List of Banks owned by the Rothschild Family

“Give me control over a nations currency, and I care not who makes its laws” – Baron M.A. Rothschild

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ROTHSCHILD OWNED BANKS:
Afghanistan, Bank of Afghanistan,
Albania, Bank of Albania,
Algeria, Bank of Algeria,
Argentina, Central Bank of Argentina,
Armenia, Central Bank of Armenia,
Aruba, Central Bank of Aruba,
Australia, Reserve Bank of Australia,
Austria, Austrian National Bank,
Azerbaijan, Central Bank of Azerbaijan Republic,
Bahamas, Central Bank of The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Central Bank of Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bank,
Barbados, Central Bank of Barbados,
Belarus, National Bank of the Republic of Belarus,
Belgium, National Bank of Belgium,
Belize, Central Bank of Belize,
Benin, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Bermuda, Bermuda Monetary Authority,
Bhutan, Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan,
Bolivia, Central Bank of Bolivia,
Bosnia, Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Bank of Botswana,
Brazil, Central Bank of Brazil,
Bulgaria, Bulgarian National Bank,
Burkina Faso, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Burundi, Bank of the Republic of Burundi,
Cambodia, National Bank of Cambodia,
Came Roon, Bank of Central African States,
Canada, Bank of Canada – Banque du Canada,
Cayman Islands, Cayman Islands Monetary Authority,
Central African Republic, Bank of Central African States,
Chad, Bank of Central African States,
Chile, Central Bank of Chile,

China, The People’s Bank of China,

Colombia, Bank of the Republic,
Comoros, Central Bank of Comoros,
Congo, Bank of Central African States,
Costa Rica, Central Bank of Costa Rica,
Côte d’Ivoire, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Croatia, Croatian National Bank,
Cuba, Central Bank of Cuba,
Cyprus, Central Bank of Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Czech National Bank,
Denmark, National Bank of Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Central Bank of the Dominican Republic,
East Caribbean area, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank,
Ecuador, Central Bank of Ecuador,
Egypt, Central Bank of Egypt ,
El Salvador, Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Bank of Central African States,
Estonia, Bank of Estonia,
Ethiopia, National Bank of Ethiopia,
European Union, European Central Bank,

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Fiji, Reserve Bank of Fiji,
Finland, Bank of Finland,
France, Bank of France,
Gabon, Bank of Central African States,
The Gambia, Central Bank of The Gambia,
Georgia, National Bank of Georgia,
Germany, Deutsche Bundesbank,
Ghana, Bank of Ghana,
Greece, Bank of Greece,
Guatemala, Bank of Guatemala,

Guinea Bissau, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Guyana, Bank of Guyana,
Haiti, Central Bank of Haiti ,
Honduras, Central Bank of Honduras,
Hong Kong, Hong Kong Monetary Authority,
Hungary, Magyar Nemzeti Bank,
Iceland, Central Bank of Iceland,
India, Reserve Bank of India,
Indonesia, Bank Indonesia,
Iran, The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran,

Iraq, Central Bank of Iraq,

Ireland, Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland,
Israel, Bank of Israel,
Italy, Bank of Italy,
Jamaica, Bank of Jamaica,
Japan, Bank of Japan,
Jordan, Central Bank of Jordan,
Kazakhstan, National Bank of Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Central Bank of Kenya,
Korea, Bank of Korea,
Kuwait, Central Bank of Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic,
Latvia, Bank of Latvia,
Lebanon, Central Bank of Lebanon,
Lesotho, Central Bank of Lesotho,

Libya, Central Bank of Libya,

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Uruguay, Central Bank of Uruguay,
Lithuania, Bank of Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Central Bank of Luxembourg,
Macao, Monetary Authority of Macao,
Macedonia, National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia,
Madagascar, Central Bank of Madagascar,
Malawi, Reserve Bank of Malawi,
Malaysia, Central Bank of Malaysia,
Mali, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Malta, Central Bank of Malta,
Mauritius, Bank of Mauritius,
Mexico, Bank of Mexico,
Moldova, National Bank of Moldova,
Mongolia, Bank of Mongolia,
Montenegro, Central Bank of Montenegro,
Morocco, Bank of Morocco,
Mozambique, Bank of Mozambique,
Namibia, Bank of Namibia,
Nepal, Central Bank of Nepal,
Netherlands, Netherlands Bank,
Netherlands Antilles, Bank of the Netherlands Antilles,
New Zealand, Reserve Bank of New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Central Bank of Nicaragua,
Niger, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria,
Norway, Central Bank of Norway,
Oman, Central Bank of Oman,
Pakistan, State Bank of Pakistan,
Papua New Guinea, Bank of Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Central Bank of Paraguay,
Peru, Central Reserve Bank of Peru,
Philip Pines, Bangko Sentralng Pilipinas,
Poland, National Bank of Poland,
Portugal, Bank of Portugal,
Qatar, Qatar Central Bank,
Romania, National Bank of Romania,
Russia, Central Bank of Russia,

Rwanda, National Bank of Rwanda,
San Marino, Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino,
Samoa, Central Bank of Samoa,
Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency,

Senegal, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Serbia, National Bank of Serbia,
Seychelles, Central Bank of Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Bank of Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Monetary Authority of Singapore,
Slovakia, National Bank of Slovakia,
Slovenia, Bank of Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Central Bank of Solomon Islands,
South Africa, South African Reserve Bank,
Spain, Bank of Spain,
Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Bank of Sudan,
Surinam, Central Bank of Suriname,
Swaziland, The Central Bank of Swaziland,
Sweden, Sveriges Riksbank,
Switzerland, Swiss National Bank,

Tajikistan, National Bank of Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Bank of Tanzania,
Thailand, Bank of Thailand,
Togo, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Tonga, National Reserve Bank of Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Central Bank of Tunisia,
Turkey, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey,

Uganda, Bank of Uganda,
Ukraine, National Bank of Ukraine,
United Arab Emirates, Central Bank of United Arab Emirates,

United Kingdom, Bank of England,

United States, Federal Reserve, Federal Reserve Bank of New York,

US-FederalReserveSystem-Seal_svg_

Vanuatu, Reserve Bank of Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Central Bank of Venezuela,

Vietnam, The State Bank of Vietnam,
Yemen, Central Bank of Yemen,
Zambia, Bank of Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe,
Bank For International Settlements, (BIS),

The Complete History Of The ‘House Of Rothschild’ 

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Control Freaks — The Rothschilds have been in control of the world for a very long time, their tentacles reaching into many aspects of our daily lives, as is documented in the following article.

However, before we jump to the timeline, let’s read this invaluable introduction which will help us to clearly understand who the Rothschilds are as opposed to who they claim to be.


Definition of Zionism: an organization of so called Jews whose goal is to create a nation for Jews.

Definition of Judaism: Jews collectively who practice a religion based on the Torah and the Talmud.

Just one of a multitude of Rothschild Palaces

Khazarian Ashkenazis

The Rothschilds “claim” that they are Jewish, when in fact they are Khazars. They are from a country called Khazaria, which occupied the land locked between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which is now predominantly occupied by Georgia.

The reason the Rothschilds claim to be Jewish is that the Khazars under the instruction of the King, converted to the Jewish faith in (or about) 740 A.D., but of course that did not include converting their Asiatic Mongolian genes to the genes of the Jewish people.
The Thirteenth Tribe

85 – 90% of Jews are Khazars

You will find that approximately 85 – 90% of people in the world today who call themselves Jews are actually Khazars, or as they like to be known, Ashkenazi Jews.

These people knowingly lie to the world with their claims that the land of Israel is theirs by birthright, when in actual fact their real homeland is over 800 miles away in Georgia. Let’s Pretend We ARE the chosen people!

So, next time you hear an Israeli Prime Minister bleating about the so-called persecution of the Jews, consider this; every Prime Minister of Israel has been an Ashkenazi Jew.

Therefore when all these Prime Ministers have curried favor with the West for their re-establishment of a Jewish homeland, they have knowingly and deliberately lied to you, as they were never from that region, and they well know it, because it is they who call themselves Ashkenazi Jews.

Their bloodline  extends into the Royal Families of Europe, and the following family names:

Astor; Bundy; Collins; duPont; Freeman; Kennedy; Morgan; Oppenheimer; Rockefeller; Sassoon; Schiff; Taft; and Van Duyn.

However, these are not the only bloodlines to worry about.  You are probably aware of the centuries old practice undertaken by many Ashkenazi Jews whereby they would change their name, in order for them to appear part of the dominant race of the country in which they lived, so as they could obtain influential positions in that country, which they would then exploit to serve their real masters elsewhere.  There is plenty of evidence to prove the Rothschilds continue that deceptive tradition.

Furthermore the Rothschilds are known to sire many children secretly that they can put into positions of power when required.

This started with the very first man who took the name Rothschild, who had a secret sixth son.

Finally, remember the world is a diverse place, I could if I wanted change my name to Rothschild, or any of the names listed above, and that would not make me part of this family anymore than converting to Judaism in 740 A.D. will make these Ashkenazis Jewish.

Do not judge a book by its “cover alone”!

Please, therefore, do not automatically assume someone you see with the name Rothschild or any of the names listed above are part of the Rothschild criminal network. Furthermore and most importantly, the majority of Ashkenazi Jews are innocent and not part of this network.

Check the facts out for yourself first, this article is designed to inform people who the enemy is, not single out people of a particular race or people with a particular surname, who may have nothing to do with this Rothschild criminal network.

Mayer Amschel Bauer


The Red Hexagram

1743: Mayer Amschel Bauer, an Ashkenazi Jew, is born in Frankfurt, Germany, the son of Moses Amschel Bauer, a money lender and the proprietor of a counting house.

Moses Amschel Bauer places a red sign above the entrance door to his counting house. This sign is a red hexagram (which geometrically and numerically translates into the number 666) which under Rothschild instruction will end up on the Israeli flag some two centuries later.

1753: Gutle Schnaper, an Ashkenazi Jew (future wife of Mayer Amschel Bauer), born to respected merchant, Wolf Salomon Schnaper.

General von Estorff

1760: During this decade Mayer Amschel Bauer works for a bank owned by the Oppenheimers’ in Hanover, Germany.

He is highly successful and becomes a junior partner. Whilst working at the bank he becomes acquainted with General von Estorff.

RED SIGN

Following his father’s death, Bauer returns to Frankfurt to take over his father’s business.
Bauer recognizes the significance of the red hexagram and changes his name from Bauer to Rothschild, after the red hexagram or sign signifying 666 hanging over the entrance door (“Rot,” is German for, “Red,” “Schild,” is German for, “Sign”).

Hessian Soldiers

Now Mayer Amschel Rothschild, he discovers that General von Estorff is now attached to the court of Prince William IX of Hesse-Hanau, one of the richest royal houses in Europe, which gained its’ wealth by the hiring out of Hessian soldiers to foreign countries for vast profits (a practice that continues today in the form of exporting, “peacekeeping,” troops throughout the world).

He therefore makes the General’s re-acquaintance on the pretext of selling him valuable coins and trinkets at discounted prices. As he plans, Rothschild is subsequently introduced to Prince William himself who is more than pleased with discounted prices he charges for his rare coins and trinkets, and Rothschild offers him a bonus for any other business the Prince can direct his way.

Rothschild subsequently becomes close associates with Prince William, and ends up doing business with him and members of the court.  He soon discovers that loaning money to governments and royalty is more profitable than loaning to individuals, as the loans are bigger and are secured by the nation’s taxes.

1769:  Mayer Amschel Rothschild is given permission by Prince William to hang a sign on the front of his business premises declaring that he is, “M. A. Rothschild, by appointment court factor to his serene highness, Prince William of Hanau.”

1770:  Mayer Amschel Rothschild draws up plans for the creation of the Illuminati and entrusts Ashkenazi Jew, Adam Weishaupt, a Crypto-Jew who was outwardly Roman Catholic, with its organization and development.

Amschel Mayer Rothschild

The Illuminati is to be based upon the teachings of the Talmud, which is in turn, the teachings of Rabbinical Jews.  It was to be called the Illuminati as this is a Luciferian term which means, keepers of the light.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild marries Gutle Schnaper.

Amschel Mayer Rothschild is born.

1773: Amschel Mayer Rothschild born, the first of Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s sons. He like all his brothers who follow him, will enter the family business at the age of 12.

Salomon Mayer Rothschild

1774: Salomon Mayer Rothschild is born.

1776:  Adam Weishaupt officially completes his organization of the Illuminati on May 1 of this year.

The purpose of the Illuminati is to divide the goyim (all non-Jews) through political, economic, social, and religious means.

The opposing sides were to be armed and incidents were to be provided in order for them to:  fight amongst themselves; destroy national governments; destroy religious institutions; and eventually destroy each other.

That same year, Weishaupt soon infiltrates the Continental Order of Freemasons with this Illuminati doctrine and establishes lodges of the Grand Orient to be their secret  headquarters.  This was all under the orders and finance of Mayer Amschel Rothschild and the concept has spread and is followed within Masonic Lodges worldwide to the present day.

Weishaupt also recruits 2,000 paid followers including the most intelligent men in the field of arts and letters, education, science, finance, and industry. They were instructed to follow the following methods in order to control people.

SUBVERTING GOVERNMENTS

1)  Use monetary and sex bribery to obtain control of men already in high places, in the various levels of all governments and other fields of endeavor.

Once influential persons had fallen for the lies, deceits, and temptations of the Illuminati they were to be held in bondage by application of political and other forms of blackmail, threats of financial ruin, public exposure, and fiscal harm, even death to themselves and loved members of their families.

SUBVERTING EDUCATION

2)  The faculties of colleges and universities were to cultivate students possessing exceptional mental ability belonging to well-bred families with international leanings, and recommend them for special training in internationalism, or rather the notion that only a one-world government can put an end to recurring wars and strife.  Such training was to be provided by granting scholarships to those selected by the Illuminati.

SUBVERT ETHICS, POLICIES, MEASURES, RELIGIONS, GOVERNMENTS AND BANKS

3)  All influential people trapped into coming under the control of the Illuminati, plus the students who had been specially educated and trained, were to be used as agents and placed behind the scenes of all governments as experts and specialists.
This was so they would advise the top executives to adopt policies which would in the long-run serve the secret plans of the Illuminati one-world conspiracy and bring about the destruction of the governments and religions they were elected or appointed to serve.

SUBVERSION OF PRESS

4)  To obtain absolute-control of the press, at that time the only mass-communications media which distributed information to the public, so that all news and information could be slanted in order to make the masses believe that a one-world government is the only solution to our many and varied problems.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild

1777:  Nathan Mayer Rothschild (another parasite) is born.

1784:  Adam Weishaupt issues his order for the French Revolution to be started by  Maximilien Robespierre in book form.  This book was written by one of Weishaupt’s associates, Xavier Zwack, and sent by courier from Frankfurt to Paris. However en route there, the courier is struck by lightning, the book detailing this plan discovered by the police, and handed over to the Bavarian authorities.

As a consequence, the Bavarian government orders the police to raid Weishaupt’s Masonic lodges of the Grand Orient, and the homes of his most influential associates.

Clearly, the Bavarian authorities were convinced that the book that was discovered was a very real threat by a private group of influential people, to use wars and revolutions to achieve their political ends.

1785:  The Bavarian government outlaws the Illuminati and closes all of the Bavarian lodges of the Grand Orient.

In 1785 Mayer Amschel Rothschild moves his family home to a five story house in Frankfurt which he shares with the Schiff family.

1786:  The Bavarian government publishes the details of the Illuminati plot in a document entitled, “The Original Writings of The Order and Sect of The Illuminati.”  They then send this document to all the heads of church and state throughout Europe, but sadly their warning is ignored.

Carl Mayer Rothschild

1788: Kalmann (Carl) Mayer Rothschild (another parasite) is Born

1789:  Due to the European ignorance of the Bavarian government’s warning, the Illuminati’s plan for a French Revolution succeeded from this year to 1793.  This revolution was a bankers’ dream, it established a new constitution and passed laws that forbade the Roman Church from levying tithes (taxes) and also removed its exemption from taxation.

1790: Mayer Amschel Rothschild states:

“Let me issue and control a nation’s money and I care not who writes the laws.”

1791: The Rothschilds get, “control of a nation’s money,” through Alexander Hamilton (their agent in George Washington’s cabinet) when they set up a central bank in the USA called the First Bank of the United States. This is established with a 20 year charter.

Jacob Mayer Rothschild

1792: Jacob (James) Mayer Rothschild (another useless parasite) is born.

1796: Amschel Mayer Rothschild marries Eva Hanau.

1798: John Robison publishes a book entitled, “Proofs of a Conspiracy Against All the Religions and Governments of Europe Carried on in the Secret Meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies.”

In this book, Professor Robison of the University of Edinburgh, one of the leading intellects of his time, who in 1783 was elected general secretary of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, gave details of the whole Rothschild Illuminati plot.

He advised how he had been a high degree mason in the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, and had been invited by Adam Weishaupt to Europe, where he had been given a revised copy of Weishaupt’s conspiracy.  However, although he pretended to go along with it, Professor Robison did not agree with it and therefore published his informational book included details of the Bavarian governments investigations into the Illuminati and the French Revolution.

That same year on July 19th, David Pappen, President of Harvard University, lectured the graduating class on the influence illuminism was having on American politics and religion.

At the age of 21, Nathan Mayer Rothschild leaves Frankfurt for England, where with a large sum of money given to him by his father, he sets up a banking house in London.


1800: Salomon Mayer Rothschild marries Caroline Stern.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild

1806:  Napolean states that it is his, “object to remove the house of Hess-Cassel from rulership and to strike it out of the list of powers.”

On hearing this, Prince William IX of Hesse-Hanau, flees Germany, goes to Denmark and entrusts his fortune valued at $3,000,000 at that time to Mayer Amschel Rothschild for safekeeping.

In this year, 1806, Nathan Mayer Rothschild marries Hannah Barent Cohen the daughter of a wealthy London merchant.

Lionel Nathan de Rothschild

1808: Nathan Mayer Rothschild has his first son born Lionel Nathan de Rothschild.

1810: Sir Francis Baring and Abraham Goldsmid die.

Salomon Mayer Rothschild goes to Vienna, Austria and sets up the bank, M. von Rothschild und Söhne.

1811: The charter for the Rothschilds Bank of the United States runs out and Congress votes against its renewal.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild is not amused and he states, “Either the application for renewal of the charter is granted, or the United States will find itself involved in a most disastrous war.”

However the United States stands firm and the Charter is not renewed, which causes Nathan Mayer Rothschild to issue another threat,

“Teach those impudent Americans a lesson. Bring them back to colonial status.”

1812: Backed by Rothschild’s money, and Nathan Mayer Rothschild’s orders, the British declare war on the United States. The Rothschild’s plan was to cause the United States to build up such a debt in fighting this war that they would have to surrender to the Rothschild’s and allow the charter for the Rothschild owned First Bank of the United States to be renewed.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild dies.

In his will he lays out specific laws that the House of Rothschild were to follow: all key positions in the family business were only to be held by family members; only male members of the family were allowed to participate in the family business, this included a reported sixth secret bastard son (It is important to note that Mayer Amschel Rothschild also has five daughters, so today the spread of the Rothschild Zionist dynasty without the Rothschild name is far and wide, and Jews believe the mixed offspring of a Jewish mother is solely Jewish).

The family was to intermarry with it’s first and second cousins to preserve the family fortune (of the 18 marriages by Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s grandchildren, 16 were between first cousins – a practice known today as inbreeding); no public inventory of his estate was to be published; no legal action was to be taken with regard to the value of the inheritance; the eldest son of the eldest son was to become the head of the family (this condition could only be overturned when the majority of the family agreed otherwise).

This was straightaway the case and Nathan Mayer Rothschild was elected head of the family following his father, Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s death.

Jacob (James) Mayer Rothschild goes to Paris, France to set up the bank, de Rothschild Frères.

Nathaniel de Rothschild

Nathaniel de Rothschild, the son in law of Jacob (James) Mayer Rothschild (another traitor) is born.

1814: With regard to the $3,000,000 Prince William IX of Hesse-Hanau had entrusted to Mayer Amschel Rothschild for safekeeping, for an account of what happened next we turn to the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905 edition, Volume 10, page 494, which states,

“According to legend this money was hidden away in wine casks, and, escaping the search of Napoleon’s soldiers when they entered Frankfurt, was restored intact in the same casks in 1814, when the elector (Prince William IX of Hesse-Hanau) returned to the electorate (Germany). The facts are somewhat less romantic, and more businesslike.”

This last line indicates the money was never returned by Rothschild to Prince William IX of Hesse-Hanau. The encyclopaedia goes on to state,

“Nathan Mayer Rothschild invested this $3,000,000 in, gold from the East India Company knowing that it would be needed for Wellington’s peninsula campaign.“

On the stolen money Nathan made, “no less than four profits:

I) On the sale of Wellington’s paper which he bought at 50 cents on the dollar and collected at par;
II) on the sale of gold to Wellington;
III) on its repurchase; and
IV) on forwarding it to Portugal.”

FUNDING BOTH SIDES OF WARS

1815: The five Rothschild brothers work to supply gold to both Wellington’s army (through Nathan in England) and Napoleon’s army (through Jacob in France), and begin their policy of funding both sides in wars. The Rothschilds love wars because they are massive generators of risk free debt.

This is because they are guaranteed by the government of a country, and therefore the efforts of the population of that country,  and it doesn’t matter if that country loses the war because the loans are given on the guarantee that the victor will honour the debts of the vanquished.

Whilst the Rothschilds are funding both sides in this war, they use the banks they have spread out across Europe to give them the opportunity to set up an unrivalled postal service network of secret routes and fast couriers.

The post these couriers carried was to be opened up by these couriers and their details given to the Rothschilds so they always were one step ahead of current events.

Furthermore, these Rothschild couriers were the only merchants allowed to pass through the English and French blockades. It was these couriers who also kept Nathan Mayer Rothschild up to date with how the war was going so he could use that intelligence to buy and sell from his position on the stock exchange in accordance with that intelligence.

One of Rothschild’s couriers was a man named Rothworth.  When the outcome of the Battle of Waterloo was won by the British, Rothworth took off for the Channel and was able to deliver this news to Nathan Mayer Rothschild, a full 24 hours before Wellington’s own courier.

At that time British bonds were called consuls and they were traded on the floor of the stock exchange. Nathan Mayer Rothschild instructed all his workers on the floor to start selling consuls.

This made all the other traders believe that the British had lost the war so they started selling frantically.

Therefore the consuls plummeted in value which was when Nathan Mayer Rothschild discreetly instructed his workers to purchase all the consuls they could lay their hands on.

When news came through that the British had actually won the war, the consuls went up to a level even higher than before the war ended leaving Nathan Mayer Rothschild with a return of approximately 20 to 1 on his investment.

This gave the Rothschild family complete control of the British economy, now the financial centre of the world following Napolean’s defeat, and forced England to set up a new Bank of England, which Nathan Mayer Rothschild controlled.

Interestingly, 100 years later the New York Times would run a story stating that Nathan Mayer Rothschild’s grandson had attempted to secure a court order to suppress publication of a book which had this insider trading story in it.  The Rothschild family claimed the story was untrue and libellous, but the court denied the Rothschilds request and ordered the family to pay all court costs.

Back to 1815, this is the year Nathan Mayer Rothschild makes his famous statement,

“I care not what puppet is placed upon the throne of England to rule the Empire on which the sun never sets. The man who controls Britain’s money supply controls the British Empire, and I control the British money supply.”

He would go onto brag that in the 17 years he had been in England he had increased the £20,000 stake given to him by his father, 2500 times to £50 million.

The Rothschilds also use their control of the Bank of England to replace the method of shipping gold from country to country and instead used their five banks spread across Europe to set up a system of paper debits and credits, the banking system of today.

By the end of this century, a period of time that was known as the, “Age of the Rothschilds,” it is estimated that the Rothschild family controlled half the wealth of the world. 

However something that did not go well for the Rothschilds this year was the Congress of Vienna, which started in September, 1814 and concluded in June of this year. The reason for this Congress of Vienna, was for the Rothschilds to create a form of world government, to give them complete political control over much of the civilized world.

Many of the European governments were in debt to the Rothschilds, so they figured they could use that as a bargaining tool.

However the Tsar Alexander I of Russia, who had not succumbed to a Rothschild central bank, would not go along with the plan, so the Rothschild world government plan failed.

Enraged by this, Nathan Mayer Rothschild swore that some day he or his descendants would destroy the Tsar Alexander 1st’s  entire family and descendants. Unfortunately he was true to his word and 102 years later Rothschild funded Bolsheviks would act upon that promise.

Interestingly, world government fanatic and Ashkenazi Jew, Henry Kissinger, did his doctoral dissertation on the Congress of Vienna.

1816: The American Congress passes a bill permitting yet another Rothschild dominated central bank, which gives the Rothschilds control of the American money supply again.

This is called the Second Bank of the United States and is given a twenty year charter. The British war against the America therefore ends with the deaths of thousands of British and American soldiers, but the Rothschilds get their bank.

1818: Following the French securing massive loans in 1817 in order to help rebuild after their disastrous defeat at Waterloo, Rothschild agents bought vast amounts of French government bonds causing their value to increase.

On November 5th they dumped the lot on the open market causing their value to plummet and France to go into a financial panic. The Rothschilds then stepped in to take control of the French money supply. This was the same year the Rothschilds were able to loan £5,000,000 to the Prussian government.

1821: Kalmann (Carl) Mayer Rothschild was sent to Naples, Italy. He would end up doing a lot of business with the Vatican and Pope Gregory XVI subsequently conferred upon him the Order of St. George.

Also, whenever the Pope received Kalmann, he would give him his hand rather than the customary toe to kiss, which showed the extent of Kalmann’s power over the Vatican.

1822: The emperor of Austria made the five Rothschild brothers Barons. Nathan Mayer Rothschild chose not to take up the title.

1823: The Rothschilds take over the financial operations of the Catholic Church, worldwide.

1827: Sir Walter Scott publishes his nine volume set, The life of Napoleon. In volume two he states that the French Revolution was planned by the Illuminati (Adam Weishaupt) and was financed by the money changers of Europe (The Rothschilds).

1832:  President Andrew Jackson (the 7th President of the United States from 1829 to 1837), runs the campaign for his second term in office under the slogan, “Jackson And No Bank!”
This is in reference to his plan to take the control of the American money system to benefit the American people, not for the profiteering of the Rothschilds.

1833:  President Andrew Jackson starts removing the government’s deposits from the Rothschild controlled, Second Bank of the United States and instead deposits them into banks directed by democratic bankers.

This causes the Rothschilds to panic and so they do what they do best, contract the money supply causing a depression.  President Jackson knows what they are up to and later states,
“You are a den of thieves vipers, and I intend to rout you out, and by the Eternal God, I will rout you out.”

Guiseppe Mazzini

1834:  The Italian revolutionary leader, Guiseppe Mazzini, is selected by the Illuminati to direct their revolutionary program throughout the world and would serve in that capacity until he died in 1872.

1835:  On January 30, an assassin tries to shoot President Jackson, but miraculously both of the assassin’s pistols misfired.  President Jackson would later claim that he knew the Rothschilds were responsible for that attempted assassination.

He is not the only one, the assassin, Richard Lawrence, who was found not guilty by reason of insanity, later bragged that powerful people in Europe had hired him and promised to protect him if he were caught.

The Rothschilds acquire the rights in the Almadén quicksilver mines in Spain. This was at the time the biggest concession in the world and as quicksilver was a vital component in the refining of gold or silver this gave the Rothschilds a virtual world monopoly.

1836:  Following his years of fighting against the Rothschilds and their central bank in America, President Andrew Jackson finally succeeds in throwing the Rothschilds central bank out of America, when the bank’s charter is not renewed. It would not be until 1913 that the Rothschilds would be able to set up their third central bank in America, the Federal Reserve, and to ensure no mistakes are made, this time they will put one of their own bloodline, Jacob Schiff, in charge of the project.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild dies and the control of his bank, N. M. Rothschild & Sons is passed on to his younger brother, James Mayer Rothschild.

1837:  The Rothschilds send one of their own, August Belmont, an Ashkenazi Jew, to America to salvage their banking interests defeated by President Andrew Jackson.

1840: The Rothschilds become the Bank of England’s bullion brokers. They set up agencies in California and Australia.

1841: President John Tyler (the 10th President of the United States From 1841 to 1845) vetoed the act to renew the charter for the Bank of the United States. He goes on to receive hundreds of letters threatening him with assassination.

