.5 years to build. This estimate is far higher than estimates by Trump during the campaign ($12 billion) and the $15-billion estimate from Republican House Speaker Paul Ryan and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell.[36]

Critics of Trump’s plan question whether a wall would be effective at stopping unauthorized crossings, noting that walls are of limited use unless they are patrolled by agents and to intercept those climbing over or tunneling under the wall.[28] Experts also note that approximately half of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. did not surreptitiously enter, but rather “entered through official crossing points, either by overstaying visas, using fraudulent documents, or being smuggled past the border”.[28]

Mass deportation of undocumented immigrants[edit source]

Foreign born in US labor-force 1900-2015. Approximately 8 million of the foreign-born in the labor force were undocumented immigrants in 2012.

In August 2015, during his campaign, Trump proposed the mass deportation of undocumented immigrants as part of his immigration policy.[37][38][39] During his first town hall campaign meeting in Derry, New Hampshire, Trump said that if he were to win the election, then on “[d]ay 1 of my presidency, undocumented immigrants are getting out and getting out fast”.[40]

Trump has proposed a “Deportation Force” to carry out this plan, modeled after the 1950s-era “Operation Wetback” program during the Eisenhower administration that ended following a congressional investigation.[38][39][41] Historian Mae Ngai of Columbia University, who has studied the program, has said that the military-style operation was both inhumane and ineffective.[39][41]

According to analysts, Trump’s mass-deportation plan would encounter legal and logistical difficulties, since U.S. immigration courts already face large backlogs.[38] Such a program would also impose a fiscal cost; the fiscally conservative American Action Forum policy group estimates that deporting every undocumented immigrant would cause a slump of $381.5 billion to $623.2 billion in private sector output, amounting to roughly a loss of 2% of U.S. GDP.[42] Doug Holtz-Eakin, the group’s president, has said that the mass deportation of 11 million people would “harm the economy in ways it would normally not be harmed”.[38]

In June 2016, Trump stated on Twitter that “I have never liked the media term ‘mass deportation’—but we must enforce the laws of the land!”[43][44] Later in June, Trump stated that he would not characterize his immigration policies as including “mass deportations”.[45] However, on August 31, 2016, contrary to earlier reports of a “softening” in his stance,[23][46][47] Trump laid out a 10-step plan reaffirming his hardline positions. He reiterated that all undocumented immigrants are “subject to deportation” with priority given to undocumented immigrants who have committed significant crimes and those who have overstayed visas. He noted that all those seeking legalization would have to go home and re-enter the country legally.[31][48]

Proposed Muslim immigration ban[edit source]

Trump frequently revised proposals to ban Muslim immigration to the United States in the course of his presidential campaign.[6] In late July 2016, NBC News characterized his position as: “Ban all Muslims, and maybe other people from countries with a history of terrorism, but just don’t say ‘Muslims’.”[6] (Rudy Giuliani said on Fox News that Trump tasked him to craft a “Muslim ban” and asked Giuliani to form a committee to show him “the right way to do it legally”.[49][50] The committee, which included former U.S. Attorney General and Chief Judge of the Southern District of New York Michael Mukasey, and Reps. Mike McCaul and Peter T. King, decided to drop the religious basis and instead focused on regions where Giuliani says that there is “substantial evidence that people are sending terrorists” to the United States.[50])

In December 2015, Trump proposed a temporary ban on foreign Muslims entering the United States (the U.S. admits approximately 100,000 Muslim immigrants each year)[51]“until we can figure out what’s going on”.[52][53][54][55] In response to the 2015 San Bernardino shooting, Trump released a statement on “Preventing Muslim Immigration” and called for “a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country’s representatives can figure out what the hell is going on”.[56] In a December 2015 interview, the host Willie Geist repeatedly questioned Trump if airline representatives, customs agents or border guards would ask a person’s religion. Trump responded that they would and if the person said they were Muslim, they will be denied entry into the country.[57]

Trump cited President Franklin Delano Roosevelt‘s use during World War II of the Alien and Sedition Acts to issue presidential proclamations for rounding up, holding, and deporting German, Japanese, and Italian alien immigrants, and noted that Roosevelt was highly respected and had highways named after him.[58][59][60][61] Trump stated that he did not agree with Roosevelt’s internment of Japanese Americans, and clarified that the proposal would not apply to Muslims who were U.S. citizens or to Muslims who were serving in the U.S. military.[62][63]

In May 2016, Trump retreated slightly from his call for a Muslim ban, calling it “merely an idea, not a proposal”.[64] On June 13, 2016, he reformulated the ban so that it would be geographical, not religious, applying to “areas of the world where there is a proven history of terrorism against the United States, Europe or our allies”.[64][65] Two hours later, he claimed that ban was only for nations “tied to Islamic terror”.[64] In June 2016, he also stated that he would allow Muslims from allies like the United Kingdom to enter the United States.[64] In May 2016, Trump said “There will always be exceptions” to the ban, when asked how the ban would apply to London’s newly elected mayor Sadiq Khan.[66] A spokesman for Sadiq Khan said in response that Trump’s views were “ignorant, divisive and dangerous” and play into the hands of extremists.[67]

In June 2016, Trump expanded his proposed ban on Muslim immigration to the United States to cover immigration from areas with a history of terrorism.[68] Specifically, Trump stated, “When I am elected, I will suspend immigration from areas of the world when there is a proven history of terrorism against the United States, Europe, or our allies, until we understand how to end these threats.”[68] According to lawyers and legal scholars cited in a New York Times report, the president has the power to carry out the plan but it would take an ambitious and likely time-consuming bureaucratic effort, and make sweeping use of executive authority.[69] Immigration analysts also noted that the implementation of Trump’s plan could “prompt a wave of retaliation against American citizens traveling and living abroad”.[69] In July 2016, Trump described his proposal as encompassing “any nation that has been compromised by terrorism”.[70] Trump later referred to the reformulation as “extreme vetting”.[71]

When asked in July 2016 about his proposal to restrict immigration from areas with high levels of terrorism, Trump insisted that it was not a “rollback” of his initial proposal to ban all Muslim immigrants.[72] He said, “In fact, you could say it’s an expansion. I’m looking now at territory.”[72] When asked if his new proposal meant that there would be greater checks on immigration from countries that have been compromised by terrorism, such as France, Germany and Spain, Trump answered, “It’s their own fault, because they’ve allowed people over years to come into their territory.”[73][74]

On August 15, 2016, Trump suggested that “extreme views” would be grounds to be thrown out of the U.S., saying he would deport Seddique Mateen, the father of Omar Mateen (the gunman in the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting), who has expressed support for the Taliban.[75][76][77] On 31 August, during a speech in Phoenix, Trump said he would form a commission to study which regions or countries he would suspend immigration from, noting that Syria and Libya would be high on that list.[78][79][80] Jeff Sessions an advisor to Trump’s campaign on immigration at the time said the Trump campaign’s plan was “the best laid out law enforcement plan to fix this country’s immigration system that’s been stated in this country maybe forever”.[81] During confirmation-hearing testimony, he acknowledged supporting vetting based on “areas where we have an unusually high risk of terrorists coming in”; Sessions acknowledged the DOJ would need to evaluate such a plan if it were outside the “Constitutional order.”[82]

