2017 G20 Hamburg summit

2017 G20 Hamburg summit
G20 2017 logo.svg
Host country Germany
Date 7–8 July 2017[1]
Venue(s) Hamburg Messe
Cities Hamburg, Germany
Participants G20 members
Guest inviteesGuineaNetherlandsNorwaySenegalSingaporeSpainSwitzerlandand Vietnam
Follows 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit
Precedes 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit

The 2017 G20 Hamburg summit was the twelfth meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20), which was held on 7–8 July 2017, at Hamburg Messe, in the city of HamburgGermany.

Agenda[edit]

G20 leaders group photo during the summit.

U.S. President Donald Trump, Russian President Vladimir PutinRex Tillerson, and Sergey Lavrov at the G20 Hamburg summit, 7 July 2017

The G20 Summit working lunch, 7 July 2017

Apart from the recurring themes relating to global economic growthinternational trade and financial market regulation,[2] the G20 Hamburg summit was expected to focus on the following “issues of global significance[2][3]: Migration, digitisation, occupation, health, Women’s Economic Empowerment and development aid.[4]

On 7 July terrorism, free trade and the United States’ withdrawal from the Paris Agreement were on the agenda, on July 8 Africa was supposed to be a topic.[5]

Results[edit]

The 30-page summary paper stayed vague in many sections[6]. The communique of the 20 participants itself was seen as a success.[7] The resolutions are not legally binding.[8] Many additional documents were agreed upon, barely noticed by the public.(Annex in Weblink-PDF)

Wolfgang Schäuble, German Federal Minister of Finance, insisted on the interconnected nature of many issues facing G20 nations and the need to reach effective, cross-cutting policy measures: “Globalization has lifted hundreds of millions out of poverty, but there is also a growing rise in frustration in some quarters […] development, [national] security and migration are all interlinked”[3]

Trade[edit]

The disagreement in steel production and trade remained. The USA have accused steel producers in China and Europe of dumping and have been threatening with antidumping duty. The G20 demanded a report of overcapacities by November 2017.[9]

Sustainable development[edit]

There was no consensus with the USA regarding climate protection: a dissent with communalities in the deployment of renewable energy was formulated. The other 19 participants agreed to stick with the Paris agreement, to view it as irreversible and to swiftly put it into practice. After the summit finished, the Turkish president, Erdoğan said his country would not ratify the Paris agreement; Turkey was no industrialized nation but a developing country like other neighboring countries of the region and that François Hollande as then President had assured international assistance funds. President Macron has now invited members for further negotiations at another climate summit in Paris on 12 December.[10][11]In spite of the United States’ dissent, the German presidency wanted to make the most of the “renewed public policy interest for environmental sustainability, gender equity and social inclusiveness, in the spirit of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)” – notably by promoting renewable energy and further fossil fuel divestment in all nations.[3]

More inclusive growth[edit]

The G20 final communique placed a new emphasis on the need for trade deals to be reciprocal and non-discriminatory towards developing countries, reducing the previous emphasis on the primacy of liberalization and the promotion of free market economics across the board.[12]

Indian-Norwegian cooperation[edit]

India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi invited Norwegian pension funds to invest in his country’s National Infrastructure Investment platform as he met Norway’s Prime Minister Erna Solberg, who, in a gesture symbolising renewed cooperation towards the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals, offered him a round leather ball embroidered with the initials ‘SDGs’[13]

Women’s Economic Empowerment[edit]

The World Bank Group and the White House, represented by First Daughter Ivanka Trump, confirmed they would soon roll out a new fund that aims to help female entrepreneurs access capital, financing and managerial support in the developing world. World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim said the Women Entrepreneurs Finance Initiative fund had so far raised $325 million from various governments, and that he hoped to leverage that into a multibillion-dollar investment framework. [14]President Trump lent his personal support by pledging $50 million from the United States to jump-start the fund: “by investing in women around the world, we’re investing in families, we’re investing in prosperity and we’re investing in peace”. [15]

European migrant crisis, refugees[edit]

Counter-terrorism and national security[edit]