1844: Salomon Mayer Rothschild purchases the United Coal Mines of Vítkovice and Austro-Hungarian Blast Furnace Company that would go on to be one of the top ten global industrial concerns.

Benjamin Disraeli, an Ashkenazi Jew (who would go on to become British Prime Minister twice – the only admitted Ashkenazi Jew to do so) publishes Coningsby, in which he characterises Nathan Mayer Rothschild as,

“the Lord and Master of the money markets of the world, and of course virtually Lord and Master of everything else. He literally held the revenues of Southern Italy in pawn, and Monarchs and Ministers of all countries courted his advice and were guided by his suggestions.”

7th US President,
Andrew Jackson

“I Killed The Bank!”

1845: The Great American Patriot, Andrew Jackson (7th President of the United States) dies.

Before his death he is asked what he regarded his as greatest achievement. He replies without hesitation,

“I Killed The Bank,”

This is in reference to the fact he banished the Rothschilds Second Bank of the United States in 1836.

Jacob (James) Mayer Rothschild (who by now had married his niece, Betty, Salomon Mayer Rothschild’s daughter), now known as Baron James de Rothschild, wins the contract to build the first major railway line across the country.

This was called the Chemin De Fer Du Nord and ran initially from Paris to Valenciennes and then joined with the Austrian rail network built by his brother (and wife’s father – all sounds a bit sordid doesn’t it) Salomon Mayer Rothschild.

1847: Lionel De Rothschild now married to the daughter of his uncle, Kalmann (Carl) Mayer Rothschild, is elected to the parliamentary seat for the City of London.

A requirement for entering parliament was to take an oath in the true faith of a Christian. Lionel De Rothschild refused to do this as he was Jewish and his seat in parliament remained empty for 11 years until new oaths were allowed.  He must have been an invaluable representative for his constituency, bearing in mind he could never vote on any bill as he never entered parliament!  I wonder how he managed to keep his parliamentary seat for 11 years?

1848: Karl Marx, an Ashkenazi Jew, publishes, “The Communist Manifesto.”

Interestingly at the same time as he is working on this, Karl Ritter of Frankfurt University was writing the antithesis which would form the basis for Freidrich Wilhelm Nietzsche’s,  “Nietzscheanism.”

This Nietzecheanism was later developed into Fascism and then into Nazism and was used to forment the first and second world wars.

Marx, Ritter, and Nietzsche were all funded and under the instruction of the Rothschilds.  The idea was that those who direct the overall conspiracy could use the differences in those two so-called ideologies to enable them to divide larger and larger factions of the human race into opposing camps so that they could be armed and then brainwashed into fighting and destroying each other, and particularly, to destroy all political and religious institutions.  The same plan put forward by Weishaupt in 1776.

Eva Hanau, Amschel Mayer Rothschild’s wife dies.

1849: Gutle Schnaper, Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s wife dies. Before her death she would nonchalantly state,

“If my sons did not want wars, there would be none.”

1850: Construction begins this decade on the manor houses of Mentmore in England and Ferrières in France, more Rothschilds Manors will follow throughout the world, all of them filled with works of art.

Jacob (James) Rothschild in France is said to be worth 600 million francs, which at the time was 150 million francs more than all the other bankers in France put together.

1852: N.M. Rothschild & Sons begins refining gold and silver for the Royal Mint and the Bank of England and other international customers.

1853: Nathaniel de Rothschild, the son in law of Jacob (James) Mayer Rothschild, purchases Château Brane Mouton, the Bordeaux vineyard of Mouton, and renames it Château Mouton Rothschild.

1854: Caroline Stern, Salomon Mayer Rothschild’s wife, dies.

1855: Amschel Mayer Rothschild dies.

Salomon Mayer Rothschild dies.

Kalmann (Carl) Mayer Rothschild dies.

1858: Lionel De Rothschild finally takes his seat in parliament when the requirement to take an oath in the true faith of a Christian is broadened to include other oaths. He becomes the first Jewish member of the British parliament.

1861: President Abraham Lincoln (16th President of the United States from 1860 till his assassination in 1865) approaches the big banks in New York to try to obtain loans to support the ongoing American civil war.  As these large banks were heavily under the influence of the Rothschilds, they offer him a deal they know he cannot accept, 24% to 36% interest on all monies loaned.

Lincoln is very angry about this high level of interest and so he prints his own debt free money and informs the public that this is now legal tender for both public and private debts.

1862: By April $449,338,902 worth of Lincoln’s debt free money has been printed and distributed. He states of this,

“We gave the people of this republic the greatest blessing they ever had, their own paper money to pay their own debts.”

That same year The Times of London publishes a story containing the following statement,

“If that mischievous financial policy, which had its origin in the North American Republic, should become indurated down to a fixture, then that government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off debts and be without a debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce.

It will become prosperous beyond precedent in the history of civilized governments of the world. The brains and the wealth of all countries will go to North America. That government must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe.”

1863: President Abraham Lincoln discovers the Tsar of Russia, Alexander II (1855 – 1881), was having problems with the Rothschilds as well as he was refusing their continual attempts to set up a central bank in Russia. The Tsar then gives President Lincoln some unexpected help.

The Tsar issued orders that if either England or France actively intervened in the American Civil War, and help the South, Russia would consider such action a declaration of war, and take the side of President Lincoln. To show that he wasn’t messing about, he sent part of his Pacific Fleet to port in San Francisco and another part to New York.

The Rothschild banking house in Naples, Italy, C. M. de Rothschild e figli, closes following the unification of Italy. The Rothschilds use one of their own in America, John D. Rockefeller, to form an oil business called Standard Oil which eventually takes over all of its competition.

1864: Rothschild, August Belmont, who by now is the Democratic Party’s National Chairman, supports General George McClellan as the Democratic nominee to run against President Abraham Lincoln in this year’s election.  Much to the anger of Belmont, President Lincoln wins the election.

1865: In a statement to Congress, President Abraham Lincoln states,

“I have two great enemies, the Southern Army in front of me, and the financial institutions in the rear. Of the two, the one in my rear is my greatest foe.”

Later that year, on April 14, President Lincoln is assassinated, less than two months before the end of the American Civil War.

Following a brief training period in the Rothschilds London Bank, Jacob Schiff, a Rothschild, born in their house in Frankfurt, arrives in America at the age of 18, with instructions and the finance necessary to buy into a banking house there.  The purpose of this was to carry out the following tasks.

1.  Gain control of America’s money system through the establishment of a central bank.

2.  Find desirable men, who for a price, would be willing to serve as stooges for the Illuminati and promote them into high places in the federal government, the Congress, Supreme Court, and all the federal agencies.

3.  Create minority group strife throughout the nations, particularly targeting the whites and blacks.

4.  Create a movement to destroy religion in the United States, with Christianity as the main target.

Nathaniel de Rothschild becomes Member of Parliament for Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire.

1868: Jacob (James) Mayer Rothschild dies, shortly after purchasing Château Lafite, one of the four great premier grand cru estates of France. He is the last of Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s sons to die.

1870: Nathaniel de Rothschild dies. Let’s all take out our napkins!!!

33rd Degree Mason, Albert Pike

1871:  An American General named, Albert Pike, who had been enticed into the Illuminati by Guissepe Mazzini, completes his military blueprint for three world wars and various revolutions throughout the world, culminating into moving this great conspiracy into its final stage.

The first world war is to be fought for the purpose of destroying the Tsar (Czar) in Russia, as promised by Nathan Mayer Rothschild in 1815. The Tsar is to be replaced with communism which is to be used to attack religions, predominantly Christianity.  The differences between the British and German empires are to be used to foment this war.

The second world war is to be used to foment the controversy between Fascism and political Zionism with the slaughter of Jews in Germany a lynchpin in bringing hatred against the German people.

This is designed to destroy fascism (which the Rothschilds created) and increase the power of political Zionism. This war is also designed to increase the power of communism to the level that it equaled that of united Christendom.

The third world war is to be played out by stirring up hatred of the Muslim world for the purposes of playing the Islamic world and the political Zionists off against one another. Whilst this is going on, the remaining nations would be forced to fight themselves into a state of mental, physical, spiritual and economic exhaustion.

On August 15th 1871, Albert Pike writes a letter (now cataloged in the British Museum) to Guiseppe Mazzini in which he states the following,

“We shall unleash the nihilists and the atheists and we shall provoke a great social cataclysm which in all its horror will show clearly to all nations the effect of absolute atheism; the origins of savagery and of most bloody turmoil.

Then everywhere, the people will be forced to defend themselves against the world minority of the world revolutionaries and will exterminate those destroyers of civilization and the multitudes disillusioned with Christianity whose spirits will be from that moment without direction and leadership and anxious for an ideal, but without knowledge where to send its adoration, will receive the true light through the universal manifestation of the pure doctrine of Lucifer brought finally out into public view.

The religion of the Illuminati is Satanism
A manifestation which will result from a general reactionary movement which will follow the destruction of Christianity and Atheism; both conquered and exterminated at the same time.”

Pike, who having been elected as Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry’s Southern Jurisdiction in 1859, was the most powerful Freemason in America.  He would retain that post for 32 years until his death in 1891.

He also published a book on the subject in 1872 entitled, “Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry,” in which he candidly states the following,

“LUCIFER, the Light-bearer! Strange and mysterious name to give to the Spirit of Darknesss! Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable blinds feeble, sensual or selfish Souls? Doubt it not!”

(Read more on this subject HERE).

1873: The loss making Rio Tinto copper mines in Spain, are purchased by a group of foreign financiers including the Rothschilds. These mines represented Europe’s largest source of copper.

1875: On January 1 of this year Jacob Schiff, now Solomon Loeb’s son-in-law after marrying his daughter, Teresa, takes control of the banking house, Kuhn, Loeb & Co.  He goes on to finance John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company, Edward R. Harriman’s Railroad Empire, and Andrew Carnegie’s Steel Empire.  This is all with Rothschild money.

He then identifies the other largest bankers in America at that time. They are, J.P. Morgan who controls Wall Street, and the Drexels and the Biddles of Philadelphia. All the other financiers, big and little, danced to the music of those three houses. Schiff then gets the European Rothschilds to set up European branches of these three large banks on the understanding that Schiff, and therefore Rothschild, is to be the boss of banking in New York and therefore America.

N M Rothschild & Sons undertake a share issue to raise capital for the first channel tunnel project to link France to England, with half of its capital coming from the Rothschild owned Compagnie du Chemin de Fer du Nord.

This year Lionel De Rothschild also loans Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli the finance for the British government to purchase the shares in the Suez Canal, from Khedive Said of Egypt. This was done as the Rothschilds needed this access route to be held by a government they controlled, so they could use that government’s military to protect their huge business interests in the Middle East.

Otto von Bismarck

1876: Otto von Bismarck states,

“The division of the United States into two federations of equal force was decided long before the civil war by the high financial power of Europe. These bankers were afraid that the United States, if they remained in one block and as one nation, would attain economical and financial independence, which would upset their financial domination over the world.

The voice of the Rothschilds predominated. They foresaw the tremendous booty if they could substitute two feeble democracies, indebted to the financiers, to the vigorous Republic, confident and self-providing. Therefore they started their emissaries in order to exploit the question of slavery and thus dig an abyss between the two parts of the Republic.”

1879: Lionel de Rothschild dies.

1880:  Rothschild agents begin fomenting a series of pogroms predominantly in Russia, but also in Poland, Bulgaria and Romania. These pogroms resulted in the slaughter of thousands of innocent Jews, causing approximately 2 million to flee, mainly to New York, but also to Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston and Los Angeles.

The reason these pogroms were initiated, was to create a large Jewish base in America, who when they arrived, would be educated to register as Democrat voters. Some twenty years later, this would result in in a massive Democratic power base in the United States and be used to elect Rothschild front men such as Woodrow Wilson, to the Presidency, to carry out the bidding of the Rothschilds.

1881: President James A. Garfield (The 20th President of the United States who lasted only 100 Days) states two weeks before he is assassinated,

“Whoever controls the volume of money in our country is absolute master of all industry and commerce…and when you realize that the entire system is very easily controlled, one way or another, by a few powerful men at the top, you will not have to be told how periods of inflation and depression originate.”

Edmond James de Rothschild

Edmond James de Rothschild has a son Maurice de Rothschild.

1883: After 6,000 feet of tunnel in the channel tunnel project being excavated, the British government halt the project citing the fact that it would be a threat to Britain’s security.

1885: Nathaniel Rothschild, son of Lionel De Rothschild, becomes the first Jewish peer and takes the title of Lord Rothschild.

1886: The French Rothschild bank, de Rothschild Frères obtains substantial amounts of Russia’s oil fields and forms the Caspian and Black Sea Petroleum Company, which quickly becomes the world’s second largest oil producer.

1887: Opium trafficker in China, Edward Albert Sassoon, marries Aline Caroline de Rothschild, the grand-daughter of Jacob (James) Mayer Rothschild.

Aline Caroline’s father, Gustave, together with his brother, Alphonse, took over the Rothschild’s french arm following their father Jacob’s death.

The Rothschilds finance the amalgamation of the Kimberley diamond mines in South Africa. They subsequently become the biggest shareholders of this company, De Beers, and mine precious stones in Africa and India.

1888: Noémie Halphen, future wife of Maurice de Rothschild born.

1891: The British Labour Leader makes the following statement on the subject of the Rothschilds,

“This blood-sucking crew has been the cause of untold mischief and misery in Europe during the present century, and has piled up its prodigious wealth chiefly through fomenting wars between States which ought never to have quarreled.

Whenever there is trouble in Europe, wherever rumors of war circulate and men’s minds are distraught with fear of change and calamity you may be sure that a hook-nosed Rothschild is at his games somewhere near the region of the disturbance.”

Comments like this worry the Rothschilds and towards the end of the 1800’s they purchase Reuters news agency so they can have some control of the media.

Whenever there is trouble in Europe, wherever rumors of war circulate and men’s minds are distraught with fear of change and calamity you may be sure that a hook-nosed Rothschild is at his games somewhere near the region of the disturbance.”

Comments like this worry the Rothschilds and towards the end of the 1800’s they purchase Reuters news agency so they can have some control of the media.

1895: Edmond James de Rothschild the youngest son of Jacob (James) Mayer Rothschild visits Palestine and subsequently supplies the funds to found the first Jewish colonies there, this is to further their long term objective of creating a Rothschild owned country.

1897: The Rothschilds found the Zionist Congress to promote Zionism (a political movement with the sole aim of moving all Jews into a singularly Jewish nation state) and arrange its first meeting in Munich. However due to extreme opposition from local Jews, who are quite happy where they are, this meeting has to be moved to Basle, Switzerland and takes place on 29 August.

Theodor Herzl

The meeting is chaired by Ashkenazi Jew, Theodor Herzl, who would state in his diaries,

“It is essential that the sufferings of Jews…become worse…this will assist in realization of our plans…I have an excellent idea…I shall induce anti-Semites to liquidate Jewish wealth…The anti-Semites will assist us thereby in that they will strengthen the persecution and oppression of Jews. The anti-Semites shall be our best friends.”

Herzl is subsequently elected President of the Zionist Organisation which adopts the, “Rothschild Red Hexagram or Sign,” as the Zionist flag which 51 years later will end up as the flag of Israel.

Edward Henry Harriman becomes a director of the Union Pacific Railroad and goes on to take control of the Southern Pacific Railroad. This is all financed by the Rothschilds.

1898: Ferdinand de Rothschild dies.

1901: The Jews from the colonies set up in Palestine by Edmond James de Rothschild, send a delegation to him which tell him,

“If you wish to save the Yishuv (The Jewish settlement) first take your hands from it, and…for once permit the colonists to have the possibility of correcting for themselves what needs correcting.”

Edmond James de Rothschild is very angry about this and states,

“I created the Yishuv, I alone. Therefore no men, neither colonists nor organisations have the right to interfere in my plans.”

The Rothschild banking house in Frankfurt, Germany, M. A. von Rothschild und Söhne, closes as there is no male Rothschild heir to take it on.

Philippe de Rothschild

1902: Philippe de Rothschild born.

1905: A group of Rothschild backed Zionist Jews led by Georgi Apollonovich Gapon attempt to overthrow the Tsar in Russia in a Communist Coup.

They fail and are forced to flee Russia only to be given refuge in Germany.

The Jewish Encyclopaedia (Vol. 2, p.497) states,

“It is a somewhat curious sequel to the attempt to set up a Catholic competitor to the Rothschilds that at the present time the latter are the guardians of the papal treasure.”

1906: The Rothschilds claim that due to growing instability in the region and increasing competition from Rockefeller (the Rockefeller family are Rothschild descendants through a female bloodline) owned Standard Oil, this is why they sell their Caspian and Black Sea Petroleum Company to Royal Dutch and Shell. This is another example of the Rothschilds trying to hide their true wealth.

1907: Rothschild, Jacob Schiff, the head of Kuhn, Loeb and Co., in a speech to the New York Chamber of Commerce, warns that,

“Unless we have a Central Bank with adequate control of credit resources, this country is going to undergo the most severe and far reaching money panic in its history.”

Suddenly America finds itself in the middle of another typical run of the mill Rothschild engineered financial crisis, which ruins as usual ruins the lives of millions of innocent people throughout America and makes billions for the Rothschilds.

1909: Jacob Schiff founds the National Advancement for the Association of the Coloured People (NAACP). This was done to incite black people into roiting, looting and other forms of disorder, in order to cause a rift between the black and white communities. Jewish historian, Howard Sachar, states the following in his book, “A History of the Jews in America,”

“In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise.”

Other Ashkenazi Jew co-founders included Julius Rosenthal, Lillian Wald and Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch. It was not until 1920 that the NAACP appointed its first black president, James Weldon Johnson.

Maurice de Rothschild marries Ashkenazi Jew, Noémie Halphen.

1911:  Werner Sombart, in his book, “The Jews and Modern Capitalism,” stated that from 1820 on, it was the,

“Age of the Rothschild,” and concluded that there was, “Only one power in Europe, and that is Rothschild.”

1912:  In the December issue of, “Truth,” magazine, George R. Conroy states of banker Jacob Schiff,

“Mr Schiff is head of the great private banking house of Kuhn, Loeb, and co, which represents the Rothschilds interests on this side of the Atlantic. He has been described as financial strategist and has been for years the financial minister of the great impersonal power known as Standard Oil.

He was hand in glove with the Harrimans, the Goulds, and the Rockefellers in all their railroad enterprises and has become the dominant power in the railroad and financial power of America.”

1913: On March 4, Woodrow Wilson is elected the 28th President of the United States. Shortly after he is inaugurated, he is visited in the White House by Ashkenazi Jew, Samuel Untermyer, of law firm, Guggenheim, Untermyer, and Marshall, who tries to blackmail him for the sum of $40,000 in relation to an affair Wilson had whilst he was a professor at Princeton University, with a fellow professor’s wife.

President Wilson does not have the money, so Untermyer volunteers to pay the $40,000 out of his own pocket to the woman Wilson had had the affair with, on the condition that Wilson promise to appoint to the first vacancy on the United States Supreme Court a nominee to be recommended to President Wilson by Untermyer. Wilson agrees to this.

Jacob Schiff sets up the Anti Defamation League (ADL) in the United States. This organisation is formed to slander anyone who questions or challenges the Rothschild global conspiracy as, “anti-Semitic.”

Strangely enough, the same year that they do this they also set up their last and current central bank in America, the Federal Reserve. Congressman Charles Lindbergh stated following the passing of the Federal Reserve Act on December 23, 1913.

Congressman Charles Lindbergh stated, “The Act establishes the most gigantic trust on earth. When the President signs this Bill, the invisible government of the monetary power will be legalized … The greatest crime of the ages is perpetrated by this banking and currency bill.”

It is important to note that the Federal Reserve is a private company, it is neither Federal nor does it have any Reserve. It is conservatively estimated that profits exceed $150 billion per year and the Federal Reserve has never once in its history published accounts.

1914:  The start of World War I.  

In this war, the German Rothschilds loan money to the Germans, the British Rothschilds loan money to the British, and the French Rothschilds loan money to the French.

Futhermore, the Rothschilds have control of the three European news agencies, Wolff (est. 1849) in Germany, Reuters (est. 1851) in England, and Havas (est. 1835) in France.

The Rothschilds use Wolff to manipulate the German people into a fervour for war. From around this time, the Rothschilds are rarely reported in the media, because they own the media.

1916:  On June 4, Ashkenazi Jew, Louis Dembitz Brandeis is appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States by President Wilson as per his agreed blackmail payment to Samuel Untermyer some three years earlier.  Justice Brandeis is also the elected leader of the Executive Committee for Zionist Affairs, a position he has held since 1914.

In the middle of World War I, Germany was winning the war as they were being financed by the Rothschilds to a greater extent than France, Italy and England, because Rothschilds, did not want to support the Tsar in Russia, and of course Russia was on the same side as France, Italy and England.

Then a significant event occurred. Germany, although they were winning the war and not one foreign soldier had set foot on their soil, offered armistice to Britain with no requirement of reparations. The Rothschilds were anxious to make sure this didn’t happen as they were expecting to make far more money off this war, so they played another card they had up their sleeve.

Whilst the British were considering Germany’s offer, Rothschild agent Louis Brandeis sends a Zionist delegation from America to Britain to promise to bring America into the war on the side of the British, provided the British agree to give the land of Palestine to the Rothschilds.

The Rothschilds wanted Palestine for the following reason. They had great business interests in the far east and desired their own state in that area along with their own military which they could use as an aggressor to any state that threatened those interests. Somehow they missed their homeland by about 800 miles in Georgia.

The British subsequently agree to the deal for Palestine and the Zionists in London contact their counterparts in America and inform them of this fact. Suddenly all the major newspapers in America that up to that point had been pro-German turned on Germany running propaganda pieces such as: German soldiers were killing Red Cross Nurses; German soldiers were cutting off babies hands, etc., in order to manipulate the American public against the Germans.

ABSOLUTELY NON OF THESE CLAIMS WERE TRUE AT ALL.

This same year, President Woodrow Wilson, ran a re-election campaign under the slogan, “Re-Elect The Man Who Will Keep Your Sons Out Of The War.”

On December 12, Germany and her allies offer peace terms to end the war.

1917:  As a result of Germany’s offer of peace the Rothschild war machine goes into overdrive in America, spreading propaganda which leads to President Wilson under the instructions of American Zionist leader and Supreme Court Justice, Louis Dembitz Brandeis, reneging on his promise to the electorate and taking America into the first world war on April 6.

As per the Rothschild Zionist promise to the British, to take America into the war, they decide they want something in writing from the British to prove that they will uphold their side of the bargain. The British Foreign Secretary, Arthur James Balfour therefore drafts a letter which is commonly known as the, “Balfour Declaration”:

Foreign Office 
November 2nd, 1917 

Dear Lord Rothschild, 

I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty’s Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet. 

His Majesty’s Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. 

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. 

Yours sincerely, 
Arthur James Balfour

The Rothschilds order the execution by the Bolsheviks they control, and the murder of Tsar Nicholas II and his entire family in Russia, even though the Tsar had already abdicated on March.

Czar Nicholas II and family — murdered by the Rothschilds

2. This is both to get control of the country and an act of revenge for Tsar Alexander I blocking their world government plan in 1815 at the Congress Of Vienna, and Tsar Alexander II siding with President Abraham Lincoln in 1864.

It is extremely important for them to slaughter the entire family including women and children in order to make good on the promise to do so made by Nathan Mayer Rothschild in 1815. It is designed to show the world what happens if you ever attempt to cross the Rothschilds.

J.P. Morgan

U.S. Congressman Oscar Callaway informs Congress that J. P. Morgan is a Rothschild front and has taken control of the American media industry.

He states,

“In March, 1915, the J.P. Morgan interests, the steel, shipbuilding, and powder interest, and their subsidiary organizations, got together 12 men high up in the newspaper world and employed them to select the most influential newspapers in the United States and sufficient number of them to control generally the policy of the daily press…They found it was only necessary to purchase the control of 25 of the greatest papers…An agreement was reached.

The policy of the papers was bought, to be paid for by the month, an editor was furnished for each paper to properly supervise and edit information regarding the questions of preparedness, militarism, financial policies, and other things of national and international nature considered vital to the interests of the purchasers.”

1919:  In January, Ashkenazi Jews, Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, are killed as they attempt to lead another Rothschild funded Communist coup, this time in Berlin, Germany.

The Versailles peace conference is held to decide reparations that the Germans need to pay to the victors following the end of the first world war. A delegation of 117 Zionists headed up by Ashkenazi Jew, Bernard Baruch, bring up the subject of the promise of Palestine for them. At this point the Germans realized why America had turned on them and under whose influence, the Rothschilds.

The Germans, naturally, felt they had been betrayed by the Zionists. This is because, at the time the Rothschilds made their deal with Britain for Palestine, in exchange for bringing America into the war, Germany was the most friendly country in the world towards the Jews, indeed the German Emancipation Edict of 1822 guaranteed Jews in Germany all civil rights enjoyed by Germans.

Also, Germany was the only country in Europe which did not place restrictions on Jews, even giving them refuge when they had to flee from Russia after their first attempted Communist coup failed there in 1905.

Nevertheless, the Rothschilds had held up their side of the bargain to spill the blood of millions of innocents and as a result, Palestine is confirmed as a Jewish homeland, and whilst its handover to the Rothschilds takes place it is to remain under the control of Britain as the Rothschilds control Britain. At that time less than one percent of the population of Palestine was Jewish.  Interestingly, the host of the Versailles peace conference is its boss, Baron Edmond de Rothschild.

On March 29th The Times of London reports on the Bolsheviks in Russia,

“One of the curious features of the Bolshevist movement is the high percentage of non Russian elements among its leaders. Of the twenty or thirty commissaries, or leaders, who provide the central machinery of the Bolshevist movement, not less than 75% were Jews.”

It is reported that the Rothschilds were angry with the Russians because they were not prepared to allow them to form a central bank within their nation.  They therefore gathered groups of Jewish spies and sent them into Russia to drum up a revolution for the benefit of the common man, which was actually a takeover of Russia by a Rothschild controlled satanic elite.

These Jewish spies were, in age old deceptive Ashkenazi tradition, given Russian names, for example Trotsky was a member of the first group and his original name was Bronstein. These groups were sent to areas throughout Russia to incite riots and rebellion.

The Jewish Post International Edition, week ending January 24th 1991, confirms Vladimir Lenin was Jewish. Lenin is also on record as having stated,

“The establishment of a central bank is 90% of communizing a nation.”

These Jewish, Rothschild funded Bolsheviks would go on in the course of history to slaughter 60 million Christians and Non-Jews in Soviet controlled territory. Indeed the author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in his work, “Gulag Archipelago, Vol 2,” affirms that Zionist Jews created and administered the organized Soviet concentration camp system in which these tens of millions of Christians and Non-Jews died.

On page 79 of this book he even names the administrators of this the greatest killing machine in the history of the world. They are Aron Solts, Yakov Rappoport, Lazar Kogan, Matvei Berman, Genrikh Yagoda, and Naftaly Frenkel. All six are Zionist Jews. In 1970 Solzhenitsyn would be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for literature.

N. M. Rothschild & Sons’ are given a permanent role to fix the world’s daily gold price. This takes place in the City of London offices, daily at 1100 hours, in the same room until 2004.

1920: Winston Churchill (whose mother, Jenny (Jacobson) Jerome, was Jewish – meaning he is Jewish under Ashkenazi law as he was born of a Jewish mother) writes in an article in the Illustrated Sunday Herald, dated February 8th,

“From the days of Illuminati leader Weishaupt, to those of Karl Marx, to those of Trotsky, this worldwide conspiracy has been steadily growing. And now at last this band of extraordinary personalities from the underworld of the great cities of Europe and America, have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their heads and become the undisputed masters of that enormous empire.”

1921:  Under the orders of Jacob Schiff the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is founded by Ashkenazi Jews, Bernard Baruch and Colonel Edward Mandell House.

Schiff gave his orders prior to his death in 1920, as he knew an organisation in America needed to be set up to select politicians to carry on the Rothschild conspiracy,and the formation of the CFR was actually agreed in a meeting on May 30, 1919 at the Hotel Majestic in Paris, France.

The CFR membership at the start was approximately 1,000 people in the United States. This membership included the heads of virtually every industrial empire in America, all the American based international bankers, and the heads of all their tax free foundations. In essence all those people who would provide the capital required for anyone who wished to run for Congress, the Senate or the Presidency.

Controlling The Press

The first job of the CFR was to gain control of the press. This task was given to John D. Rockefeller who set up a number of national news magazines such as Life, and Time. He financed Samuel Newhouse to buy up and establish a chain of newspapers all across the country, and Eugene Meyer also who would go on to buy up many publications such as the Washington Post, Newsweek, ant The Weekly Magazine.

