List of active separatist movements in Africa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Africa. Separatism includes autonomism and secessionism. What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with living, active members.
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy).
  3. They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and not comes from other country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

 Algeria

Berber flag.svg Kabyle

 Angola

Flag of Cabinda Province.svg Cabinda

United Kingdom British Overseas Territories

Chagos Islands (currently British Indian Ocean Territory)

(The Chagossians wish to have the right of return to the Chagos Islands who were evicted over 40 years ago to make way for British Army and US Army base)

 Cameroon

Bakassi Peninsula

Flag of The Federal Republic of Southern Cameroons.svg Ambazonia (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization and Organization of Emerging African States)

 Central African Republic

 Comoros

Flag of Mohéli.svg Mohéli

 Congo

 Democratic Republic of the Congo

 Egypt

Coptic flag.svg Copts

Bir Tawil

  • Ethnic group: Ababda
    • Proposed state: Republic of Ababda
    • Status: Technically independence as both Egypt and Sudan do not claim or control the region but no political organisation within the region currently governs Bir Tawil.

Nubia

 Equatorial Guinea

Bubi nationalist flag.svg Bioko

 Ethiopia

 France

Secessionist movements
  • Mayotte continues to have autonomist movements despite the island having voted to become France’s 101st department in 2011.[18]

 Ivory Coast

 Kenya

 Libya

Flag of Cyrenaica.svg Cyrenaica

Toubouland

 Mauritius

 Mali

MNLA flag.svg Azawad

 Morocco

Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg Western Sahara

Flag of the Republic of the Rif.svg Arrif

 Namibia

Flag of CANU.svg Caprivi

 Niger

Agadez

 Nigeria

Flag of Biafra.svg Biafra

Arewa

Niger Delta

Flag of the Ogoni people.svg Ogoni

Oduduwa

Boko Haram islamists

 Rwanda

 Senegal

Flag of Casamance.svg Casamance

 Somalia

 Somaliland

 South Africa

Afrikaner Vryheidsvlag.svg Boere-Afrikaners nation’s

CapePartLogo.gif Cape Party

 South Sudan

Nuerland

 Sudan

Beja Nation

Flag of Darfur.svg Darfur

Nubia

 Tanzania

Flag of Zanzibar.svg Zanzibar

 Uganda

Flag of Buganda.svg Buganda

 Zambia

Flag of Barotseland.svg Barotse

 Zimbabwe

Matabeleland

[7][Islamic group]The Musilm Brotherhood

 

The Brotherhood’s stated goal is to instill the Qur’an and Sunnah as the “sole reference point for …ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community … and state.” The organization seeks to make Muslim countries become Islamic caliphates, which includes the isolation of women and non-Muslims from public life  The movement is also known for engaging in political violence. They were responsible for creating Hamaswho grew to infamy for its suicide bombings of Israelis during the first and second intifada. Muslim Brotherhood supporters are also suspected of having established the well-known terrorist groupAl-Qaeda and for assassinating political opponents like, Egyptian Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha The Muslim Brotherhood started as a religious social organization; preaching Islam, teaching the illiterate, setting up hospitals and even launching commercial enterprises. As it continued to rise in influence, starting in 1936, it began to oppose British rule in Egypt. Many Egyptian nationalists accuse the Muslim Brotherhood of violent killings during this period. After the Arab defeat in the First Arab-Israeli war, the Egyptian government dissolved the organization and arrested its members. It supported the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but after an attempted assassination of Egypt’s president it was once again banned and repressed .The Muslim Brotherhood has been suppressed in other countries as well, most notably in Syria in 1982 during the Hama massacre.       Now before we get in def  here are some thing you need to know The Muslim Brotherhood is financed by contributions from its members, who are required to allocate a portion of their income to the movement. Some of these contributions are from members who work in Saudi Arabia and other oil rich country.   The Muslim Brotherhood logo fits its motto: “Allah is our objective. The Prophet is our leader. The Qur’an is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope. Allahu akbar!”  There is what the logo mean Description: A brown square frames a green circle with a white perimeter. Two swords cross inside the circle beneath a red Koran. The cover of the Koran says: “Truly, it is the Generous Koran.” The Arabic beneath the sword handles translates as “Be prepared.”   Explanation: The swords reinforce the group’s militancy and, as traditional weapons, symbolize historic Islam. They also reinforce the group’s commitment to jihad. The Koran denotes the group’s spiritual foundation. The motto, “Be prepared,” is a reference to a Koranic verse that talks of preparing to fight the enemies of God.

  • The Brotherhood’s goal is to turn the world into an Islamist empire. The Muslim Brotherhood, founded in Egypt in 1928, is a revolutionary fundamentalist movement to restore the caliphate and strict shariah (Islamist) law in Muslim lands and, ultimately, the world. Today, it has chapters in 80 countries.

“It is in the nature of Islam to dominate, not to be dominated, to impose its law on all nations and to extend its power to the entire planet.” —Muslim Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna In the control and conker there are group in the us that claim to be a relief agency but it more than that A document that has surfaced in the trial of the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development (HLF), a charity long suspected of supporting terrorists by funneling money to Hamas and its officials, purports to outline a strategic vision of the future of Islamic work in North America.  The document – An Explanatory Memorandum On the General Strategic Goal for the Group in North America – appears to be the work of the Muslim Brotherhood.  It is written by Mohamed Akram (Adlouni), an alleged Muslim Brotherhood official and one of many unindicted coconspirators in the HLF trial. Some observers suggest that this document identifies a conspiracy by the Muslim Brotherhood to convert the United States to an Islamic nation.  Other observers suggest that the document proves how several Islamic organizations are linked to the Muslim Brotherhood and are working together to achieve the goals listed in the document.   

  • The Brotherhood wants America to fall. It tells followers to be “patient” because America “is heading towards its demise.” The U.S. is an infidel that “does not champion moral and human values and cannot lead humanity.” Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammed Badi, Sept. 2010   Major Attacks
  • The Brotherhood claims western democracy is “corrupt,” “unrealistic.” and “false.” Former Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammed Mahdi Akef
  • The Brotherhood  calls for jihad against “the Muslim’s real enemies, not only Israel but also the United States. Waging jihad against both of these infidels is a commandment of Allah that cannot be disregarded.” —Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammed Badi, Sept. 2010  but The Muslim Brotherhood no longer openly conducts terrorist operations directly as we have seen now  it is primarily a political organization that supports terrorism and terrorist causes. Many of its members, however, have engaged in terrorist activities and the group has spawned numerous terrorist groups, such as Hamas and Egyptian Islamic Jihad and al kida

2002: Suspected in suicide bombing in Grozny. 1979: Suspected in attacking Syrian military academy in Aleppo. 50 Syrian artillery cadets killed