Other proposals[edit source]

Trump has proposed making it more difficult for asylum-seekers and refugees to enter the United States, and making the e-Verify system mandatory for employers.[22]

Syrian refugees[edit source]

Trump has on several occasions expressed opposition to allowing Syrian refugees into the U.S.—saying they could be the “ultimate Trojan horse[83]—and has proposed deporting back to Syria refugees settled in the U.S.[84][85] By September 2015, Trump had expressed support for taking in some Syrian refugees[84][86] and praised Germany’s decision to take in Syrian refugees.[87]

On a number of occasions in 2015, Trump asserted that “If you’re from Syria and you’re a Christian, you cannot come into this country, and they’re the ones that are being decimated. If you are Islamic … it’s hard to believe, you can come in so easily.” PolitiFact rated Trump’s claim as “false” and found it to be “wrong on its face”, citing the fact that 3 percent of the refugees from Syria have been Christian (although they represent 10 percent of the Syrian population) and finding that the U.S. government is not discriminating against Christians as a matter of official policy.[88]

In May 2016 interview with Bill O’Reilly, Trump stated “Look, we are at war with these people and they don’t wear uniforms….. This is a war against people that are vicious, violent people, that we have no idea who they are, where they come from. We are allowing tens of thousands of them into our country now.” Politifact ruled this statement “pants on fire”, stating that the U.S. is on track to accept 100,000 refugees in 2017, but there is no evidence that tens of thousands of them are terrorists.[89]

Executive actions[edit source]

Travel ban and refugee suspension[edit source]

On January 27, 2017, Trump signed an executive order (Number 13769), titled “Protecting the Nation From Terrorist Attacks by Foreign Nationals“, that suspended entry for citizens of seven countries for 90 days: Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen, totaling more than 134 million people.[90] The order also stopped the admission of refugees of the Syrian Civil War indefinitely, and the entry of all refugees to the United States for 120 days.[91] Refugees who were on their way to the United States when the order was signed were stopped and detained at airports.[92]

Implicated by this order is 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1182 “Whenever the President finds that the entry of any aliens or of any class of aliens into the United States would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, he may by proclamation, and for such period as he shall deem necessary, suspend the entry of all aliens or any class of aliens as immigrants or nonimmigrants, or impose on the entry of aliens any restrictions he may deem to be appropriate.” 8 U.S. Code § 1182 (Section 212(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952).

Critics argue that Congress later restricted this power in 1965, stating plainly that no person could be “discriminated against in the issuance of an immigrant visa because of the person’s race, sex, nationality, place of birth or place of residence.” (8 U.S. Code § 1152) The only exceptions are those provided for by Congress (such as the preference for Cuban asylum seekers).[93]

Many legal challenges to the order were brought immediately after its issuance: from January 28 to January 31, almost 50 cases were filed in federal courts.[94] Some courts, in turn, granted temporary relief, including a nationwide temporary restraining order (TRO) that bars the enforcement of major parts of the executive order.[95][96] The Trump administration is appealing the TRO.[96]

Increased immigration enforcement[edit source]

On January 25, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13768 which, among other things, significantly increased the number of immigrants considered a priority for deportation. Previously, under Obama, an immigrant ruled removable would only be considered a priority to actually be physically deported if they, in addition to being removable, were convicted of serious crimes such as felonies or multiple misdemeanors. Under the Trump administration, such an immigrant can be considered a priority to be removed even if convicted only of minor crimes, or even if merely accused of such criminal activity.[97] Guadalupe Garcia de Rayos, who came undocumented to the United States when she was 14, may have become the first person deported under the terms of this order on February 9, 2017. Garcia de Rayos had previously been convicted of felony criminal impersonation related to her use of a falsified Social Security card to work at an Arizona water park. This conviction had not been considered serious enough, under Obama, to actually remove her from the country, although she was required to check in regularly with ICE officials, which she had done regularly since 2008. The first time she checked in with ICE officials after the new executive order took effect, however, led to her detention and physical removal from the country. Greg Stanton, the Mayor of Phoenix commented that “Rather than tracking down violent criminals and drug dealers, ICE is spending its energy deporting a woman with two American children who has lived here for more than two decades and poses a threat to nobody.”[98] ICE officials said that her case went through multiple reviews in the immigration court system and that the “judges held she did not have a legal basis to remain in the US”.[99]

The Washington Post reported on 10 February 2017 that federal agents had begun to conduct sweeping immigration enforcement raids in at least six states.[100]

Federal Reserve officials have warned that Trump’s immigration restrictions will likely have an adverse impact on the economy. Immigration is a core component of economic growth, they have said.[101]

Revised travel ban and refugee suspension[edit source]

On March 6, 2017, Trump signed a revised executive order, that, among other differences with the original order, excluded Iraq, visa-holders, and permanent residents from the temporary suspension and did not differentiate Syrian refugees from refugees from other countries.[102]

Comey memos

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Comey memos are memoranda of conversations written by James Comey, the former Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). They document conversations between Comey and President Donald Trump. At least one of them documents an alleged attempt by Trump to persuade Comey to abort the FBI investigation into Lieutenant General Michael Flynn, who had resigned his post as national security advisor the previous day, after he misled senior U.S. officials “about the nature of his conversations” with Russian ambassador Sergei Kislyak.[1][2][3][4][5] The White House responded to the allegations by stating that “the president has never asked Mr. Comey or anyone else to end any investigation, including any investigation involving General Flynn”.[3]

According to a Comey associate, Trump also stated that Comey should consider putting reporters who publish classified information in prison.[6] These memos were first publicly discussed about one week after the dismissal of James Comey as FBI Director.