The CFR also needed to get control of radio, television and the motion picture industry. This task was split amongst the international bankers from, Kuhn Loeb, Goldman Sachs, the Warburgs, and the Lehmanns.

1925:  This year’s Jewish Encyclopaedia, states of the existence of Ashkenazi Jews (who represent approximately 90% of so-called world Jewry), with the startling admission that the so called enemy of the Jews, Esau (also known as Edom, see Genesis 36:1), now actually represents the Jewish race, when on page 42 of Volume V it is stated,

“Edom is in modern Jewry.”

So what they’re basically saying is that these Ashkenazi Jews, who represent 90% of the so-called Jewish population, are actually gentiles or goyim themselves.

1926: N. M. Rothschild & Sons refinance the Underground Electric Railways Company of London Ltd which has a controlling interest in the entire London Underground transport system.

Maurice de Rothschild has a son, Edmond de Rothschild.

1929 Financial Crash

1929:  The Rothschilds crash the United States economy by contracting the money supply.

1930:  The first Rothschild world bank, the, “Bank for International Settlements (BIS),” is established in Basle, Switzerland.  The same place as where 33 years earlier the first ever World Zionist Congress was held.

1933: On January 30, Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. He drives Jews, many of which were Communist out of Governmental positions within Germany.

As a result of this, in July, the Jews hold a World Conference in Amsterdam during which they demand that Hitler re-instate every Jew back to his former position.

Hitler refuses and as a result of this, Samuel Untermyer, the Ashkenazi Jew who blackmailed President Wilson,and is now the head of the American delegation and the president of the whole conference, returns to the United States, and makes a speech on radio which was transcribed in the From the New York Times, Monday, August 7, 1933.

In the speech he made the following statements,

“…the Jews are the aristocrats of the world…Our campaign is…the economic boycott against all German goods, shipping and services…What we are proposing…is to prosecute a purely defensive economic boycott that will undermine the Hitler regime and bring the German people to their senses by destroying their export trade on which their very existence depends…Each of you, Jew and Gentile alike…must refuse to deal with any merchant or shopkeeper who sells any German-made goods or who patronizes German ships or shipping.”

As two thirds of Germany’s food supply had to be imported, and could only be imported with the proceeds of what they exported, if Germany could not export, two thirds of Germany’s population would starve, as there would be not enough food for more than one third of the population.

As a result of this boycott, Jews throughout America, would protest outside and damage any stores in which they found any products with, “Made in Germany,” printed on them, causing stores to have to dump these products or risk bankruptcy.

Once the effects of this boycott began to be felt in Germany, the Germans, who had demonstrated no violence towards the Jews up to this point, simply began boycotting Jewish stores in the same way the Jews had done to stores selling German products in America.

Rothschild financed IBM, supply machines to the Nazis which produce punch cards to help organize and manage the initial identification and social expulsion of Jews, the confiscation of their property and their extermination.

On November 16, President Roosevelt recognizes the Zionist regime of Stalin in Russia without consultation with Congress even as 8,000 Ukrainians march in protest in New York.

Also this year, President Roosevelt, born of a Jewish mother, therefore satisfying Ashkenazi rules of being Jewish, orders the all-seeing eye to be placed upon all new dollar bills along with the motto, “Novus Ordo Seclorum.” This is latin for, “A New Order of the Ages.”

1934: Swiss banking secrecy laws are reformed and it becomes an offence resulting in imprisonment for any bank employee to violate bank secrecy. This is all in preparation for the Rothschild engineered Second World War in which as usual they will fund both sides.

Edmond de Rothschild dies.

1936:  With regard to the increase in anti-semitism in Germany, Samuel Landman (at the time, secretary to the World Zionist Organisation), in his 1936 book, Great Britain, The Jews, and Palestine states the following of the United States entry into World War 1:

The fact that it was Jewish help that brought USA into the War on the side of the Allies has rankled ever since in German – especially Nazi – minds, and has contributed in no small measure to the prominence which anti-Semitism occupies in the Nazi programme.”

1938: On 7th November, a Jew, Herschel Grynszpan, assassinated Ernst vom Rath, a minor official at the German Embassy in Paris. As a result of this German hostility towards Jews in Germany started to turn violent.

The Rothschilds Austrian banking house in Vienna, S. M. von Rothschild und Söhne, closes following the Nazi occupation of Austria.

1939: I.G. Farben the leading producer of chemicals in the world and largest German producer of steel dramatically increases its production. This increased production is almost exclusively used to arm Germany for the Second World War. This company was controlled by the Rothschilds and would go on to use Jews and other disaffected peoples as slave labour in the concentration camps. I.G. Farben also created the lethal Zyklon B gas that was used to exterminate the Jews?

On 1 September, 1939, the Second world war starts when Germany invades Poland.  This was because the German leadership were a Christian leadership, who understood that Soviet Russia was led by Rothschild funded Communists, and they feared that as the Soviet Union grew in strength, these Jewish Communists would invade and wipe all the Christians off the map.

1940: Hansjurgen Koehler in his book, “Inside The Gestapo,” states the following, of Maria Anna Schicklgruber, Adolf Hitler’s grandmother,

“A little servant girl…came to Vienna and became a domestic servant…at the Rothschild mansion…and Hitler’s unknown grandfather must be probably looked for in this magnificent house.”

This is backed up by Walter Langer in his book, “The Mind Of Hitler,” in which he states,

“Adolf’s father, Alois Hitler, was the illegitimate son of Maria Anna Schicklgruber…Maria Anna Schicklgruber was living in Vienna at the time she conceived. At that time she was employed as a servant in the home of Baron Rothschild. As soon as the family discovered her pregnancy she was sent back home…where Alois was born.”

On the surface, it would appear Hitler was unlikely to be a Rothschild, but then again, when you discover the benefits that the Rothschilds got out of this war, both financially and politically, a Rothschild connection does not appear as outlandish as it may initially seem.

(Read more on this subject HERE).

1941:  President Roosevelt takes America into the second world war by refusing to sell Japan any more steel scrap or oil. Japan was in the midst of a war against China and without that scrap steel and oil, Japan would be unable to continue that war. Japan was totally dependent upon the United States for both steel scrap and oil. Roosevelt knew this action would provoke the Japanese to attack America, which they subsequently did at Pearl Harbor.

1942: Prescott Bush, father of future American Presidents’ George Herbert Walker and George W, has his company seized under the, “Trading With The Enemy,” Act. He was funding Hitler from America, whilst American soldiers were being killed by German soldiers. Jews are also being slaughtered by these same soldiers. Interestingly the ADL never criticizes any of the Bushes for this.

1943: February 18th, Zionist, Izaak Greenbaum, head of the Jewish Agency Rescue Committee, in a speech to the Zionist Executive Council states,

“If I am asked, could you give from the UJA (United Jewish Appeal) monies to rescue Jews, I say, no and I say again no!”

He would go onto state,

“One cow in Palestine is worth more than all the Jews in Poland!”

This is not a surprise, the whole idea of Zionist support for the slaughter of innocent Jews was to scare the survivors into believing that their only place of safety was Israel.  How else do you think the Zionists could ensure Jews leave the beautiful European cities in which they live, in order to settle in a desert!

1944:  On 6 November Lord Moyne, British Minister Resident in the Middle East was assassinated in Cairo by two members of the Jewish terrorist group, the Stern Gang, led by future Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Shamir. He is also responsible for  an assassination attempt against Harold MacMichael, the High Commissioner of the British Mandate of Palestine, this same year.

Interestingly he also masterminds another successful assassination this year against the United Nations representative in the Middle East, Count Folke Bernadotte who, although he had secured the release of 21,000 prisoners from German camps during World War II, was seen by Yitzak Shamir and his terrorist collaborators as an anti-Zionist.

IMF & World Bank = Private Rothschild Banks

In Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, two further Rothschild world banks are created. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank.

1945: The end of the Second World War. It is reported that I.G. Farben plants were specifically not targeted in the bombing raids on Germany. Interestingly at the end of the war, they were found to have only sustained 15% damage. The tribunals held at the end of the Second World War, to investigate Nazi War Crimes, censored any materials recording Western assistance to Hitler.

The Rothschilds take a giant step towards their goal of world domination when the second, “League of Nations,” called the, “United Nations,” was approved this year.

1946:  On July 22 the future Prime Minister of Israel, Ashkenazi Jew, David Ben-Gurion, orders another future Prime Minister of Israel, Ashkenazi Jew, Menachem Begin, to carry out a terrorist attack on the King David Hotel in Palestine, to try and drive out the British. As a result of this 91 people were killed, most of them civilians: 28 British, 41 Arabs, 17 Jews, and 5 others. Around 45 people are injured.

Menachem Begin went on to proudly proclaimed himself as, “the father of modern terrorism.” Just to put the gravity of the attack on the King David Hotel into perspective, it was at the time the biggest death toll as a result of single terrorist action ever and was only surpassed over forty years later by the Bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie.

1947: The British who prior to World War 2 declared that there would be no more immigration of Jews to Palestine in order to protect the Palestinians from their acts of terror against both them and British soldiers, transfer control of Palestine to the United Nations. The United Nations resolve to have Palestine partitioned into two states, one Zionist and one Arab, with Jerusalem to remain as an international zone to be enjoyed by all religious faiths.

This transfer was scheduled to take place on May 15, 1948. The United Nations had no right to give Arab property to anyone, as indeed even thought the Jews owned 6% of Palestine at that time, resolution 181 granted the Jews 57% of the land leaving the Arabs who at that time had 94% with only 43%.

Information collected by the ADL in its spy operations on US citizens is used by the House Select Committee on Unamerican Activities. Subcommittee Chair Clare Hoffman dismisses the ADL’s reports on suspected communists as “hearsay.”

1948: In the Spring of this year, the Rothschilds bribe President Harry S. Truman (33rd President of the United States 1945 – 1953) to recognize Israel (Rothschild owned Zionist not Jewish territory) as a sovereign state with $2,000,000 which they give to him on his campaign train.

They then declare Israel to be a sovereign Jewish state in Palestine and within half an hour President Truman declared the United States to be the first foreign nation to recognize it.

The Flag of Israel is unveiled. Despite tremendous opposition the emblem on the flag is a blue colored version of the Rothschild, “Red Hexagram or Sign.”

This angers many Jews who realize this Hexagram was used in the ancient mystery religions as the symbol of, “Moloch,” (described as a demon of unwilling sacrifice and is also interestingly the name of the stone owl the elite worship at Bohemian Grove), and, “Astaroth,” (described as the Lord Treasurer of Hell).

The Hexagram was also used to represent Saturn, which has been identified as the esoteric name for, “Satan.” This indicates that anyone killed in the name of Israel is actually a sacrifice to Satan.

These dissenting Jews believe the, “Menorah,” the oldest Jewish symbol should be used and pointed out that the Hexagram is not even a Jewish symbol, but of course as the Rothschild Zionists use it that is what ends up on the Rothschild, I mean Zionist, I mean Israeli flag.

In the early hours of April 19, 132 Jewish terrorists from the Irgun gang, led by future Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and the Stern gang, led by future Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, brutally massacre 200 men, women and children as they are sleeping peacefully in the Arab village of Deir Yassin.

Following the United Nations transfer of Palestine to an independent Jewish state and an independent Arab state on May 15, the Israelis launched a military assault on the Arabs with blaring loudspeakers on their trucks informing the Arabs that if they did not flee immediately, they would be slaughtered.

800,000 Arabs with the recent memory of the Deir Yassin massacre at the forefront of their minds, fled in panic. They asked for help from neighbouring Arab states, but those states did not get involved as they were no match for the Israelis whose up to date military hardware had been supplied by the Jewish Stalinist regime in Russia.  Following this assault, the Jews now controlled 78% of the former Palestine as oppose to the 57% that had been given to them illegally by the United Nations.

The Palestinians, many of them Christians, were never paid compensation for their homes, property and businesses stolen from them during this illegal Jewish assault, and these people ended up in slum refugee cities of tents. Futhermore at least half of the Palestinians in their hurry to flee, left their birth certificates behind. The State of Israel then passed a law that only those who could prove citizenship were allowed to return to Israel, thus meaning these 400,000 Palestinians could not return and lost all their property they had left there.

Ashkenazi Jew, David Ben-Gurion, one of the father founders of Israel and its first Prime Minister, candidly describes Zionist aims in his diary (21 May 1948) as follows,

“The Achilles heel of the Arab coalition is the Lebanon. Muslim supremacy in this country is artificial and can easily be overthrown. A Christian State ought to be set up there, with its southern frontier on the river Litani.

We would sign a treaty of alliance with this State. Thus when we have broken the strength of the Arab Legion and bombed Amman, we could wipe out Trans-Jordan, after that Syria would fall. And if Egypt still dared to make war on us, we would bomb Port Said, Alexandria and Cairo. We should thus end the war and would have but paid to Egypt, Assyria and Chaldea on behalf of our ancestors.”

Mao Zedong

1949:  On October 1, Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) declares the founding of the People’s Republic Of China in Tiananmen Square, Beijing. He is funded by Rothschild created Communism in Russia and also the following Rothschild agents: Solomon Adler, a former United States Treasury official who was a Soviet Spy; Israel Epstein, the son of a Jewish Bolshevik imprisoned by the Tsar in Russia for trying to foment a revolution there; and Frank Coe, a leading official of the Rothschild owned IMF.

1950: Israel passes their law of return, guaranteeing every Jew worldwide the right to dwell in the state of Israel, however the Palestinians even though they had lived there for 1300 years, were denied that right. John Davitt, former chief of the Justice Department’s internal security section notes that the Israeli intelligence service is the second most active in the United States after the Soviets and of course both Israel and the Soviet Union are run by an Ashkenazi Jewish leadership.

1951: On 1 April the Israeli Secret Intelligence Agency the Mossad, which will go on to terrorize the world, is formed. The motto of the Mossad is probably the most disgusting secret service motto in the world, it is,

“By Way Of Deception, Thou Shalt Do War.”

1953: N. M. Rothschild & Sons found the British Newfoundland Corporation Limited to develop 60,000 square miles of land in Newfoundland, Canada, which comprised a power station to harness the power of the Hamilton (later renamed Churchill) Falls. At the time this was the largest construction project ever to be undertaken by a private company.

1954: “The Lavon Affair.”  Israeli agents recruit Egyptian citizens of Jewish descent to bomb Western targets in Egypt, and plant evidence to frame Arabs, in an apparent attempt to upset American/Egyptian relations. Israeli defense minister, Ashkenazi Jew, Pinhas Lavon is eventually removed from office, though many think real responsibility lay with David Ben-Gurion.

A hidden microphone planted by the Israelis is discovered in the Office of the US Ambassador in Tel Aviv.

1955: Edmond de Rothschild founds Compagnie Financiere, Paris.

1956: Telephone taps are found connected to two telephones in the residence of the US military attaché in Tel Aviv.

1957: James de Rothschild dies and it is reported (by the Rothschild owned media) that he bequeaths a large sum of money to the state of Israel to pay for the construction of their parliament building, the Knesset. He states that the Knesset should be,

“a symbol, in the eyes of all men, of the permanence of the State of Israel.”

On page 219 of his book, “Tales of the British Aristocracy,” L.G. Pine, the Editor of Burke’s Peerage, states that the Jews,

“have made themselves so closely connected with the British peerage that the two classes are unlikely to suffer loss which is not mutual. So closely linked are the Jews and the lords that a blow against the Jews in this country would not be possible without injuring the aristocracy also.”

Maurice de Rothschild dies in Paris.

1962: de Rothschild Frères establishes Imétal as an umbrella company for all their mineral mining interests.

Frederic Morton publishes his book, The Rothschilds, in which he states,

“Though they control scores of industrial, commercial, mining and tourist corporations, not one bears the name Rothschild. Being private partnerships, the family houses never need to, and never do, publish a single public balance sheet, or any other report of their financial condition.”

This attitude reveals the true aim of the Rothschilds, to eliminate all competition and create their own worldwide monopoly.

President John F. Kennedy
and his wife, Jacqueline

1963: On June 4th President John F. Kennedy (the 35th President of the United States 1961 – 1963) signs Executive Order 11110 which returned to the U.S. government the power to issue currency, without going through the Rosthchilds owned Federal Reserve.

Less than 6 months later on November 22nd , president Kennedy is assassinated by the Rothschilds for the same reason as they assassinated President Abraham Lincoln in 1865, he wanted to print American money for the American people, as oppose to for the benefit of a money grabbing war mongering foreign elite.

This Executive Order 11110, is rescinded by President Lyndon Baines Johnson (the 36th President of the United States 1963 to 1969) on Air Force One from Dallas to Washington, the same day as President Kennedy was assassinated. Another, and probably the primary, reason for Kennedy’s assassination is however, the fact that he made it quite clear to Israeli Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, that under no circumstances would he agree to Israel becoming a nuclear state.

The Israeli newspaper Ha’aretz on February 5, 1999, in a review of, Avner Cohen’s book, “Israel and the Bomb,” states the following,

“The murder of American President John F. Kennedy brought to an abrupt end the massive pressure being applied by the U.S. administration on the government of Israel to discontinue the nuclear program…The book implied that, had Kennedy remained alive, it is doubtful whether Israel would today have a nuclear option.”

Edmond de Rothschild establishes La Compagnie Financière Edmond de Rothschild (LCF), in Switzerland as a venture capital house. This later develops into an investment bank and asset management company with many affiliates. He also marries his wife Nadine and they have a son, Benjamin de Rothschild.

1965: Israel illegally obtains enriched uranium from NUMEC (Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation).

1967: The treatment of the Palestinians by the Zionist Jews, finally ignites enough anger in the Arab world for Egypt, Jordan and Syria to mobilize on Israel’s borders. All of these three countries are suddenly attacked by Israel and as a result the Sinai which included Gaza was stolen from Egypt, and the West Bank and the Jordan River stolen from Jordan.

USS Liberty Aftermath

As a result of this, on June 8, the Israelis launch an attack on the USS Liberty with Israeli aircraft and motor torpedo boats, in an effort to blame it on Egypt, to bring America into the war on their side, and of course follow to the letter, their Mossad motto,

“By Way Of Deception, Thou Shalt Do War.”

As a result of their attack, 34 American servicemen were killed and 174 wounded. Israel lies as usual, claiming it mistook this warship that was flying a large United States flag, for an ancient out-of-service Egyptian horse carrier El Quseir, that was 180 feet shorter. They also claim the ship was in the war zone, when it was actually in international waters, far from any fighting.

The Israeli’s attack on this warship lasts for 75 minutes during which time they shoot up one of the United States flags, resulting in the sailors desperately raising another one.

In the aftermath of this attack, the American sailors who survived are warned by the United States military not to discuss the matter with anyone due to, “national security.”

This story gets no prominence in the Rothschild controlled mainstream media and as usual Israel is in no way even rebuked for their crimes by their subservient country of America.

The following day, June 9th, Israel illegally occupies the Golan Heights which it seizes from Syria. This area goes on to provide Israel with one third of its fresh water.

Israeli General Matityahu Peled, is quoted in Ha’aretz (19 March 1972) with the following statement,

“The thesis that the danger of genocide was hanging over us in June 1967 and that Israel was fighting for its physical existence is only bluff, which was born and developed after the war.”
Another sickening and deceptive statement but again at least he’s consistent with the Mossad motto,

“By Way Of Deception, Thou Shalt Do War.“

de Rothschild Frères is renamed Banque Rothschild.

1968: Noémie Halphen, wife of Maurice de Rothschild dies.

1970: While working for Senator Henry “Scoop” Jackson, Ashkenazi Jew, Richard Perle is caught by the FBI giving classified information to Israel. Nothing is done.

British Prime Minister Edward Heath makes Lord Victor Rothschild the head of his policy unit. Whilst he is in that role Britain enters the European Community.

1973: In his book, None Dare Call It Conspiracy, Gary Allen states,

“One major reason for the historical blackout on the role of the international bankers in political history is the Rothschilds were Jewish…The Jewish members of the conspiracy have used an organisation called The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) as an instrument to try and convince everyone that any mention of the Rothschilds and their allies is an attack on all Jews.

In this way they have stifled almost all honest scholarship on international bankers and made the subject taboo within universities.

Any individual or book exploring this subject is immediately attacked by hundreds of ADL communities all over the country. The ADL has never let the truth or logic interfere with its highly professional smear jobs…

Actually, nobody has a right to be more angry at the Rothschild clique than their fellow Jews…The Rothschild empire helped finance Adolf Hitler.”

George J. Laurer an employee of the Rothschilds controlled IBM, invents the UPC (Universal Product Code) barcode which will eventually be placed upon every item traded worldwide and bear the number, 666. The Book of Revelation, Chapter 13, Verse 17 through 18, states the following in relation to this number,

“And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.”

The whole Satanic aims of the Rothschilds are now in full view of the world, everything bought or sold carries the mark of the beast, 666.

(Read more on this subject HERE).

N. M. Rothschild & Sons British Newfoundland Corporation, Churchill Falls project in Newfoundland, Canada, is completed.

N. M. Rothschild & Sons also create a new asset management part of the company which traded worldwide. This eventually became, Rothschild Private Management Limited.

Edmond de Rothschild, a great-grandson of Jacob (James) Mayer Rothschild, bought the cru bourgeois estate of Château Clarke in Bordeaux.

1976:  Ashkenazi Jew, Harold Rosenthal, aide to Ashkenazi Jew, Senator Jacob Javits, states,

“Most Jews do not like to admit it, but our god is Lucifer.”

1978: Ashkenazi Jew, Stephen Bryen, then a Senate Foreign Relations Committee staffer, is overheard in a Washington D.C. hotel offering confidential documents to top Israeli military officials.

Bryen obtains a lawyer, Nathan Lewin, and the case heads for the grand jury, but is mysteriously dropped. Bryen later goes to work for Richard Perle.

1979: The Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty in 1979 was underwritten by United States aid which pledged $3 billion annually to Israel from the United States taxpayer (not even a drop in the ocean when you consider the amount they make off the Federal Reserve).

Satanist Anton LaVey

Shin Bet (the Israeli internal security agency) tries to penetrate the US Consulate General in Jerusalem through a “Honey Trap”, using a clerical employee who was having an affair with a Jerusalem girl.

Baron and Baroness Phillipi de Rothschild in a joint venture with Robert Mondavi, begin the construction of a pyramid in Napa Valley, California, where the leader/founder of the Church Of Satan, Ashkenazi Jew, Anton LaVey, was based. This is known as Opus 1 (which means, the first work), and the front for this temple is that it is a winery.

1980: The global phenomenon of privatisation starts. The Rothschilds are behind this from the very beginning in order to seize control of all publicly owned assets worldwide.

1981: Banque Rothschild is nationalised by the French government. The new bank is called, Compagnie Européenne de Banque.

The Rothschilds subsequently set up a successor to this French bank, Rothschild & Cie Banque (RCB), which goes on to become a leading French investment house.

1982:  From September 16 to 18, future Prime Minister of Israel and then Defence Minister, Ashkenazi Jew, Ariel Sharon, orchestrates Israel’s invasion of Lebanon, which provided ariel lighting in order to facilitate the killing of between 1000 and 2000 men, women and children in the Sabra and Shatila massacres.

1985: Eustace Mullins publishes, “Who Owns The TV Networks,” in which he reveals the Rothschilds have control of all three major U.S. Networks, which are: NBC; CBS; and ABC.

The New York Times reports the FBI is aware of at least a dozen incidents in which American officials transferred classified information to the Israelis, quoting (former Assistant Director of the F.B.I.) Raymond Wannal. The Justice Department does not prosecute.

Richard Smyth, the owner of MILCO, is indicted on charges of smuggling nuclear timing devices to Israel.

N. M. Rothschild & Sons advise the British government on the privatisation of British Gas. They subsequently advise the British government on virtually all of their other privatisations of state owned assets including: British Steel; British Coal; all the British regional electricity boards; and all the British regional water boards.

A British MP heavily involved in these privatisations is future Chancellor of the Exchequer, Norman Lamont, a former Rothschild banker.

1986: Mordechai Vanunu a technician at Dimona, Israel’s nuclear installation, from 1976 to 1985, discovers that the plant was secretly producing nuclear weapons.

His conscience made him speak out and in 1986 he provided the London Sunday Times with the facts and photos they used to tell the world about Israel’s nuclear weapons programme.

His evidence showed that Israel had stockpiled up to 200 nuclear warheads, with no debate or authorization from it own citizens. On 30th September 1986, Vanunu was lured from London to Rome. There he was kidnapped, drugged and shipped to Israel.

After a secret trial he was sentenced to 18 years for, “treason,” and, “espionage,” (something Israel are very familiar with) though he had received no payment and had communicated with no foreign power.

He goes on to be held in complete isolation for 11 years, only allowed occasional visits from his family, lawyer and a priest, conducted through a metal screen. Although he completes his sentence, the Israeli government continues to hold him against his will.

1987: Edmond de Rothschild creates the World Conservation Bank which is designed to transfer debts from third world countries to this bank and in return those countries would give land to this bank. This is designed so the Rothschilds can gain control of the third world which represents 30% of the land surface of the Earth.

On April 24 the Wall Street Journal reveals the, “Role of Israel in Iran-Contra Scandal Won’t be Explored in Detail by Panels.”

1988: The ADL initiate a nationwide competition for law students to draft anti-hate legislation for minority groups. That competition is won by a man named, Joseph Ribakoff, whose thesis proposes that not only must hate motivated violence be banned, but also any words which stimulate: supiscion; friction; hate; and possible violence, these must also be criminalised.

This ADL prize-winning paper suggests that not only should state-agencies monitor and restrict free speech in general, but they should also censor all films that criticize identifiable groups.

Furthermore, even if the person making the statement can justify it, for example Christians criticizing homosexuality because the bible expressly forbids it, Ribakoff asserts that the truth is to be no defence in court.

The only proof a court will need in order to secure a conviction of hate speech is that something has been said, and a minority group or member of such group has felt emotionally damaged as a result of such criticism.  Therefore, under these proposals which the ADL will have forced into law all over the world less than 15 years later, Jesus Christ would have been arrested as a hate criminal.

This law is designed to protect the Rothschild conspiracy from being revealed in that if you criticize the Rothschilds criminal cabal, you will be targeted as anti-Semitic, and thus risk imprisonment.

Philippe de Rothschild dies.

1989: Many of the satellite states in Eastern Europe, through the influence of Glasnost, become more open in their demands of freedom from Communist governance in their Republics.

Many revolutions happen in 1989, most of them involving the overthrow of their respective Communist governments and the replacement of them with Republics.

Thus, the hold the Communists had over Eastern Europe (the Iron Curtain) becomes very weak. Eventually, as a result of Perestroika and Glasnost, Communism collapses, not only in the Soviet Union but also in Eastern Europe.

In Russia, Boris Yeltsin (whose wife is the daughter of Joseph Stalin’s marriage to Rosa Kaganovich) and the Republican government takes steps to end the power of the Communist party by suspending and banning the party and seizing all their property.

This symbolized the fall of Communism in Russia, and resulted in the start of a mass exodus of 700,000 Jews from the former Soviet Union to Israel.

In the Israeli Journal, Hotam (24 November 1989), there is a report of a speech that then Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister, Ashkenazi Jew, Binyamin Netanyahu, gave to students at Bar Ilan University in which he states,

“Israel should have exploited the repression of the demonstrations in China, when world attention focused on that country, to carry out mass expulsions among the Arabs of the territories.”

The London and Paris Rothschilds announce the launch of a new subsidiary, Rothschild GmbH, in Frankfurt, Germany.

1991:  Following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, on January 16 of this year the United States and Britain began an aerial bombing campaign of targets within Iraq. On 24 February the ground campaign commenced which was to last 100 hours until on February 28 when a horrendous war crime occurred.

This crime was the slaughter of 150,000 Iraqi troops with fuel air bombs. These Iraqis were fleeing on a crowded highway from Kuwait to Basra.

President George Herbert Walker Bush ordered United States military aircraft and ground units to kill these surrendering troops, they were then bulldozed into mass unmarked graves in the desert, some still alive.

Iraq, 1990 — Highway Bombing, Aftermath Scene

President Bush then ordered a cessation of hostilities. What was the significance of this slaughter and President Bush declaring the war over on this day?

Well it was the day the, “Day of Purim,” fell on this year. This day the Jews celebrate their victory over Ancient Babylon, now based within the borders of Iraq and a day when the Jews are encouraged to get bloody revenge against their perceived enemies.