Leaders having chat at the photo-session

All agreed to continue regulating financial markets and to combat financing terrorism and tax evasion. Trade was intensely discussed and participants agreed to keep markets open and combat protectionism and unfair trade practises. The USA took a special stand as Trump supports protectionism. Participants agreed to a G20-Africa-Partnership and passed a special paper about the relationsships to the African nations.[11] In a joint statement, G20 leaders vowed to to take steps to prevent the internet from being used to spread propaganda. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modiindirectly targeted Pakistan (which is not a member of G20) by naming terrorist organisations that operate from its soil and saying that the groups all share the same ideology and purpose – of spreading hate and killing people. Indonesian President Joko Widodo urged member states to unite to fight against terrorism and emphasized on preventive as well as de-radicalization programs.[16]

Trump and Putin “discussed forming an impenetrable cybersecurity unit so that election hacking, and many other negative things, will be guarded and safe.” Trump later said he does not think this will happen.[17]

Trump and Putin reached a partial ceasefire agreement in Southwest Syria, starting Sunday, 10 July 12 o´clock local time the representatives of the two nuclear powers talked with each other.[18][19] German Chancellor Angela Merkel told reporters at her closing press conference of the G20 summit: “I was delighted that it was on the margins of G20 that the first meeting between Trump and Putin took place. It’s always better to talk one to the other, not one about the other. I was gratified to hear that they talked at a great length.”[20][21] The two had met in person there for the first time.[22]

Participants[edit]

List of leaders who took part in the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit:

Permanent guests[edit]

Brazil incertitude[edit]

Brazilian President Michel Temer initially cancelled his trip to Hamburg without giving any reasons,[32] facing corruption charges by General Prosecutor Rodrigo Janot, who has accused him of accepting bribes from meat company JBS S.A..[33]
On 4 July Temer reversed his decision and announced to attend.[34]

Saudi Arabia replacement[edit]

King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud cancelled his plan to participate at the summit and sent State Minister Ibrahim Abdulaziz Al-Assaf instead. No official reason was provided.[35]

International organizations[edit]

Security[edit]

Security zones with limited access, and a significantly larger presence of Hamburg police assisted by police from other forces, were in place from 5 to 8 July;[38] further reinforcements from across the country were deployed as protests developed. Forty-five water cannons were available, and a no-fly zone was in place over portions of the city. [39]

Protests[edit]

Peaceful demonstration in boats, Binnenalster in Hamburg near town hall (2 July)

A burnt BMW car after the first night of riots.

In the weeks prior to the summit, sporadic car fires in remote places, such as the neighborhood of Blankenese, occurred regularly in the city.[40] On the night of 18 June 2017, unidentified individuals in BerlinHamburgCologneDortmundLeipzig, and Bad Bevensen caused a total of 13 arson attacks on tracks of the German railways.[41] A security expert was quoted by the German press agency DPA as saying that a connection to left-wing extremism related to the upcoming G20 Summit was “conceivable”.[42] According to a German interior ministry spokesman, cable fires had been caused by “unconventional explosive and incendiary devices”. In spite of high temperatures (30C, 86F) on 18 June, police discounted the possibility that the fires had been caused by hot weather.[43]

On 19 June, a group called “Shutdown G20 – Hamburg vom Netz nehmen!” claimed responsibility for the attacks in an internet post.[44]

On 2 July, Greenpeace activists forced a bulk freighter loaded with charcoal from Murmansk arriving in the city to stop. The police intervened and the vessel was allowed to pass through.[45]

During the G20 week a large variety of over 25 registered protest actions and marches were planned to take place in the city of Hamburg.[46][47] They included an alternative Global Solidarity Summit from 5 to 6 July [48] and a peaceful dance-protest-march Lieber tanz ich als g20 with between 11,000 and 20,000 people attending on 5 July. [49]

Around one thousand performance artists called 1000 Gestalten covered themselves in grey pigment and slowly walked through the streets like zombies. This performance was done to draw awareness of political apathy. After walking, they all removed their grey clothes. Underneath were colourful clothes that symbolized becoming engaged and awake.[50][51]