One day after the existence of the memos was reported by The New York Times, the Justice Department appointed former FBI director Robert Mueller as special counsel,[7] charged with overseeing the FBI’s ongoing counterintelligence investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.[8]

Contents and creation

Comey’s official portrait as the seventh Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

According to anonymous sources, Director Comey would record a detailed memo immediately following every meeting and telephone call he had with President Donald Trump.[2][9] Allegedly, some memos were classified, while others were not.[2]

One memo, which is unclassified, referred to a February 14, 2017, Oval Office meeting between Comey and Trump that began as a broader national security briefing. The meeting was the day after the dismissal of Michael Flynn by Trump. Near the conclusion of the briefing, according to this alleged memo, the President asked those in attendance other than Director Comey to leave the room – including Vice President Mike Pence and Attorney General Jeff Sessions. He then reportedly stated to Comey “I hope you can see your way clear to letting this go, to letting Flynn go. He is a good guy. I hope you can let this go.”[2] Comey made no commitments to Trump on the subject.[2]

The New York Times reported that the memos were created as part of a “paper trail” created by Comey to document “what he perceived as the president’s improper efforts to influence a continuing investigation”.[2] Comey shared the memo with “a very small circle of people at the FBI and Justice Department“.[1] Comey and other senior FBI officials perceived Trump’s remarks “as an effort to influence the investigation, but they decided that they would try to keep the conversation secret — even from the FBI agents working on the Russia investigation — so the details of the conversation would not affect the investigation”.[2]

The Washington Post reported that two Comey associates who had seen Comey’s memo described it as two pages long and highly detailed.[1]The Times noted that contemporaneous notes created by FBI agents are frequently relied upon “in court as credible evidence of conversations”.[2]

According to a Washington Post report, the memos also document Trump’s criticism of the FBI for not pursuing leakers in the administration and his wish “to see reporters in jail”.[1] The report outraged journalists and free-speech groups, who likened the statement to intimidation tactics used by authoritarian regimes. The Committee to Protect Journalists and Washington Post executive editor Martin Baron were among those who criticized the statement.[10]

Initial report and White House response

The memos’ existence was first reported in a May 16, 2017, New York Times report, published several days after Trump fired Comey as FBI director; the report cited two people who read the memos.[2] The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post independently reported on the memos’ existence.[3][1] The reports also came just a day after news of the Donald Trump revelation of classified information to Russia.[3]

Following news reports of the memos’ existence, the White House stated that “the president has never asked Mr. Comey or anyone else to end any investigation, including any investigation involving General Flynn” and stated “This is not a truthful or accurate portrayal of the conversation between the president and Mr. Comey.”[3]

United States Congress reaction

Fox News host Bret Baier said that no Republicans were “willing to go on camera” after reports on the memos were published. Charles Krauthammer, a regular panelist on Baier’s show, said, “What I think is really stunning is that nobody, not even from the White House, has come out under their own name in defense of the president here. We don’t see any Republicans on camera. And that is totally understandable. They’ve just watched over the last ten days, people who went out on a limb on the Comey firing, and said it was the result of the memo from the deputy Attorney General, and had their limb sawed off by Donald Trump himself without a flinch.”[11][12] The following day, CBS This Morning co-host Charlie Rose said the show had contacted 20 Republican senators and representatives as well as White House representatives to appear on the show and all declined.[13] Republicans also declined invitations from Chris Hayes to appear on MSNBC.[13]

U.S. House

House Oversight Committee

Jason Chaffetz letter to FBI over Comey Memo

Republican U.S. Representative Jason Chaffetz, the chairman of the House Oversight Committee, wrote a letter to acting FBI Director, requesting that “all memoranda, notes, summaries and recordings referring or relating to any communications between Comey and the President” be provided to the committee by May 24.[14][15] Chaffetz wrote in the letter that the reports “raise questions as to whether the president attempted to influence or impede” the Flynn investigation.[14][15] Chaffetz said that he intended to obtain the memos by subpoena if necessary.[14] House Speaker Paul Ryan supported Chaffetz’s request.[16]

House Intelligence Committee

Democratic U.S. Representative Adam Schiff, the ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee, stated: “If true, this is yet another disturbing allegation that the president may have engaged in some interference or obstruction of the investigation.”[1]

U.S. Senate

Senate Intelligence Committee

News of the Comey memos furthered talk of potential efforts to impeach Trump. When CNN‘s Wolf Blitzer asked independent Senator Angus King of Maine whether, if Trump had in fact asked Comey to end the investigation, the country would be “getting closer and closer to the possibility of yet another impeachment process”, King replied: “Reluctantly … I have to say yes simply because obstruction of justice is such a serious offense.”[17]

On May 17, 2017, the Senate Intelligence Committee, led by Republican chairman Richard Burr and Democratic vice chairman Mark Warner, sent two letters seeking information related to the committee’s ongoing investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. The first letter, sent to Comey, asked him to appear before the committee in both open and closed sessions. The second, sent to acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe, asked for “any notes or memorandum prepared by the former Director regarding any communications he may have had with senior White House and Department of Justice officials related to investigations into Russia’s efforts.”[18][19]

Senate Judiciary Committee

On May 17, 2017, the Senate Judiciary Committee, in a letter signed by Republican Senators Chuck Grassley and Lindsey Graham, and Democratic Senators Dianne Feinstein and Sheldon Whitehouse, also requested records from FBI, seeking “all memos relating to former FBI Director Comey’s interactions with his superiors in both the Trump and Obama administrations” to be furnished by May 24.[20][21]

Special Counsel

Appointment of Special Counsel to investigate Russian interference with the 2016 presidential election and related matters

One day after the existence of the memos was reported by The New York Times, the Justice Department appointed former FBI director Robert Mueller as special counsel, charged with overseeing the FBI’s ongoing counterintelligence investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.[22][8]

Legal analysis

Legal experts are divided as to whether Trump’s alleged request that Comey end the investigation can be considered obstruction of justice.[23] Jens David Ohlin of Cornell University Law School and Jonathan Turley of George Washington University have argued that the request does not neatly fit into any of the practices commonly considered obstruction of justice.[24] Michael Gerhardt of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Julie O’Sullivan of the Georgetown University Law Center argued that it is hard to prove that Trump had an intent to obstruct the investigation.[25] Harvard law professor Alan Dershowitz said that “it’s a very, very high bar to get over obstruction of justice for a president.”[26] Harvard law professor Jack Goldsmith noted that it was implausible to indict a sitting president, noting that “the remedy for a criminal violation would be impeachment” instead.[27] Erwin Chereminsky of University of California, Irvine School of Law, have argued that it was obstruction of justice.[28] Noah Feldman of Harvard University noted that the alleged request could be grounds for impeechment.[29] University of Texas law professor Stephen Vladeck said that it was reasonable for people to “start talking about obstruction”.[27] Harvard law professor Alex Whiting said that Trump’s actions were “very close to obstruction of justice… but still isn’t conclusive”.[30] Christopher Slobogin of Vanderbilt University Law School said that a “viable case” could be made but that it was weak.[28]John Dean, former White House Counsel to Richard Nixon, called the memo about the private conversation with President Trump concerning the Flynn investigation a “smoking gun” and noted that “good intentions do not erase criminal intent”.[31]

Several Republican politicians and conservative journalists have asserted that Comey could be subject to legal jeopardy over his withholding the memos.[32] Legal experts have criticized these assertions, with Harvard Law School professor emeritus Alan Dershowitz saying they are “total nonsense” and University of Texas School of Law professor Robert M. Chesney saying they are “completely uninformed”.[32]

Dismissal of James Comey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Letter from President Donald Trump dismissing FBI director James Comey.

