Map of active separatist movements in Europe. Red names indicate regions with movements that only claim greater autonomy within the actual state. Black names indicate regions with important secessionist movements, although both categories include moderate movements. The nations highlighted in colors are the territories claimed by the local nationalist groups, including areas out of the state’s borders and cases of annexation to other states (click to enlarge).
This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.
What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:
- They are active movements with active members;
- They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
- They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.
Under each region listed is one or more of the following:
- De facto state (de facto entity): for unrecognized regions with de facto autonomy;
- Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state;
- Proposed autonomous area: for movements towards greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession;
Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.
Flemish Region or the Flemish Community (the latter includes Brussels)
German-speaking Community of Belgium
Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
- For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.
- Secessionist movements
- Gradual and eventual secession
- Autonomist movements
Proposed autonomous movements:
Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti
See: International recognition of Kosovo
Proposed independent and autonomous movements:
- Ethnic group: Frisian
- Proposed autonomous region: Frisia
- Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
- Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland
- Ethnic group: Kashubians
- Proposed autonomous area: Kashubia
- An association of people: Kaszëbskô Jednota who want to actively participate in the life of the Kashubian nation and who recognize its right to cultural autonomy and self-identity within the multi-ethnic society.
The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania
Székely Land, Transylvania, Banat, Partium
Szekler National Council, Hungarian National Council of Transylvania, Liga Pro Europa, a Romanian-Hungarian regionalist NGO., Provincia, a group of intellectuals promoting regionalization of Romania, Autonomy for Transylvania (AFT) campaign, it demands autonomy for Transylvania. Democratic League of Transylvania (Liga Transilvania Democrată), a regionalist NGO, an active supporter of the “Autonomy for Transylvania” campaign, League of Banat (Liga Banateana), a regionalist NGO.
Russia’s North Caucasus
Russia’s other European regions
Republic of Kosovo
The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia
- Political parties: Party of the Hungarian Community, In 2010, the party renewed their demand for autonomy.
- Goals: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.
Areas in Spain with separatist movements.
The disputed territory of Olivenza.
Canary Islands (Main article: Canarian nationalism)
Andalusia (Main article: Andalusian nationalism)
Asturias (Main article: Asturian nationalism)
Basque Country (autonomous community) (Main article: Basque nationalism)
Catalonia (Catalan independence)
- Proposed state: Republic of Catalonia or Catalan Countries
- Political parties: Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya and Democratic Union of Catalonia 50/135 seats in the regional parliament, Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya21/135 seats in the regional parliament, Initiative for Catalonia Greens 13/135 seats in the regional parliament, Candidatura d’Unitat Popular 3/135 seats in the regional parliament, Solidaritat Catalana per la Independència 0/135 seats in the regional parliament, Reagrupament 0/135 seats in the regional parliament, Estat Català 0/135 seats in the regional parliament.
- Civil Organization: Arran, Joventuts d’Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, Joventut Nacionalista de Catalunya, Unió de Joves
- Youth Advocacy groups: Arran, Joventuts d’Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, Joventut Nacionalista de Catalunya, Unió de Joves
Galicia (Main article: Galician nationalism)
- Regional group: Genevan
- Proposed state: La République de Genève” or “Free State of Geneva”
- Pressure Groups: Genevan politicians and activists.
Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak
Republic of Crimea
City of Sevastopol
Proposed autonomous regions:
The United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and the Republic of Ireland (click to enlarge)
Constituent countries of the United Kingdom
Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)
- Ethnic group: Cornish
- Proposed state: Cornwall (independence from the UK)
- Proposed autonomous area: Cornwall (with a law-making assembly; many supporters want to change its status into a constituent country within the UK, separating from England)
Ceremonial counties in Southern England
Yorkshire (historical county)
Reunification of Northern Ireland with Ireland
Northern Isles ( Orkney and Shetland)
Outer Hebrides (Western Isles)
Bailiwick of Guernsey (including Alderney, Sark and other smaller islands and rocks)
Bailiwick of Jersey (including smaller islands and rocks)
- For movements in other British Overseas Territories, see the List of active separatist movements in North America.