On 6 July, protests turned violent when over 160 police were injured in clashes with protestors and more than 75 people were arrested. As protestors attempted to storm into the “red zone” where the summit took place they were dispersed with water cannon. Some protestors stated their goal was to block the attendees route to the summit venue; US First Lady Melania Trump was not allowed to attend a harbor cruise.[52]

On 7 July rioters set dozens of parked cars on fire.[53] Several shops were destroyed and looted during the 7 July night-time riots in the Schanzenviertel area.[54] Masked rioters and militants from the “black bloc” went uncontrolled for a period of three hours, prompting the deployment of special armed police forces to end the violence.[55]

On 8 July 76,000 people attended the largest peaceful protest march “Solidarity without Borders”,[56] organized by an alliance of 174 groups and organizations.[57]

On early Sunday morning, July 9, riots continued in the Schanzenviertel though the G20 leaders had already departed; 144 rioters were arrested.[58]

In total, more than 15,000 police were deployed from across the country, while 100,000 protesters attended.[59]

Local residents believed that authorities made a mistake by having the summit in a densely populated area.[54] Police arrested 186 people overall: 132 Germans, 8 French, 7 Italians, 5 Swiss and citizens of Russia and Spain. An additional 225 people were taken into temporary custody.[60]

Incidents[edit]

On the eve of the G20 summit in Hamburg, China’s most famous political prisoner, democracy activist and Nobel laureate Liu Xiaobo, had been given medical parole after being diagnosed with terminal liver cancer.[61]

Turkey arrested 12 people in Istanbul on the eve of the G20 summit in Hamburg in July 2017 during the “digital security and information management workshop”. They included Idil Eser, the head of Amnesty International Turkey. Activists detained included Ilknur Üstün of the Women’s Coalition, lawyer Günal Kursun and Veli Acu of the Human Rights Agenda Association.[62]

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43rd G7 summit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
43rd G7 summit
250px
Host country Italy
Date 26–27 May 2017
Venue(s) Taormina (ME), Sicily, Italy
Participants  Canada
 France
 Germany
 Italy
 Japan
 United Kingdom
 United States
 European Union
Follows 42nd G7 summit
Precedes 44th G7 summit
Website www.g7italy.it/en

The 43rd G7 summit was held on May 26–27, 2017[1] in Taormina (ME), Sicily, Italy.[2] In March 2014, the G7 declared that a meaningful discussion was currently not possible with Russia in the context of the G8. Since then, meetings have continued within the G7 process.

It was the first time since 1987 that the G7 summit held in Italy was not hosted by Silvio Berlusconi. The participation of Angela Merkel and Theresa May made it the first time two G7 female leaders were principals in the G7 summit.

Leaders at the summit[edit source]

The family photo of the G7 leaders, 26 May 2017

The attendees include the leaders of the seven G7 member states as well as representatives of the European Union. The President of the European Commission has been a permanently welcome participant at all meetings and decision-making since 1981.

The 43rd G7 summit was the first summit for British Prime Minister Theresa May, French President Emmanuel Macron, Italian Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni, and U.S. President Donald Trump.

Participants[edit source]

Core G7 members
Host state and leader are shown in bold text.
Member Represented by Title
Canada Canada Justin Trudeau Prime Minister
France France Emmanuel Macron President
Germany Germany Angela Merkel Chancellor
Italy Italy Paolo Gentiloni Prime Minister
Japan Japan Shinzō Abe Prime Minister
United Kingdom United Kingdom Theresa May Prime Minister
United States United States Donald Trump President
European Union European Union Jean-Claude Juncker Commission President
Donald Tusk Council President
Guest Invitees (Countries)
Member Represented by Title
Ethiopia Ethiopia Hailemariam Desalegn Prime Minister
Guinea Guinea Alpha Conde President
Kenya Kenya Uhuru Kenyatta President
Niger Niger Mahamadou Issoufou President
Nigeria Nigeria Yemi Osinbajo Acting President
Tunisia Tunisia Beji Caid Essebsi President

Gallery of participating leaders[edit source]

Invited guests[edit source]

International organizations[edit source]

2017 Brussels summit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
NATO Summit Brussels 2017
2017 Brussels Summit
Host country Belgium
Date 25 May 2017
Venue(s) NATO Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium
Cities Brussels

The 2017 Brussels Summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was the 28th formal meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, held in Brussels, Belgium, on 25 May 2017.