In the termination letter, Trump wrote that Comey had told him on three separate occasions that he was not under investigation.[5] According to The Washington Post, sources knowledgeable about the matter stated that this and other assertions Trump made about events leading up to the dismissal were false,[6][7] and Trump subsequently implied that he may have the conversations with Comey on tape.[8]James Comey, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), was dismissed by U.S. President Donald Trump on May 9, 2017.[1][2] Comey had been under public and political pressure resulting from both the FBI‘s role in the Hillary Clinton email controversy, as well as the FBI’s investigation of alleged Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, including possible collusion with the 2016 Donald Trump campaign.[3][4]

In the immediate aftermath, the White House said Trump had been considering the dismissal since the election, had experienced an “erosion of confidence” because Comey was “not doing a good job”, pointed to Comey’s recent congressional testimony as problematic, and also based the firing partly on advice from the United States Department of Justice alleging that Comey had mishandled the investigation into Hillary Clinton’s use of a private email server.[9] These justifications were criticized by some Democrats and political commentators, citing Trump’s earlier praise of Comey’s decision to re-open the email investigation eleven days before the November 8, 2016, presidential election and Trump’s own remarks about Clinton during the campaign. Later, Trump sought to further explain his decision to dismiss Comey, saying that Comey was a “showboat” and “grandstander“, while Trump also indicated that the dismissal was connected to dissatisfaction with the counterintelligence investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election.[10] Trump stated, “When I decided [to fire Comey], I said to myself, I said, ‘You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made up story, it’s an excuse by the Democrats for having lost an election that they should have won.'”[10]

According to Comey associates interviewed by The New York Times, Associated Press, and CBS News, Trump had asked Comey in January to pledge his loyalty to him. Comey declined to make this pledge, saying that he would give him “honesty.[11][12][13] Trump denied that he asked Comey for his loyalty, but says such a discussion would not necessarily have been inappropriate.[14] Several sources within the FBI have stated that the White House’s firing of Comey was a culmination of high-level efforts to interfere in the Russia investigation.[15] Appearing before Congress two days after the dismissal, Acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe testified: “There has been no effort to impede our investigation to date”.[16] Comey has indicated he is willing to testify about his dismissal in an open hearing.[17] He declined an invitation from the Senate Intelligence Committee to testify before a closed-door session.[17]

On May 16, 2017, the New York Times reported on the existence of a memo written by Comey in February after a conversation with Trump, in which the FBI director described Trump’s request that the FBI shut down the investigation into Trump associate Michael T. Flynn, who had resigned as National Security Adviser the previous day. The White House responded that “the president has never asked Mr. Comey or anyone else to end any investigation, including any investigation involving General Flynn”.[18]

Comey’s termination was controversial, with some comparing it to President Richard Nixon‘s termination of Watergatespecial prosecutor Archibald Cox in the 1973 Saturday Night Massacre,[19][20][21] and others disputing that comparison.[22]Criticism of Trump’s decision came immediately from various experts on governance and authoritarianism,[23][24][25][26] and various politicians from across the political spectrum.[4][27][28] Top Republican politicians supported the firing.[29] Many elected officials called for a special prosecutor or independent commission to continue the investigation into Russia’s influence on the election,[28] while some Republicans stated that such a move would be premature.[29]

Timeline[edit]

Background[edit]

President Barack Obama (right) and Comey (left) in the Rose Garden of the White House, June 21, 2013, as Obama announced Comey’s nomination as FBI Director.

Since a 1976 amendment to the 1968 Omnibus Crime Control Act,[30][31] the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is appointed to a ten-year term, “an unusually long tenure that Congress established to insulate the director from political pressure.”[32] During his tenure as FBI director, Comey emphasized the need for the FBI to be independent from politics and avoid the “political winds”.[33]

Nevertheless, though the FBI director is appointed for a 10-year term, the president has the power to dismiss an FBI director for any reason, including no reason. However, Trump’s dismissal of Comey raised the issue of possible political interference by a sitting president into an existing investigation by a leading law enforcement agency,[32][30] as well as other issues. Although presidents have occasionally clashed with FBI directors,[30] Comey’s dismissal was only the second time that a president has dismissed an FBI director.[32][30] The only other occasion was under “dramatically different circumstances”:[34] in 1993 President Bill Clinton fired FBI Director William S. Sessions after a Justice Department Office of Professional Responsibility report—published under Clinton’s predecessor, George H. W. Bush—accused Sessions of tax evasion and other ethical lapses.[35][36]

Comey’s tenure[edit]

Before becoming FBI director, Comey, a Republican, served in the George W. Bush administration as deputy attorney general.[37][38] He was appointed FBI director by President Barack Obama, and that nomination drew broad bipartisan support.[37][38] Comey was confirmed by the Senate in 2013 by vote of 93-1.[39] At the time of his firing in May 2017, Comey was four years into his ten-year term as FBI director.[32]

Comey sought to insulate the FBI from politics, but beginning in 2015 the Bureau became embroiled in investigation that affected the 2016 presidential election.[38] In March 2015, it came to light that presidential candidate Hillary Clinton had used a private e-mail server for her work as Secretary of State under President Barack Obama. The FBI launched an investigation to determine whether Clinton had violated the law and whether national security had been breached. In July 2016 FBI Director James Comey announced that he was not recommending that any charges be brought against Clinton. The decision was decried by Republican leaders and candidates, including then-presidential candidate Donald Trump. In late October 2016, Comey announced that the investigation was being re-opened because of additional documents that had been obtained. Two weeks later he announced that no new information had been discovered and the investigation was again being closed.[40] The announcement of the re-opened investigation was seen by many observers as unnecessary and harmful to Clinton’s campaign. Others complained because the second investigation did not yield a prosecution.

On October 7, 2016,[41] the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) jointly stated that individuals working on behalf of the Russian government had hacked servers and e-mail accounts associated with the Democratic Party and the Hillary Clinton campaign and leaked their documents to WikiLeaks.[42] This would be confirmed by numerous private security experts and other government officials. The FBI launched investigations into both the hackings, and contacts between Trump associates and Russia.

In January 2017, Comey testified to Congress confirming Russia’s alleged interference in the U.S. election and confirmed an ongoing investigation although he refused to comment specifically on the Trump organization. President-elect Trump stated his intention to keep Comey as the FBI director. In March, Comey finally confirmed that the FBI was investigating links between the Trump campaign and Russia. He also refuted Trump’s allegations that the Obama administration had wiretapped him.[40]

During the weeks leading up to May 9, grand jury subpoenas were issued by the U.S. Attorney’s Office in Alexandria, Virginia, to associates of Michael Flynn for the purpose of obtaining records relating to the investigation of Russia’s role in the election. News outlets became aware of these subpoenas on May 9.[43][44]

In May, Comey gave additional testimony before the Senate regarding the Clinton e-mail probe and the Russia investigations.[40] News media reported that Comey requested additional personnel from Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein to expand the probe into Russian interference into the presidential election,[45] but this was later denied by Andrew McCabe during his testimony to Congress on May 11.