David Rockefeller

At the Bilderberg Conference on June 6 to 9 of this year, in Baden-Baden, Germany, David Rockefeller (a Rothschild) made the following statement,

“We are grateful to the Washington Post, the New York Times, Time Magazine, and other great publications whose directors have attended our meetings and respected their promises of discretion for almost 40 years.

It would have been impossible for us to develop our plan for the world, if we had been subjected to the lights of publicity during those years.

But the world is now more sophisticated and prepared to march towards a world government. The super-national sovereignty of an intellectual elite and world bankers is surely preferable to the national auto-determination practiced in past centuries.”

1992: In March, former Federal Reserve Board Chairman, Paul A. Volker became Chairman of the European banking firm, J. Rothschild, Wolfensohn and Co.

Stephen Bryen, caught offering confidential documents to Israel in 1978, is serving on board of the pro-Israeli Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs while continuing as a paid consultant, with security clearance, on exports of sensitive US technology.

“The Samson Option,” by Seymour M. Hersh reports,

“Illicitly obtained intelligence was flying so voluminously from LAKAM (a secret Israeli intelligence unit, a Hebrew acronym for Scientific Liaison Bureau) into Israeli intelligence that a special code name, JUMBO, was added to the security markings already on the documents.

There were strict orders, Ari Ben-Menashe recalled, “Anything marked JUMBO was not supposed to be discussed with your American counterparts.”

The Wall Street Journal reports that Israeli agents apparently tried to steal Recon Optical Inc’s top-secret airborne spy-camera system.

On September 16th Britain’s pound collapses when currency speculators led by Rothschild agent, Ashkenazi Jew, George Soros George Soros, borrow pounds and sell them for Deutsche Marks, in the expectation of being able to repay the loan in devalued currency and to pocket the difference.

This results in the British Chancellor of the Exchequer, Norman Lamont, announcing a rise in interest rates of 5% in one day and as a result drives Britain into a recession which lasts many years as large numbers of businesses fail and the housing market crashes.

This is right on cue for the Rothschilds, after they had privatised Britain’s state owned assets during the 1980’s, driven the share price up, and then collapsed the markets so they could buy them up for pennies on the pound, a carbon copy of what Nathan Mayer Rothschild did to the British economy 180 years before, in 1812.

It cannot be overstated that the Chancellor of the Exchequer at that time, Norman Lamont, prior to becoming a MP, was a Merchant Banker with N. M. Rothschild and Sons, who he joined after reading Economics at Cambridge.

1993: Norman Lamont leaves the British government to return to N. M. Rothschild and Sons as a director, after his mission to collapse the British economy to profit the Rothschilds is accomplished.

Former Congressman, Paul Findley publishes his seminal book, Deliberate Deceptions: Facing the Facts About the U.S. Israeli Relationship.

In this book he lists the 65 United Nations Member Resolutions against Israel from the period 1955 to 1992, and the 30 United States vetoes on Israel’s behalf which if not made would have seen Israel have 95 resolutions against them at this point.

No matter, even with Israel’s puppet the United States helping them terrorise others, the 65 Resolutions passed against Israel are more than all the Resolutions passed against all other countries combined.

Not that Israel cares too much about the views of the United Nations when you consider that less than two weeks after Israel’s attack on the USS Liberty (an attack designed to sink the Liberty and blame it on Egypt prompting the USA into a war with Egypt on behalf of Israeli Lies, remember the Mossad motto, “By Way Of Deception, Thou Shalt Do War”), the Israeli Foreign Minister, Aba Eban, stated of the United Nations,

“If the General Assembly were to vote by 121 votes to 1 in favor of, “Israel,” returning to the armistice lines (pre June 1967 borders), “Israel,” would refuse to comply with the decision,”

New York Times – 19 June 1967. The UN is simply another Rothschild FRONT of International Jewry.

New York Times – 19 June 1967. The ADL is caught operating a massive spying operation on critics of Israel, Arab-Americans, the San Francisco Labor Council, ILWU Local 10, Oakland Educational Association, NAACP, Irish Northern Aid, International Indian Treaty Council, the Asian Law Caucus and the San Francisco Police.

Data collected was sent to Israel and in some cases to South Africa. Pressure from Jewish organizations forces the city to drop the criminal case, but the ADL settles a civil lawsuit for an undisclosed sum of cash.

1995: Former atomic energy scientist, Dr. Kitty Little claims the Rothschilds now control 80% of the world’s uranium supplies giving them a monopoly over nuclear power.

“Israel aggressively collects (US) military and industrial technology.”

The report stated that Israel obtains information using,

“ethnic targeting, financial aggrandizement, and identification and exploitation of individual frailties,” of US citizens.

1996: A General Accounting Office report, “Defense Industrial Security: Weaknesses in US Security Arrangements With Foreign-Owned Defense Contractors,” found that according to intelligence sources, “Country A,” (identified by intelligence sources as Israel, Washington Times, 22 February 1996),

“conducts the most aggressive espionage operation against the United States of any US ally.”

The report described, “An espionage operation run by the intelligence organization responsible for collecting scientific and technologic information for (Israel) paid a US government employee to obtain US classified military intelligence documents.”

The Jerusalem Post (30 August 1996) quoted the report,

“Classified military information and sensitive military technologies are high-priority targets for the intelligence agencies of this country.”

The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (Shawn L. Twing, April 1996) noted that this was,

“a reference to the 1985 arrest of Jonathan Pollard, a civilian US naval intelligence analyst who provided Israel’s LAKAM espionage agency an estimated 800,000 pages of classified US intelligence information.”

The GAO report also noted that, “Several citizens of (Israel) were caught in the United States stealing sensitive technology used in manufacturing artillery gun tubes.”

An Office of Naval Intelligence document, “Worldwide Challenges to Naval Strike Warfare” reported that,

“US technology has been acquired (by China) through Israel in the form of the Lavi fighter and possibly SAM (surface-to-air) missile technology.”

Jane’s Defense Weekly (28 February 1996) noted that, “until now, the intelligence community has not openly confirmed the transfer of US technology (via Israel) to China.”  The report noted that this, “represents a dramatic step forward for Chinese military aviation.” (Flight International, 13 March 1996).

Amschel Rothschild, 41, is strangled with the heavy cord of his own towel robe in his hotel room in Paris. French Prime Minister orders the French Police to close their investigation, and, Rupert Murdoch, born of a Jewish mother and so a Jew by Ashkenazi standards, instructs his editors and news managers around the world to report it as a heart attack, if they need to report it at all.

On 12 May United Nations Ambassador and Ashkenazi Jew, Madeleine Albright, when appearing on 60 Minutes, was asked the following by correspondent Lesley Stahl, in reference to the years of United States led economic sanctions against Iraq,

“We have heard that half a million children have died. I mean, that is more children than died in Hiroshima. And, you know, is the price worth it?”

To which Ambassador Albright replied,

“I think that is a very hard choice, but the price, we think, the price is worth it.”

Her comments cause no public outcry.  In fact, the holocaust of half a million Iraqi children is positively admired by the United States government when you consider less than 8 months later, President Clinton appointed Albright as secretary of state.  Whilst appearing before the Senate Committee, who were considering her appointment, Albright is literally chomping at the bit for the blood of more Iraqi children and she states,

“We will insist on maintaining tough UN sanctions against Iraq unless and until that regime complies with relevant Security Council resolutions.”

1997: An Army mechanical engineer, Ashkenazi Jew, David A. Tenenbaum, “inadvertently,” gives classified military information on missile systems and armored vehicles to Israeli officials (New York Times, 20 February 1997).

The Washington Post reports US intelligence has intercepted a conversation in which two Israeli officials had discussed the possibility of getting a confidential letter that then-Secretary of State Warren Christopher had written to Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.

One of the Israelis, identified only as, “Dov,” had commented that they may get the letter from, “Mega,” the code name for Israel’s top agent inside the United States.

US ambassador to Israel, Martin Indyk, complains privately to the Israeli government about heavy-handed surveillance by Israeli intelligence agents.

Israeli agents place a tap on Ashkenazi Jew and daughter of a Rabbi, Monica Lewinsky’s, phone at the Watergate and record phone sex sessions between her and President Bill Clinton. The Ken Starr report confirms that Clinton warned Lewinsky their conversations were being taped and ended the affair. Interestingly, at the same time, the FBI’s hunt for, “Mega,” is called off.

On 29 October Edmond de Rothschild dies in Geneva. Interestingly on the exact same day Anton Szandor LaVey, the founder of the Church of Satan also dies, who in his book, “Satan Speaks,” he states in relation to The Protocols Of The Elders Of Zion,
“The first time I read the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, my instinctive reaction was, So what’s wrong with THAT? Isn’t that the way any master plan should work? Doesn’t the public deserve – nay, demand – such despotism?”

Kofi Annan becomes Secretary General to the United Nations. He is married to Nane Lagergren, a Rothschild, who he wed in 1984.

1998: The European Central Bank is set up in Frankfurt, the city from which the Rothschilds originate.

2000: George W. Bush is elected (so they tell me) President of the United States. Bush and his family claim to be descendants of the House of Plantagenet which is descended from the Royal House of Judah.

9/11 Was Another Rothschild Plot

2001: On September 11th the attack on the World Trade Center is orchestrated by Israel with the complicity of Britain and America, under the orders of the Rothschilds as a pretext for removing the liberty of people worldwide in exchange for security, just as happened with the Reichstag fire in Germany where the citizens were lied to in order to give up liberty for security.

They also will use the attacks to gain control of the few nations in the world who don’t allow Rothschild central banks and so less than one month after these attacks, US forces attack Afghanistan, one of only 7 nations in the world who don’t have a Rothschild controlled central bank.

Less than a week before the 9-11 attack on 5 September, the so-called lead hijacker Mohamed Atta and several other hijackers made a still-unexplained visit onboard one of Pro Israeli lobbyist, Ashkenazi Jew, Jack Abramoff’s casino boats.

No investigation is undertook as to what they were doing there. It is discovered that US drug agents’ communications have been penetrated. Suspicion falls on two companies, AMDOCS and Comverse Infosys, both owned by Israelis. AMDOCS generates billing data for most US phone companies and is able to provide detailed logs of who is talking to whom.

Comverse Infosys builds the tapping equipment used by law enforcement to eavesdrop on all American telephone calls, but suspicion forms that Comverse Infosys, which gets half of its research and development budget from the Israeli government, has built a back door into the system that is being exploited by Israeli intelligence and that the information gleaned on US drug interdiction efforts is finding its way to drug smugglers.

The investigation by the FBI leads to the exposure of the largest foreign spy ring ever uncovered inside the United States, operated by Israel. Half of the suspected spies have been arrested when 9-11 happens.

On 9-11, 5 Israelis are arrested for dancing and cheering while the World Trade Towers collapse. Supposedly employed by Urban Moving Systems, the Israelis are caught with multiple passports and a lot of cash.

Two of them are later revealed to be Mossad. As witness reports track the activity of the Israelis, it emerges that they were seen at Liberty Park at the time of the first impact, suggesting a foreknowledge of what was to come. The Israelis are interrogated, and then eventually sent back to Israel.

The owner of the moving company used as a cover by the Mossad agents abandons his business and flees to Israel. The United States Government then classifies all of the evidence related to the Israeli agents and their connections to 9-11.

All of this is reported to the public via a four part story on Fox News by Carl Cameron. Pressure from Jewish groups, primarily AIPAC, forces Fox News to remove the story from their website. Two hours prior to the 9-11 attacks, Odigo, an Israeli company with offices just a few blocks from the World Trade Towers, receives an advance warning via the internet.

The manager of the New York Office provides the FBI with the IP address of the sender of the message, but the FBI does not follow this up. The FBI is investigating 5 Israeli moving companies as possible fronts for Israeli intelligence.

It is revealed that prior to the attack millions of dollars of put options on both American Airlines and United Airlines, were traded. The FBI have promised to followed the purchasers up, but have never revealed their findings. That is because this would lead directly to Israel, the state behind the 911 attacks.

Following the World Trade Center attack, anonymous letters containing anthrax are sent to various politicians and media executives. Like the 9-11 attack this is immediately blamed on Al-Qaeda, until it is discovered that the anthrax contained within those letters is a specific type of weaponized anthrax made by a United States military laboratory.

The FBI then discover that the main suspect for these anthrax letters is a Ashkenazi Jew, Dr. Philip Zack, who had been reprimanded several times by his employers due to offensive remarks he made about Arabs. Dr. Philip Zack was caught on camera entering the storage area where he worked at Fort Detrick which is where the Anthrax was kept. At this point, both the FBI and the mainstream media stopped making any public comments on the case.

Jewish Defence League Chairman since 1985, Ashkenazi Jew, Irv Rubin is jailed for allegedly plotting to bomb a mosque and the offices of a Arab-American congressman. He dies shortly after slitting his throat in a suicide attempt, before he can be brought to trial.

One week prior to the WTC attack, the Zim Shipping Company moves out of its offices in the WTC, breaking its lease and costing the company $50,000. No reason has ever been given, but Zim Shipping Company is half owned by the State of Israel (The Rothschilds).

Ex-Israeli PM, Ariel Sharon

On October 3, Israeli Prime Minister, Ariel Sharon, makes the following statement to Ashkenazi Jew, Shimon Peres, as reported on Kol Yisrael radio:

“Every time we do something you tell me America will do this and will do that…I want to tell you something very clear, don’t worry about American pressure on Israel. We, the Jewish people, control America, and the Americans know it.”

2002:  Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (Unabridged), re-printed in 2002, provides a new definition of Anti Semitism which has not been updated since 1956. It reads,

“Anti-Semitism: (1) hostility toward Jews as a religious or racial minority group, often accompanied by social, political or economic discrimination (2) opposition to Zionism (3) sympathy for the opponents of Israel.”

It was definition (2) and (3) that were added in the 2002 edition, just before the USA decide to invade Iraq under orders from the State of Rothschild, I mean Israel.   Also this year, the Prime Minister of Israel, war criminal, Ariel Sharon, orders the massacre in the Jenin refugee camp in the West Bank.  Best get that definition updated to protect these criminals.

The DEA issues a report that Israeli spies, posing as art students, have been trying to penetrate US Government offices. Police near the Whidbey Island Naval Air Station in southern Washington State stop a suspicious truck and detain two Israelis, one of whom is illegally in the United States. The two men were driving at high speed in a Ryder rental truck, which they claimed had been used to, “deliver furniture.”

The next day, police discovered traces of TNT and RDX military-grade plastic explosives inside the passenger cabin and on the steering wheel of the vehicle. The FBI then announces that the tests that showed explosives were, “false positived,” by cigarette smoke, a claim test experts say is ridiculous.

Based on an alibi provided by a woman, the case is closed and the Israelis are handed over to INS to be sent back to Israel. One week later, the woman who provided the alibi vanishes.

2003:  The United States invade Iraq on 19 March, which this year is the holy, “Day of Purim,” in the Jewish calendar. This, “Day of Purim,” is a day the Jews celebrate their victory over Ancient Babylon, now based within the borders of Iraq, how interesting.

What is also significant is that the previous U.S. led invasion of Iraq ended on the Day of Purim ten years earlier with the slaughter of 150,000 fleeing Iraqis under the current President’s father, George Herbert Walker Bush.  Purim is also the time when the Jews are encouraged to get bloody revenge against their perceived enemies.

Ancient Babylon, I mean Iraq, is now one of six nations left in the world who don’t have a Rothschild controlled central bank. Make no mistake about it, this is the so called “Benchmark” which the puppet GW Bush references in his “War on Arab” speeches.

This war is mainly about genocide of the entire muslim world and is being fought with the blood of the American military which the State of Rothschild, I mean Israel control.  It is the most immoral depraved act of horror being perpetrated to bring on World War III.

Israel has always struggled for water, it had to steal the Golan Heights from Syria which provided Israel with one third of its fresh water 36 years before, yet still in Israel water extraction has surpassed replacement by 2.5 billion metres in the last 25 years.

This means the water is far more precious to them than the oil reserves which are the second largest reserves of oil on the planet.

Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamed states in a speech,

“Jews rule the world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them.”

The Police Chief of Cloudcroft stops a truck speeding through a school zone. The drivers turn out to be Israelis with expired passports. Claiming to be movers, the truck contains junk furniture and several boxes.

The Israelis are handed over to immigration. The contents of the boxers are not revealed to the public.

Israel deploys assassination squads into other countries, including the United States. The US Government does not protest.

2004: Two years into an investigation of AIPAC’s (The American Israel Public Affairs Committee – the largest political lobbying group in the USA with over 65,000 members whose only purpose is to use the USA for the purposes of Israel) possible role as a spy front for Israel, Ashkenazi Jew, Larry Franklin, a mid-level Pentagon Analyst is observed by the FBI giving classified information to two officials of AIPAC suspected of being Israeli spies.

AIPAC hires lawyer Nathan Lewin to handle their legal defense, the same lawyer who defended suspected Israeli spy Stephen Bryen in 1978. Larry Franklin worked in the Pentagon Office of Special Plans, run by Richard Perle, at the time Perle (who was caught giving classified information to Israel back in 1970) was insisting that Iraq was crawling with weapons of mass destruction requiring the United States to invade and conquer Iraq.

There were no WMDs, of course, and Perle has dumped the blame for the, “bad intelligence,” on George Tenet. But what is known is that the Pentagon Office of Special Plans was coordinating with a similar group in Israel, in Ariel Sharon’s office.

With two suspected Israeli spies (at least) inside the office from which the lies that launched the war in Iraq originated, it appears that the people of the United States are the victims of a deadly hoax, a hoax that started a war using the blood and money of American citizens for the purposes of Israeli oppression.

The leaking of the investigation of AIPAC to the media on August 28th, 2004 gave advance warning to other spies working with Franklin.

The damage to the FBI’s investigation was completed when United States Attorney General John Ashcroft ordered the FBI to stop all arrests in the case.

Like the Stephen Bryen case and the hunt for, “Mega,” this latest spy scandal seems destined by officials who have their own secret allegiances to protect, barring a massive public outcry.

Police near the Nuclear Fuel Services plant in Tennessee stop a truck after a three mile chase, during which the driver throws a bottle containing a strange liquid from the cab. The drivers turn out to be Israelis using fake identifications. The FBI refuses to investigate and the Israelis are released.

Two Israelis try to enter Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base, home to eight Trident submarines. The truck tests positive for explosives.

The National Director of the ADL, Abraham H. Foxman, publishes a book entitled, “Never Again?  The Threat Of The New Anti-Semitism,” in which he states that the New Testament’s “lie,” that the ancient Pharisees were responsible for the death of Christ, has been responsible for anti-semitism throughout the millennia and thus the New Testament of the bible is, “hate speech,” and should be censored or banned.

2005: On January 20, President Bush makes the following statement as part of his second inaugural address, “When our Founders declared a new order of the ages.”  This is not true.  The founders did not declare a, “new order of the ages,” President Roosevelt did when in 1933, he put it’s latin translation, “Novus Ordo Seclorum,” on the dollar bill.

On 7 July the London Underground Network is bombed. Israel’s Finance Minister, Binyamin Netanyahu is in London on the morning of the attacks in order to attend an economic conference in a hotel over the underground station where one of the blasts occurred, but stayed in his hotel room instead after he had been informed by Israeli intelligence officials attacks were expected.

There are now only 5 nations on the world left without a Rothschild controlled central bank: Iran; North Korea; Sudan; Cuba; and Libya.

Physics Professor, Stephen E. Jones of Brigham Young University publishes a paper in which he proves the World Trade Center buildings could have only been brought down in the manner they were by explosives. He receives no coverage in the mainstream media for his scientific and provable claims.

2006:  The Edmond De Rothschild Banque, a subsidiary of Europe’s Edmond De Rothschild family bank group in France, becomes the first foreign family bank that has obtained approval of the China Banking Regulatory Commission and entered China’s financial market.

The ADL ruthlessly leans on governments throughout the world to pass hate crimes legislation, as they are scared that the criminal cabal that is Israel and the Rothschilds is being exposed more and more on a daily basis, predominantly on the internet. Their job is to protect this criminal network and what better way to do it than by passing laws in which anyone who exposes a Jewish criminal becomes a criminal.

Their job is to protect this criminal network and what better way to do it than by passing laws in which anyone who exposes a Jewish criminal becomes a criminal.

David Irving is sentenced to three years in jail in Austria, for denying the holocaust. It is important to note that the only historical event you can be arrested for questioning is the holocaust.  This is because this has been the Rothschilds greatest weapon in brainwashing YOU, THE STUPID GOY! is that the Jews are so poor and persecuted when in actual fact they control the vast majority of international finance and international corporations throughout the world.

Do not be silent, talk to people about what is really happening, and take action by not supporting anyone who supports the criminal network. Start a conspiracy party, bring up critical issues which intelligent people can come to expose the real zionist criminal networks, and with enough people we can chase the criminals off of the bridge without blowing up the bridge.

Sources:

Holy Bible – King James Version
Proofs of a Conspiracy Against All the Religions and Governments of Europe Carried on in the Secret Meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies – John Robison – 1798
The Life of Napolean – Sir Walter Scott – 1827
Coningsby – Benjamin Disraeli – 1844
The Communist Manifesto – Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Martin Malia – 1848
Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry – Albert Pike – 1872
The Rothschilds, Financial Rulers Of Nations – John Reeves – 1887
The Jews and Modern Capitalism – Werner Sombart – 1911
Great Britain, The Jews, and Palestine – Samuel Landman – 1936
Pawns In The Game – William Guy Carr – 1937
Inside The Gestapo – Hansjurgen Koehler – 1940
Barriers Down – Kent Cooper – 1942
The Mind Of Adolf Hitler – Walter Langer – 1943
The Empire Of The City – E. C. Knuth – 1946
The Jewish State – Theodor Herzl – 1946
The Curious History of the Six-Pointed Star – G. Scholem – 1949
Secrets Of The Federal Reserve – Eustace Mullins – 1952
Tales Of The British Aristocracy – L. G. Pine – 1957
Red Fog Over America – William Guy Carr – 1958
A Jewish Defector Warns America (Spoken Word Recording) – Benjamin H. Freedman – 1961
The Rothschilds – Frederic Morton – 1962
The Illuminati and the Council on Foreign Relations (Spoken Word Recording) – Myron Fagan – 1967
Ben-Gurion: The Armed Prophet – Michael Bar-Zohar – 1967
The Hidden Tyranny – Benjamin Freedman – 1971
None Dare Call It Conspiracy – Gary Allen – 1972
The Gulag Archipelago, Vol. 2, Parts 3 and 4 – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – First English translation published 1975
Wall Street And The Rise Of Hitler – Anthony C. Sutton – 1976
The Rosenthal Document – Walter White, Jr. – 1978
Two Rothschilds And The Land Of Israel – Simon Schama – 1978
The Six Pointed Star – Dr O. J. Graham – 1984
The Last Days In America – Bob Fraley – 1984
Who Owns The TV Networks – Eustace Mullins – 1985
The Samson Option: Israel’s Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy – Seymour M. Hersh – 1991
A History of the Jews in America – Howard M. Sachar – 1992
Deliberate Deceptions: Facing the Facts About the U.S. Israeli Relationship – Paul Findley – 1993
Descent Into Slavery – Des Griffin – 1994
Bloodlines Of The Illuminati – Fritz Springmeier – 1995
Jewish History, Jewish Religion – Israel Shahak – 1994
Satan Speaks – Anton Szandor LaVey – 1998 The Elite Serial Killers of Lincoln, JFK, RFK & MLK – Robert Gaylon Ross – 2001
Never Again? The Threat Of The New Anti-Semitism – Abraham H. Foxman – 2004
The Elite Don’t Dare Let Us Tell The People – Robert Gaylon Ross – 2004
Codex Magica – Texe Marrs – 2005

– See more at: http://humansarefree.com/2011/09/history-of-house-of-rothschild-complete.html#sthash.TgNW4MSu.dpuf

World War I 2014: 100th. Anniversary Of The Great War To End All Wars ~ Gave Rise to WW2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  209 More 48 Major war has happen since WW1  and of these war was cause  as a results of the first world war
“World War One” and “Great War” redirect here. For other uses, see World War One (disambiguation) and Great War (disambiguation).
“WW1” and “WWI” redirect here. For the album by White Whale, see WWI (album).
World War I
WWImontage.jpg
Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during theBattle of the Somme, Mark V tanks cross the Hindenburg Line,HMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
Date 28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918
Armistice with Germany
(4 years, 3 months and 2 weeks)

Location Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, China and off the coast of South and North America
Result Allied victory

World War I (WWI or WW1 or World War One), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global warcentred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war, a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents’ technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.[5]

The war drew in all the world’s economic great powers,[6] which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies(based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and the Russian Empire) and the Central Powers ofGermany and Austria-Hungary. Although Italy had also been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive against the terms of the alliance.[7] These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and theUnited States joined the Allies, and the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria the Central Powers. Ultimately, more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.[8][9]

The immediate trigger for war was the 28 June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo. This set off a diplomatic crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia,[10][11] and international alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked. Within weeks, the major powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.

On 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia and subsequently invaded.[12][13] As Russia mobilised in support of Serbia, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, leading Britain to declare war on Germany. After the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Frontsettled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that would change little until 1917. Meanwhile, on the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, but was stopped in its invasion of East Prussia by the Germans. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus,Mesopotamia and the Sinai. Italy joined the Allies in 1915 and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in the same year, whileRomania joined the Allies in 1916, and the United States joined the Allies in 1917.

The war approached a resolution after the Russian government collapsed in March 1917, and a subsequent revolution in November brought the Russians to terms with the Central Powers. On 4 November 1918, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to an armistice. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives and began entering the trenches. Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries, agreed to an armistice on 11 November 1918, ending the war in victory for the Allies.

By the end of the war, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires—ceased to exist. The successor states of the former two lost substantial territory, while the latter two were dismantled. The maps of Europe and Southwest Asia were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created. During the Paris Peace conference, The Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such an appalling conflict. This aim, however, failed with weakened states, renewed European nationalism and the German feeling of humiliation contributing to the rise of fascism. All of these conditions eventually led to World War II.

by: http://politicalvelcraft.org/

Hand BombFour years is not a long time – but in four years a boy in his early teens grows into a young man and in four years the generation of British and Commonwealth lads born in the mid 1890s would come of age and go to war. In 1914 they went to The Great War, the War to End All Wars – and many never came home.

world war 1

world war 1

Names

From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, it was called simply the World War or the Great War and thereafter the First World War or World War I.[14][15]

In Canada, Maclean’s Magazine in October 1914 said, “Some wars name themselves. This is the Great War.”[16] During the Interwar period (1918–1939), the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries.

The term “First World War” was first used in September 1914 by the German philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who claimed that “there is no doubt that the course and character of the feared ‘European War’ … will become the first world war in the full sense of the word.”[17] After the onset of the Second World War in 1939, the terms World War I or the First World War became standard, with British and Canadian historians favouring the First World War, and AmericansWorld War I.

Background

Main article: Causes of World War I

Political and military alliances

In the 19th century, the major European powers had gone to great lengths to maintain a balance of power throughout Europe, resulting in the existence of a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent by 1900.[7] These had started in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria. Then, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserbund) between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany. This agreement failed because Austria-Hungary and Russia could not agree over Balkan policy, leaving Germany and Austria-Hungary in an alliance formed in 1879, called the Dual Alliance. This was seen as a method of countering Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken.[7] In 1882, this alliance was expanded to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance.[18]

Military alliances leading to World War I; Triple Entente in green; Central Powers in brown

Bismarck had especially worked to hold Russia at Germany’s side to avoid a two-front war with France and Russia. WhenWilhelm II ascended to the throne as German Emperor (Kaiser), Bismarck was compelled to retire and his system of alliances was gradually de-emphasised. For example, the Kaiser refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1890. Two years later, the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed to counteract the force of the Triple Alliance. In 1904, Britain signed a series of agreements with France, the Entente Cordiale, and in 1907, Britain and Russia signed theAnglo-Russian Convention. While these agreements did not formally ally Britain with France or Russia, they made British entry into any future conflict involving France or Russia a possibility, and the system of interlocking bilateral agreements became known as the Triple Entente.[7]

Arms race

German industrial and economic power had grown greatly after unification and the foundation of the Empire in 1871 following the Franco-Prussian War. From the mid-1890s on, the government of Wilhelm II used this base to devote significant economic resources for building up the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy), established by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, in rivalry with the British Royal Navy for world naval supremacy.[19] As a result, each nation strove to out-build the other in capital ships. With the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906, the British Empire expanded on its significant advantage over its German rival.[19] The arms race between Britain and Germany eventually extended to the rest of Europe, with all the major powers devoting their industrial base to producing the equipment and weapons necessary for a pan-European conflict.[20] Between 1908 and 1913, the military spending of the European powers increased by 50%.[21]

Sarajevo citizens reading a poster with the proclamation of the Austrian annexation in 1908.