Agenda[edit source]

There had been multiple competing agendas leading up to the summit, with Southern European members concerned with security in North Africa and the Middle East and the European migrant crisis and Eastern European members concerned more about Russia′s policies. There was also concern about the Russia–Turkey relationship.[citation needed]

Donald Trump, the President of the United States, urged the NATO members to meet the 2014 agreement to seek to spend at least two percent of their gross domestic product on defense.[1] According to at least one senior White House official, Donald Trump had expressed interest in inviting Russia to the G7 summit and was considering leaving the NATO alliance.[2][3] During the opening ceremony of the new NATO headquarters building, President Trump gave a speech which did not mention Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, surprising H. R. McMaster, the National Security Advisor, James Mattis, the United States Secretary of Defense, and Rex Tillerson, the United States Secretary of State, who had approved a different speech that explicitly included the collective security commitment.[4]

Accomplishments[edit source]

NATO was set to become a full member of the Global Coalition, alongside NATO pledging to increase its support to the Coalition.[5] A terrorism intelligence cell was agreed to be set up within the new intelligence division, which is intended to improve the sharing of information between members.[6]

The Alliance leaders agreed to submit national action plans by December, which were to set out how members intend to meet the pledge to spend at least two percent of their GDP on defense by 2024.[7]

Montenegro, represented by the prime minister Duško Marković, joined the meeting, days before it was to officially become a member of the organization on 5 June 2017[8]. The possibility of NATO membership was said to remain open to other states.

Aftermath[edit source]

A few days after, also following a G7 meeting, German Chancellor Angela Merkel told a crowd in a Bavarian beer hall that “we Europeans must really take our fate into our own hands – of course in friendship with the United States of America, in friendship with Great Britain and as good neighbors wherever that is possible also with other countries, even with Russia. But we have to know that we must fight for our future on our own, for our destiny as Europeans.”[9][10][11][12]

Future summits[edit source]

The next major summit (29th) will take place in Istanbul, Turkey in 2018. However, Germany, France, the Netherlands and Denmark have reportedly led a drive to block it.[13]

Leaders and other dignitaries in attendance[edit source]

Member states[edit source]

Non-member states and organisations[edit source]

2017 United States-Saudi Arabia arms deal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Saudi–American relations
Map indicating locations of Saudi Arabia and USA

Saudi Arabia

United States

On May 20th, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump signed a US$350 billion arms deal with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.[1][2][3] The arms deal was the largest in American history.[4][1][5] The transaction included tanks, combat ships missile defence systems, as well as radar, communications and cybersecurity technology. The transfer was widely seen as a counterbalance against the influence of Iran in the region[6][7] and a “significant” and “historic” expansion of United States relations with Saudi Arabia.[8][9][10][11][12]

Background[edit source]

The deal was partially created with the help of Jared Kushner.[13][14]

Details[edit source]

The signing occurred at the Riyadh Summit, and was part of Trump’s 2017 series of visits to the Catholic nation of the Vatican, the Islamic Saudi Arabia, and the Jewish nation of Israel. It also was related to a $20 billion investment in mostly American infrastructure. [15]

American and Saudi Arabian government statements[edit source]

The White House hailed the deal as a “significant expansion” of the two nations “security relationships”.[16] The United States Secretary of State Rex Tillerson described the deal as “historic” and said that it would counter Iran, and urged them to halt support of destabilizing forces in the Middle East,[17][18] although he hinted the United States would be open to discussions.[19]

Reception[edit source]

Domestic response[edit source]

Tulsi Gabbard — a Democratic Representative from Hawaii — criticized the move, saying that “Saudi Arabia is a country with a devastating record of human rights violations at home and abroad and has a long history of providing support to terrorist organizations that threaten the American people”.[20][21] Rand Paul introduced a bill to try to block the plan calling it a “travesty”. [22][23][24]