Termination letter[edit]

Comey’s official portrait as the seventh Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

On May 9, 2017, President Trump sent a termination letter to James Comey:

Dear Director Comey:

I have received the attached letters from the Attorney General and Deputy Attorney General of the United States recommending your dismissal as the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. I have accepted their recommendation and you are hereby terminated and removed from office, effective immediately.

While I greatly appreciate you informing me, on three separate occasions, that I am not under investigation, I nevertheless concur with the judgment of the Department of Justice that you are not able to effectively lead the Bureau.

It is essential that we find new leadership that restores public trust and confidence in its vital law enforcement mission.

I wish you the best of luck in your future endeavors.

— Donald J. Trump

Reasons for dismissal[edit]

On May 8, 2017, Trump directed Attorney General Sessions and Deputy Attorney General Rosenstein to make a case against Comey in writing. Sessions and Rosenstein delivered their “recommendations” to Trump the following day, and Trump then formally dismissed Comey, saying he was doing so on their recommendation[46][47][6] — although Trump said on May 11 that he would have fired Comey irrespective of any recommendation from the Justice Department.[48]

Letter from Atty. General Sessions

Opinion from Deputy Atty. Gen. Rosenstein, page 1/3

Opinion from Deputy Atty. Gen. Rosenstein, page 2/3

Opinion from Deputy Atty. Gen. Rosenstein, page 3/3

In Rosenstein’s memorandum, he criticized Comey on two grounds: for usurping the prerogative of the Justice Department and the Attorney General in his July 2016 public statements announcing the closure of the investigation into Clinton’s emails, and for making derogatory comments about Clinton in that same meeting.[49] Both of these actions, he argued, were in conflict with longstanding FBI practice. Comey had previously defended his extraordinary action, saying that Attorney General Loretta Lynch had a conflict of interest, but Rosenstein argued that in such a case, it is the duty of the Attorney General to recuse herself, and that there is a process for another Justice Department official to take over her duties.[50] In the dismissal letter, Trump cited the recommendations by Sessions and Rosenstein as the reason for Comey’s dismissal. Sessions, in his letter to Trump, also cited Rosenstein’s memo as the reason for his own recommendation.

It was noted that Sessions made the recommendation despite the fact that he had in March 2017 recused himself from anything to do with the investigation into ties between Trump’s team and Russia, as well as from the Clinton email controversy. Senator Al Franken called Sessions’ actions a “complete betrayal” of his promise to recuse.[51]

On May 9, a statement by the White House claimed that Comey “lost the support” of “rank and file” FBI employees, saying that the President had no choice but to dismiss him.[52] However, FBI agents “flatly rejected” this assertion,[53] saying that Comey was in fact relatively well-liked and admired within FBI.[54] In testimony given to the Senate Intelligence Committee on May 11, acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe contradicted the White House’s claim that Comey had lost the confidence of the FBI rank-and-file.[55]

Observers were suspicious of the timing of the dismissal, which occurred just a few days after Comey reportedly requested additional resources to step up the Russia investigation; however the Justice Department denied that such a request was made.[56][57][45] In an interview with Lester Holt of NBC News, Trump contradicted other statements from White House officials, by stating that he fired Comey due also to how he was handling the Russia investigation, while saying that there was no proof Russia was behind any election interference.[58][59] Generally speaking, the timing of the dismissal was a main point of contention given the ongoing Russia investigation, whereas Comey’s suitabilty for the job was not as great an issue as the timing; many Democrats had previously called for Comey’s resignation or doubted his credibility.[60][61][62][63][64]

Media reports cast doubt on the justification for Comey’s dismissal. In a report based on anonymous interviews with White House staff, CNN reported that Trump’s decision to fire Comey had been made first, with Sessions’ and Rosenstein’s letters being drafted to justify the decision.[65] According to an anonymous source who spoke to The Washington Post, they were instructed to do so by Trump on May 8. The same source also said that Rosenstein had threatened to resign after his letter was cited as the primary reason for Comey’s dismissal.[66] Other media noted the disconnect between the dismissal and Trump’s praise of Comey’s actions in the campaign and throughout his presidency until a week beforehand.[67]

The reason for the dismissal has been disputed, with insider sources claiming that Trump was furious at Comey for refusing to back up his wiretap accusations against former President Barack Obama, as well as not defending him from accusations of collusion with the Russian government.[68][69] According to sources, during a private dinner in January Trump had asked Comey for an “assurance of personal loyalty”, which Comey apparently refused, so Trump was planning to replace him with a new FBI director, loyal only to him, who would redirect the investigation away from Trump associates.[69][70][71] Another source told The Atlantic that Trump fired Comey because Trump was concerned about what Flynn would testify in court.[72]The next day, several FBI insiders said Comey was fired because “he refused to end the Russia investigation.”[73]

The private dinner during which Trump allegedly asked Comey for an “assurance of personal loyalty” was on January 27, the day after acting Attorney General Sally Yates briefed White House Counsel Donald McGahn on the FBI investigation of National Security Advisor Flynn’s contacts with Sergey Kislyak, the Russian ambassador, and three days after FBI agents had interviewed Flynn.[74][75] Upon hearing from Yates on January 26, McGahn “immediately” briefed the president and a small group of senior advisors.[74] Comey’s invitation to dine with Trump “was a last minute thing,” coming either on the 26th or the 27th, according to a former FBI official close to Comey.[74]

Trump himself seemed to contradict the White House claim that he had acted because of the Clinton email issue identified by Rosenstein. On May 10 he told reporters he fired Comey “because he wasn’t doing a good job”.[76] In an interview on May 11, Trump said he had intended all along to fire Comey, regardless of any recommendation, calling it his own decision.[77] The White House officially stated that firing Comey was a step in letting the probe into Russian election interference “come to its conclusion with integrity”.[78][79] White House spokesperson Sarah Huckabee Sanders expressed the hope that firing Comey would help bring the Russia investigation to an end.[80]

Dismissal and other events of May 9[edit]

On Tuesday May 9, President Trump hired a law firm to send a letter to the Senate Judiciary Committee denying any business or other connections to Russia, “with some exceptions”. The law firm itself turned out to have “deep ties” to Russia, and had even been selected as “Russia Law Firm of 2016”.[81][82] No evidence was provided in the letter itself, such as tax returns.[83] The letter was a response to earlier statements by Senator Lindsey Graham stating that he wanted to know whether there were any such ties.[84] That same day news outlets became aware of subpoenas being issued for associates of Michael Flynn in the Russia investigation.[43]

Later that evening, President Trump had a letter delivered to the FBI terminating Director Comey.[49] Comey was in California at the time and learned of the termination through televised news media reports, while giving a speech to agents at the Los Angeles Field Office.[85]