Conflicts in the Balkans

Austria-Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of 1908–1909 by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which it had occupied since 1878. This angered the Kingdom of Serbia and its patron, the Pan-Slavic and OrthodoxRussian Empire.[22] Russian political manoeuvring in the region destabilised peace accords, which were already fracturing in what was known as “the powder keg of Europe“.[22] In 1912 and 1913, the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League and the fracturing Ottoman Empire. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian State while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. When Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913, it lost most of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece and Southern Dobruja to Romania in the 33-daySecond Balkan War, further destabilising the region.[23]

Prelude

This picture is usually associated with the arrest of Gavrilo Princip, although some[24][25] believe it depicts Ferdinand Behr, a bystander.

Sarajevo assassination

On 28 June 1914, Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand visited the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. A group of six assassins (Cvjetko Popović, Gavrilo Princip, Muhamed Mehmedbašić, Nedeljko Čabrinović, Trifko Grabež, Vaso Čubrilović) from the nationalist groupMlada Bosna, and supplied by the Black Hand, had gathered on the street where the Archduke’s motorcade would pass. Čabrinović threw a grenade at the car, but missed. It injured some people nearby, and Franz Ferdinand’s convoy carried on. The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them. About an hour later, when Franz Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo Hospital with those wounded in the assassination attempt, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where, by coincidence, Princip stood. With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. The reaction among the people in Austria was mild, almost indifferent. As historian Zbyněk Zeman later wrote, “the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. On Sunday and Monday [June 28 and 29], the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened.”[26][27]

Crowds on the streets in the aftermath of the Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, 29 June 1914.

Escalation of violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina

However, in Sarajevo itself, Austrian authorities encouraged[28][29] violence against the Serb residents, which resulted in the Anti-Serb riots of Sarajevo, in which Croats and Bosnian Muslims killed two ethnic Serbs and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings. The events have been described as having the characteristics of a pogrom. Writer Ivo Andrić referred to the violence as the “Sarajevo frenzy of hate.”[30] Violent actions against ethnic Serbs were organized not only in Sarajevo, but also in many other large Austro-Hungarian cities in modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[31] Austro-Hungarian authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina imprisoned and extradited approximately 5,500 prominent Serbs, 700 to 2,200 of whom died in prison. 460 Serbs were sentenced to death and a predominantly Muslim[32][33][34] special militia known as the Schutzkorps was established and carried out the persecution of Serbs.[35]

July Crisis

Main article: July Crisis

The assassination led to a month of diplomatic manoeuvring between Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, and Britain called the July Crisis. Believing correctly that Serbian officials (especially the officers of the Black Hand) were involved in the plot to murder the Archduke, and wanting to finally end Serbian interference in Bosnia,[36] Austria-Hungary delivered to Serbia on 23 July the July Ultimatum, a series of ten demands that were intentionally made unacceptable to provoke a war with Serbia.[37] The next day, after the Council of Ministers was held under the chairmanship of the Tsar at Krasnoe Selo, Russia ordered general mobilization for Odessa, Kiev, Kazan and Moscow military districts and fleets of the Baltic and the Black Sea. They also asked for other regions to accelerate preparations for general mobilization. Serbia decreed general mobilization on the 25th and at night, declared that they accept all the terms of the ultimatum, except the one claiming that Austrian investigators visit the country. Following this, Austria broke off diplomatic relations with Serbia, and the next day ordered a partial mobilization against Serbia. Finally, on July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.

On 29 July, Russia, unwilling to allow Austria-Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans, and in support of its longtime Serb protégé, unilaterally declared – outside of the conciliation procedure provided by the Franco-Russian military agreements – partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary. German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg was then allowed until the 31st for an appropriate response. On the 30th, Russia ordered general mobilization against Germany. In response, the following day, Germany declared a “state of danger of war.” This also led to the general mobilization in Austria-Hungary on August 4. Kaiser Wilhelm II asked his cousin, Tsar Nicolas II, to suspend the Russian general mobilization. When he refused, Germany issued an ultimatum demanding the arrest of its mobilization and commitment not to support Serbia. Another was sent to France, asking her not to support Russia if it were to come to the defense of Serbia. On August 1, after the Russian response, Germany mobilized and declared war on Russia.

The German government issued demands that France remain neutral as they had to decide which deployment plan to implement, it being difficult if not impossible to change the deployment part-way through it. The modified German Schlieffen Plan, Aufmarsch II West, would deploy 80% of the army in the west, and Aufmarsch I Ost and Aufmarsch II Ostwould deploy 60% in the west and 40% in the east as this was the maximum that East Prussia’s railway infrastructure could support. The French did not respond but sent a mixed message by ordering their troops to withdraw 10 km (6 mi) from the border to avoid any incidents while ordering the mobilisation of her reserves. Germany responded by mobilising its own reserves and implementing Aufmarsch II West. Germany attacked Luxembourg on 2 August and on 3 August declared war on France.[38] On 4 August, after Belgium refused to permit German troops to cross its borders into France, Germany declared war on Belgium as well.[38][39][40] Britain declared war on Germany at 7 pm UTC on 4 August 1914 (effective from 11 pm), following an “unsatisfactory reply” to the British ultimatum that Belgium must be kept neutral.[41]

Progress of the war

Opening hostilities

Confusion among the Central Powers

The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary’s invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed. Previously tested deployment plans had been replaced early in 1914, but had never been tested in exercises. Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia.[42] Germany, however, envisioned Austria-Hungary directing most of its troops against Russia, while Germany dealt with France. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts.

Serbian campaign

Serbian Army Blériot XI “Oluj”, 1915.

Austria invaded and fought the Serbian army at the Battle of Cer and Battle of Kolubara beginning on 12 August. Over the next two weeks, Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victories of the war and dashed Austro-Hungarian hopes of a swift victory. As a result, Austria had to keep sizable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia.[43] Serbia’s defeat of the Austro-Hungarian invasion of 1914 counts among the major upset victories of the last century.[44]

German forces in Belgium and France

British hospital at the Western front.

At the outbreak of World War I, 80% of the German army (consisting in the West of seven field armies) was deployed in the west according to the plan Aufmarsch II West. However, they were then assigned the operation of the retired deployment plan Aufmarsch I West, also known as the ‘Schlieffen Plan‘. This would march German armies through northern Belgium and into France, in an attempt to encircle the French army and then breach the ‘second defensive area’ of the fortresses of Verdun and Paris and the Marne river.[10]

German soldiers in a railway goods wagon on the way to the front in 1914. Early in the war, all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.

Aufmarsch I West was one of four deployment plans available to the German General Staff in 1914, each plan favouring but not specifying a certain operation that was well-known to the officers expected to carry it out under their own initiative with minimal oversight. Aufmarsch I West, designed for a one-front war with France, had been retired once it became clear that it was irrelevant to the wars Germany could expect to face; both Russia and Britain were expected to help France and there was no possibility of Italian nor Austro-Hungarian troops being available for operations against France. But despite its unsuitability, and the availability of more sensible and decisive options, it retained a certain allure that the other plans due to its offensive nature and the ‘cult of the offensive’ that held great sway over much pre-war thinking. Accordingly, the Aufmarsch II West deployment was repurposed to initiate the ‘Schlieffen Plan’ offensive despite the negligible chances of its then-unrealistic goals and the insufficient forces Germany had available.[45]

The plan called for the right flank of the German advance to bypass the French armies (which were concentrated on the Franco-German border, leaving the Belgian border without significant French forces) and move south to Paris. Initially the Germans were successful, particularly in the Battle of the Frontiers(14–24 August). By 12 September, the French, with assistance from the British forces, halted the German advance east of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne (5–12 September), and pushed the German forces back some 50 km (31 mi). The last days of this battle signified the end of mobile warfare in the west.[10] The French offensive into Southern Alsace, launched on 20 August with the Battle of Mulhouse, had limited success.

In the east, the Russians invaded with two armies. In response, Germany rapidly moved the 8th field army, from its previous role as reserve for the invasion of France, to East Prussia by rail across the German Empire. This army, led by general Paul von Hindenburg defeated Russia in a series of battles collectively known as the First Battle of Tannenberg (17 August – 2 September). While the Russian invasion failed, it cause the diversion of German troops to the east, allowing the tactical Allied victory at the First Battle of the Marne. This meant that Germany failed to achieve its objective of avoiding a long-two front war. However, the German army had fought its way into a good defensive position inside France and effectively halved France’s supply of coal. It had also killed or permanently crippled 230,000 more French and British troops than it itself had lost. Despite this, communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance of a more decisive outcome.[46]

Asia and the Pacific

New Zealand occupied German Samoa (later Western Samoa) on 30 August 1914. On 11 September, the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force landed on the island of Neu Pommern (later New Britain), which formed part of German New Guinea. On 28 October, the German cruiser SMS Emden sank the Russian cruiser Zhemchug in the Battle of Penang. Japan seized Germany’s Micronesian colonies and, after the Siege of Tsingtao, the German coaling port of Qingdao on the Chinese Shandong peninsula. As Vienna refused to withdraw the Austro-Hungarian cruiser SMS Kaiserin Elisabeth from Tsingtao, Japan declared war not only on Germany, but also on Austria-Hungary; the ship participated in the defense of Tsingtao where it was sunk in November 1914.[47] Within a few months, the Allied forces had seized all the German territories in the Pacific; only isolated commerce raiders and a few holdouts in New Guinea remained.[48][49]

African campaigns

Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, French, and German colonial forces in Africa. On 6–7 August, French and British troops invaded the German protectorate ofTogoland and Kamerun. On 10 August, German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa; sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the rest of the war. The German colonial forces in German East Africa, led by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, fought a guerrilla warfare campaign during World War I and only surrendered two weeks after the armistice took effect in Europe.[50]

Indian support for the Allies

Contrary to British fears of a revolt in India, the outbreak of the war saw an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards Britain.[51][52] Indian political leaders from the Indian National Congress and other groups were eager to support the British war effort, since they believed that strong support for the war effort would further the cause ofIndian Home Rule. The Indian Army in fact outnumbered the British Army at the beginning of the war; about 1.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while the central government and the princely states sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. In all, 140,000 men served on the Western Front and nearly 700,000 in the Middle East. Casualties of Indian soldiers totalled 47,746 killed and 65,126 wounded during World War I.[53] The suffering engendered by the war, as well as the failure of the British government to grant self-government to India after the end of hostilities, bred disillusionment and fuelled the campaign for full independence that would be led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and others.

Western Front

Trench warfare begins

Mud stained British soldiers at rest

Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench, first day on the Somme, 1916.

Military tactics before World War I had failed to keep pace with advances in technology and had become obsolete. These advances had allowed the creation of strong defensive systems, which out-of-date military tactics could not break through for most of the war. Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances, while artillery, vastly more lethal than in the 1870s, coupled with machine guns, made crossing open ground extremely difficult.[54] Commanders on both sides failed to develop tactics for breaching entrenchedpositions without heavy casualties. In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as gas warfare and thetank.[55]

Just after the First Battle of the Marne (5–12 September 1914), Entente and German forces repeatedly attempted manoeuvering to the north to outflank each other: this series of manoeuvres became known as the “Race to the Sea“. When these outflanking efforts failed, Britain and France soon found themselves facing an uninterrupted line of entrenched German forces from Lorraine to Belgium’s coast.[10]Britain and France sought to take the offensive, while Germany defended the occupied territories. Consequently, German trenches were much better constructed than those of their enemy; Anglo-French trenches were only intended to be “temporary” before their forces broke through the German defences.[56]

Both sides tried to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances. On 22 April 1915, at the Second Battle of Ypres, the Germans (violating the Hague Convention) used chlorine gas for the first time on the Western Front. Several types of gas soon became widely used by both sides, and though it never proved a decisive, battle-winning weapon, poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war.[57][58] Tanks were first used in combat by the British during theBattle of Flers-Courcelette (part of the wider Somme offensive) on 15 September 1916, with only partial success. However, their effectiveness would grow as the war progressed; the Germans employed only small numbers of their own design, supplemented by captured Allied tanks.

French 87th regiment near Verdun, 1916.

Continuation of trench warfare

Files of soldiers with rifles slung follow close behind a tank, there is a dead body in the foreground

Canadian troops advancing with a British Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, 1917.

Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years. Throughout 1915–17, the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany, because of both the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides. Strategically, while the Germans only mounted one major offensive, the Allies made several attempts to break through the German lines.

In February 1916 the Germans attacked the French defensive positions at Verdun. Lasting until December 1916, the battle saw initial German gains, before French counterattacks returned matters to near their starting point. Casualties were greater for the French, but the Germans bled heavily as well, with anywhere from 700,000[59] to 975,000[60] casualties suffered between the two combatants. Verdun became a symbol of French determination and self-sacrifice.[61]

The Battle of the Somme was an Anglo-French offensive that ran from July to November 1916. The opening of this offensive (1 July 1916) saw the British Army endure the bloodiest day in its history, suffering 57,470 casualties, including 19,240 dead, on the first dayalone. The entire Somme offensive cost the British Army some 420,000 casualties. The French suffered another estimated 200,000 casualties, and the Germans an estimated 500,000.[62]

Protracted action at Verdun throughout 1916,[63] combined with the bloodletting at the Somme, brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse. Futile attempts at frontal assault came at a high price for both the British and the French and led to the widespreadFrench Army Mutinies, after the failure of the costly Nivelle Offensive of April–May 1917.[64] The concurrent British Battle of Arras was more limited in scope, and more successful, although ultimately of little strategic value.[65][66] A smaller part of the Arras offensive, the capture of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps, became highly significant to that country: the idea that Canada’s national identity was born out of the battle is an opinion widely held in military and general histories of Canada.[67][68]

The last large-scale offensive of this period was a British attack (with French support) at Passchendaele (July–November 1917). This offensive opened with great promise for the Allies, before bogging down in the October mud. Casualties, though disputed, were roughly equal, at some 200,000–400,000 per side.

These years of trench warfare in the West saw no major exchanges of territory and, as a result, are often thought of as static and unchanging. However, throughout this period, British, French, and German tactics constantly evolved to meet new battlefield challenges.

Naval war

Battleships of the Hochseeflotte, 1917.

At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping. For example, the German detached light cruiser SMS Emden, part of the East-Asia squadron stationed at Qingdao, seized or destroyed 15 merchantmen, as well as sinking a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer. However, most of theGerman East-Asia squadron—consisting of the armoured cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig and two transport ships—did not have orders to raid shipping and was instead underway to Germany when it met British warships. The German flotilla and Dresden sank two armoured cruisers at the Battle of Coronel, but was almost destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, with only Dresden and a few auxiliaries escaping, but at the Battle of Más a Tierra these too were destroyed or interned.[69]

Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain began a naval blockade of Germany. The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.[70] Britain mined international waters to prevent any ships from entering entire sections of ocean, causing danger to even neutral ships.[71] Since there was limited response to this tactic, Germany expected a similar response to its unrestricted submarine warfare.[72]

The 1916 Battle of Jutland (German: Skagerrakschlacht, or “Battle of the Skagerrak“) developed into the largest naval battle of the war, the only full-scale clash of battleships during the war, and one of the largest in history. It took place on 31 May – 1 June 1916, in the North Sea off Jutland. The Kaiserliche Marine’s High Seas Fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer, squared off against the Royal Navy’s Grand Fleet, led by Admiral Sir John Jellicoe. The engagement was a stand off, as the Germans, outmanoeuvred by the larger British fleet, managed to escape and inflicted more damage to the British fleet than they received. Strategically, however, the British asserted their control of the sea, and the bulk of the German surface fleet remained confined to port for the duration of the war.[73]

U-155 exhibited near Tower Bridge in London, after the 1918 Armistice.

German U-boats attempted to cut the supply lines between North America and Britain.[74] The nature of submarine warfare meant that attacks often came without warning, giving the crews of the merchant ships little hope of survival.[74][75] The United States launched a protest, and Germany changed its rules of engagement. After the sinking of the passenger ship RMS Lusitania in 1915, Germany promised not to target passenger liners, while Britain armed its merchant ships, placing them beyond the protection of the “cruiser rules“, which demanded warning and placing crews in “a place of safety” (a standard that lifeboats did not meet).[76] Finally, in early 1917, Germany adopted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, realising that the Americans would eventually enter the war.[74][77]Germany sought to strangle Allied sea lanes before the United States could transport a large army overseas, but could maintain only five long-range U-boats on station, to limited effect.[74]

The U-boat threat lessened in 1917, when merchant ships began travelling in convoys, escorted by destroyers. This tactic made it difficult for U-boats to find targets, which significantly lessened losses; after the hydrophone and depth charges were introduced, accompanying destroyers might attack a submerged submarine with some hope of success. Convoys slowed the flow of supplies, since ships had to wait as convoys were assembled. The solution to the delays was an extensive program of building new freighters. Troopships were too fast for the submarines and did not travel the North Atlantic in convoys.[78] The U-boats had sunk more than 5,000 Allied ships, at a cost of 199 submarines.[79] World War I also saw the first use of aircraft carriers in combat, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a successful raid against the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in July 1918, as well as blimps for antisubmarine patrol.[80]

Southern theatres

War in the Balkans

Austro-Hungarian troops executing captured Serbians, 1917. Serbia lost about 850,000 people during the war, a quarter of its pre-war population.[81]

Faced with Russia, Austria-Hungary could spare only one-third of its army to attack Serbia. After suffering heavy losses, the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital, Belgrade. A Serbian counterattack in the battle of Kolubara, however, succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of 1914. For the first ten months of 1915, Austria-Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy. German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by persuading Bulgaria to join the attack on Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian provinces of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia provided troops for Austria-Hungary, invading Serbia as well as fighting Russia and Italy. Montenegro allied itself with Serbia.[82]

Refugee transport from Serbia inLeibnitz, Styria, 1914.

Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month, as the Central Powers, now including Bulgaria, sent in 600,000 troops. The Serbian army, fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat, retreated into northern Albania. The Serbs suffered defeat in the Battle of Kosovo. Montenegro covered the Serbian retreat towards the Adriatic coast in the Battle of Mojkovac in 6–7 January 1916, but ultimately the Austrians conquered Montenegro, too. The surviving Serbian soldiers were evacuated by ship to Greece.[83] After conquest, Serbia was divided between Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria.

In late 1915, a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece, to offer assistance and to pressure its government to declare war against the Central Powers. However, the pro-German King Constantine I dismissed the pro-Allied government of Eleftherios Venizelosbefore the Allied expeditionary force arrived.[84] The friction between the King of Greece and the Allies continued to accumulate with theNational Schism, which effectively divided Greece between regions still loyal to the king and the new provisional government of Venizelos in Salonica. After intense negotiations and an armed confrontation in Athens between Allied and royalist forces (an incident known asNoemvriana), the King of Greece resigned and his second son Alexander took his place; Greece then officially joined the war on the side of the Allies.

Bulgarian soldiers in a trench, preparing to fire against an incoming airplane.

In the beginning, the Macedonian Front was mostly static. French and Serbian forces retook limited areas of Macedonia by recapturingBitola on 19 November 1916 following the costly Monastir Offensive, which brought stabilization of the front.

Serbian and French troops finally made a breakthrough in September 1918, after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had been withdrawn. The Bulgarians suffered their only defeat of the war at the Battle of Dobro Pole: Bulgaria capitulated two weeks later, on 29 September 1918.[85] The German high command responded by despatching troops to hold the line, but these forces were far too weak to reestablish a front.[86]

The disappearance of the Macedonian Front meant that the road to Budapest and Vienna was now opened to Allied forces. Hindenburg and Ludendorff concluded that the strategic and operational balance had now shifted decidedly against the Central Powers and, a day after the Bulgarian collapse, insisted on an immediate peace settlement.[87]

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in the war, the secret Ottoman–German Alliance having been signed in August 1914.[88] It threatened Russia’s Caucasianterritories and Britain’s communications with India via the Suez Canal.

As the war progressed, the Ottoman Empire took advantage of the European powers preoccupation with the war and conducted large scale ethnic cleansing of the indigenousGreek, Assyrian and Armenian Christian populations known as the Greek genocide, Assyrian Genocide and Armenian genocide.[89][90][91]

The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli (1915) and Mesopotamian campaigns. In Gallipoli, the Ottoman Empire successfully repelled the British, French, and Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs). In Mesopotamia, by contrast, after the disastrous Siege of Kut (1915–16), British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March 1917. The British were aided in Mesopotamia by local Arab and Assyrian tribesmen, while the Ottomans employed local Kurdish and Turcoman tribes.

Foreground, a battery of 16 heavy guns. Background, conical tents and support vehicles.

British artillery battery on Mount Scopus in the Battle of Jerusalem, 1917.

Further to the west, the Suez Canal was successfully defended from Ottoman attacks in 1915 and 1916; in August, a joint German andOttoman force was defeated at the Battle of Romani by the ANZAC Mounted and the 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Divisions. Following this victory, a British Empire Egyptian Expeditionary Force advanced across the Sinai Peninsula, pushing Ottoman forces back in the Battle of Magdhaba in December and the Battle of Rafa on the border between the Egyptian Sinai and Ottoman Palestine in January 1917.

Russian forest trench at the 1914–1915 Battle of Sarikamish.

Xmas card from British Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force with list of engagements, Basra, 1917

Russian armies generally had the best of it in the Caucasus. Enver Pasha, supreme commander of the Ottoman armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of re-conquering central Asia and areas that had been lost to Russia previously. He was, however, a poor commander.[92] He launched an offensive against the Russians in the Caucasus in December 1914 with 100,000 troops; insisting on a frontal attack against mountainous Russian positions in winter, he lost 86% of his force at the Battle of Sarikamish.[93]

In December 1914 the Ottoman Empire, with German support, invaded Persia (modern Iran) in an effort to cut off British and Russian access to petroleum reservoirs around the Caspian Sea.[94] Persia, ostensibly neutral, had long been under the spheres of British and Russian influence. The Ottomans and Germans were aided by Kurdish and Azeri forces, together with a large number of major Iranian tribes, such as the Qashqai, Tangistanis, Luristanis, and Khamseh, while the Russians and British had the support of Assyrian andArmenian forces. The Persian Campaign was to last until 1918 and end in failure for the Ottomans and their allies, however the Russian withdrawal from the war in 1917 led to Armenian and Assyrian forces, who had hitherto inflicted a series of defeats upon the forces of the Ottomans and their allies, being cut off from supply lines, outnumbered, outgunned and isolated, forcing them to fight and flee towards British lines in northern Mesopotamia.[95]

General Yudenich, the Russian commander from 1915 to 1916, drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories.[93] In 1917, Russian Grand Duke Nicholas assumed command of the Caucasus front. Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in 1917. However, in March 1917 (February in the pre-revolutionary Russian calendar), the Czar abdicated in the course of the February Revolution and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart.

Instigated by the Arab bureau of the British Foreign Office, the Arab Revolt started June 1916 at the Battle of Mecca, led by Sherif Hussein of Mecca, and ended with the Ottoman surrender of Damascus. Fakhri Pasha, the Ottoman commander of Medina, resisted for more than two and half years during the Siege of Medina.[96]

Along the border of Italian Libya and British Egypt, the Senussi tribe, incited and armed by the Turks, waged a small-scale guerrilla war against Allied troops. The British were forced to dispatch 12,000 troops to oppose them in the Senussi Campaign. Their rebellion was finally crushed in mid-1916.[97]

Total Allied casualties on the Ottoman fronts amounted 650,000 men. Total Ottoman casualties were 725,000 (325,000 dead and 400,000 wounded).[98]

Italian participation

Austro-Hungarian troops, Tyrol.

Depiction of the Battle of Doberdò, fought in August 1916 between the Italian and the Austro-Hungarian armies.

Further information: Battles of the Isonzo

Italy had been allied with the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires since 1882 as part of the Triple Alliance. However, the nation had its own designs on Austrian territory in Trentino, the Austrian Littoral, Fiume (Rijeka) and Dalmatia. Rome had a secret 1902 pact with France, effectively nullifying its alliance.[99] At the start of hostilities, Italy refused to commit troops, arguing that the Triple Alliance was defensive and that Austria-Hungary was an aggressor. The Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality, offering the French colony of Tunisia in return. The Allies made a counter-offer in which Italy would receive the Southern Tyrol, Austrian Littoral and territory on the Dalmatian coast after the defeat of Austria-Hungary. This was formalised by the Treaty of London. Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915, Italy joined the Triple Entente and declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May. Fifteen months later, Italy declared war on Germany.

Italy’s entry was engineered in secret by three individuals—the Prime Minister, Antonio Salandra, the Foreign Minister, Sidney Sonnino, and King Victor Emmanuel III.

On February 16, 1915, despite concurrent negotiations with Austria, a courier was dispatched in great secrecy to London with the suggestion that Italy was open to a good offer from the Entente. … The final choice was aided by the arrival of news in March of Russian victories in the Carpathians. Salandra began to think that victory for the Entente was in sight, and was so anxious not to arrive too late for a share in the profits that he instructed his envoy in London to drop some demands and reach agreement quickly. … The Treaty of London was concluded on April 26 binding Italy to fight within one month. … Not until May 4 did Salandra denounce the Triple Alliance in a private note to its signatories.[100]

Militarily, the Italians had numerical superiority. This advantage, however, was lost, not only because of the difficult terrain in which fighting took place, but also because of the strategies and tactics employed. Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna, a staunch proponent of the frontal assault, had dreams of breaking into the Slovenian plateau, taking Ljubljana and threatening Vienna. Cadorna’s plan did not take into account the difficulties of the rugged Alpine and Karstic terrain, or the technological changes that created trench warfare, giving rise to a series of bloody and inconclusive stalemated offensives.

On the Trentino front, the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain, which favoured the defender. After an initial strategic retreat, the front remained largely unchanged, while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen engaged Italian Alpini in bitter hand-to-hand combat throughout the summer. The Austro-Hungarians counterattacked in the Altopiano of Asiago, towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of 1916 (Strafexpedition), but made little progress.

Beginning in 1915, the Italians under Cadorna mounted eleven offensives on the Isonzo front along the Isonzo (Soča) River, northeast of Trieste. All eleven offensives were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians, who held the higher ground. In the summer of 1916, after the Battle of Doberdò, the Italians captured the town of Gorizia. After this minor victory, the front remained static for over a year, despite several Italian offensives, centred on the Banjšice and Karst Plateau east of Gorizia. In the autumn of 1917, thanks to the improving situation on the Eastern front, the Austro-Hungarian troops received large numbers of reinforcements, including German Stormtroopers and the elite Alpenkorps.

The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October 1917, spearheaded by the Germans. They achieved a victory at Caporetto (Kobarid). The Italian Army was routed and retreated more than 100 kilometres (62 mi) to reorganise, stabilising the front at the Piave River. Since the Italian Army had suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Caporetto, the Italian Government called to arms the so-called ‘99 Boys (Ragazzi del ’99): that is, all males born on 1899 and after, and so were 18 years old or older. In 1918, the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through in a series of battles on the Piave River, and were finally decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year. On 1 November, the Italian Navy destroyed much of the Austro-Hungarian fleet stationed in Pula, preventing it from being handed over to the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. On 3 November, the Italians occupied Trieste from the sea. On the same day, the Armistice of Villa Giusti was signed. By mid November 1918, the Italian military occupied the entire former Austrian Littoral, and had seized control of the entire portion of Dalmatia that had been guaranteed to Italy by the London Pact.[101] By the end of hostilities in November 1918,[102] In 1918, Admiral Enrico Millo declared himself Italy’s Governor of Dalmatia.[102] Austria-Hungary surrendered in early November 1918.[103][104]

Romanian participation

Marshal Joffre inspecting Romanian troops, 1916.

Romania had been allied with the Central Powers since 1882. When the war began, however, it declared its neutrality, arguing that because Austria-Hungary had itself declared war on Serbia, Romania was under no obligation to join the war. When the Entente Powers promised Romania large territories of eastern Hungary (Transylvania and Banat), which had a large Romanian population, in exchange for Romania’s declaring war on the Central Powers, the Romanian government renounced its neutrality and, on 27 August 1916, the Romanian Army launched an attack against Austria-Hungary, with limited Russian support. The Romanian offensive was initially successful, pushing back the Austro-Hungarian troops in Transylvania, but a counterattack by the forces of the Central Powers drove back the Russo-Romanian forces.[105] As a result of the Battle of Bucharest, the Central Powers occupied Bucharest on 6 December 1916. Fighting in Moldova continued in 1917, resulting in a costly stalemate for the Central Powers.[106][107] Russian withdrawal from the war in late 1917 as a result of the October Revolution meant that Romania was forced to sign an armistice with the Central Powers on 9 December 1917.