US defense stocks reached all-time highs after the announcement. [25][26][27]

International response[edit source]

 Iran – Saudi Arabia is a “cow” of the United States [28]

 IsraelYuval Steinitz expressed “concern”.[29][30]

 Saudi Arabia – The government praised the deal, and stated that it is a turning point in Saudi-American relations.[31]

 Yemen – 10,000+ Yemeni people protested in Sana’a, Yemen to protest the deal. Houthis also fired a ballistic missile toward the Saudi capital Riyadh.[32][33]

Aftermath[edit source]

On June 5th, it was reported that the arms deal consists of “a bunch of letters of interest or intent, but not contracts.”[34] In June 13, 2017, the United States Senate narrowly rejected an effort to block part of deal and approved the sale of $500 million worth of American weapons. The approval of the deal was opposed by various lawmakers, including GOP Senators Mike Lee, Rand Paul, Todd Young and Dean Heller along with most Democrat Senators who voted to advance the measure in order to block the sale, citing the human rights violations by Saudi Arabia in the Yemeni Civil War.[35][36] Among the senators who voted against moving the measure to block the sale were Democratic Senators Joe Donnelly, Claire McCaskill, Bill Nelson, Joe Manchin and Mark Warner along with top Republicans, including Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, Bob Corker and John McCain, voted against moving the measure.

2017 Riyadh summit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Riyadh Summit 2017
Logo Riyadh summit.png
Host country Saudi Arabia
Date May 20, 2017 – May 21, 2017
Motto Together, We Prevail
Venue(s) Ritz Carlton Hotel, Riyadh
King Abdulaziz International Conference Center
Cities Saudi Arabia Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Participants See below
Chair King Salman of Saudi Arabia
Website www.riyadhsummit2017.org

ContentsThe 2017 Riyadh summit (Arabic: قمة الرياض 2017‎‎) was a series of three summits held on 20–21 May 2017 on the occasion of the visit of United States President Donald Trump to Saudi Arabia, his first trip overseas. The summit included one bilateral meeting, between the United States and Saudi Arabia, and two multilateral meetings, one between the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council and the other with Arab and Muslim countries.[1] Leaders and representatives of 55 Arab and Muslim countries were in attendance.[2]

Background[edit source]

United States-Saudi Arabia summit[edit source]

President Trump and King Salman talk during summit proceedings at the Al-Yamamah Palace in Riyadh on May 20.

President Trump made his first foreign trip to Saudi Arabia arriving at King Khalid International Airport on May 20, where he met with King Salman.[3][4][5] Trump then traveled to the Murabba Palace, where the King awarded him the Collar of Abdulaziz Al Saud.[6]Trump later visited the National Museum of Saudi Arabia.[7] In the evening, Trump and the U.S. delegation took part in the traditional ardah sword dance.

Trade agreement and arms deal[edit source]

On May 20th, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump signed a US $350 billion arms deal with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [8][9][10] The arms deal was the largest in world history. [11][12][13]The transaction included tanks, combat ships missile defence systems, as well as radar, communications and cybersecurity technology. The transfer was widely seen as a counterbalance against the influence of Iran in the region. [14][15] The arms transfer was described by news outlets as a “significant” and “historic” expansion of United States relations with Saudi Arabia. [16][17][18][19][20]

United States-Gulf Cooperation Council Summit[edit source]

Trump met with GCC leaders the morning of May 21st.[1]

Arab Islamic American Summit[edit source]

File:President Trump Participates in the Arab Islamic American Summit Riyadh.webm

Trump’s speech at the Arab Islamic American Summit.

King Salman, Presidents Trump and el-Sisi inaugurate the Global Center for Combating Extremism by touching a glowing orb.