News commentators characterized the termination as extraordinary and controversial. CNN’s legal analyst Jeffrey Toobin went so far as to characterize it as an “abuse of power”.[19] It was compared to the Saturday Night Massacre, President Richard Nixon‘s termination of special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who had been investigating the Watergate scandal.[86]John Dean, White House Counsel under President Nixon, called it a “a very Nixonian move” saying that it “could have been a quiet resignation, but instead it was an angry dismissal”.[87] Among the two reporters noted for investigating the Watergate scandal, Bob Woodward said that “there is an immense amount of smoke” but that comparisons of the Comey dismissal to Watergate were premature,[22] while Carl Bernstein said that the firing of an FBI director overseeing an active investigation was a “potentially more dangerous situation than Watergate.”[88]

The New York Times Editorial Board published an editorial slamming the move, calling Trump’s explanation “impossible to take at face value” and stating Trump had “decisively crippled the FBI’s ability to carry out an investigation of him and his associates”.[89]

Democratic Senator Chuck Shumer renewed his call for a special prosecutor to investigate Russia’s involvement in the election and its influence on members of the Trump campaign and administration.[4][27] Republican Senator John McCain renewed his call for a special congressional committee to investigate.[90] Democratic Representative Adam Schiff observed that Sessions had previously recused himself from involvement in the Russia investigation and suggested that recommending Comey’s termination violated that pledge because Comey was the lead investigator.[91] In addition to the criticisms from Democratic leaders, some Republican leaders also expressed concern, including Richard Burr, Roy Blunt, Bob Corker, Justin Amash, and others.[92][93] Other Republican leaders came to Trump’s defense including Susan Collins and Lindsey Graham.[94]

Immediate response from the White House regarding concerns from congressional leaders and the media was limited. White House Deputy Press Secretary Sarah Sanders stated that the White House would push for an immediate ending of Russian investigations and that it was time to “move on” from accusations of Russian interference into the election.[95][96]President Trump stated in Comey’s termination letter that Comey had asserted “on three separate occasions that I am not under investigation”.[5] In an interview for CNN, President Trump’s Counselor, Kellyanne Conway, denied that Comey’s dismissal is part of a White House cover-up.[97] Trump furthermore commented on Twitter, mocking Senators Chuck Schumer and Richard Blumenthal, and saying that Schumer was “crying like a baby” and that Blumenthal “devised one of the greatest military frauds in U.S. history”.[98]

Aftermath[edit]

Comey’s farewell letter[edit]

Comey’s farewell letter sent to the FBI on May 10, 2017

On May 10, 2017, Comey sent a farewell letter to the FBI and his friends:

To all:

I have long believed that a President can fire an FBI Director for any reason, or for no reason at all. I’m not going to spend time on the decision or the way it was executed. I hope you won’t either. It is done, and I will be fine, although I will miss you and the mission deeply.

I have said to you before that, in times of turbulence, the American people should see the FBI as a rock of competence, honesty, and independence. What makes leaving the FBI hard is the nature and quality of its people, who together make it that rock for America.

It is very hard to leave a group of people who are committed only to doing the right thing. My hope is that you will continue to live our values and the mission of protecting the American people and upholding the Constitution. If you do that, you too will be sad when you leave, and the American people will be safer.

Working with you has been one of the great joys of my life. Thank you for that gift.

Jim Comey

Succession[edit]

After Comey’s dismissal, FBI Deputy Director Andrew G. McCabe became the acting FBI Director.[53] It was reported that eight people were being interviewed to succeed Comey: Senator John Cornyn of Texas, former Assistant Attorney General for the Criminal Division Alice S. Fisher, New York Court of Appeals judge Michael Garcia, FBI Richmond Division director Adam S. Lee, Virginia federal district judge Henry E. Hudson, former Homeland Security Advisor Frances Townsend, former House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence chair Mike Rogers, and McCabe himself.[99] Others have been speculated on.[100][101][102]

Attorney General Jeff Sessions is scheduled to interview the candidates and give his recommendation of the next director to Donald Trump.[103][104]

Media commentary[edit]

Many media outlets continued to be highly critical of the move. Some commentators described Comey’s firing by the Trump administration as a “Nixonian” act, comparing it to Richard Nixon’s orders to three of his cabinet officials to fire Archibald Cox during the Watergate investigation; a number of commentators – including Washington Post columnist Eugene Robinson, former CBS News journalist Dan Rather, and former New Yorker editor Jeffrey Frank – accused the Trump administration of a cover-up by firing Comey with the intent to curtail the FBI’s investigation out of fear of a possible discovery of the extent of Trump’s alleged ties to Russia.[105][106][107] Soon after Trump’s election, Lawfare prognosticated about a future firing of Comey and wrote: “If Trump chooses to replace Comey with a sycophantic yes-man, or if he permits Comey to resign over law or principle, that will be a clear bellwether to both the national security and civil libertarian communities that things are going terribly wrong.”[108] Immediately after the firing, they reiterated their position, stating that Trump’s firing of Comey “undermines the credibility of his own presidency”; they implied that the firing was likely pretextual as Trump had previously praised Comey’s handling of the Clinton investigation.[50]

Some commentators observed an emerging pattern of Trump firing government officials involved in investigating his interests: Sally Yates, Preet Bharara, and Comey.[109][110] Some even went so far as to describe Comey’s dismissal as part of an ongoing “coup“, citing previous statements and actions during Trump’s campaign and the early months of his presidency that critics suggested were indicative of his authoritarian personality, and disrespect for the rule of law and democratic norms that they warned could result in the U.S. transitioning into an autocratic government.[111][112]

Other media outlets were more supportive. Some sources have stated that, regardless of circumstances, Comey had lost the confidence of the political leadership on all sides of the spectrum and, therefore, his termination was unavoidable in spite of criticizing the president’s handling of it and questioning his motives.[113] Some went so far as to decry Democrats and other Trump opponents who criticized the termination after previously having criticized Comey himself for the handling of the Clinton scandal.[114] Some even called for a re-opening of the Clinton investigation now that Comey has left.[115]

French daily Le Monde described the firing as a “coup de force” against the FBI.[26] German magazines Der Spiegel and Bild drew parallels with Nixon’s Saturday Night Massacre, with Der Spiegel saying that “few believe” that Comey was not fired for overseeing a criminal probe into possible ties between Trump associates and Russia.[26][116] The Economist wrote in an editorial that Comey’s firing “reflects terribly on” Trump” and urged “principled Senate Republicans” to put country before party and establish “either an independent commission” similar to the 9/11 Commission, or a bipartisan select committee to investigate the Russia allegations, with either body to have “substantial investigatory resources” and subpoena power.[117]

During comments to the press at a White House meeting on May 10, Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov joked about Comey’s termination, expressing mock surprise at the news.[118] For many critics, the immediate worry is the integrity of the FBI’s investigation into the Trump administration’s ties to Russia.[119]