  • The Brotherhood assassinated Anwar Sadat in 1981 for making peace with the hated “Zionist entity.” it also assassinated Egypt’s prime minister in 1948 and attempted to assassinate President Nasser in 1954.
  • Hamas is a “wing of the Muslim Brotherhood,” according to the Hamas Charter, Chapter 2. The Charter calls for the murder of Jews, the “obliteration” of Israel and its replacement with an Islamist theocracy.
  • The Brotherhood supports Hezbollah’s war against the Jews. Brotherhood leader Mahdi Akef declared he was “prepared to send 10,000 jihad fighters immediately to fight at the side of Hezbollah” during Hezbollah’s war against Israel in 2006.
  • The Brotherhood glorifies Osama bin Laden. Osama is “in all certainty, a mujahid (heroic fighter), and I have no doubt in his sincerity in resisting the occupation, close to Allah on high.” —Former Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Mahdi Akef, Nov. 2007
  • The Brotherhood “sanctioned martyrdom operations in Palestine.They do not have bombs, so they turn themselves into bombs. This is a necessity.”  Muslim Brotherhood Spiritual leader Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Dec. 17, 2010
  • The Brotherhood advocates violent jihad: The “change that the [Muslim] nation seeks can only be attained through jihad and sacrifice and by raising a jihadi generation that pursues death just as the enemies pursue life,” said Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Badi in a September 2010 sermon. Major terrorists came out of the Muslim Brotherhood, including bin Laden’s deputy Ayman al-Zawahiri and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (mastermind of the 9/11 attacks).
  • The Brotherhood advocates a deceptive strategy in democracies: appear moderate and use existing institutions to gain power. “The civilizational-jihadist process…is a kind of grand jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and ‘sabotaging’ its miserable house…so that it is eliminated and God’s religion is made victorious overall other religions,” reads a US Muslim Brotherhood 1991 document. It believes it can conquer Europe peacefully: “After having been expelled twice, Islam will be victorious and reconquer Europe….I am certain that this time, victory will be won not by the sword but by preaching and [Islamic] ideology.” — Muslim Brotherhood Spiritual leader Yusuf al-Qaradawi, “Fatwa,” 2003
  • The Brotherhood uses democracy, but once in power it will replace democracy with fundamentalist sharia law because it is the “true democracy.” “The final, absolute message from heaven contains all the values which the secular world claims to have invented….Islam and its values antedated the West by founding true democracy.” —Former Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Mahdi Akef, Nov. 200

Preaching, political agitation and advocating terrorism. The brotherhood participates in elections and attempts to gain influence through the political process. Although it is banned in Egypt, members of the brotherhood have been elected to the legislature there and in Jordan. It also promotes violence against the U.S. and Israel.

  • The Brotherhood’s view of women’s rights is to subjugate and segregate women: The ideal society would include “a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior…segregation of male and female students; private meetings between men and women, unless within the permitted degrees of relationship, to be counted as a crime for which both will be censured…prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes.” —Muslim Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna, “Five Tracts”

The Brotherhood supports Female Genital Mutilation: “[the Americans] wage war on Muslim leaders, the traditions of its faith and its ideas. They even wage war against female circumcision, a practice current in 36 countries, which has been prevalent since the time of the Pharaohs.” —Former Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Mahdi Akef, 2007

  • The Brotherhood will not treat non-Muslim minorities, such as Coptic Christians, as equals. “Allah’s word will reign supreme and the infidels’ word will be inferior.” —Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Badi, Sept. 2010
  • The Brotherhood refuses to commit to continuing the Israel-Egypt peace treaty. Muslim Brotherhood leaders have said that “as far as the movement is concerned, Israel is a Zionist entity occupying holy Arab and Islamic lands…and we will get rid of it no matter how long it takes.” —Former Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Mahdi Akef, 2005 and 2007
  • The Brotherhood has anti-Semitic roots. It supported the Nazis, organized mass demonstrations against the Jews with slogans promoting ethnic cleansing like “Down with the Jews!” and “Jews get out of Egypt and Palestine!” in 1936; carried out a violent pogrom against Egypt’s Jews in November 1945; and made sure that Nazi collaborator and Palestinian Mufti al-Hussein was granted asylum in Egypt in 1946.
  • The Brotherhood remains virulently anti-Semitic. “Today the Jews are not the Israelites praised by Allah, but the descendants of the Israelites who defied His word. Allah was angry with them and turned them into monkeys and pigs….There is no doubt that the battle in which the Muslims overcome the Jews [will come]….In that battle the Muslims will fight the Jews and kill them.” —Muslim Brotherhood Spiritual leader Yusuf al-Qaradawi

Beliefs The Brotherhood’s credo was and is, “Allah is our objective; the Quran is our law, the Prophet is our leader; Jihad is our way; and death for the sake of Allah is the highest of our aspirations. The Brotherhood’s English language website describes the principles of the Muslim Brotherhood as including firstly the introduction of the Islamic Sharia’s as “the basis for controlling the affairs of state and society” and secondly, work to unify “Islamic countries and states, mainly among the Arab states, and liberating them from foreign imperialism”. According to a spokesman, the Muslim Brotherhood believe in reform, democracyfreedom of assemblypress, etc. We believe that the political reform is the true and natural gateway for all other kinds of reform. We have announced our acceptance of democracy that acknowledges political pluralism, the peaceful rotation of power and the fact that the nation is the source of all powers. As we see it, political reform includes the termination of the state of emergency, restoring public freedoms, including the right to establish political parties, whatever their tendencies may be, and the freedom of the press, freedom of criticism and thought, freedom of peaceful demonstrations, freedom of assembly, etc. It also includes the dismantling of all exceptional courts and the annulment of all exceptional laws, establishing the independence of the judiciary, enabling the judiciary to fully and truly supervise general elections so as to ensure that they authentically express people’s will, removing all obstacles that restrict the functioning of civil society organizations, etc. Its founder, Hassan Al-Banna, was influenced by Islamic reformers Muhammad Abdu and Rashid Rida. In the group’s belief, the Quran and Sunnah constitute a perfect way of life and social and political organization that God has set out for man. Governments must be based on this system and eventually unified in a Caliphate. The Muslim Brotherhood’s goal, as stated by Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna was to reclaim Islam’s manifest destiny, an empire, stretching from Spain to Indonesia.[21] It preaches that Islam enjoins man to strive for social justice, the eradication of poverty and corruption, and political freedom to the extent allowed by the laws of Islam. The Brotherhood strongly opposes Western colonialism, and helped overthrow the pro-western monarchies in Egypt and other Muslim countries during the early 20th century. On the issue of women and gender the Muslim Brotherhood interprets Islam conservatively. Its founder called for “a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior”, “segregation of male and female students”, a separate curriculum for girls, and “the prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes … The Muslim Brotherhood is a movement, not a political party, but members have created political parties in several countries, such as the Islamic Action Front in Jordan and Hamas in Gaza and the West Bank and the newly created Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt. These parties are staffed by Brotherhood members but kept independent from the Muslim Brotherhood to some degree, unlike Hizb ut-Tahrir which is highly centralized. There are breakaway groups from the movement, including the Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya and Al Takfir Wal Hijra. Osama bin Laden criticized the Brotherhood, and accused it of betraying jihad and the ideals of Sayyid Qutb, an influential Brother Member and author of Milestones.     Organization From the Transcripts the following hierarchical Organization structure can be derived:

  • The Shura Council has the duties of planning, charting general policies and programs that achieve the goal of the Group. Its resolutions are binding to the Group and only the General Organizational Conference can modify or annul them and the Shura Office has also the right to modify or annul resolutions of the Executive Office. It follows the implementation of the Group policies and programs. It directs the Executive Office and it forms dedicated branch committees to assist in that
  • Executive Office (Guidance Office) with its leader the General Masul (General Guide) and its members, both appointed by the Shura Office, has to follow up and guide the activities of the General Organization. It submits a periodical report to the Shura Council about its work and of the activity of the domestic bodies and the general organizations. It distributes its duties to its members according to the internal bylaws.