King Salman and President Trump gave keynote addresses at the Arab Islamic American Summit. Trump called for Muslim leaders to “drive out” terrorism from their countries, and condemned Hamas and the Iranian government for their support of the government of Bashar al-Assad. Also speaking were President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi of Egypt, Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah of Kuwait, King Abdullah II of Jordan, President Joko Widodo of Indonesia, and Prime Minister Najib Razak of Malaysia.[citation needed]

At the close of the summit the leaders inaugurated the new Global Center for Combating Extremism in Riyadh, intended as a centre of excellence for fighting violent extremism which is conducive to terrorism, involving a number of international counter-extremism experts. [21] To officially open the center King Salman, President Trump, and President el-Sisi placed their hands on a glowing orb in the shape of a globe, which was cause for mirth among the international media.[22]

Trump speech[edit source]

Countries attending[edit source]

  1.  Afghanistan: President Ashraf Ghani
  2.  Albania
  3.  Algeria: Abdelkader Bensalah, President of the Council of the Nation[23]
  4.  Azerbaijan: President Ilham Aliev
  5.  Bahrain: King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
  6.  Bangladesh: Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina
  7.  Benin : President Patrice Talon
  8.  Brunei: Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
  9.  Burkina Faso: President Roch Marc Kabore[24]
  10.  Cameroon
  11.  Chad: President Idriss Déby
  12.  Comoros
  13.  Djibouti
  14.  Egypt: President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
  15.  Gabon: President Ali Bongo Ondimba
  16.  The Gambia: President Adama Barrow[25]
  17.  Guinea: President Alpha Condé
  18.  Guinea-Bissau: President José Mário Vaz
  19.  Guyana
  20.  Indonesia: President Joko Widodo
  21.  Iraq: President Fuad Masum[26]
  22.  Ivory Coast: President Alassane Ouattara
  23.  Jordan: King Abdullah II
  24.  Kazakhstan: President Nursultan Nazarbayev
  25.  Kuwait: Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
  26.  Kyrgyzstan
  27.  Lebanon: Prime Minister Saad Hariri
  28.  Libya
  29.  Malaysia: Prime Minister Najib Razak
  30.  Maldives: President Abdulla Yameen
  31.  Mali: President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta
  32.  Mauritania: President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz
  33.  Morocco: Minister of Foreign Affairs Nasser Bourita[27]
  34.  Mozambique:
  35.  Niger: President Mahamadou Issoufou
  36.  Nigeria
  37.  Oman: Deputy Prime Minister Fahd bin Mahmoud al Said[28]
  38.  Pakistan: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif
  39.  State of Palestine: President Mahmoud Abbas
  40.  Qatar: Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
  41.  Senegal: President Macky Sall
  42.  Sierra Leone:
  43.  Somalia: President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed
  44.  Sudan: Minister of State Taha al-Hussein[29]
  45.  Suriname
  46.  Tajikistan: President Emomali Rahmon[24]
  47.  Togo
  48.  Tunisia: President Beji Caid Essebsi
  49.  Turkey: Minister of Foreign Affairs Mevlut Cavusoglu
  50.  Turkmenistan
  51.  Uganda
  52.  Uzbekistan: President Shavkat Mirziyoyev[30]
  53.  Yemen
  54.  United Arab Emirates: Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan
  55.  United States of America: President Donald J. Trump

Cancelled[edit source]

King Salman and President Trump take part in the traditional ardah dance at the Murabba Palace. The Iranian government would go on employ this as symbolic of US complicity for the Saudi-led group’s actions in the Qatari crisis.

  1.  Morocco: King Mohammed VI was scheduled to attend but cancelled his plans a week prior to the summit for unspecified reasons.[31]
  2.  Sudan: President Omar al-Bashir declined to attend after officials at the U.S. Embassy in Riyadh registered their objections to his planned attendance.[29]

Aftermath[edit source]

Emboldened by Trump’s criticism of Iran, many Arab countries decided to take action against their perceived enemies. Bahrain began cracking down on its Shi’ite majority, killing 5 and arresting 286 people. Bahrain also shut down an independent newspaper and outlawed country’s last opposition group.[32]

On 5 June 2017, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Yemen, Egypt and Bahrain all announced they were cutting diplomatic ties with Qatar.[32] Hamid Aboutalebi, deputy chief of staff of Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani, tweeted, “What is happening is the preliminary result of the sword dance,” referring to Trump’s conduct at the Summit