Messaging from the White House[edit]

File:WATCH Trump Tweet Not A Threat Spicer Says.webmhd.webm

Trump tweet “not a threat”, Spicer says – Video from Voice of America

News reports indicated that President Trump continued to be surprised and frustrated by the reactions to Comey’s termination, both from the political leadership and from the media. The White House shifted from its message that the decision had come directly from immediate recommendations from the Justice Department to stating that the termination was planned from the beginning of the administration. Immediately after the termination statements by Trump, Sarah Huckabee Sanders, Jeff Sessions and other administration associates stated that Trump fired Comey based on the recommendations of Sessions and Rod J. Rosenstein, saying that he only used their recommendations as a rationale for dismissing Comey.[120]

On May 12, 2017, Trump gave an interview to Lester Holt of NBC News. Trump indicated that the dismissal was connected to the Russia investigation, saying “When I decided [to fire Comey], I said to myself, I said, ‘You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made up story”.[10] He described Comey as a “showboat” and a “grandstander”, while suggesting that the FBI had been “in turmoil”. Trump stated that he had been planning to fire Comey regardless of recommendations. Several Democratic Congress members – among them, Illinois Sen. Dick Durbin, New York Rep. Jerrold Nadler, and California Rep. Maxine Waters – and some commentators suggested that Trump’s rationale for Comey’s dismissal in the interview amounted to a de facto admission to obstruction of justice.[121][122][123][124][125]

Administration officials struggled with messaging and media reports indicated frustration among the officials in trying to keep up with the President’s thinking. Vice President Mike Pence, known to be particularly steady was reportedly rattled by the changing messaging as he attempted to support the President.[126] According to media sources, morale within the White House plummeted in the days immediately following and the President isolated himself not only from the media but from his own staff.[126] Interaction between the Press Secretary’s office and the President was strained. Immediately after the termination announcement, Deputy Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders took over press briefings from Press Secretary Sean Spicer, ostensibly because Spicer had duties with the Navy Reserve.[127][128] Spicer eventually resumed the briefings.

Sources indicated that Trump rapidly became defensive.[126] In a May 12 Twitter post, President Trump appeared to threaten to leak recordings of his discussions with Comey in the form of unidentified tapes, tweeting: “James Comey better hope that there are no ‘tapes’ of our conversations before he starts leaking to the press!,” a statement taken by many Democrats and commentators also as an attempt to intimidate Comey into not discussing details of the investigation during intelligence committee hearings.[129][130][131][132] In another post later that morning, Trump also suggested that the White House might stop hosting the daily press briefings altogether, and that he would instead take over the communication role himself “for the sake of efficiency,” which some media outlets took as him expressing disdain for criticism of the White House’s communications staff’s handling of messaging administration issues.[128][133] When asked by reporters at that day’s press briefing about Trump’s claim of having taped conversations with Comey, Spicer refused to state if any tapes existed, or whether there is a recording system in the Oval Office.[134] He stated that the tweet was not a warning or a threat, but just a statement of facts.[135] When asked whether he has recordings in the Oval Office, Trump responded “Well, that I can’t talk about. I won’t talk about that.”[136]

Trump refused to confirm or deny the existence of tapes when asked, but has stated that it falls under his right to hold private property and his executive privilege as the current President of the United States.[citation needed] This has been heavily disputed, as any recordings from the White House are government property under the Supreme Court decision United States v. Nixon, and must not be destroyed.[137][138] On May 15, the ACLU filed a Freedom of Information Act request on all documents related to Comey’s dismissal, which would include any Comey tapes that exist.[139]

Comey memos[edit]

Jason Chaffetz letter to FBI over Comey Memo

Comey wrote multiple memos concerning his interactions with President Trump and in one Trump attempted to persuade Comey to abort the investigation into Lieutenant General Flynn, who had resigned the previous day.[18][140][141][142][143]Director Comey would record a detailed memo during every meeting with President Donald Trump.[144] One memo referred to an February 14, 2017 Oval Office meeting between Comey and Trump, in which, according to the memo, the president stated “I hope you can see your way clear to letting this go, to letting Flynn go. He is a good guy. I hope you can let this go.”[141] Comey made no commitments to Trump on the subject.[141]

The Times reported that the memo, which is not classified, was part of a “paper trail” created by Comey to document “what he perceived as the president’s improper efforts to influence a continuing investigation”.[141] Comey shared the memo with “a very small circle of people at the FBI and Justice Department.”[145]Comey and other senior FBI officials perceived Trump’s remarks “as an effort to influence the investigation, but they decided that they would try to keep the conversation secret — even from the F.B.I. agents working on the Russia investigation — so the details of the conversation would not affect the investigation.”[141]

Two individuals who read the memo told the Times that “Comey created similar memos — including some that are classified — about every phone call and meeting he had with the president.”[141] The Washington Post reported that two Comey associates who had seen Comey’s memo described it as two pages long and highly detailed.[145] The Times noted that contemporaneous notes created by FBI agents are frequently relied upon “in court as credible evidence of conversations.”[141]

Calls for a special prosecutor[edit]

Attorneys general from 19 Democratic states and D.C. signed a letter calling for a special prosecutor.

Immediately after Comey’s dismissal, many Democrats renewed their calls for the appointment of a special prosecutor to continue the investigation into Russia’s influence on the election.[28]

The White House continued to insist that no special prosecutor was necessary in the Russia investigation, instead giving its support to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein who is currently leading the effort, along with Comey’s future successor.[146] The White House has also said that it was “time to move on” after the 2016 election.[95] President Trump tweeted that Democratic members of Congress calling for a special prosecutor and criticizing the dismissal of Comey are “phony hypocrites!”[147]

On May 11, twenty Democratic state and district attorneys general led by Maura Healey of Massachusetts, signed a letter asking Rosenstein to appoint an “independent special counsel” to investigate Russia’s attempts to meddle in the United States presidential election.[148]

Trump released a statement from his law firm, Morgan, Lewis & Bockius, saying that Trump has no income or loans in Russia—”with a few exceptions”. The firm’s statement was criticized because of its strong ties to Russia.[149] The organization was also listed as “Russian Law Firm of the Year” in 2016.[150] On May 12, the United States Office of Government Ethics released a statement that was widely seen as thinly veiled criticism of the President.[151][152][153][154]Adam Schiff, the ranking Democratic member of the House Intelligence Committee, demanded that Trump turn over any “Comey Tapes” made and called for a special prosecutor.[155] It is considered unlikely that a special prosecutor will be appointed, even with the new revelations, because Trump appointees have the authority to decide whether to appoint a special prosecutor.[155]

Reactions from Congress[edit]

File:Trump's Firing of Comey Sets Off Political Firestorm.webm

‘Trump’s Firing of Comey Sets Off Political Firestorm’ – video from Voice of America