It has the following divisions (not complete): – Executive leadership – Organizational office – Secretariat general – Educational office – Political office – Sisters office The Muslim Brotherhood aimed to build a transnational organization, founding groups in Lebanon (in 1936), Syria (1937), and Transjordan (1946). It also recruited among the foreign students in Cairo where its headquarters became a center and meeting place for representatives from the whole Muslim world In each country there is a Branch committee with a Masul (leader) appointed by the General Executive leadership with essentially the same Branch-divisions as the Executive office has. To the duties of every branch belong fundraising, infiltrating and overtaking other Muslim organizations for the sake of uniting the Muslims to dedicate them to the general goals of the Muslim Brotherhood. My view Let look at the spread of the Muslim brother hood across the mena country  and the rest of the world mena mean middle east north Africa as u see the Arad spring or as I would like to called it menar middle east north Africa revolution benefit the Muslim brotherhood because the dictator at the time keep them at bay because they as the west like to called it a terries organization .now that they are gone of power reduce they are taking control  of the country slowly and they are going to suppress religious  freedom impost share law  so when y this is all over the mena country will be worst of than it was .I an not defending the former dictator the need to held accountable for their crime but if I had to choose I will choose them  because they understand where the line are drawn .an as they keep exploring new territory that pre dominantly Christian .even the us benefit in this revolution because   of the oil that there so they are working with then just like al kida which it part of them to achieve their goal but  remember in will back fire on then just like when they the us as their enemy and they still don’t learn   because us dollar are still reaching them directly or indirectly In Egypt Main article: Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt Founding Hassan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood in the city of Ismailia in March 1928 along with six workers of the Suez Canal Company, as a Pan-Islamic, religious, political, and social movement. The Suez Canal Company helped Banna build the mosque in Ismailia that would serve as the Brotherhood’s headquarters, according to Richard Mitchell’s The Society of Muslim Brothers. According to al-Banna, contemporary Islam had lost its social dominance, because most Muslims had been corrupted by Western influences. Sharia law based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah were seen as laws passed down by God that should be applied to all parts of life, including the organization of the government and the handling of everyday problems. Al-Banna was populist in his message of protecting workers against the tyranny of foreign and monopolist companies. It founded social institutions such as hospitals, pharmacies, schools, etc. Al-Banna held highly conservative views on issues such as women’s rights, opposing equal rights for women, but supporting the establishment of justice towards women. The Brotherhood grew rapidly going from 800 members in 1936, to 200,000 by 1938, 500,000 in 1948. Post WWII Muslim Brotherhood fighters in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War In November 1948, following several bombings and assassination attempts, the government arrested 32 leaders of the Brotherhood’s “secret apparatus” and banned the Brotherhood. At this time the Brotherhood was estimated to have 2000 branches and 500,000 members or sympathizers.\ in succeeding months Egypt’s prime minister was assassinated by a Brotherhood member, and following that Al-Banna himself was assassinated in what is thought to be a cycle of retaliation. In 1952, members of the Muslim Brotherhood were accused of taking part in the Cairo Fire that destroyed some “750 buildings” in downtown Cairo — mainly night clubs, theatres, hotels, and restaurants frequented by British and other foreigners. In 1952 Egypt’s monarchy was overthrown by nationalist military officers supported by the Brotherhood. However the Brotherhood opposed the secularist constitution of the coup leaders and in 1954 some historians claim they attempted to assassinate Egypt’s President (Gamal Abdel Nasser), and blame it on the “secret apparatus” of the Brotherhood (this attempt was unsuccessful). The Brotherhood was again banned and this time thousands of its members were imprisoned, many being tortured and held for years in prisons and concentration camps. Since the 1970s the Egyptian Brotherhood has disavowed violence and sought to participate in Egyptian politics. Imprisoned Brethren were released and the organization was tolerated to varying degrees with periodic arrests and crackdowns until the 2011 Revolution. Mubarak era In the 2005 parliamentary elections, the Brotherhood’s candidates, who had to run as independents because of their illegality as a political party, won 88 seats (20% of the total). (The legal opposition won only 14 seats.) This was despite electoral irregularities, including the arrest of hundreds of Brotherhood members. The Brotherhood became “in effect, the first opposition party of Egypt’s modern era Accounts differ over the Brotherhood’s record in parliament. Initially there was widespread skepticism inside and outside Egypt towards the Muslim Brotherhood’s commitment to democracy, along with fears of “severe restrictions on its freedom of opinion and belief” in both religious matters, and “social, political, economic and cultural affairs.” But by 2007 a The New York Times journalist wrote: “While many secular critics fear that the brotherhood harbors a hidden Islamist agenda, so far the organization has posed a democratic political challenge to the regime, not a theological one.”; and another report praised the Muslim Brotherhood for an “unmatched record of attendance”, forming a coalition to fight the extension of Egypt’s emergency law, and generally attempting to transform “the Egyptian parliament into a real legislative body, as well as an institution that represents citizens and a mechanism that keeps government accountable”. However, in December 2006, a campus demonstration by Muslim Brotherhood students in uniforms, demonstrating martial arts drills betrayed “the group’s intent to plan for the creation of militia structures, and a return by the group to the era of ‘secret cells,'” according to Jameel Theyabi. Another report highlighted the Muslim Brotherhood’s efforts in Parliament to combat what one member called the `current US-led war against Islamic culture and identity,’ forcing the Minister of Culture (Farouk Hosny) to ban the publication of three novels on the ground they promoted blasphemy and unacceptable sexual practices. In October 2007, the Muslim Brotherhood issued a detailed political platform. Amongst other things it called for a board of Muslim clerics to oversee the government, and limiting the office of the presidency to Muslim men. In the “Issues and Problems” chapter of the platform, it declared that a woman was not suited to be president because the post’s religious and military duties “conflict with her nature, social and other humanitarian roles.” While underlining “equality between men and women in terms of their human dignity,” the document warned against “burdening women with duties against their nature or role in the family. Since 2005 Muslim Brotherhood members in Egypt have also become a significant movement online, with some “cyber activists” critical of the organization. Whether or not the Brotherhood would unconditionally or conditionally dissolve Egypt’s 32-year peace treaty with Israel is disputed within the Brotherhood. While the deputy leader of the Brotherhood has said the Brotherhood would seek the dissolution of Egypt’s 32-year peace treaty with Israel, a Brotherhood spokesman said that the Brotherhood would respect the treaty as long as “Israel shows real progress on improving the lot of the Palestinians.” The Brotherhood remains the largest opposition group in Egypt, advocating Islamic reform, democratic system and maintaining a vast network of support through Islamic charities working among poor Egyptians. Ex-Knesset member and author Uri Avery argued that the Muslim Brotherhood is above all ‘an Arab and Egyptian party, deeply embedded in Egyptian history, more Arab and more Egyptian than fundamentalist.’ They have never been fanatical, and throughout their history, the outstanding quality they exhibit is ‘pragmatism’ and adherence to their religious principles. They form “an old established party which has earned much respect with its steadfastness in the face of recurrent persecution, torture, mass arrests and occasional executions. Its leaders are untainted by the prevalent corruption, and admired for their commitment to social work.” 2011 revolution and after Following the 2011 Egyptian revolution and fall of Hosni Mubarak, the group was legalized. The Brotherhood supported the constitutional referendum in March 2011 which was also supported by the Egyptian army and opposed by Egyptian liberals. On 30 April 2011, it launched a new party called the Freedom and Justice Party, which reportedly plans to “contest up to half the seats” in the Egyptian parliamentary election scheduled for September 2011. The party “rejects the candidacy of women or Copts for Egypt’s presidency”, but not for cabinet positions. Some splinter groups have appeared in the wake of the revolution Over 30 million people voted (over 60 percent of the eligible voters) in the elections. Over a third of these people voted for the Freedom and Justice Party put forward by the Muslim Brotherhood. The party won 127 seats through the party list and 108 individual seats for a total of 235 seats. The parliament consists of 498 elected members, 10 appointed, for a total of 508 seats According to the Anti-Defamation League, several former Brotherhood officials from the organization’s 15-member Guidance Council assumed key roles within the new party, and used their positions in the FJP to reiterate the Brotherhood’s long-standing hostility toward Zionism and support for other organizations that oppose Zionism The Muslim Brotherhood’s candidate for Egypt’s 2012 presidential election was Mohamed Morsi. The Egyptian cleric Safwat Higazi spoke at the announcement rally for the Muslim Brotherhood’s candidate Morsi and expressed his hope and belief that Morsi would liberate Gaza, restore the Caliphate of the “United States of the Arabs” with Jerusalem as its capital, and that “our cry shall be: ‘Millions of martyrs march towards Jerusalem.’ Morsi himself did not echo these statements, and later promised to stand for peaceful relations with Israel. In the First Egyptian elections after Mubarak, the candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood, Mohamed Morsi, won the election with 51.73% of the vote – over his competitor Ahmed Shafiq, the last prime minister under Mubarak’s rule. On the verdict that was announced for the former president Hosni Mubarak on 2 June 2012, a life sentence for complicity in the killings of protesters, the party made outspoken comments about it being too light, and actively engaged in action as a response. The sentences announced that Mubarak and his interior minister, as well as the latter’s six assistants would be acquitted of similar charges. In a separate corruption case, however, the former president and his two sons, as well as Egypt’s tycoon for business Hussein Selem were all found free of charges-non guilty. With the announcement followed mass scale of protests in Cairo’s Tahrir Square, questioning the integrity of the Judge Ahmed Refaat, to the trial that seemed crucial and meaningful to the history of people of Egypt. The demonstrations also denounced the presence of one presidential elections runoff Ahmed Shafiq. Shafiq was one of the high-profile governmental member during the period of President Mubarak, positioning himself as counter force to the spirit of the revolution that operates as a driving force in current Egyptian society. The result of trials and roaring response from the public have motivated actions from the party as well. Muslim Brotherhood’s presidential finalist Mohamed Morsi met Hamdeen Sabbahi, Abdel-Money Abul-Fotouh and Khaled Ali-who are the former presidential candidates- on Monday to discuss the verdict and the upcoming presidential election runoff. As the event is regarded as a major event for Egypt, one of the initiating countries of the Arab Revolution in the region, the party finds itself deeply involved and set to be ready. A spokesperson for the Muslim Brotherhood’s presidential candidate Muhammad Morsi expressed concern by saying that “The punishment is mild considering the crimes he committed against his homeland for over 30 years”. Such announcement is made, also to note the affect of the verdict on the elections. Also he mentioned that “The Egyptians will insist on electing a president that would renew the trial and avenge the blood of the martyrs,” warning that another revolution can happen in Egypt following the sentence. In late November 2012, offices of the Muslim Brotherhood were burned in response to Mohamed Morsi’s move to outlaw challenges to his presidential authority. General leaders Mohammed Badie, the current leader (المرشد العام لجماعة الإخوان المسلمون) ·         Founder & First G. leader: (1928–1949) Hassan al Banna ·         2nd G.L. : (1949–1972) Hassan al-Hudaybi ·         3rd G.L. : (1972–1986) Umar al-Tilmisani ·         4th G.L. : (1986–1996) Muhammad Hamid Abu al-Nasr ·         5th G.L. : (1996–2002) Mustafa Mashhur ·         6th G.L. : (2002–2004) Ma’mun al-Hudaybi ·         7th G.L. : (2004–2010) Mohammed Mahdi Akef ·         8th G.L. : (16 January 2010 – present) Mohammed Badie[citation needed] In West Asia Bahrain In Bahrain, the Muslim Brotherhood is represented by the Al Eslah Society and its political wing, the Al-Menbar Islamic Society. Following parliamentary elections in 2002, Al Menbar became the largest joint party with eight seats in the forty seat Chamber of Deputies. Prominent members of Al Menbar include Dr Salah Abdulrahman, Dr. Salah Al Jowder, and outspoken MP Mohammed Khalid. The party has generally backed government sponsored legislation on economic issues, but has sought a clampdown on pop concerts, sorcery and soothsayers. It has strongly opposed the government’s accession to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on the grounds that this would give Muslim citizens the right to change religion, when in the party’s view they should be “beheaded”. In March 2009, the Shi’a group The Islamic Enlightenment Society held its annual conference with the announced aim of diffusing tension between Muslim branches. The society invited national Sunni and Shi’a scholars to participate. Bahraini independent Salafi religious scholars Sheikh Salah Al Jowder and Sheikh Rashid Al Muraikhi, and Shi’a clerics Sheikh Isa Qasim and Abdulla Al Ghoraifi spoke about the importance of sectarian cooperation. Additional seminars were held throughout the year. In 2010, the U.S. government sponsored the visit of Al-Jowder, described as a prominent Sunni cleric, to the United States for a three-week interfaith dialogue program in several cities. Syria Main article: Muslim Brotherhood of Syria The Muslim Brotherhood in Syria was founded in the 1930s (according to lexicorient.com) or in 1945, a year before independence from France, (according to journalist Robin Wright). In the first decade or so of independence it was part of the legal opposition, and in the 1961 parliamentary elections it won ten seats (5.8% of the house). But after the 1963 coup that brought the Baath Party to power it was banned. It played a major role in the mainly Sunni-based movement that opposed the secularistpan-Arabist Baath party. This conflict developed into an armed struggle that continued until culminating in the Hama uprising of 1982, when the rebellion was crushed by the military. Membership in the Syrian Brotherhood became a capital offence in Syria in 1980 (under Emergency Law 49, which was revoked in 2011), but the headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood-linked Palestinian group, Hamas, was located in the Syria’s capital Damascus, where it was given Syrian government support. This has been cited as an example of the lack of international centralization or even coordination of the Muslim Brotherhood. The Brotherhood is said to have “resurrected itself” and become “dominant group” in the opposition during the Syrian civil war against the Assad regime according to the Washington newspaper. Jordan The Jordanian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood was formed in 1942, and is a strong factor in Jordanian politics. While most political parties and movements were banned for a long time in Jordan such as Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Brotherhood was exempted and allowed to operate by the Jordanian monarchy. The Jordanian Brotherhood has formed its own political party, the Islamic Action Front, which has the largest number of seats of any party in the Jordanian parliament. The Muslim Brotherhood is playing an active role in the unrest in several Arab countries in January 2011. For example, at a rally held outside the Egyptian Embassy in Amman on Saturday, 29 January 2011 with some 100 participants, Hammam Saeed, head of the Muslim Brotherhood of Jordan and a close ally of the Hamas’s Damascus-based leader, Khaled Meshaal, said: “Egypt’s unrest will spread across the Mideast and Arabs will topple leaders allied with the United States.” However, he did not specifically name Jordanian King Abdullah II.The Muslim brotherhood is rightfully or wrongfully feared by several commentators in the west, however it is not known how many seats in a democratic government the brotherhood will gain in any of the aforementioned countries. Iran Although Iran is a predominately Shia Muslim country and the Muslim Brotherhood is Sunni in doctrine, Olga Davidson and Mohammad Mahallati claim the Brotherhood has had influence among Shia in Iran. Navab Safavi, who founded Fada’iyan-e Islam, (also Fedayeen of Islam, or Fadayan-e Islam), an Iranian Islamic organization active in Iran in the 1940s and 1950s, “was highly impressed by the Muslim Brotherhood. From 1945 to 1951 the Fadain assassinated several high level Iranian personalities and officials who they believed to be un-Islamic. They included anti-clerical writer Ahmad Kasravi, Premier Haj Ali Razmara, former Premier Abdolhossein Hazhir, and Education and Culture Minister Ahmad Zangeneh. At that time Navab Safavi now based in the UK where associates and allies of Ayatollah Khomeini who went on to become a figure in the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Khomeini and other religious figures in Iran worked to establish Islamic unity and downplay Shia-Sunni differences. Iraq The Iraqi Islamic Party was formed in 1960 as the Iraqi branch of the Brotherhood, but was banned from 1961 during the nationalist rule of Abd al-Karim Qasim. As government repression hardened under the Baath Party from February 1963, the group was forced to continue underground. After the fall of the Saddam Hussein regime in 2003, the Islamic Party has reemerged as one of the main advocates of the country’s Sunni community. The Islamic Party has been sharply critical of the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq, but participates in the political process. Its leader is Iraqi Vice-President Tariq Al-Hashimi. Also, in the north of Iraq there are several Islamic movements inspired by or part of the Muslim Brotherhood network. The Kurdistan Islamic Union (KIU) holds seats in the Kurdish parliament, and is the main political force outside the dominance of the two main secularist parties, the PUK and KDP. Israel and Palestinian Territories ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Banna, the brother of the Muslim Brotherhood founder Hasan al-Banna, went to the British Mandate for Palestine and established the Muslim Brotherhood there in 1935. Al-Hajj Amin al-Husseini, eventually appointed by the British as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in hopes of accommodating him, was the leader of the group in Palestine. Another important leader associated with the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine was ‘Izz al-Din al-Qassam, an inspiration to Islamists because he had been the first to lead an armed resistance in the name of Palestine against the British in 1935. In 1945, the group established a branch in Jerusalem, and by 1947 twenty-five more branches had sprung up, in towns such as JaffaLodHaifaNablus, and Tulkarm, which total membership between 12,000 to 20,000. Brotherhood members fought alongside the Arab armies during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, and, after Israel’s creation, the ensuing Palestinian refugee crisis encouraged more Palestinian Muslims to join the group. After the war, in the West Bank, the group’s activity was mainly social and religious, not political, so it had relatively good relations with Jordan, which was in control of the West Bank after 1950. In contrast, the group frequently clashed with the Egyptian regime that controlled the Gaza Strip until 1967. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Brotherhood’s goal was “the upbringing of an Islamic generation” through the restructuring of society and religious education, rather than opposition to Israel, and so it lost popularity to insurgent movements and the presence of Hizb ut-Tahrir\ Eventually, however, the Brotherhood was strengthened by several factors: 1.    The creation of al-Mujamma’ al-Islami, the Islamic Center in 1973 by Shaykh Ahmad Yasin had a centralizing effect that encapsulated all religious organizations. 2.    The Muslim Brotherhood Society in Jordan and Palestine was created from a merger of the branches in the West Bank and Gaza and Jordan. 3.    Palestinian disillusion with the Palestinian militant groups caused them to become more open to alternatives. 4.    The Islamic Revolution in Iran offered inspiration to Palestinians. The Brotherhood was able to increase its efforts in Palestine and avoid being dismantled like militant groups because it did not focus on the occupation. While millitant groups were being dismantled, the Brotherhood filled the void. After the 1967 Six Day War, Israel may have looked to cultivate political Islam as a counterweight to Fatah, the main secular Palestinian nationalist political organization.Between 1967 and 1987, the year Hamas was founded, the number of mosques in Gaza tripled from 200 to 600, and the Muslim Brotherhood named the period between 1975 and 1987 a phase of ‘social institution building.’ During that time, the Brotherhood established associations, used zakat (alms giving) for aid to poor Palestinians, promoted schools, provided students with loans, used waqf (religious endowments) to lease property and employ people, and established mosques. Likewise, antagonistic and sometimes violent opposition to Fatah, the Palestine Liberation Organization and other secular nationalist groups increased dramatically in the streets and on university campuses. After the Intifada, Hamas was established. The Islamic Resistance Movement, or Hamas, founded in 1987 in Gaza, is a wing of the Brotherhood, formed out of Brotherhood-affiliated charities and social institutions that had gained a strong foothold among the local population. During the First Intifada (1987–93), Hamas militarized and transformed into one of the strongest Palestinian militant groups. The Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip in 2007 was the first time since the Sudanese coup of 1989 that brought Omar al-Bashir to power, that a Muslim Brotherhood group ruled a significant geographic territory. Saudi Arabia The Muslim Brotherhood’s brand of Islam and Islamic politics differs from the strict Salafi creed, Wahhabiyya, officially held by the state of Saudi Arabia. Despite this, the Brotherhood has been tolerated by the Saudi government, and maintains a presence in the country. Aside from tolerating the Brotherhood organization, and according to Washington Post report, the then Saudi Interior Minister Prince Nayef denounced the Brotherhood, saying it was guilty of “betrayal of pledges and ingratitude” and was “the source of all problems in the Islamic world”. Kuwait The Muslim Brotherhood in Kuwait is represented in the Kuwaiti parliament by Hadas. Yemen The Muslim Brotherhood is the political arm of the Yemeni Congregation for Reform, commonly known as Islah. President Ali Abdullah Saleh accused them of being in league with Al Qaida and stirring up the 2011 Yemen protests against his rule. Oman Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said of Oman claimed that the Muslim Brotherhood obtained support from the uneducated people. Elsewhere] in Africa See also: Muslim brotherhoods of Senegal Algeria The Muslim Brotherhood reached Algeria during the later years of the French colonial presence in the country (1830–1962). Sheikh Ahmad Sahnoun led the organization in Algeria between 1953 and 1954 during the French colonialism. Brotherhood members and sympathizers took part in the uprising against France in 1954–1962, but the movement was marginalized during the largely secular FLN one-party rule which was installed at independence in 1962. It remained unofficially active, sometimes protesting the government and calling for increased Islamization and Arabization of the country’s politics. When a multi-party system was introduced in Algeria in the early 1990s, the Muslim Brotherhood formed the Movement for the Society of Peace (MSP, previously known as Hamas), led by Mahfoud Nahnah until his death in 2003 (he was succeeded by present party leader Boudjerra Soltani). The Muslim Brotherhood in Algeria did not join the Front islamique du salut (FIS), which emerged as the leading Islamist group, winning the 1991 elections and which was banned in 1992 following a military coup d’état, although some Brotherhood sympathizers did. The Brotherhood subsequently also refused to join the violent post-coup uprising by FIS sympathizers and the Armed Islamic Groups (GIA) against the Algerian state and military which followed, and urged a peaceful resolution to the conflict and a return to democracy. It has thus remained a legal political organization and enjoyed parliamentary and government representation. In 1995, Sheikh Nahnah ran for President of Algeria finishing second with 25.38% of the popular vote. During the 2000s (decade), the party—led by Nahnah’s successor Boudjerra Soltani—has been a member of a three-party coalition backing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. Sudan Until the election of Hamas in GazaSudan was the one country were the Brotherhood was most successful in gaining power, its members making up a large part of the government officialdom following the 1989 coup d’état by General Omar Hassan al-Bashir. Always close to Egyptian politics, Sudan has had a Muslim Brotherhood presence since 1949. In 1945, a delegation from the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt visited Sudan and held various meetings inside the country advocating and explaining their ideology. Sudan has a long and deep history with the Muslim Brotherhood compared to many other countries. By April 1949, the first branch of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood organization emerged. However, simultaneously, many Sudanese students studying in Egypt were introduced to the ideology of the Brotherhood. The Muslim student groups also began organizing in the universities during the 1940s, and the Brotherhood’s main support base has remained to be college educated. In order to unite them, in 1954, a conference was held, attended by various representatives from different groups that appeared to have the same ideology. The conference voted to establish a Unified Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood Organization based on the teachings of Imam Hassan Al-banna. An offshoot of the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamic Charter Front grew during the 1960, with Islamic scholar Hasan al-Turabi becoming its Secretary general in 1964. The Islamic Charter Front (ICM) was renamed several times most recently being called the National Islamic Front (NIF). Turabi has been the prime architect of the NIF as a modern Islamist party. He worked within the Institutions of the government, which led to a prominent position of his organization in the country. NIF supported women’s right to vote and ran women candidates. The Muslim Brotherhood/NIF’s main objective in Sudan was to Islamize the society “from above” and to institutionalize the Islamic law throughout the country where they succeeded. The Brotherhood penetrated into the ruling political organizations, the state army and security personal, the national and regional assemblies of Sudan. They also launched their own mass organizations among the youth and women such as the shabab al-binna, and raidat al-nahda, and launched educational campaigns to Islamize the communities throughout the country. At the same time, they gained control of several newly founded Islamic missionary and relief organizations to spread their ideology. The Brotherhood members took control of the newly established Islamic Banks as directors, administrators, employees and legal advisors, which became a source of power for the Brotherhood. The Sudanese government has come under considerable criticism for its human rights policies, links to terrorist groups, and war in southern Sudan and Darfur. See also: Darfur conflictSecond Sudanese Civil War, and Human rights in Sudan The conservatism of at least some elements of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood was highlighted in an 3 August 2007 Al-Jazeera television interview of Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood leader Sheikh Sadeq Abdallah bin Al-Majed. As translated by the Israeli-based MEMRI, Bin Al-Majed told his interviewer that “the West, and the Americans in particular … are behind all the tragedies that are taking place in Darfur“, as they “realized that it Darfur is full of treasures”; that “Islam does not permit a non-Muslim to rule over Muslims;” and that he had issued a fatwa prohibiting the vaccination of children, on the grounds that the vaccinations were “a conspiracy of the Jews and Freemasons“. Somalia Somalia’s wing of the Muslim Brotherhood is known by the name Harakat Al-Islah or “Reform Movement”. Nonetheless, the Brotherhood, as mentioned earlier, has inspired many Islamist organizations in Somalia. Muslim Brotherhood ideology reached Somalia in the early 1960s, but Al-Islam movement was formed in 1978 and slowly grew in the 1980s. Al-Islam has been described as “a generally nonviolent and modernizing Islamic movement that emphasizes the reformation and revival of Islam to meet the challenges of the modern world”, whose “goal is the establishment of an Islamic state” and which “operates primarily in Mogadishu”. The founders of the Islam Movement are: Sh. Mohamed Ahmed Nur, Dr. Ali Sheikh Ahmed, Dr. Mohamed Yusuf Abdi, Sh. Ahmed Rashid Hanafi, and Sh. Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah. The organization structured itself loosely and was not openly visible on the political scene of Somali society. They chose to remain a secret movement fearing the repressive regime of Siad Barre but are considered the first ever opposition to the dictatorship. However, they emerged from secrecy when the regime collapsed in 1991 and started working openly thereafter. Most Somalis were surprised to see the new group they had never heard of, which was in the country since the 1970s in secrecy. According to the Islam by-law, every five years the organization has to elect its Consultative (Shura) Council which elects the Chairman and the two Vice-chairman. During the last 30 years, four chairmen were elected. These are Sheikh Mohamed Geryare (1978–1990), Dr. Mohamed Ali Ibrahim (1990–1999), Dr. Ali Sheikh Ahmed (1999–2008) and Dr. Ali Bashi Omar Roraye (2008–2013). Dr. Ali Bashi is a medical doctor, a former university professor and a member of the transitional parliament (2000–2008). During the 1990s, Al-Islam devoted much effort to humanitarian efforts and providing free basic social services. The leaders of Al-Islam played a key role in the educational network and establishing Mogadishu University. Through their network, they educate more than 120,000 students in the city of Mogadishu. Many other secondary schools such as the University Of East Africa in Bosasso, Puntland, are externally funded and administered through organizations affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Islamic organization Al-Islam in Somalia, they are known to be a peaceful organization that does not participate in any factional fighting and rejects the use of violence. Today the group’s membership includes urban professionals and students. According to a Crisis Group Report, Somalia’s Islamists, “Al-Islam organization is dominated by a highly educated urban elite whose professional, middle class status and extensive expatriate experiences are alien to most Somalis.” Although Al-Islam have been criticized by some hardcore Islamists who considered them to be influenced by imperialist western values, Al-Islam speaks of democratic peaceful Somalia. They promote women’s rights, human rights, and other ideas, which they argue that these concepts originate from Islamic concepts. Al-Islam is gaining momentum in the Somali societies for their humanitarian work and moderate view of Islam, which is compatible to modernization and respect of human rights. Currently, Islam initiated to establish political party under the name of Justice and Unity Party which is open for all citizens of Somalia. Tunisia Like their counterparts elsewhere in the Islamic world in general, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has influenced the Tunisia’s Islamists. One of the notable organization that was influenced and inspired by the Brotherhood is Nemaha (The Revival or Renaissance Party), which is Tunisia’s major Islamist political grouping. An Islamist founded the organization in 1981. While studying in Damascus and Paris, Rashid Ghannouchi embraced the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, which he disseminated on his return to Tunisia. Libya The Libyan branch of the Muslim Brotherhood was founded in 1949, but it was not able to operate openly until after the 2011 Libyan civil war. It held its first public press conference on 17 November 2011, and on 24 December the Brotherhood announced that it would form the Justice and Construction Party (JCP) and contest the General National Congress elections the following year. Despite predictions based on fellow post-Arab Spring nations Tunisia and Egypt that the Brotherhood’s party would easily win the elections, it instead came a distant second to theNational Forces Alliance, receiving just 10% of the vote and 17 out of 80 party-list seats.[93] Their candidate for Prime Minister, Awad al-Baraasi was also defeated in the first round of voting in September, although he was later made a Deputy Prime Minister under Ali Zeidan. A JCP Congressman, Saleh Essaleh is also the vice speaker of the General National Congress. Other states Russian Federation The Muslim Brotherhood is banned in Russia as a terrorist organization. As affirmed on 14 February 2003 by the decision of the Supreme Court of Russia, the Muslim Brotherhood coordinated the creation of an Islamic organization called The Supreme Military Majlis ul-Shura of the United Forces of Caucasian Mujahedeen (RussianВысший военный маджлисуль шура объединённых сил моджахедов Кавказа), led by Ibn Al-Khattab and Basaev; an organization that committed multiple terror-attack acts in Russia and was allegedly financed by drug trafficking, counterfeiting of coins and racketeering. According to the above-mention decision of the Supreme Court: Muslim Brotherhood is an organization, basing its activities on the ideas of its theorists and leaders Hassan al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb with an aim of destruction of non-Islamic governments and the establishment of the worldwide Islamic government by the reconstruction of the “Great Islamic Caliphate”; firstly, in regions with majority of Muslim population, including those in Russia and CIS countries. The organization is illegal in some Middle East countries (Syria, Jordan). The main forms of activities are warlike Islamism propaganda with intolerance to other religions, recruitment in mosques, armed Jihad without territorial boundaries. The Supreme Court of Russia United States Main article: Muslim Brotherhood conspiracy theories See Also Civilization Jihad According to the Washington Post, U.S. Muslim Brotherhood supporters “make up the U.S. Islamic community’s most organized force” by running hundreds of mosques, businesses ventures, promoting civic activities and setting up American Islamic organizations to defend and promote Islam. In 1963, the U.S. chapter of Muslim Brotherhood was started by activists involved with the Muslim Students Association (MSA). U.S. supporters of the Brotherhood also started other organizations including: North American Islamic Trust in 1971, the Islamic Society of North America in 1981, the American Muslim Council in 1990, the Muslim American Society in 1992 and the International Institute of Islamic Thought in the 1980s United Kingdom In 1996, the first representative of the Muslim Brotherhood in Britain, Kamal el-Halaby, an Egyptian, was able to say that “there are not many members here, but many Muslims in Britain intellectually support the aims of the Muslim Brotherhood.” He added that at that time, the object of the MB in Britain was only to disseminate information on Islam, Islamic issues and movements, and to rectify the distortions and misunderstandings created by “different forces against Islam”. In September 1999, the Muslim Brotherhood opened a “global information Centre” in London. A press notice published in Muslim News stated that it would “specialize in promoting the perspectives and stances of the Muslim Brotherhood, and [communicate] between Islamic movements and the global mass media.” Indonesia Several Party and organizations in Indonesia are linked or at least inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood, although none has a formal relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood. One of the Muslim Brotherhood linked Parties is PKS (Prosperous Justice Party) with 10% seats in the parliament based on the Indonesian legislative election, 2009. The PKS relationship with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood was confirmed by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, a prominent Muslim Brotherhood leader. PKS is a member of current government coalition under President SBY with 3 ministers in the cabinet. Indian subcontinent Main article: Jamaat-e-Islami The Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu: جماعتِ اسلامی;, lit. “Islamic Party” abbreviation, JI) is a political party founded on 26 August 1941 in Lahore by Muslim theologian Abul Ala Maududi. Jamaat-e-Islami is said to be the Muslim Brotherhood in the Indian subcontinent and Muslim Brotherhood is called the Jamaat-e-Islami of the Arab world. Jamaat-e-Islami has independent organizations in Pakistan, IndiaBangladesh and Sri Lanka. Criticisms The Brotherhood was criticised by Ayman al-Zawahiri in 2007 for its refusal to advocate the violent overthrow of the Mubarak regime. Issam al-Aryan, a top Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood figure, denounced the al-Qaeda leader: “Zawahiri’s policy and preaching bore dangerous fruit and had a negative impact on Islam and Islamic movements across the world.” Dubai police chief, Dhahi Khalfan, accused Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood of an alleged plot to overthrow the UAE government. He referred to the Muslim Brotherhood as “dictators” who want “Islamist rule in all the Motives Numerous officials and reporters question the sincerity of the Muslim Brotherhood’s pronouncements. These critics include, but are not limited to: ·         According to FrontPage Magazine, a conservative publication, former U.S. White House counterterrorism chief Juan Zarate said: “The Muslim Brotherhood is a group that worries us not because it deals with philosophical or ideological ideas but because it defends the use of violence against civilians.”[106][107]