Romanian troops during the Battle of Mărăşeşti, 1917.

In January 1918, Romanian forces established control over Bessarabia as the Russian Army abandoned the province. Although a treaty was signed by the Romanian and the Bolshevik Russian governments following talks from 5–9 March 1918 on the withdrawal of Romanian forces from Bessarabia within two months, on 27 March 1918 Romania attached Bessarabia to its territory, formally based on a resolution passed by the local assembly of that territory on its unification with Romania.

Romania officially made peace with the Central Powers by signing the Treaty of Bucharest on 7 May 1918. Under that treaty, Romania was obliged to end the war with the Central Powers and make small territorial concessions to Austria-Hungary, ceding control of some passes in the Carpathian Mountains, and to grant oil concessions to Germany. In exchange, the Central Powers recognised the sovereignty of Romania over Bessarabia. The treaty was renounced in October 1918 by the Alexandru Marghiloman government, and Romania nominally re-entered the war on 10 November 1918. The next day, the Treaty of Bucharest was nullified by the terms of the Armistice of Compiègne.[108][109] Total Romanian deaths from 1914 to 1918, military and civilian, within contemporary borders, were estimated at 748,000.[110]

Eastern Front

Initial actions

Russian troops in a trench, awaiting a German attack, 1917.

While the Western Front had reached stalemate, the war continued in East Europe. Initial Russian plans called for simultaneous invasions of Austrian Galicia and German East Prussia. Although Russia’s initial advance into Galicia was largely successful, it was driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September 1914.[111][112] Russia’s less developed industrial base and ineffective military leadership was instrumental in the events that unfolded. By the spring of 1915, the Russians had retreated to Galicia, and, in May, the Central Powers achieved a remarkable breakthrough on Poland’s southern frontiers.[113] On 5 August, they capturedWarsaw and forced the Russians to withdraw from Poland.

Russian Revolution

Main article: Russian Revolution

Despite the success of the June 1916 Brusilov Offensive in eastern Galicia,[114] dissatisfaction with the Russian government’s conduct of the war grew. The offensive’s success was undermined by the reluctance of other generals to commit their forces to support the victory. Allied and Russian forces were revived only temporarily by Romania’s entry into the war on 27 August. German forces came to the aid of embattled Austro-Hungarian units in Transylvania while a German-Bulgarian force attacked from the south, and Bucharest fell to the Central Powers on 6 December. Meanwhile, unrest grew in Russia, as the Tsar remained at the front. Empress Alexandra’s increasingly incompetent rule drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite, Rasputin, at the end of 1916.

In March 1917, demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government, which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists. This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. The army became increasingly ineffective.[113]

Discontent and the weaknesses of the Provisional Government led to a rise in the popularity of the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, which demanded an immediate end to the war. The successful armed uprising by the Bolsheviks of November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany. At first, the Bolsheviks refused the German terms, but when German troops began marching across the Ukraine unopposed, the new government acceded to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918. The treaty ceded vast territories, including Finland, the Baltic provinces, parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers.[115] Despite this enormous apparent German success, the manpower required for German occupation of former Russian territory may have contributed to the failure of the Spring Offensive and secured relatively little food or other materiel for the Central Powers war effort.

With the adoption of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Entente no longer existed. The Allied powers led a small-scale invasion of Russia, partly to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources, and to a lesser extent, to support the “Whites” (as opposed to the “Reds”) in the Russian Civil War.[116] Allied troops landed in Arkhangelsk and in Vladivostok as part of the North Russia Intervention.

Czechoslovak Legion

Czechoslovak Legion, Vladivostok, 1918.

Main article: Czechoslovak Legion

The Czechoslovak Legion fought with the Entente; their goal was to win support for the independence of Czechoslovakia. The Legion inRussia was established in 1917, in December 1917 in France (including volunteers from America) and in April 1918 in Italy. Czechoslovak Legion troops defeated the Austro-Hungarian army at the Ukrainian village Zborov in July 1917. After this success, the number of Czechoslovak legionaries increased, as well as Czechoslovak military power. In the Battle of Bakhmach, the Legion defeated the Germans and forced them to make a truce.

In Russia, they were heavily involved in the Russian Civil War fighting the Bolsheviks, at times controlling most of the Trans-Siberian railway and conquering all major cities in Siberia. The presence of the Czechoslovak Legion near the Yekaterinburg appears to have been one of the motivating forces for the Bolshevik execution of the Tsar and his family in July 1918. Legionaries came less than a week afterwards and captured the city.

Because Russia’s European ports were not safe, the corps was to be evacuated by a long detour via the port of Vladivostok. The last transport was the American ship Heffron in September 1920.

Central Powers proposal for starting peace negotiations

They shall not pass, a phrase typically associated with the defense of Verdun.

In December 1916, after ten brutal months of the Battle of Verdun and a successful offensive against Romania, the Germans attempted to negotiate a peace with the Allies. Soon after, the US president, Woodrow Wilson, attempted to intervene as a peacemaker, asking in a note for both sides to state their demands. Lloyd George’s War Cabinet considered the German offer to be a ploy to create divisions amongst the Allies. After initial outrage and much deliberation, they took Wilson’s note as a separate effort, signalling that the United States was on the verge of entering the war against Germany following the “submarine outrages”. While the Allies debated a response to Wilson’s offer, the Germans chose to rebuff it in favour of “a direct exchange of views”. Learning of the German response, the Allied governments were free to make clear demands in their response of 14 January. They sought restoration of damages, the evacuation of occupied territories, reparations for France, Russia and Romania, and a recognition of the principle of nationalities. This included the liberation of Italians, Slavs, Romanians, Czecho-Slovaks, and the creation of a “free and united Poland”. On the question of security, the Allies sought guarantees that would prevent or limit future wars, complete with sanctions, as a condition of any peace settlement.[117] The negotiations failed and the Entente powers rejected the German offer, because Germany did not state any specific proposals. To Wilson, the Entente powers stated that they would not start peace negotiations until the Central powers evacuated all occupied Allied territories and provided indemnities for all damage which had been done.[118]

1917–1918

Developments in 1917

German film crew recording the action.

Events of 1917 proved decisive in ending the war, although their effects were not fully felt until 1918.

The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on Germany. In response, in February 1917, the German General Staffconvinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, with the goal of starving Britain out of the war. German planners estimated that unrestricted submarine warfare would cost Britain a monthly shipping loss of 600,000 tons. The General Staff acknowledged that the policy would almost certainly bring the United States into the conflict, but calculated that British shipping losses would be so high that they would be forced to sue for peace after 5 to 6 months, before American intervention could make an impact. In reality, tonnage sunk rose above 500,000 tons per month from February to July. It peaked at 860,000 tons in April. After July, the newly re-introduced convoy system became extremely effective in reducing the U-boat threat. Britain was safe from starvation, while German industrial output fell and the United States troops joined the war in large numbers far earlier than Germany had anticipated.

Haut-Rhin, France, 1917.

On 3 May 1917, during the Nivelle Offensive, the weary French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of the Battle of Verdun, refused orders, arriving drunk and without their weapons. Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division, and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. The French Army Mutinies eventually spread to a further 54 French divisions and saw 20,000 men desert. However, appeals to patriotism and duty, as well as mass arrests and trials, encouraged the soldiers to return to defend their trenches, although the French soldiers refused to participate in further offensive action.[119] Robert Nivelle was removed from command by 15 May, replaced by General Philippe Pétain, who suspended bloody large-scale attacks.

The victory of Austria-Hungary and Germany at the Battle of Caporetto led the Allies to convene the Rapallo Conference at which they formed the Supreme War Council to coordinate planning. Previously, British and French armies had operated under separate commands.

In December, the Central Powers signed an armistice with Russia. This released large numbers of German troops for use in the west. With German reinforcements and new American troops pouring in, the outcome was to be decided on the Western Front. The Central Powers knew that they could not win a protracted war, but they held high hopes for success based on a final quick offensive. Furthermore, the leaders of the Central Powers and the Allies became increasingly fearful of social unrest and revolution in Europe. Thus, both sides urgently sought a decisive victory.[120]

In 1917, Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly attempted separate peace negotiations with Clemenceau, through his wife’s brother Sixtus in Belgium as an intermediary, without the knowledge of Germany. Italy opposed the proposals. When the negotiations failed, his attempt was revealed to Germany, resulting in a diplomatic catastrophe.[121][122]

Ottoman Empire conflict, 1917–1918

British troops on the march inMesopotamia, 1917.

In March and April 1917, at the First and Second Battles of Gaza, German and Ottoman forces stopped the advance of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, which had begun in August 1916 at Romani. At the end of October, the Sinai and Palestine Campaign resumed, when General Edmund Allenby‘s XXth Corps, XXI Corps and Desert Mounted Corps won the Battle of Beersheba. Two Ottoman armies were defeated a few weeks later at the Battle of Mughar Ridge and, early in December, Jerusalem was captured following another Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Jerusalem (1917). About this time, Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein was relieved of his duties as the Eighth Army’s commander, replaced by Djevad Pasha, and a few months later the commander of the Ottoman Army in Palestine,Erich von Falkenhayn, was replaced by Otto Liman von Sanders.

Early in 1918, the front line was extended into the Jordan Valley, was occupied, following the First Transjordan and the Second Transjordan attack by British Empire forces in March and April 1918. During March, most of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force’s British infantry and Yeomanry cavalry were sent to fight on the Western Front as a consequence of the Spring Offensive. They were replaced by Indian Army units. During several months of reorganisation and training during the summer, a number of attacks were carried out on sections of the Ottoman front line. These pushed the front line north to more advantageous positions in preparation for an attack and to acclimatise the newly arrived Indian Army infantry. It was not until the middle of September that the integrated force was ready for large-scale operations.

The reorganised Egyptian Expeditionary Force, with an additional mounted division, broke Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918. In two days the British and Indian infantry supported by a creeping barrage broke the Ottoman front line and captured the headquarters of the Eighth Army (Ottoman Empire) at Tulkarm, the continuous trench lines at Tabsor, Arara and the Seventh Army (Ottoman Empire) headquarters at Nablus. The Desert Mounted Corps rode through the break in the front line created by the infantry and, during virtually continuous operations by Australian Light Horse, British mounted Yeomanry, Indian Lancers and New Zealand Mounted Riflebrigades in the Jezreel Valley, they captured Nazareth, Afulah and Beisan, Jenin, along with Haifa on the Mediterranean coast and Daraa east of the Jordan River on the Hejaz railway. Samakh and Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee, were captured on the way northwards to Damascus. Meanwhile, Chaytor’s Force of Australian light horse, New Zealand mounted rifles, Indian, British West Indies and Jewish infantry captured the crossings of the Jordan River, Es Salt, Amman and at Ziza most of the Fourth Army (Ottoman Empire). The Armistice of Mudros, signed at the end of October ended hostilities with the Ottoman Empire when fighting was continuing north of Aleppo.

Entry of the United States

President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917.

At the outbreak of the war, the United States pursued a policy of non-intervention, avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. When a German U-boat sank the British liner RMS Lusitania on 7 May 1915 with 128 Americans among the dead, President Woodrow Wilsoninsisted that “America is too proud to fight” but demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. However, he also repeatedly warned that the United States would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law. The former president Theodore Roosevelt denounced German acts as “piracy”.[123]Wilson was narrowly reelected in 1916 as his supporters emphasized “he kept us out of war”.

In January 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare, realizing it would mean American entry. The German Foreign Minister, in the Zimmermann Telegram, invited Mexico to join the war as Germany’s ally against the United States. In return, the Germans would finance Mexico’s war and help it recover the territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.[124] The United Kingdom intercepted the message and presented it to the US embassy in the UK. From there it made its way to President Wilson who released the Zimmerman note to the public, and Americans saw it as casus belli. Wilson called on antiwar elements to end all wars, by winning this one and eliminating militarism from the globe. He argued that the war was so important that the US had to have a voice in the peace conference.[125] After the sinking of seven US merchant ships by submarines and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany,[126] which theUS Congress declared on 6 April 1917.

The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled “Associated Power”. The United States had a small army, but, after the passage of theSelective Service Act, it drafted 2.8 million men,[127] and, by summer 1918, was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day. In 1917, the US Congress gave US citizenship to Puerto Ricans when they were drafted to participate in World War I, as part of the Jones Act. Germany had miscalculated, believing it would be many more months before American soldiers would arrive and that their arrival could be stopped by U-boats.[128]

The United States Navy sent a battleship group to Scapa Flow to join with the British Grand Fleet, destroyers to Queenstown, Ireland, and submarines to help guard convoys. Several regiments of US Marines were also dispatched to France. The British and French wanted American units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies. General John J. Pershing, American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) commander, refused to break up American units to be used as reinforcements for British Empire and French units. As an exception, he did allow African-American combat regiments to be used in French divisions. The Harlem Hellfighters fought as part of the French 16th Division, and earned a unit Croix de Guerre for their actions at Château-Thierry, Belleau Wood, and Sechault.[129] AEF doctrine called for the use of frontal assaults, which had long since been discarded by British Empire and French commanders because of the large loss of life.[130]

German Spring Offensive of 1918

Main article: Spring Offensive

British 55th Infantry Divisionsoldiers, blinded by tear gas during theBattle of Estaires, 10 April 1918.

French soldiers under General Gouraud, with machine guns amongst the ruins of a cathedral near the Marne, 1918.

German General Erich Ludendorff drew up plans (codenamed Operation Michael) for the 1918 offensive on the Western Front. The Spring Offensive sought to divide the British and French forces with a series of feints and advances. The German leadership hoped to end the war before significant US forces arrived. The operation commenced on 21 March 1918, with an attack on British forces nearAmiens. German forces achieved an unprecedented advance of 60 kilometres (37 mi).[131]

British and French trenches were penetrated using novel infiltration tactics, also named Hutier tactics, after General Oskar von Hutier, by specially trained units called stormtroopers. Previously, attacks had been characterised by long artillery bombardments and massed assaults. However, in the Spring Offensive of 1918, Ludendorff used artillery only briefly and infiltrated small groups of infantry at weak points. They attacked command and logistics areas and bypassed points of serious resistance. More heavily armed infantry then destroyed these isolated positions. This German success relied greatly on the element of surprise.[132]

The front moved to within 120 kilometres (75 mi) of Paris. Three heavy Krupp railway guns fired 183 shells on the capital, causing many Parisians to flee. The initial offensive was so successful that Kaiser Wilhelm II declared 24 March a national holiday. Many Germans thought victory was near. After heavy fighting, however, the offensive was halted. Lacking tanks or motorised artillery, the Germans were unable to consolidate their gains. This situation was not helped by the now stretched supply lines as a result of their rapid advance over devastated ground.[133]

General Foch pressed to use the arriving American troops as individual replacements, whereas Pershing sought to field American units as an independent force. These units were assigned to the depleted French and British Empire commands on 28 March. A Supreme War Council of Allied forces was created at the Doullens Conference on 5 November 1917.[134] General Foch was appointed as supreme commander of the Allied forces. Haig, Petain, and Pershing retained tactical control of their respective armies; Foch assumed a coordinating rather than a directing role, and the British, French, and US commands operated largely independently.[134]

Following Operation Michael, Germany launched Operation Georgette against the northern English Channel ports. The Allies halted the drive after limited territorial gains by Germany. The German Army to the south then conducted Operations Blücher and Yorck, pushing broadly towards Paris. Operation Marne was launched on 15 July, in an attempt to encircle Reims and beginning the Second Battle of the Marne. The resulting counterattack, started the Hundred Days Offensive, and marked the first successful Allied offensive of the war.

By 20 July, the Germans had retreated across the Marne to their starting lines,[135] having achieved little, and the German Army never regained the initiative. German casualties between March and April 1918 were 270,000, including many highly trained storm troopers.

Meanwhile, Germany was falling apart at home. Anti-war marches became frequent and morale in the army fell. Industrial output was 53% of 1913 levels.

New states under war zone

In the late spring of 1918, three new states were formed in the South Caucasus: the First Republic of Armenia, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Georgia, which declared their independence from the Russian Empire.[136] Two other minor entities were established, the Centrocaspian Dictatorship and South West Caucasian Republic (the former was liquidated by Azerbaijan in the autumn of 1918 and the latter by a joint Armenian-British task force in early 1919). With the withdrawal of the Russian armies from the Caucasus front in the winter of 1917–18, the three major republics braced for an imminent Ottoman advance, which commenced in the early months of 1918. Solidarity was briefly maintained when the Transcaucasian Federative Republic was created in the spring of 1918, but this collapsed in May, when the Georgians asked and received protection from Germany and the Azerbaijanis concluded a treaty with the Ottoman Empire that was more akin to a military alliance. Armenia was left to fend for itself and struggled for five months against the threat of a full-fledged occupation by the Ottoman Turks.[136]

Allied victory: summer 1918 onwards

Hundred Days Offensive

Aerial view of ruins of Vaux-devant-Damloup, France, 1918.

The Allied counteroffensive, known as the Hundred Days Offensive, began on 8 August 1918, with the Battle of Amiens. The battle involved over 400 tanks and 120,000 British, Dominion, and French troops, and by the end of its first day a gap 15 mi (24 km) long had been created in the German lines. The defenders displayed a marked collapse in morale, causing Erich Ludendorff to refer to this day as the “Black Day of the German army”.[137][138] After an advance as far as 14 miles (23 km), German resistance stiffened, and the battle was concluded on 12 August.

Rather than continuing the Amiens battle past the point of initial success, as had been done so many times in the past, the Allies shifted their attention elsewhere. Allied leaders had now realised that to continue an attack after resistance had hardened was a waste of lives, and it was better to turn a line than to try to roll over it. They began to undertake attacks in quick order to take advantage of successful advances on the flanks, then broke them off when each attack lost its initial impetus.[139]

Canadian Scottish, advancing during the Battle of the Canal du Nord, 1918.

British and Dominion forces launched the next phase of the campaign with the Battle of Albert on 21 August.[140] The assault was widened by French[141] and then further British forces in the following days. During the last week of August the pressure along a 70-mile (113 km) front against the enemy was heavy and unrelenting. From German accounts, “Each day was spent in bloody fighting against an ever and again on-storming enemy, and nights passed without sleep in retirements to new lines.”[139]

Faced with these advances, on 2 September the German Oberste Heeresleitung (OHL) issued orders to withdraw to the Hindenburg Linein the south. This ceded without a fight the salient seized the previous April.[142] According to Ludendorff “We had to admit the necessity … to withdraw the entire front from the Scarpe to the Vesle.”[143]

September saw the Allied advance to the Hindenburg Line in the north and centre. The Germans continued to fight strong rear-guard actions and launched numerous counterattacks on lost positions, but only a few succeeded, and then only temporarily. Contested towns, villages, heights, and trenches in the screening positions and outposts of the Hindenburg Line continued to fall to the Allies, with the BEF alone taking 30,441 prisoners in the last week of September. On 24 September an assault by both the British and French came within 2 miles (3.2 km) of St. Quentin.[141] The Germans were now completely back in the Hindenburg Line.

An American major, piloting anobservation balloon near the front, 1918.

In nearly four weeks of fighting beginning 8 August, over 100,000 German prisoners were taken, 75,000 by the BEF and the rest by the French. As of “The Black Day of the German Army”, the German High Command realised that the war was lost and made attempts to reach a satisfactory end. The day after that battle, Ludendorff said: “We cannot win the war any more, but we must not lose it either.” On 11 August he offered his resignation to the Kaiser, who refused it, replying, “I see that we must strike a balance. We have nearly reached the limit of our powers of resistance. The war must be ended.” On 13 August, at Spa, Hindenburg, Ludendorff, the Chancellor, and Foreign Minister Hintz agreed that the war could not be ended militarily and, on the following day, the German Crown Council decided that victory in the field was now most improbable. Austria and Hungary warned that they could only continue the war until December, and Ludendorff recommended immediate peace negotiations. Prince Rupprecht warned Prince Max of Baden: “Our military situation has deteriorated so rapidly that I no longer believe we can hold out over the winter; it is even possible that a catastrophe will come earlier.” On 10 September Hindenburg urged peace moves to Emperor Charles of Austria, and Germany appealed to the Netherlands for mediation. On 14 September Austria sent a note to all belligerents and neutrals suggesting a meeting for peace talks on neutral soil, and on 15 September Germany made a peace offer to Belgium. Both peace offers were rejected, and on 24 September OHL informed the leaders in Berlin that armistice talks were inevitable.[141]

The final assault on the Hindenburg Line began with the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, launched by French and American troops on 26 September. The following week, cooperating French and American units broke through in Champagne at the Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge, forcing the Germans off the commanding heights, and closing towards the Belgian frontier.[144] On 8 October the line was pierced again by British and Dominion troops at the Battle of Cambrai.[145] The German army had to shorten its front and use the Dutch frontier as an anchor to fight rear-guard actions as it fell back towards Germany.

When Bulgaria signed a separate armistice on 29 September, Ludendorff, having been under great stress for months, suffered something similar to a breakdown. It was evident that Germany could no longer mount a successful defence.[146][147]

Men of US 64th Regiment, 7th Infantry Division, celebrate the news of the Armistice, 11 November 1918.

Meanwhile, news of Germany’s impending military defeat spread throughout the German armed forces. The threat of mutiny was rife. Admiral Reinhard Scheer and Ludendorff decided to launch a last attempt to restore the “valour” of the German Navy. Knowing the government of Prince Maximilian of Baden would veto any such action, Ludendorff decided not to inform him. Nonetheless, word of the impending assault reached sailors at Kiel. Many, refusing to be part of a naval offensive, which they believed to be suicidal, rebelled and were arrested. Ludendorff took the blame; the Kaiser dismissed him on 26 October. The collapse of the Balkans meant that Germany was about to lose its main supplies of oil and food. Its reserves had been used up, even as US troops kept arriving at the rate of 10,000 per day.[148] The Americans supplied more than 80% of Allied oil during the war, meaning no such loss of supplies could affect the Allied effort.[149]

With the military faltering and with widespread loss of confidence in the Kaiser, Germany moved towards peace. Prince Maximilian of Baden took charge of a new government as Chancellor of Germany to negotiate with the Allies. Negotiations with President Wilson began immediately, in the hope that he would offer better terms than the British and French. Wilson demanded a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary control over the German military.[150] There was no resistance when the Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann on 9 November declared Germany to be a republic. The Kaiser, kings and other hereditary rulers all were removed from power. Imperial Germany was dead; a new Germany had been born: the Weimar Republic.[151]

Armistices and capitulations

Ferdinand Foch, second from right, pictured outside the carriage inCompiègne after agreeing to the armistice that ended the war there. The carriage was later chosen by Nazi Germany as the symbolic setting of Pétain’s June 1940 armistice.[152]

The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly. Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice, on 29 September 1918 at Saloniki.[153] On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated, signing the Armistice of Mudros.[153]

On 24 October, the Italians began a push that rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto. This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force. The offensive also triggered the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the last week of October, declarations of independence were made in Budapest, Prague, and Zagreb. On 29 October, the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice. But the Italians continued advancing, reaching Trento, Udine, and Trieste. On 3 November, Austria-Hungary sent a flag of truce to ask for an armistice. The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian commander and accepted. The Armistice with Austriawas signed in the Villa Giusti, near Padua, on 3 November. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the outbreak of the German Revolution of 1918–1919, a republic was proclaimed on 9 November. The Kaiser fled to the Netherlands.

On 11 November, at 5:00 am, an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage at Compiègne. At 11 am on 11 November 1918—”the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month”—a ceasefire came into effect. During the six hours between the signing of the armistice and its taking effect, opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions, but fighting continued along many areas of the front, as commanders wanted to capture territory before the war ended. Canadian Private George Lawrence Price was shot by a German sniper at 10:57 and died at 10:58.[154] American Henry Gunther was killed 60 seconds before the armistice came into force while charging astonished German troops who were aware the Armistice was nearly upon them.[155] The last British soldier to die was Pte George Edwin Ellison. The occupation of the Rhineland took place following the Armistice. The occupying armies consisted of American, Belgian, British and French forces.

In November 1918, the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel to invade Germany. Yet at the time of the armistice, no Allied force had crossed the German frontier; the Western Front was still some 450 mi (720 km) from Berlin; and the Kaiser’s armies had retreated from the battlefield in good order. These factors enabled Hindenburg and other senior German leaders to spread the story that their armies had not really been defeated. This resulted in the stab-in-the-back legend,[156][157] which attributed Germany’s defeat not to its inability to continue fighting (even though up to a million soldiers were suffering from the 1918 flu pandemic and unfit to fight), but to the public’s failure to respond to its “patriotic calling” and the supposed intentional sabotage of the war effort, particularly by Jews, Socialists, and Bolsheviks.

The Allies had much more potential wealth they could spend on the war. One estimate (using 1913 US dollars) is that the Allies spent $58 billion on the war and the Central Powers only $25 billion. Among the Allies, the UK spent $21 billion and the US $17 billion; among the Central Powers Germany spent $20 billion.[158]

Aftermath

The French military cemetery at theDouaumont ossuary, which contains the remains of more than 130,000 unknown soldiers.

No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically. Four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian. Numerous nations regained their former independence, and new ones created. Four dynasties, together with their ancillary aristocracies, all fell after the war: the Hohenzollerns, the Habsburgs, the Romanovs, and the Ottomans. Belgium and Serbia were badly damaged, as was France, with 1.4 million soldiers dead,[159] not counting other casualties. Germany and Russia were similarly affected.[160]

Formal end of the war

A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June 1919. The United States Senate did not ratify the treaty despite public support for it,[161][162] and did not formally end its involvement in the war until the Knox–Porter Resolution was signed on 2 July 1921 by President Warren G. Harding.[163] For the United Kingdom and the British Empire, the state of war ceased under the provisions of the Termination of the Present War (Definition) Act 1918 with respect to:

  • Germany on 10 January 1920.[164]
  • Austria on 16 July 1920.[165]
  • Bulgaria on 9 August 1920.[166]
  • Hungary on 26 July 1921.[167]
  • Turkey on 6 August 1924.[168]

After the Treaty of Versailles, treaties with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire were signed. However, the negotiation of the latter treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife (the Turkish War of Independence), and a final peace treaty between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey was not signed until 24 July 1923, at Lausanne.

Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles Treaty was signed in 1919, which was when many of the troops serving abroad finally returned to their home countries; by contrast, most commemorations of the war’s end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November 1918. Legally, the formal peace treaties were not complete until the last, the Treaty of Lausanne, was signed. Under its terms, the Allied forces divested Constantinople on 23 August 1923.

Peace treaties and national boundaries

After the war, the Paris Peace Conference imposed a series of peace treaties on the Central Powers officially ending the war. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles dealt with Germany, and building on Wilson’s 14th point, brought into being the League of Nations on 28 June 1919.[169][170]

The Central Powers had to acknowledge responsibility for “all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by” their aggression. In the Treaty of Versailles, this statement was Article 231. This article became known as War Guilt clause as the majority of Germans felt humiliated and resentful. Overall the Germans felt they had been unjustly dealt by what they called the “diktat of Versailles.” Schulze says, the Treaty placed Germany, “under legal sanctions, deprived of military power, economically ruined, and politically humiliated.”[171] Belgian historian Laurence Van Ypersele emphasizes the central role played by memory of the war and the Versailles Treaty in German politics in the 1920s and 1930s:

Active denial of war guilt in Germany and German resentment at both reparations and continued Allied occupation of the Rhineland made widespread revision of the meaning and memory of the war problematic. The legend of the “stab in the back” and the wish to revise the “Versailles diktat,” and the belief in an international threat aimed at the elimination of the German nation persisted at the heart of German politics. Even a man of peace such as Stresemann publicly rejected German guilt. As for the Nazis, they waved the banners of domestic treason and international conspiracy in an attempt to galvanize the German nation into a spirit of revenge. Like a Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany sought to redirect the memory of the war to the benefit of its own policies.[172]

Meanwhile new nations liberated from German rule viewed the treaty as recognition of wrongs committed against small nations by much larger aggressive neighbors.[173] The Peace Conference required all the defeated powers to pay reparations for all the damage done to civilians. However, owing to economic difficulties and Germany being the only defeated power with an intact economy, the burden fell largely on Germany.