Senator Mark Warner of Virginia, the ranking Democratic member of the Senate Intelligence Committee, is seeking to allow Comey to testify at an open, public hearing, stating that it is “extremely important that Comey come to an open hearing in the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence as quickly as possible and testify as to the status of the U.S.–Russia investigation at the time of his firing”.[156]

Among members of Congress:

  • 138 Democrats, two independents (Senators Bernie Sanders and Angus King), and two Republicans (Representatives Mike Coffman[157] and Tom McClintock), called for a special prosecutor, independent prosecutor, or an independent commission to examine ties between the Russian government and Trump’s associates.[28]
  • 84 Democrats and five Republicans called for an independent investigation into Russian ties. For example, Republican Senator John McCain said “I have long called for a special congressional committee” while Democratic Representative Salud Carbajal stated, “anything less would imperil our democracy”.[28]
  • 42 Republicans, and 8 Democrats, expressed “questions or concerns” about Comey’s firing; examples of members of Congress in this group are Republican Senator Marco Rubio (“I do have questions”); Republican Senator Lisa Murkowski (“serious cause for concern”); Democratic Representative Marcia L. Fudge (“the American people deserve answers”).[28]
  • 98 Republicans, but no Democrats, were neutral or supportive of Comey’s firing.[28]
  • 141 Republicans and 11 Democrats did not release a statement.[28]

Multiple Democratic members of Congress discussed an “impeachment clock” for Trump, saying that he was “moving” toward impeachment and raising the possibility of bringing forth articles of impeachment for obstruction of justice and criminal malfeasance if proof of illegal activity is found.[158][159] Senator Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut stated in an interview: “It may well produce another United States v. Nixon on a subpoena that went to United States Supreme Court. It may well produce impeachment proceedings, although we’re very far from that possibility.”[160]

Possible Comey testimony before Congress[edit]

Comey was fired two days before he was scheduled to testify at a Senate Intelligence Committee hearing on worldwide threats.[156]

On May 10, the day after being fired by Trump, Comey was invited to testify before a closed session of the Senate Intelligence Committee on May 16.[161][162][163] Comey declined to testify at a closed session, indicating that he would be willing to testify at a public, open hearing.[164][165]

Opinions of scholars[edit]

A number of professors of law, political science and history have criticized the firing and these experts argue that Trump’s action destabilizes democratic norms and the rule of law in the U.S.[23][24][25][26][166][167][168][169] Some have argued that Trump’s action creates a constitutional crisis.[24] Parallels have been drawn with other leaders who have slowly eroded democratic norms in their countries, such as Turkey’s Recep Tayyip Erdoğan or Hungary’s Viktor Orbán; political science professor Sheri Berman said those leaders slowly “chipped away at democratic institutions, undermined civil society, and slowly increased their own power.”[26]

In a May 2017 essay published in the The Washington Post, Harvard constitutional scholar Laurence Tribe wrote: “The time has come for Congress to launch an impeachment investigation of President Trump for obstruction of justice.” Tribe argued that Trump’s conduct rose to the level of “high crimes and misdemeanors” that are impeachable offenses under the Constitution.[170] He added, “It will require serious commitment to constitutional principle, and courageous willingness to put devotion to the national interest above self-interest and party loyalty, for a Congress of the president’s own party to initiate an impeachment inquiry.”[170]

Duke law professor and former federal prosecutor Samuel W. Buell said that Trump’s attempt to quiet Comey by releasing secret tapes of their conversations in retaliation could be viewed as an effort to intimidate a witness to any future investigation on obstruction of justice.[165]

GW Law professor Jonathan Turley, who participated in impeachment proceedings against Bill Clinton, cautioned that the Comey memo is not a sufficient basis for impeachment, and raises as many questions about Comey’s behavior as about Trump’s.[171]

Reactions from within the FBI[edit]

File:FBI Acting Chief Contradicts Trump on Comey.webmhd.webm

‘FBI Acting Chief Contradicts Trump on Comey’. Video from Voice of America

Comey was generally well-liked within the FBI, and his sudden dismissal shocked many FBI agents, who admired Comey for his political independence. Agents were stunned that Comey was fired in the midst of the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election.[54][53] The dismissal reportedly damaged morale within the Bureau.[54][53] The way that Comey had first learned that he had been fired—from television news reports, while he was in Los Angeles—also angered agents, who considered it a sign of disrespect from the White House.[53]

Dismissal of Sally Yates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sally Yates, who as appointed by Obama administration, was the Acting United States Attorney General from January 20, 2017 until her dismissal by President Donald Trump on January 30, 2017.

The dismissal of Sally Yates refers to U.S President Donald Trump dismissed acting Attorney General Sally Yates on January 30, 2017. Trump also demoted and replaced acting Immigration and Customs Enforcement director Daniel Ragsdale. The move was labeled the “Monday Night Massacre” by a number of politicians, political commentators and news reports,[1] while the use of the term was questioned by others.[2][3] The name alludes to the 1973 Saturday Night Massacre, during the Watergate scandal, when Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus both resigned after refusing to carry out President Richard Nixon‘s order to dismiss special prosecutorArchibald Cox.[1]

Dismissal of Sally Yates[edit]

The firing of acting Attorney General Sally Yates, a career prosecutor appointed by President Barack Obama, followed her refusal to defend Trump’s executive order banning the entry of nationals from seven predominantly Muslim countries because she was not convinced the executive order was lawful.[4] This came after several federal courts issued stays on various parts of Trump’s executive order to stop them from being put into effect and many U.S. Customs and Border Protection agents did not follow the stays.[5] Trump replaced Yates with Dana Boente, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia. After taking office, Boente ordered the Justice Department to enforce the executive order.[6]

White House Press Release on Sally Yates

In a White House statement, Yates was said to have “betrayed the Department of Justice by refusing to enforce a legal order designed to protect the citizens of the United States” and to be “very weak on borders and very weak on illegal immigration”.[7][8] Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer spoke on the Senate floor that evening, and called her firing a “Monday night massacre”.[8] Watergate investigative journalist Carl Bernstein, speaking on CNN, rejected the comparison, saying, “There’s a big difference, because the Saturday Night Massacre was really about firing the attorney general when Nixon was the target of an investigation and was actively obstructing justice”, he also stated that, “I think the president is within his rights here to fire the attorney general, that he has that ability.”[9]

Many Trump critics praised Yates for standing up against what they perceived as an unconstitutional executive order, but some legal experts including Alan Dershowitz, Michael Gerhardt and Jonathan Adler questioned Yates’s decision.[3][10] Some critics also believed the rhetoric of “betrayal” Trump used in his letter to the former attorney general was unnecessarily incendiary.[11]

Demotion of Daniel Ragsdale[edit]

Shortly thereafter, acting Immigration and Customs Enforcement director Daniel Ragsdale was demoted and replaced by Thomas Homan with Ragsdale remaining as deputy director.[12][7]