  • Miles Axe Copeland, Jr. -a prominent U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operative who was one of the founding members of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) underWilliam Donovan– divulges the confessions of numerous members of the Muslim brotherhood that resulted from the harsh interrogations done against them by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, for their alleged involvement in the assassination attempt made against Nasser (an assassination attempt that many believe was staged by Nasser himself[108]), which revealed that the Muslim Brotherhood was merely a “guild” that fulfilled the goals of western interests: “Nor was that all. Sound beatings of the Moslem Brotherhood organizers who had been arrested revealed that the organization had been thoroughly penetrated, at the top, by the British, American, French and Soviet intelligence services, any one of which could either make active use of it or blow it up, whichever best suited its purposes. Important lesson: fanaticism is no insurance against corruption; indeed, the two are highly compatible.

·         Former U.S. Middle East peace envoy Dennis Ross, who told Asharq Alawsat newspaper that the Muslim Brotherhood is a global, not a local organization, governed by a Shura (Consultative) Council, which rejects cessation of violence in Israel, and supports violence to achieve its political objectives elsewhere too.[110] ·         The Interior Minister of Saudi Arabia, Prince Naif Ibn Abdul Aziz has stated that the Muslim Brotherhood organization was the cause of most problems in the Arab world. ‘The Brotherhood has done great damage to Saudi Arabia,’ he said. Prince Naif accused the foremost Islamist group in the Arab world of harming the interests of Muslims. ‘All our problems come from the Muslim Brotherhood. We have given too much support to this group…” “The Muslim Brotherhood has destroyed the Arab world,’ he said. ‘Whenever they got into difficulty or found their freedom restricted in their own countries, Brotherhood activists found refuge in the Kingdom which protected their lives… But they later turned against the Kingdom…’ The Muslim Brotherhood has links to groups across the Arab world, including Jordan’s main parliamentary opposition, the ‘Islamic Action Front,’ and the ‘Palestinian resistance movement, ‘Hamas.” The Interior Minister’s outburst against the Brotherhood came amid mounting criticism in the United States of Saudi Arabia’s longstanding support for Islamist groups around the world…” Status of non-Muslims ·         In 1997 Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Mustafa Mashhur told journalist Khalid Daoud that he thought Egypt’s Coptic Christians and Orthodox Jews should pay the long-abandoned jizya poll tax, levied on non-Muslims in exchange for protection from the state, rationalized by the fact that non-Muslims are exempt from military service while it is compulsory for Muslims. He went on to say, “we do not mind having Christian members in the People’s Assembly… [T]he top officials, especially in the army, should be Muslims since we are a Muslim country… This is necessary because when a Christian country attacks the Muslim country and the army has Christian elements, they can facilitate our defeat by the enemy. According to The Guardian newspaper, the proposal caused an “uproar” among Egypt’s six million Coptic Christians and “the movement later backtracked. Response to criticisms According to authors writing in the Council on Foreign Relations magazine Foreign Affairs: “At various times in its history, the group has used or supported violence and has been repeatedly banned in Egypt for attempting to overthrow Cairo’s secular government. Since the 1970s, however, the Egyptian Brotherhood has disavowed violence and sought to participate in Egyptian politics.” Jeremy Bowen, BBC Middle East editor, calls it “conservative and non-violent”;The Brotherhood has condemned terrorism and the 9/11 attacks. The Brotherhood itself denounces the “catchy and effective terms and phrases” like “fundamentalist” and “political Islam” which it claims are used by “Western Media” to pigeonhole the group, and points to its “15 Principles” for an Egyptian National Charter, including “freedom of personal conviction… opinion… forming political parties… public gatherings… free and fair elections…” Similarly, some analysts maintain that whatever the source of modern Jihadi terrorism and the actions and words of some rogue members, the Brotherhood now has little in common with radical Islamists and modern jihadists who often condemn the Brotherhood as too moderate. They also deny the existence of any centralized and secretive global Muslim Brotherhood leadership. Some claim that the origins of modern Muslim terrorism are found in Wahhabi ideology, not that of the Muslim Brotherhood. According to anthropologist Scott Atran, the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood even in Egypt has been overstated by Western commentators. He estimates that it can count on only 100,000 militants (out of some 600,000 dues paying members) in a population of more than 80 million, and that such support as it does have among Egyptians—an often cited figure is 20 percent to 30 percent—is less a matter of true attachment than an accident of circumstance: secular opposition groups that might have countered it were suppressed for many decades, but in driving the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, a more youthful constellation of secular movements has emerged to threaten the Muslim Brotherhood’s dominance of the political opposition. This has not yet been the case, however, as evidenced by the Brotherhood’s strong showing in national elections. Poll also indicate that majority of Egyptian and other Arab nation endorse law base on “Sharia”. Foreign Relations On 29 June 2011, as the Brotherhood’s political power became more apparent and solidified following the 2011 Egyptian revolution, the United States announced that it would reopen formal diplomatic channels with the group, with whom it had suspended communication as a result of suspected terrorist activity. The next day, the Brotherhood’s leadership announced that they welcomed the diplomatic overture.