Austria-Hungary was partitioned into several successor states, including Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, largely but not entirely along ethnic lines.Transylvania was shifted from Hungary to Greater Romania. The details were contained in the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the Treaty of Trianon. As a result of the Treaty of Trianon, 3.3 million Hungarians came under foreign rule. Although the Hungarians made up 54% of the population of the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, only 32% of its territory was left to Hungary. Between 1920 and 1924, 354,000 Hungarians fled former Hungarian territories attached to Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.

The Russian Empire, which had withdrawn from the war in 1917 after the October Revolution, lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia,Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland were carved from it. Romania took control of Bessarabia in April 1918.[174]

The Ottoman Empire disintegrated, and much of its non-Anatolian territory was awarded to various Allied powers as protectorates. The Turkish core in Anatolia was reorganised as the Republic of Turkey. The Ottoman Empire was to be partitioned by the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. This treaty was never ratified by the Sultan and was rejected by theTurkish National Movement, leading to the victorious Turkish War of Independence and, as a result, the much less stringent 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.

National identities

Further information: Sykes–Picot Agreement

Poland reemerged as an independent country, after more than a century. The Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty, as a “minor Entente nation” and the country with the most casualties per capita,[175][176][177] became the backbone of a new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later renamed Yugoslavia. Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East.

Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (as of 1923).

In the British Empire, the war unleashed new forms of nationalism. In Australia and New Zealand the Battle of Gallipoli became known as those nations’ “Baptism of Fire”. It was the first major war in which the newly established countries fought, and it was one of the first times that Australian troops fought as Australians, not just subjects of the British Crown. Anzac Day, commemorating the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, celebrates this defining moment.[178][179]

After the Battle of Vimy Ridge, where the Canadian divisions fought together for the first time as a single corps, Canadians began to refer to theirs as a nation “forged from fire”.[180] Having succeeded on the same battleground where the “mother countries” had previously faltered, they were for the first time respected internationally for their own accomplishments. Canada entered the war as a Dominion of the British Empire and remained so, although it emerged with a greater measure of independence.[181][182] When Britain declared war in 1914, the dominions were automatically at war; at the conclusion, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa were individual signatories of the Treaty of Versailles.[183]

The establishment of the modern state of Israel and the roots of the continuing Israeli–Palestinian conflict are partially found in the unstable power dynamics of the Middle East that resulted from World War I.[184] Before the end of the war, the Ottoman Empire had maintained a modest level of peace and stability throughout the Middle East.[185] With the fall of the Ottoman government, power vacuums developed and conflicting claims to land and nationhood began to emerge.[186] The political boundaries drawn by the victors of World War I were quickly imposed, sometimes after only cursory consultation with the local population. These continue to be problematic in the 21st-century struggles fornational identity.[187][188] While the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I was pivotal in contributing to the modern political situation of the Middle East, including the Arab-Israeli conflict,[189][190][191] the end of Ottoman rule also spawned lesser known disputes over water and other natural resources.[192]

Health effects

The war had profound consequences in the health of the troops. Of the 60 million European military personnel who were mobilised from 1914 to 1918, 8 million were killed, 7 million were permanently disabled, and 15 million were seriously injured. Germany lost 15.1% of its active male population, Austria-Hungary lost 17.1%, and France lost 10.5%.[193] In Germany civilian deaths were 474,000 higher than in peacetime, due in large part to food shortages and malnutrition that weakened resistance to disease.[194] By the end of the war, starvation begat by famine had killed approximately 100,000 people in Lebanon.[195] Between 5 and 10 million people died in the Russian famine of 1921.[196]By 1922, there were between 4.5 million and 7 million homeless children in Russia as a result of nearly a decade of devastation from World War I, the Russian Civil War, and the subsequent famine of 1920–1922.[197] Numerous anti-Soviet Russians fled the country after the Revolution; by the 1930s, the northern Chinese city of Harbin had 100,000 Russians.[198] Thousands more emigrated to France, England, and the United States.

Emergency military hospital during the Spanish flu pandemic, which killed about 675,000 people in the United States alone. Camp Funston, Kansas, 1918.

In Australia, the effects of the war on the economy were no less severe. The Australian prime minister, Billy Hughes, wrote to the British prime minister, Lloyd George, “You have assured us that you cannot get better terms. I much regret it, and hope even now that some way may be found of securing agreement for demanding reparation commensurate with the tremendous sacrifices made by the British Empire and her Allies.”[199] Australia received ₤5,571,720 war reparations, but the direct cost of the war to Australia had been ₤376,993,052, and, by the mid-1930s, repatriation pensions, war gratuities, interest and sinking fund charges were ₤831,280,947.[199] Of about 416,000 Australians who served, about 60,000 were killed and another 152,000 were wounded.[200]

Diseases flourished in the chaotic wartime conditions. In 1914 alone, louse-borne epidemic typhus killed 200,000 in Serbia.[201] From 1918 to 1922, Russia had about 25 million infections and 3 million deaths from epidemic typhus.[202] In 1923, 13 million Russians contracted malaria, a sharp increase from the pre-war years.[203] In addition, a major influenza epidemic spread around the world. Overall, the 1918 flu pandemic killed at least 50 million people.[204][205]

Lobbying by Chaim Weizmann and fear that American Jews would encourage the USA to support Germany culminated in the British government’s Balfour Declaration of 1917, endorsing creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.[206] A total of more than 1,172,000 Jewish soldiers served in the Allied and Central Power forces in World War I, including 275,000 in Austria-Hungary and 450,000 in Czarist Russia.[207]

The social disruption and widespread violence of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War sparked more than 2,000 pogroms in the former Russian Empire, mostly in the Ukraine.[208] An estimated 60,000–200,000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities.[209]

In the aftermath of World War I, Greece fought against Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal, a war which resulted in a massive population exchange between the two countries under the Treaty of Lausanne.[210] According to various sources,[211] several hundred thousand Pontic Greeks died during this period.[212]

Technology

Ground warfare

A Russian armoured car, 1919.

World War I began as a clash of 20th-century technology and 19th-century tactics, with the inevitably large ensuing casualties. By the end of 1917, however, the major armies, now numbering millions of men, had modernised and were making use of telephone, wireless communication,[213] armoured cars, tanks,[214] and aircraft. Infantry formations were reorganised, so that 100-man companies were no longer the main unit of manoeuvre; instead, squads of 10 or so men, under the command of a junior NCO, were favoured.

Artillery also underwent a revolution. In 1914, cannons were positioned in the front line and fired directly at their targets. By 1917, indirect fire with guns (as well as mortars and even machine guns) was commonplace, using new techniques for spotting and ranging, notably aircraft and the often overlooked field telephone. Counter-battery missions became commonplace, also, and sound detection was used to locate enemy batteries.

Germany was far ahead of the Allies in utilising heavy indirect fire. The German Army employed 150 mm (6 in) and 210 mm (8 in) howitzers in 1914, when typical French and British guns were only 75 mm (3 in) and 105 mm (4 in). The British had a 6 inch (152 mm) howitzer, but it was so heavy it had to be hauled to the field in pieces and assembled. The Germans also fielded Austrian 305 mm (12 in) and 420 mm (17 in) guns and, even at the beginning of the war, had inventories of various calibers of Minenwerfer, which were ideally suited for trench warfare.[215]

Much of the combat involved trench warfare, in which hundreds often died for each yard gained. Many of the deadliest battles in history occurred during World War I. Such battles include Ypres, the Marne, Cambrai, the Somme, Verdun, and Gallipoli. The Germans employed the Haber process of nitrogen fixation to provide their forces with a constant supply of gunpowder despite the British naval blockade.[216] Artillery was responsible for the largest number of casualties[217] and consumed vast quantities of explosives. The large number of head wounds caused by exploding shells and fragmentation forced the combatant nations to develop the modern steel helmet, led by the French, who introduced the Adrian helmet in 1915. It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet, worn by British Imperial and US troops, and in 1916 by the distinctive GermanStahlhelm, a design, with improvements, still in use today.

Gas! GAS! Quick, boys! – An ecstasy of fumbling,
Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time;
But someone still was yelling out and stumbling,
And flound’ring like a man in fire or lime …
Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light,
As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.

A Canadian soldier with mustard gas burns, ca. 1917–1918.

The widespread use of chemical warfare was a distinguishing feature of the conflict. Gases used included chlorine, mustard gas and phosgene. Few war casualties were caused by gas,[219] as effective countermeasures to gas attacks were quickly created, such as gas masks. The use of chemical warfare and small-scale strategic bombing were both outlawed by the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, and both proved to be of limited effectiveness,[220] though they captured the public imagination.[221]

The most powerful land-based weapons were railway guns weighing hundreds of tons apiece. These were nicknamed Big Berthas, even though the namesake was not a railway gun. Germany developed the Paris Gun, able to bombard Paris from over 100 kilometres (62 mi), though shells were relatively light at 94 kilograms (210 lb). While the Allies also had railway guns, German models severely out-ranged and out-classed them.

British Vickers machine gun, 1917.

Trenches, machine guns, air reconnaissance, barbed wire, and modern artillery with fragmentation shells helped bring the battle lines of World War I to a stalemate. The British and the French sought a solution with the creation of the tank and mechanised warfare. The British first tanks were used during the Battle of the Somme on 15 September 1916. Mechanical reliability was an issue, but the experiment proved its worth. Within a year, the British were fielding tanks by the hundreds, and they showed their potential during theBattle of Cambrai in November 1917, by breaking the Hindenburg Line, while combined arms teams captured 8,000 enemy soldiers and 100 guns. Meanwhile, the French introduced the first tanks with a rotating turret, the Renault FT, which became a decisive tool of the victory. The conflict also saw the introduction of Light automatic weapons and submachine guns, such as the Lewis Gun, the Browning automatic rifle, and the Bergmann MP18.

Another new weapon, the flamethrower, was first used by the German army and later adopted by other forces. Although not of high tactical value, the flamethrower was a powerful, demoralising weapon that caused terror on the battlefield. It was a dangerous weapon to wield, as its heavy weight made operators vulnerable targets.

Trench railways evolved to supply the enormous quantities of food, water, and ammunition required to support large numbers of soldiers in areas where conventional transportation systems had been destroyed. Internal combustion engines and improved traction systems for automobiles and trucks/lorries eventually rendered trench railways obsolete.

Naval

Germany deployed U-boats (submarines) after the war began. Alternating between restricted and unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic, the Kaiserliche Marineemployed them to deprive the British Isles of vital supplies. The deaths of British merchant sailors and the seeming invulnerability of U-boats led to the development of depth charges (1916), hydrophones (passive sonar, 1917), blimps, hunter-killer submarines (HMS R-1, 1917), forward-throwing anti-submarine weapons, and dipping hydrophones (the latter two both abandoned in 1918).[80] To extend their operations, the Germans proposed supply submarines (1916). Most of these would be forgotten in the interwar period until World War II revived the need.

Aviation

RAF Sopwith Camel. In April 1917, the average life expectancy of a British pilot on the Western Front was 93 flying hours.[222]

Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya on 23 October 1911 during the Italo-Turkish War for reconnaissance, soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year. By 1914, their military utility was obvious. They were initially used for reconnaissance and ground attack. To shoot down enemy planes, anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed.Strategic bombers were created, principally by the Germans and British, though the former used Zeppelins as well.[223] Towards the end of the conflict, aircraft carriers were used for the first time, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a raid to destroy the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in 1918.[224]

Manned observation balloons, floating high above the trenches, were used as stationary reconnaissance platforms, reporting enemy movements and directing artillery. Balloons commonly had a crew of two, equipped with parachutes,[225] so that if there was an enemy air attack the crew could parachute to safety. (At the time, parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots of aircraft (with their marginal power output), and smaller versions were not developed until the end of the war; they were also opposed by the British leadership, who feared they might promote cowardice.)[226]

Recognised for their value as observation platforms, balloons were important targets for enemy aircraft. To defend them against air attack, they were heavily protected by antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft; to attack them, unusual weapons such as air-to-air rockets were even tried. Thus, the reconnaissance value of blimps and balloons contributed to the development of air-to-air combat between all types of aircraft, and to the trench stalemate, because it was impossible to move large numbers of troops undetected. The Germans conducted air raids on England during 1915 and 1916 with airships, hoping to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines, and indeed the resulting panic led to the diversion of several squadrons of fighters from France.[223][226]

War crimes

Baralong incidents

Main article: Baralong incidents

On 19 August 1915, the German submarine U-27 was sunk by the British Q-ship HMS Baralong. All German survivors were summarily executed by Baralong’s crew on the orders of Lieutenant Godfrey Herbert, the captain of the ship. The shooting was reported to the media by American citizens who were on board the Nicosia, a British freighter loaded with war supplies, which was stopped by U-27 just minutes before the incident.[227]

On 24 September, Baralong destroyed U-41, which was in the process of sinking the cargo ship Urbino. According to Karl Goetz, the submarine’s commander, Baralongcontinued to fly the US flag after firing on U-41 and then rammed the lifeboat – carrying the German survivors – sinking it.[228]

HMHS Llandovery Castle

The Canadian hospital ship HMHS Llandovery Castle was torpedoed by the German submarine SM U-86 on 27 June 1918 in violation of international law. Only 24 of the 258 medical personnel, patients, and crew survived. Survivors reported that the U-boat surfaced and ran down the lifeboats, machine-gunning survivors in the water. The U-boat captain, Helmut Patzig, was charged with war crimes in Germany following the war, but escaped prosecution by going to the Free City of Danzig, beyond the jurisdiction of German courts.[229]

Chemical weapons in warfare

French soldiers making a gas and flame attack on German trenches in Flanders

The use of poison gas, as a weapon, was introduced by Imperial Germany on 31 January 1915 during the Battle of Bolimov, and was later subsequently used by all major belligerents against enemy combatants throughout the war. It is estimated that the use of chemical weapons employed by both sides throughout the war had inflicted 1.3 million casualties. For example, the British had over 180,000 chemical weapon casualties during the war, and up to one-third of US casualties were caused by gas and mustard. The Russian Army reportedly suffered roughly 500,000 chemical weapon casualties in World War I.[230] The use of chemical weapons in warfare was in direct violation of the 1899 Hague Declaration Concerning Asphyxiating Gases and the 1907 Hague Convention on Land Warfare, which prohibited their use.[231][232]

Poison gas was not only limited to combatants but also civilians as civilian towns were at risk from winds blowing the poison gases through. Civilians rarely had a warning system put into place to alert their neighbors of the danger. In addition to poor warning systems, civilians often did not have access to effective gas masks. An estimated 100,000–260,000 civilian casualties were caused by chemical weapons during the conflict and tens of thousands of more (along with military personnel) died from scarring of the lungs, skin damage, and cerebral damage in the years after the conflict ended. Many commanders on both sides knew that such weapon would cause major harm to civilians as wind would blow poison gases into nearby civilian towns but nonetheless continued to use them throughout the war. British Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig wrote in his diary: “My officers and I were aware that such weapon would cause harm to women and children living in nearby towns, as strong winds were common in the battlefront. However, because the weapon was to be directed against the enemy, none of us were overly concern at all.”[233][234][235][236]

Genocide and ethnic cleansing

Austro-Hungarian soldiers executing men and women in Serbia, 1916.[237]

Armenians killed during the Armenian Genocide. Image taken fromAmbassador Morgenthau’s Story, written by Henry Morgenthau, Sr. and published in 1918.[238]

The ethnic cleansing of the Ottoman Empire’s Armenian population, including mass deportations and executions, during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is considered genocide.[239] The Ottomans saw the entire Armenian population as an enemy[240] that had chosen to side with Russia at the beginning of the war.[241] In early 1915, a number of Armenians joined the Russian forces, and the Ottoman government used this as a pretext to issue the Tehcir Law (Law on Deportation). This authorized the deportation of Armenians from the Empire’s eastern provinces to Syria between 1915 and 1917. The exact number of deaths is unknown, however the International Association of Genocide Scholars estimates over 1 million.[239][242] The government of Turkey has consistently rejected charges of genocide, arguing that those who died were victims of inter-ethnic fighting, famine, or disease during World War I.[243] Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period, including Assyrians and Greeks, and some scholars consider those events to be part of the same policy of extermination.[244][245][246]

Russian Empire

Many pogroms accompanied the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War. 60,000–200,000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire (mostly within the Pale of Settlement in present-day Ukraine).[247]

Rape of Belgium

Main article: Rape of Belgium

The German invaders treated any resistance—such as sabotaging rail lines—as illegal and immoral, and shot the offenders and burned buildings in retaliation. In addition, they tended to suspect that most civilians were potential franc-tireurs (guerrillas) and, accordingly, took and sometimes killed hostages from among the civilian population. The German army executed over 6,500 French and Belgian civilians between August and November 1914, usually in near-random large-scale shootings of civilians ordered by junior German officers. The German Army destroyed 15,000–20,000 buildings—most famously the university library at Louvain—and generated a wave of refugees of over a million people. Over half the German regiments in Belgium were involved in major incidents.[248]Thousands of workers were shipped to Germany to work in factories. British propaganda dramatizing the Rape of Belgium attracted much attention in the United States, while Berlin said it was both lawful and necessary because of the threat of franc-tireurs like those in France in 1870.[249] The British and French magnified the reports and disseminated them at home and in the United States, where they played a major role in dissolving support for Germany.[250][251]

Soldiers’ experiences

The First Contingent of the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps to the 1 Lincolns, training in Bermuda for the Western Front, winter 1914–1915. The two BVRC contingents suffered 75% casualties.

The British soldiers of the war were initially volunteers but increasingly were conscripted into service. Surviving veterans, returning home, often found that they could only discuss their experiences amongst themselves. Grouping together, they formed “veterans’ associations” or “Legions”.

Prisoners of war

German prisoners in a French prison camp, during the later part of the war.

About eight million men surrendered and were held in POW camps during the war. All nations pledged to follow the Hague Conventions on fair treatment of prisoners of war. POWs’ rate of survival was generally much higher than that of their peers at the front.[252] Individual surrenders were uncommon; large units usually surrendered en masse. At the siege of Maubeuge about 40,000 French soldiers surrendered, at the battle of Galicia Russians took about 100,000 to 120,000 Austrian captives, at the Brusilov Offensive about 325,000 to 417,000 Germans and Austrians surrendered to Russians, at theBattle of Tannenberg 92,000 Russians surrendered. When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915, some 20,000 Russians became prisoners, at the battle near Przasnysz (February–March 1915) 14,000 Germans surrendered to Russians, at the First Battle of the Marne about 12,000 Germans surrendered to the Allies. 25–31% of Russian losses (as a proportion of those captured, wounded, or killed) were to prisoner status; for Austria-Hungary 32%, for Italy 26%, for France 12%, for Germany 9%; for Britain 7%. Prisoners from the Allied armies totalled about 1.4 million (not including Russia, which lost 2.–3.5[clarification needed] million men as prisoners. In some research it is stated that the number of Russian prisoners was 2,417,000). From the Central Powers about 3.3 million men became prisoners; most of them surrendered to Russians.[253]

Germany held 2.5 million prisoners; Russia held 2.2–2.9 million; while Britain and France held about 720,000. Most were captured just before the Armistice. The United States held 48,000. The most dangerous moment was the act of surrender, when helpless soldiers were sometimes gunned down.[254][255] Once prisoners reached a camp, conditions were, in general, satisfactory (and much better than in World War II), thanks in part to the efforts of the International Red Cross and inspections by neutral nations. However, conditions were terrible in Russia: starvation was common for prisoners and civilians alike; about 15–20% of the prisoners in Russia died (in some researches it is stated that 2.5% of prisoners in Russia died), and in Central powers imprisonment—8% of Russians.[256] In Germany, food was scarce, but only 5% died.[257][258][259]

Emaciated Indian Army soldier who survived theSiege of Kut.

The Ottoman Empire often treated POWs poorly.[260] Some 11,800 British Empire soldiers, most of them Indians, became prisoners after theSiege of Kut in Mesopotamia in April 1916; 4,250 died in captivity.[261] Although many were in a poor condition when captured, Ottoman officers forced them to march 1,100 kilometres (684 mi) to Anatolia. A survivor said: “We were driven along like beasts; to drop out was to die.”[262] The survivors were then forced to build a railway through the Taurus Mountains.

In Russia, when the prisoners from the Czech Legion of the Austro-Hungarian army were released in 1917, they re-armed themselves and briefly became a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War.

While the Allied prisoners of the Central Powers were quickly sent home at the end of active hostilities, the same treatment was not granted to Central Power prisoners of the Allies and Russia, many of whom served as forced labor, e.g., in France until 1920. They were released only after many approaches by the Red Cross to the Allied Supreme Council.[263] German prisoners were still being held in Russia as late as 1924.[264]

Military attachés and war correspondents

Military and civilian observers from every major power closely followed the course of the war. Many were able to report on events from a perspective somewhat akin to modern “embedded” positions within the opposing land and naval forces. These military attachés and other observers prepared voluminous first-hand accounts of the war and analytical papers.

Support and opposition to the war

Support

Poster urging women to join the British war effort, published by theYoung Women’s Christian Association

In the Balkans, Yugoslav nationalists such as the leader Ante Trumbić in the Balkans strongly supported the war, desiring the freedom ofYugoslavs from Austria-Hungary and other foreign powers and the creation of an independent Yugoslavia.[265] The Yugoslav Committeewas formed in Paris on 30 April 1915 but shortly moved its office to London; Trumbić led the Committee.[265] In April 1918, the Rome Congress of Oppressed Nationalities met, including Czechoslovak, Italian, Polish, Transylvanian, and Yugoslav representatives who urged the Allies to support national self-determination for the peoples residing within Austria-Hungary.[266]

In the Middle East, Arab nationalism soared in Ottoman territories in response to the rise of Turkish nationalism during the war, with Arab nationalist leaders advocating the creation of a pan-Arab state.[267] In 1916, the Arab Revolt began in Ottoman-controlled territories of the Middle East in an effort to achieve independence.[267]

A number of socialist parties initially supported the war when it began in August 1914.[266] But European socialists split on national lines, with the concept of class conflict held by radical socialists such as Marxists and syndicalists being overborne by their patriotic support for war.[268] Once the war began, Austrian, British, French, German, and Russian socialists followed the rising nationalist current by supporting their countries’ intervention in the war.[269]

Italian nationalism was stirred by the outbreak of the war and was initially strongly supported by a variety of political factions. One of the most prominent and popular Italian nationalist supporters of the war was Gabriele d’Annunzio, who promoted Italian irredentism and helped sway the Italian public to support intervention in the war.[270] The Italian Liberal Party, under the leadership of Paolo Boselli, promoted intervention in the war on the side of the Allies and utilised the Dante Alighieri Society to promote Italian nationalism.[271] Italian socialists were divided on whether to support the war or oppose it; some were militant supporters of the war, including Benito Mussoliniand Leonida Bissolati.[272] However, the Italian Socialist Party decided to oppose the war after anti-militarist protestors were killed, resulting in a general strike called Red Week.[273] The Italian Socialist Party purged itself of pro-war nationalist members, including Mussolini.[273] Mussolini, a syndicalist who supported the war on grounds of irredentist claims on Italian-populated regions of Austria-Hungary, formed the pro-interventionist Il Popolo d’Italia and the Fasci Rivoluzionario d’Azione Internazionalista (“Revolutionary Fasci for International Action”) in October 1914 that later developed into the Fasci di Combattimento in 1919, the origin of fascism.[274]Mussolini’s nationalism enabled him to raise funds from Ansaldo (an armaments firm) and other companies to create Il Popolo d’Italia to convince socialists and revolutionaries to support the war.[275]

Opposition

Sackville Street (now O’Connell Street) after the 1916 Easter Rising inDublin.

The trade union and socialist movements had long voiced their opposition to a war, which they argued would only mean that workers would kill other workers in the interest of capitalism. Once war was declared, however, many socialists and trade unions backed their governments. Among the exceptions were the Bolsheviks, the Socialist Party of America, and the Italian Socialist Party, and individuals such as Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg, and their followers in Germany. There were also small anti-war groups in Britain and France.

Benedict XV, elected to the papacy less than three months into World War I, made the war and its consequences the main focus of his early pontificate. In stark contrast to his predecessor,[276] five days after his election he spoke of his determination to do what he could to bring peace. His first encyclical, Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum, given 1 November 1914, was concerned with this subject. Seen as being biased in favour of the other and resented for weakening national morale, Benedict XV found his abilities and unique position as a religious emissary of peace ignored by the belligerent powers. The 1915 Treaty of London between Italy and the Triple Entente included secret provisions whereby the Allies agreed with Italy to ignore papal peace moves towards the Central Powers. Consequently, the publication of Benedict’s proposed seven-point Peace Note of August 1917 was roundly ignored by all parties except Austria-Hungary.[277]

The Deserter, 1916. Anti-war cartoon depicting Jesus facing a firing squad with soldiers from five European countries.

In Britain, in 1914, the Public Schools Officers’ Training Corps annual camp was held at Tidworth Pennings, near Salisbury Plain. Head of the British Army Lord Kitchener was to review the cadets, but the imminence of the war prevented him. General Horace Smith-Dorrienwas sent instead. He surprised the two-or-three thousand cadets by declaring (in the words of Donald Christopher Smith, a Bermudiancadet who was present), “that war should be avoided at almost any cost, that war would solve nothing, that the whole of Europe and more besides would be reduced to ruin, and that the loss of life would be so large that whole populations would be decimated. In our ignorance I, and many of us, felt almost ashamed of a British General who uttered such depressing and unpatriotic sentiments, but during the next four years, those of us who survived the holocaust—probably not more than one-quarter of us—learned how right the General’s prognosis was and how courageous he had been to utter it.”[278] Voicing these sentiments did not hinder Smith-Dorien’s career, or prevent him from doing his duty in World War I to the best of his abilities.

Execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies in 1917.

German Revolution, Kiel, 1918.

Many countries jailed those who spoke out against the conflict. These included Eugene Debs in the United States and Bertrand Russell in Britain. In the US, the Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918 made it a federal crime to oppose military recruitment or make any statements deemed “disloyal”. Publications at all critical of the government were removed from circulation by postal censors,[125] and many served long prison sentences for statements of fact deemed unpatriotic.

A number of nationalists opposed intervention, particularly within states that the nationalists were hostile to. Although the vast majority of Irish people consented to participate in the war in 1914 and 1915, a minority of advanced Irish nationalists staunchly opposed taking part.[279] The war began amid the Home Rule crisis in Ireland that had resurfaced in 1912, and, by July 1914, there was a serious possibility of an outbreak of civil war in Ireland.[280] Irish nationalists and Marxists attempted to pursue Irish independence, culminating in the Easter Rising of 1916, with Germany sending 20,000 rifles to Ireland to stir unrest in Britain.[280] The UK government placed Ireland under martial law in response to the Easter Rising, although, once the immediate threat of revolution had dissipated, the authorities did try to make concessions to nationalist feeling.[281]

Other opposition came from conscientious objectors—some socialist, some religious—who refused to fight. In Britain, 16,000 people asked for conscientious objector status.[282] Some of them, most notably prominent peace activist Stephen Henry Hobhouse, refused both military and alternative service.[283] Many suffered years of prison, including solitary confinement and bread and water diets. Even after the war, in Britain many job advertisements were marked “No conscientious objectors need apply”.

The Central Asian Revolt started in the summer of 1916, when the Russian Empire government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service.[284]

In 1917, a series of French Army Mutinies led to dozens of soldiers being executed and many more imprisoned.

In Milan, in May 1917, Bolshevik revolutionaries organised and engaged in rioting calling for an end to the war, and managed to close down factories and stop public transportation.[285] The Italian army was forced to enter Milan with tanks and machine guns to face Bolsheviks and anarchists, who fought violently until 23 May when the army gained control of the city. Almost 50 people (including three Italian soldiers) were killed and over 800 people arrested.[285]

In September 1917, Russian soldiers in France began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied.[286] In Russia, opposition to the war led to soldiers also establishing their own revolutionary committees, which helped foment the October Revolution of 1917, with the call going up for “bread, land, and peace”. The Bolsheviks agreed to a peace treaty with Germany, the peace of Brest-Litovsk, despite its harsh conditions.

In northern Germany, the end of October 1918, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of 1918–1919. Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost; this initiated the uprising. The sailors’ revolt which then ensued in the naval ports of Wilhelmshaven and Kiel spread across the whole country within days and led to the proclamation of a republic on 9 November 1918 and shortly thereafter to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II.

Conscription

Young men registering for conscription, New York City, June 5, 1917.

The Conscription Crisis of 1917 in Canada erupted when the Conservative Prime Minister, Robert Borden, brought in compulsory military service through the Military Service Act over the objection of French-speaking Quebecers.[287] It opened a political gap between French Canadians, who believed their true loyalty should be to Canada and not to the British Empire, and members of the Anglophone majority, who saw the war as a duty to both Britain and Canada. Around 625,000 Canadians served in World War I, of which 60,000 were killed and 173,000 wounded.[288]

In Australia, a sustained pro-conscription campaign by Billy Hughes, the Prime Minister, caused a split in the Australian Labor Party, so Hughes formed the Nationalist Party of Australia in 1917 to pursue the matter. Nevertheless, the labour movement, the Catholic Church, and Irish nationalist expatriates successfully opposed Hughes’ push, which was rejected in two plebiscites.

In Britain, conscription resulted in the calling up of nearly every physically fit man in Britain—six of ten million eligible. Of these, about 750,000 lost their lives and 1,700,000 were wounded. Most deaths were to young unmarried men; however, 160,000 wives lost husbands and 300,000 children lost fathers.[289]

Legacy and memory

… “Strange, friend,” I said, “Here is no cause to mourn.”
“None,” said the other, “Save the undone years”…

Wilfred Owen, Strange Meeting, 1918[218]

The first tentative efforts to comprehend the meaning and consequences of modern warfare began during the initial phases of the war, and this process continued throughout and after the end of hostilities, and still is underway a century later.

Historiography

Historian Heather Jones argues that the historiography has been reinvigorated by the cultural turn in recent years. Scholars have raised entirely new questions regarding military occupation, radicalizion of politics, race, and the male body. Furthermore, new research has revised our understanding of five major topics that historians have long debated. These are: Why did the war begin? Why did the Allies win? Were the generals to blame for the high casualty rates? How did the soldiers endure the horrors of trench warfare? To what extent did the civilian homefront accept and endorse the war effort? [290]

Memorials

A typical village war memorial to soldiers killed in World War I

Main article: World War I memorials

Memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. Close to battlefields, those buried in improvised burial grounds were gradually moved to formal graveyards under the care of organisations such as the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, theAmerican Battle Monuments Commission, the German War Graves Commission, and Le Souvenir français. Many of these graveyards also have central monuments to the missing or unidentified dead, such as the Menin Gate memorial and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme.

On 3 May 1915, during the Second Battle of Ypres, Lieutenant Alexis Helmer was killed. At his graveside, his friend John McCrae, M.D., of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, wrote the memorable poem In Flanders Fields as a salute to those who perished in the Great War. Published in Punch on 8 December 1915, it is still recited today, especially on Remembrance Day and Memorial Day.[291][292]

Liberty Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri, is a United States memorial dedicated to all Americans who served in World War I. The site was dedicated on 1 November 1921, when the supreme Allied commanders spoke to a crowd of more than 100,000 people. It was the only time in history these leaders were together in one place—Lieutenant General Baron Jacques of Belgium; General Armando Diaz of Italy; Marshal Ferdinand Foch of France; General Pershing of the United States; and Admiral D. R. Beatty of Britain. After three years of construction, the Liberty Memorial was completed and President Calvin Coolidge delivered the dedication speech to a crowd of 150,000 people in 1926. Liberty Memorial is also home to the National World War I Museum, the only museum in the United States dedicated solely to World War I.

The UK Government has budgeted substantial resources to the commemoration of the war during the period 2014 to 2018. The lead body is the Imperial War Museum.[293] On 3 August 2014, French President Francois Hollande and German President Joachim Gauck together marked the centenary of Germany’s declaration of war on France by laying the first stone of a memorial in Vieil Armand, known in German as Hartmannswillerkopf, for French and German soldiers killed in the war.[294]

Cultural memory

World War I had a lasting impact on social memory. It was seen by many in Britain as signalling the end of an era of stability stretching back to the Victorian period, and across Europe many regarded it as a watershed.[295] Historian Samuel Hynes explained:

A generation of innocent young men, their heads full of high abstractions like Honour, Glory and England, went off to war to make the world safe for democracy. They were slaughtered in stupid battles planned by stupid generals. Those who survived were shocked, disillusioned and embittered by their war experiences, and saw that their real enemies were not the Germans, but the old men at home who had lied to them. They rejected the values of the society that had sent them to war, and in doing so separated their own generation from the past and from their cultural inheritance.[296]

This has become the most common perception of World War I, perpetuated by the art, cinema, poems, and stories published subsequently. Films such as All Quiet on the Western Front, Paths of Glory and King & Country have perpetuated the idea, while war-time films including Camrades, Poppies of Flanders, and Shoulder Arms indicate that the most contemporary views of the war were overall far more positive.[297] Likewise, the art of Paul Nash, John Nash, Christopher Nevinson, and Henry Tonks in Britain painted a negative view of the conflict in keeping with the growing perception, while popular war-time artists such as Muirhead Bone painted more serene and pleasant interpretations subsequently rejected as inaccurate.[296] Several historians like John Terraine, Niall Ferguson and Gary Sheffield have challenged these interpretations as partial and polemical views:

These beliefs did not become widely shared because they offered the only accurate interpretation of wartime events. In every respect, the war was much more complicated than they suggest. In recent years, historians have argued persuasively against almost every popular cliché of World War I. It has been pointed out that, although the losses were devastating, their greatest impact was socially and geographically limited. The many emotions other than horror experienced by soldiers in and out of the front line, including comradeship, boredom, and even enjoyment, have been recognised. The war is not now seen as a ‘fight about nothing’, but as a war of ideals, a struggle between aggressive militarism and more or less liberal democracy. It has been acknowledged that British generals were often capable men facing difficult challenges, and that it was under their command that the British army played a major part in the defeat of the Germans in 1918: a great forgotten victory.[297]

Though these views have been discounted as “myths”[296][298] these perceptions of the war, they are common.[297] They have dynamically changed according to contemporary influences, reflecting in the 1950s perceptions of the war as “aimless” following the contrasting Second World War and emphasising conflict within the ranks during times of class conflict in the 1960s.[297] The majority of additions to the contrary are often rejected.[297]

Social trauma

A 1919 book for veterans, from the US War Department.

The social trauma caused by unprecedented rates of casualties manifested itself in different ways, which have been the subject of subsequent historical debate.[299] Some people[who?] were revolted by nationalism and its results, and began to work towards a more internationalist world, supporting organisations such as the League of Nations. Pacifism became increasingly popular. Others had the opposite reaction, feeling that only strength and military might could be relied upon in a chaotic and inhumane world. Anti-modernist views were an outgrowth of the many changes taking place in society.

The experiences of the war led to a collective trauma shared by many from all participating countries. The optimism of la belle époque was destroyed, and those who had fought in the war were referred to as the Lost Generation.[300] For years afterwards, people mourned the dead, the missing, and the many disabled.[301] Many soldiers returned with severe trauma, suffering from shell shock (also called neurasthenia, a condition related to posttraumatic stress disorder).[302] Many more returned home with few after-effects; however, their silence about the war contributed to the conflict’s growing mythological status.[299] In Britain, mass mobilisation, large casualty rates, and the collapse of the Edwardian era made a strong impression on society. Though many participants did not share in the experiences of combat or spend any significant time at the front, or had positive memories of their service, the images of suffering and trauma became the widely shared perception.[299] Such historians as Dan Todman, Paul Fussell, and Samuel Heyns have all published works since the 1990s arguing that these common perceptions of the war are factually incorrect.[299]

Discontent in Germany

The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes. Similarly, the popularity of the stab-in-the-back legend(German: Dolchstoßlegende) was a testament to the psychological state of defeated Germany and was a rejection of responsibility for the conflict. This conspiracy theory of betrayal became common, and the German populace came to see themselves as victims. The widespread acceptance of the “stab-in-the-back” theory delegitimized the Weimar government and destabilized the system, opening it to extremes of right and left. A sense of disillusionment and cynicism became pronounced, with nihilism growing.

Communist and fascist movements around Europe drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a new level of popularity. These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war. Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity by utilising German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles.[303] World War II was in part a continuation of the power struggle never fully resolved by World War I. Furthermore, it was common for Germans in the 1930s to justify acts of aggression due to perceived injustices imposed by the victors of World War I.[304][305][306] American historian William Rubinstein wrote that:

The ‘Age of Totalitarianism’ included nearly all of the infamous examples of genocide in modern history, headed by the Jewish Holocaust, but also comprising the mass murders and purges of the Communist world, other mass killings carried out by Nazi Germany and its allies, and also the Armenian genocide of 1915. All these slaughters, it is argued here, had a common origin, the collapse of the elite structure and normal modes of government of much of central, eastern and southern Europe as a result of World War I, without which surely neither Communism nor Fascism would have existed except in the minds of unknown agitators and crackpots.[307]

Economic effects

Poster showing women workers, 1915.

One of the most dramatic effects of the war was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain, France, the United States, and the Dominions of the British Empire. To harness all the power of their societies, governments created new ministries and powers. New taxes were levied and laws enacted, all designed to bolster the war effort; many have lasted to this day. Similarly, the war strained the abilities of some formerly large and bureaucratised governments, such as in Austria-Hungary and Germany; however, any analysis of the long-term effects were clouded by the defeat of these governments.

Gross domestic product (GDP) increased for three Allies (Britain, Italy, and US), but decreased in France and Russia, in neutral Netherlands, and in the three main Central Powers. The shrinkage in GDP in Austria, Russia, France, and the Ottoman Empire reached 30 to 40%. In Austria, for example, most pigs were slaughtered, so at war’s end there was no meat.

In all nations, the government’s share of GDP increased, surpassing 50% in both Germany and France and nearly reaching that level in Britain. To pay for purchases in the United States, Britain cashed in its extensive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily on Wall Street. President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late 1916, but allowed a great increase inUS government lending to the Allies. After 1919, the US demanded repayment of these loans. The repayments were, in part, funded by German reparations, which, in turn, were supported by American loans to Germany. This circular system collapsed in 1931 and the loans were never repaid. Britain still owed the United States $4.4 billion[308] of World War I debt in 1934, and this money was never repaid.[309]

Macro- and micro-economic consequences devolved from the war. Families were altered by the departure of many men. With the death or absence of the primary wage earner, women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers. At the same time, industry needed to replace the lost labourers sent to war. This aided the struggle for voting rights for women.[310]

Hyperinflation reduced German banknotes’ value so much that they could be used as wallpaper. Many savers were ruined.[311]

World War I further compounded the gender imbalance, adding to the phenomenon of surplus women. The deaths of nearly one million men[clarification needed] during the war increased the gender gap by almost a million; from 670,000 to 1,700,000. The number of unmarried women seeking economic means grew dramatically. In addition, demobilisation and economic decline following the war caused high unemployment. The war increased female employment; however, the return of demoblised men displaced many from the workforce, as did the closure of many of the wartime factories. Hence women who had worked during the war found themselves struggling to find jobs and those approaching working age were not offered the opportunity.

In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early 1918, limited to meat, sugar, and fats (butter and margarine), but not bread. The new system worked smoothly. From 1914 to 1918, trade union membership doubled, from a little over four million to a little over eight million. Work stoppages and strikes became frequent in 1917–1918 as the unions expressed grievances regarding prices, alcohol control, pay disputes, fatigue from overtime and working on Sundays, and inadequate housing.

Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply had become difficult from traditional sources. Geologists such as Albert Ernest Kitson were called on to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies. Kitson discovered important new deposits of manganese, used in munitions production, in the Gold Coast.[312]

Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles (the so-called “war guilt” clause) stated Germany accepted responsibility for “all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.”[313] It was worded as such to lay a legal basis for reparations, and the same clause was inserted, mutatis mutandis “in the treaties with Austria and Hungary, neither of whom interpreted it as declaration of war guilt.[314] In 1921, the total reparation sum was placed at 132 billion gold marks. However, “Allied experts knew that Germany could not pay” this sum. The total sum was divided into three categories, with the third being “deliberately designed to be chimerical” and its “primary function was to mislead public opinion … into believing the” total sum “was being maintained.”[315] Thus, 50 billion gold marks (12.5 billion dollars) “represented the actual Allied assessment of German capacity to pay” and “therefore … represented the total German reparations” figure that had to be paid.[315] Furthermore, this figure could be paid in cash or in kind (coal, timber, chemical dyes, etc.). In addition, some of the territory lost—via the treaty of Versailles—was credited towards the reparation figure as were other acts such helping to restore the Library of Louvain.[316] By 1929, the Great Depression arrived, causing political chaos throughout the world.[317] In 1932 the payment of reparations was suspended by the international community, by which point Germany had only paid the equivalent of 20.598 billon gold marks in reparations.[318] With the rise of Adolf Hitler, all bonds and loans that had been issued and taken out during the 1920s and early 1930s were cancelled. David Andelman notes “refusing to pay doesn’t make an agreement null and void. The bonds, the agreement, still exist.” Thus, following the Second World War, at the London Conference in 1953, Germany agreed to resume payment on the money borrowed. On 3 October 2010, Germany made the final payment on these bonds.[319]

 Miracles Of World War 1: Thursday December 24, 1914, Sunday November 14, 1915, & Sunday May 13, 1917

You may not know their names – but you can find them easily. From the biggest city to the smallest hamlet they are on memorials – some are simple plaques others grander affairs – and if you cross to France and Belgium and further afield you will see the names on the white headstones ranged like soldiers on parade in cemeteries on the old battlefields.

2014 will mark the 100th anniversary of what we now sadly know as The First World War – it would never be The War to End All Wars. As we look back over the century we should remember that these men did not die in vain – they fought a war that, like the one that followed only 25 years later, was necessary to contain the territorial ambition of a major European power.

About one hundred years before the outbreak of the First World War British and Allied troops had defeated France at the Belgium village of Waterloo – and contained a major European power.

Remember the courage and honour the sacrifice of the boys who became men 100 years ago and support the young men and women who have followed in their footsteps and are today’s soldiers.

Spirit Of Remembrance

 

Rothschild's Hidden Hands

Rolling Stones ~”Conspiracy theorists of the world, believers in the hidden hands of the Rothschilds, the Masons and the Illuminati, we skeptics owe you an apology”.

FIRST ATTEMPT AT ROTHSCHILD’S BANKING CABAL

NEW WORLD ORDER ~ WORLD WAR I 1914.

Important Dates Around The First Attempt At NWO.

  1. The Balfour Declaration of 1917  = Fiat Paper Work Allowing Rothschild To Purchase Palestine Region ~ He Finally Accomplished This Task In 1948 After Loosing Second Attempt At A Fascist New World Order ~ World War II. Rothschild Established Israel In 1948, This Same Year He Was Kicked Out Of India By Gandhi. This Is The Same Year 1948 When Gandhi Was Murdered.
  2. 1913 – Jacob Schiff sets up Rothschild’s Anti Defamation League (ADL) in the United States To Hide Behind. = This organisation is formed to slander anyone who questions or challenges the Rothschild global conspiracy as, “anti-semitic.” Rothschild is not a practicing Jew by Judaism or By Blood Line. He is a common khazarian thug, but he likes to hide behind the word Jew as the coward he is when absconding people’s wealth. Anti-Semitism was made illegal and punishable by death, and the only time [Rothschild’s Hired Thug] Lenin’s voice was ever recorded, was to make a widely distributed record denouncing anti-Semitism as “counter-revolutionary.” How convenient for the mafia to hide behind the name of Jew.
  3. The 1913 creation of the Rothschild Federal Reserve fused the power of the Eight Families to the military and diplomatic might of the US government. If their overseas loans went unpaid, the oligarchs could now deploy US Marines to collect the debts. Morgan, Chase and Citibank formed an international lending syndicate. Federal Reserve 1Federal Reserve 2Federal Reserve 3
  4. In 1913 Sun Yat Sen was began Socialism In China. This culminated into its ugly brother Communism Under Depopulation Rothschild Czar Mao Tse Tung. Did you know that Sun Yat Sen was ushered out of China With A Price On His Head And Into Hawaii before returning back to China in 1913? Thats right, he hid out in Hawaii after his first attempted coup in China and received a Certificate Of Live Birth aka; COLB from Hawaii. This was Sun Yat Sen’s perfect cover, even though being born in China, he now had a COLB showing he was born in the USA.

People Of Russia didn't like centralizing their hard earned cash to the Banking Cabalists.

“The best way to destroy the Capitalist System was to debauch the currency. By a continuing process of inflation, governments can confiscate, secretly and unobserved an important part of the wealth of their citizens.”

– Vladimir Lenin

Pedophile Queer Bait ~ John Maynard Keynes

It was Keynes in Rothschild’s inner circle that developed the mafia’s code of economics for centralization called Keynesian Economics.

“Lenin was certainly right,” John Maynard Keynes continued in his 1919 classic, “The Economic Consequences of the Peace.”

“There is no subtler, no surer means of overturning the existing basis of society than to debauch the currency. The process engages all the hidden forces of economic law on the side of destruction, and does it in a manner which not one man in a million is able to diagnose.”

  1. The Darkside of Zionist John Maynard Keynes, Architect of the US Federal Reserve, His Perversion & Pedophilia
    Famous members of the Rothschild Gay Apostles have included, You Guessed it John Maynard Keynes (economist).

Israel Grants Oil Rights Inside Illegally Occupied Golan Heights Syria: To Rupert Murdoch And Jacob Rothschild.

By :http://politicalvelcraft.org

Constructing A Palestine, Israeli False Flag Campaign!

The Rothschild zionists along with their coconspirators, The British government, and British royalty confiscated Palestine for Rothschild, and the Georgian Khazars who are no more Hebrew Jewish than the man in the moon.
  1. Israel Has Lots Of Oil ~ Washington Times!
  2. Israel Richest Oil Country In The World ~ Omega Letter
  3. Israel’s Giant Off-Shore Oil and Gas Field Israel National News!
  4. USGS identifies potential giant oil and gas fields in Israel/Palestine

Levant_Fig1_Press release

 

  1. The Cyprus Bailout Pits East vs. West: European Union Is All About World War III.
  2. U.S. Can Learn From Cyprus Environment Commissioner: National Launching Of GMO-Free Zone Campaign
  3. Rothschilds Attacks Russian Cyprus Holdings: Russia Launches Surprise Large-Scale, 36 Warship Military Exercise In The Black Sea

They have no religious, or other background to make claim on the land, but Rothschild and the British knew about the oil and made sure they supported Rothschild in his claim for Israel.

They never do anything for just one reason, so add to the fact that International Khazar Jewrys’ influence in America was great and Britain needed America in the war as its [bulldog]…. THE LIED TO CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES DO THE BIDDING OF THE RICH AND SHAMELESS!

Richard Henry Lee

AMERICA’S BLOOD & TREASURE IS EXPLOITED ~ THE RICH GET RICHER!

Roman Catholic opposition to Rothschild’s Israel contributed to the Rothschilds violent hatred of America’s, China’s, & Russia’s large Catholic Christian populations.  Catholic Church vs New World Order

Hubert Herring in his book “And So To War” sums up the price the U.S. had to pay so that the Rothschild Zionists & Britain might have Palestine:

  1. “We paid for the war. We paid with the lives of 126,000 dead, of 234,300 mutilated and wounded. 
  2. We paid with the dislocated lives of hundreds of thousands whom the war wrenched from their accustomed places in a peaceful world. 
  3. We paid in the imponderable damage to our national morale through the lashings of war hysteria. 
  4. We paid with a period of economic confusion from which we have not yet escaped. The direct bill for the war reached the figure of fifty-five billions of dollars. The indirect bill can never be reckoned.”

The Roman Catholic Pope was against this entire mess [Letting Rothschild Create An Israel]. He knew full well, the Rothschild Khazars hated Christians and that was proven out in the 1917 Rothschild/Lenin Russian Revolution where Christians were slaughtered by the millions by the khazar barbarians.

 

The International khazar Jewry cut a deal and the Balfour Declaration was the result. What Balfour left out was that nothing the British did or said could obscure the fact that Palestine was not theirs to give, nor did the British Government have the slightest right to secure a mandate for Palestine.

But Balfour, backed by Nathan Rothschild, pressed ahead anyway, as if the two men had an inherent right to act in the arbitrary manner which they saw fit.

Vatic Project

MY BROTHER’S KEEPER

palestine land

Rothschild’s Black Gold Empire: Shut Down America’s Oil Production And Buy From Rothschild.

The victims of Gaza: A list of Palestinians killed in Rothschild Israel’s ongoing assault

By: Chloé Benoist
As Israeli forces began their assault on the Gaza Strip, Israel’s leaders and media ramped up a rhetoric offensive, using dehumanizing discourse to garner support for deadly military action in the besieged Palestinian territory.

Operation “Protective Edge” – Israel’s latest military offensive to be given a name with nurturing undertones after “My Brother’s Keeper” and “Pillar of Defense” – has already killed at least 43 Palestinians and bombarded more than 400 locations in the Gaza Strip in less than 48 hours.

FATHER OF COLLECTIVISM AKA COMMUNISM ~ THE HOUSE OF ROTHSCHILD.

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Despite the intensity of the Israeli assault on Gaza, Israel’s politicians are framing the military operation as one they entered against their will. An estimated 200 [NWO Hamas] rockets have been fired from Gaza [To Foment Destruction Of Palestine For Rothschild Control] since Tuesday, but there have been no recorded Israeli casualties.

Despite the intensity of the [Rothschild] Israeli assault on Gaza, Israel’s politicians are framing the military operation as one they entered against their will.

“We are not eager for battle, but the security of our citizens and children takes precedence over all else,” NWO Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said on Tuesday.

An Israeli official quoted by The Jerusalem Post lamented that Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas could not “influence his [NWO Muslim Brotherhood] Hamas partners to exercise restraint and stop kidnapping and murdering Israeli teenagers and sending rocket barrages into Israel.”

“That sort of restraint would have prevented the current crisis,” he added. *Yawn*

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The implication of these statements are that [Rothschild’s NWO] Hamas has forced Israel into launching a full-scale military operation against them, conveniently ignoring the recent crackdown on the West Bank after the disappearance of three Israeli youths, which Israel blamed on Hamas without providing evidence to back its claims.

In an op-ed titled ‘Send Gaza to the Stone Age’ published on Wednesday, Israel Hayom’s Editor-in-Chief Amos Regev praised the Israeli government for “the levelheadedness, restraint and sound judgment it exhibited before ordering the Israel Defense Forces [sic] to launch Operation Protective Edge,” calling for a ground operation in Gaza to be “carried out with determination and clenched lips, with the knowledge that this is a war of no choice.”

Israel, its leaders would have you believe, is reluctantly entering an open conflict out of a sense of duty, once again indulging in the self-victimizing rhetoric that all Israeli military actions are defensive or retaliatory.

Israel’s enemy, once again, is Hamas, and Zionist political figures have stepped up their eliminationist discourse.

Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Yaalon called for the destruction of Hamas.

“We are continuing to carry out attacks that are exacting a heavy price from Hamas,” Yaalon said. “We are destroying its arms, terrorist infrastructure, command and control systems, institutions, government buildings, terrorists’ homes, and we are killing terrorists in the organizational high command.”

Other politicians echoed the sentiment.

“A sovereign state cannot allow for a bunch of terrorists to run its life; we must cut off the head of the snake and for every Hamas man to know that his blood is upon his head,” Shas party leader Aryeh Deri tweeted on Wednesday.

Deputy Defense Minister Danny Danon took it one step further, calling on Israel Wednesday to cut off fuel and electricity supplies to the Gaza Strip.

Neither Yaalon, Deri or Danon have acknowledged the human cost of such actions on Gaza, an enclave already suffering because of the crushing Israeli siege and already struggling with fuel and electricity shortages.“It is inconceivable that on the one hand we fight Hamas and on the other we provide fuel and electricity that are used to transport missiles that are fired at us,” Danon said. “We are in a campaign against Hamas, which is firing missiles at Israel’s citizens.”

Neither Yaalon, Deri or Danon have acknowledged the human cost of such actions on Gaza, an enclave already suffering because of the crushing Israeli siege and already struggling with fuel and electricity shortages. Nor did they mention the loss of civilian life which is the inevitable consequence of wide military actions in such a densely populated territory.

Israeli leadership, however, has repeatedly emphasized the plight of Israeli civilians. Israeli news outlets have dutifully reported every siren sounded in Israeli towns since the beginning of Operation “Protective Edge” and lamented the closure of some Israeli summer camps.

Cara Lebenzon, a blogger for The Times of Israel penned a post berating those who have spoken out against Israel’s attacks, saying “I would actually argue we are TOO nice to Hamas and the people of Gaza. I’ve never heard of a single country on earth that supplies their mortal enemies with water, goods and electricity on a daily basis, have you?” For these folk, Palestinians are not people entitled to basic human rights, and an assault on Gaza is not only warranted, but long overdue.

Meanwhile, the Israeli Occupation Forces (IOF) have bombarded Twitter with stylized graphics trying to garner sympathy for the fearful Israeli population who must run to bomb shelters — conveniently ignoring Palestinians’ lack of shelters during its deadly air raids.

The IOF has also shared an image which it claims is representative of Hamas’ own visual campaign to convince civilians stand in as human shields. The graphic, available only on IOF social media platforms, could have been created by the IOF’s own design team, purportedly standing as “proof” of Hamas’ treachery instead of showing actual existing Hamas posters.
The argument about Hamas forcing people to stand as human shields is one Israel regularly trots out, despite the fact that such claims have been dismantled in the past, and that the IOF is itself guilty of using such tactics repeatedly.

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But the “human shield” argument is a convenient excuse for Israeli forces to continue with tactics that they know full well will lead to many civilian casualties while rejecting any responsibility for these deaths. Palestinians living in Gaza are not granted the luxury of being considered innocent civilians in Israeli rhetoric; dead Palestinian men, women and children are all guilty of standing in the way of Israeli weapons, despite the fact that there is nowhere to run in the open-air prison that is Gaza.

Dehumanization of Palestinians and demonization of the Palestinian struggle are essential tools of the Israeli military machine in order to continue justifying expansive military action while maintaining its discourse of victimization.

Follow all the latest updates on Israel’s assault on the Gaza Strip.

English Al-Akhbar

Israel Grants Oil Rights Inside Syria To Murdoch And Rothschild

Israel has granted oil exploration rights inside Syria, in the occupied Golan Heights, to Genie Energy. Major shareholders of Genie Energy – which also has interests in shale gas in the United States and shale oil in Israel – include Rupert Murdoch and Lord Jacob Rothschild. This from a 2010 Genie Energy press release:

Claude Pupkin, CEO of Genie Oil and Gas, commented, “Genie’s success will ultimately depend, in part, on access to the expertise of the oil and gas industry and to the financial markets. Jacob Rothschild and Rupert Murdoch are extremely well regarded by and connected to leaders in these sectors. Their guidance and participation will prove invaluable.”

Rothschild Mafia Family

“I am grateful to Howard Jonas and IDT for the opportunity to invest in this important initiative,” Lord Rothschild said. “Rupert Murdoch’s extraordinary achievements speak for themselves and we are very pleased he has agreed to be our partner. Genie Energy is making good technological progress to tap the world’s substantial oil shale deposits which could transform the future prospects of Israel, the Middle East and our allies around the world.”

For Israel to seek to exploit mineral reserves in the occupied Golan Heights is plainly illegal in international law.

Japan was succesfully sued by Singapore before the International Court of Justice for exploitation of Singapore’s oil resources during the second world war.

The argument has been made in international law that an occupying power is entitled to opeate oil wells which were previously functioning and operated by the sovereign power, in whose position the occupying power now stands. But there is absolutely no disagreement in the authorities and case law that the drilling of new wells – let alone fracking – by an occupying power is illegal.

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Israel tried to make the same move twenty years ago but was forced to back down after a strong reaction from the Syrian government, which gained diplomatic support from the United States. Israel is now seeking to take advantage of the weakened Syrian state; this move perhaps casts a new light on recent Israeli bombings in Syria.

In a rational world, the involvement of Rothschild and Murdoch in this international criminal activity would show them not to be fit and proper persons to hold major commercial interests elsewhere, and action should be taken.

Craig Murray – Former Ambassador, Human Rights Activist – http://www.craigmurray.org.uk

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  3. January 22, 2014 “Information Clearing House – Israel has granted oil exploration rights inside Syria, in the occupied Golan Heights, to Genie Energy. Major shareholders of Genie Energy – which also has interests in shale gas in the United States and shale oil in Israel – include Rupert Murdoch and Jacob Rothschild.
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