 

 

[8][ Genesis of Menar ]

It very difficult to put the pic on my blog from my desktop  so if u want  to see the full thing check my fb group  https://www.facebook.com/groups/456812817737525/ so u can see the full thing

Arab Spring

 

Arab Spring
Clockwise from top left: Protesters in Tahrir Square in Cairo; Demonstrators marching through Habib Bourguiba Avenue in Tunis; Political dissidents in Sana’a; Protesters gathering in Pearl Roundabout in Manama; Mass Demonstration in Douma; Demonstrators in Bayda.
Date 18 December 2010 – present
Location Arab world
Causes
Goals
Methods
Status Ongoing

  • Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali ousted, and government overthrown.
  • Egyptian Presidents Hosni Mubarak and Mohammed Morsi ousted, and governments overthrown. Ongoing post-coup political violence.
  • Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi killed after a civil war with foreign military intervention, and government overthrown.
  • Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh ousted, power handed to a national unity government.
  • Syria experiences a full-scale civil war between the government and opposition forces.
  • Civil uprising against the government of Bahrain despite unsatisfying government changes.
  • Kuwait, Lebanon and Oman implementing government changes in response to protests.
  • Morocco, Jordan implementing constitutional reforms in response to protests.
  • Ongoing protests in Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Mauritania and some other countries.
Casualties
Death(s) 122,418–127,431+ (International estimate, ongoing;

The Arab Spring when the lyeing one lye no more and when she take up her place in the heaven the arab spring will start and that what happen in December 18 th 2010 in tunisa tunisa the one who lye down or tunis is the sky goddest who rule over the star  moon and planet it is also the goddest of  fertility .tunisa was bait that got the arab spring going  and the beast moving  looking at the majiour protest wheret the ruler have been force  from power in Tunisia,[1] Egypt (twice),[2] Libya,[3] and Yemen;[4] civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrain[5]and Syria;[6] major protests have broken out you can see a wave going farward activating  these country as it pass throught . in Algeria,[7] Iraq,[8] Jordan,[9] Kuwait,[10] Morocco,[11] and Sudan;[12] and minor protests have occurred in Mauritania,[13] Oman,[14] Saudi Arabia,[15] Djibouti,[16] Western Sahara,[17] and the Palestinian Authority.

Related events outside of the Arab World included protests in Iranian Khuzestan by the Arab minority in April 2011[18] and border clashes in Israel in May 2011.[19] Weapons and Tuareg fighters returning from the Libyan civil war stoked a simmering conflict in Mali which has been described as “fallout” from the Arab Spring in North Africa.[20] The sectarian clashes in Lebanon were described as a spillover violence of the Syrian uprising and hence the regional Arab Spring.

The protests have shared some techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations, marches, and rallies, as well as the effective use of social media to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face of state attempts at repression and Internet censorship.

Many Arab Spring demonstrations have been met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks have been answered with violence from protestors in some cases. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been Ash-sha`b yurid isqat an-nizam (“the people want to bring down the regime”).

Some observers have drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the Revolutions of 1989 (also known as the “Autumn of Nations”) that swept through Eastern Europe and the Second World, in terms of their scale and significance. Others, however, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes and the organizational role of internet technology in the Arab revolutions.

Etymology

The term “Arab Spring” is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which is sometimes referred to as “Springtime of the People”, and the Prague Spring in 1968. In the aftermath of the Iraq War it was used by various commentators who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization.[39] The first specific use of the term Arab Spring as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign PolicyMarc Lynch, referring to his article in Foreign Policy,[41] writes “Arab Spring—a term I may have unintentionally coined in a January 6, 2011 article”.[42] Joseph Massad on Al Jazeera said the term was “part of a US strategy of controlling [the movement’s] aims and goals” and directing it towards American-style liberal democracy.[40] Due to the electoral success of Islamist parties following the protests in many Arab countries, the events have also come to be known as “Islamist Spring” or “Islamist Winter”.

Background

Causes

The Arab spring is widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels may have had a hand as well.[45] Numerous factors have led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchyhuman rights violations, political corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables),[46] economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors,[47] such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population.[48] Also, some – like Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek – name the2009–2010 Iranian election protests as an additional reason behind the Arab Spring.[49] The Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010 might also have been a factor influencing its beginning.[50] Catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have included the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo.[51] Increasing food prices and global famine rates have also been a significant factor,[52][53] as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 2007–2008 world food price crisis.[54]

In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education, have resulted in an improved Human Development Index in the affected countries.[citation needed] The tension between rising aspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests.Many of the Internet-savvy youth of these countries have, increasingly over the years, been viewing autocrats and absolute monarchies as anachronisms. An Oman university professor, Al-Najma Zidjaly, referred to this upheaval as youthquake.

Tunisia and Egypt, the first to witness major uprisings, differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nations such as Algeria andLibya in that they lack significant oil revenue, and were thus unable to make concessions to calm the masses.

The relative success of the democratic Republic of Turkey, with its substantially free and vigorously contested but peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but Islamist government, created a model (the Turkish model) if not a motivation for protestors in neighbouring states.[57] This view, however, has been contested and put into perspective by recent waves of anti-government protests in Turkey.

Recent history

The current wave of protests is not an entirely new phenomenon, resulting in part from the activities of dissident activists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations that have been active for years in Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and other countries in the area, as well as in the territory of Western Sahara.[58]

Revolts have been occurring in the Arab area since the 1800s, but only recently have these revolts been redirected from foreign rulers to the Arab states themselves. The revolution in the summer of 2011 marked the end of the old phase national liberation from colonial rule; now revolutions are inwardly directed at the problems of Arab society.[59]

Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests. The Egyptian labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004.[61] One important demonstration was an attempted workers’ strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students.[61] A Facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers. The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the “6 April Committee” of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.[61]

In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is ‘unhappy’ with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile.[62] Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as ‘9,700 riots and unrests’ throughout the country.[63] Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.[64]

In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south-east of El Aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[65] The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring.[66]

The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi. Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, on 17 December 2010, a municipal inspector confiscated his wares. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 4 January 2011[67] brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian revolution.[58]

Overview

Main article: Timeline of the Arab Spring

The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa that commenced in 2010 has become known as the “Arab Spring”,[68][69][70] and sometimes as the “Arab Spring and Winter”,[71] “Arab Awakening”[72][73][74] or “Arab Uprisings” even though not all the participants in the protests are Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred inTunisia on 18 December 2010 in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi‘s self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, awave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian “Burning Man” struck AlgeriaJordanEgypt, and Yemen,[79] then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations have often occurred on a “day of rage”, usually Friday afternoon prayers. The protests have also triggered similar unrest outside the region.

As of September 2012, governments have been overthrown in four countries. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council (NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTC took control of the city. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh signed the GCC power-transfer deal in which a presidential election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi formally replacing him as the president of Yemen on 27 February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution.

During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015,[83] as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014,[84] although there have been increasingly violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation.[85] Protests in Jordan have also caused the sacking of four successive governments[86][87] by King Abdullah.[88] The popular unrest in Kuwait has also resulted in resignation of Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah cabinet.[89]

The geopolitical implications of the protests have drawn global attention,[90] including the suggestion that some protesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize.[91] Tawakel Karman from Yemen was one of the three laureates of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize as a prominent leader in the Arab Spring. In December 2011, Time magazine named “The Protester” its “Person of the Year“.[92] Another award was noted when the Spanish photographer Samuel Aranda won the 2011 World Press Photo award for his image of a Yemeni woman holding an injured family member, taken during the civil uprising in Yemen on 15 October 2011.[93]

 

Summary of conflicts by country

Country Date started Status of protests Outcome Death toll Situation
 Tunisia 18 December 2010 Government overthrown on 14 January 2011 Overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia

  • Resignation of Prime Minister Ghannouchi[94]
  • Dissolution of the political police[95]
  • Dissolution of the RCD, the former ruling party of Tunisia and liquidation of its assets[96]
  • Release of political prisoners[97]
  • Elections to a Constituent Assembly on 23 October 2011[98]
338[99] Government overthrown
 Algeria 29 December 2010 Ended in January 2012
  • Lifting of the 19-year-old state of emergency[100][101]
8[102] Major protests
 Jordan 14 January 2011
  • On February 2011, King Abdullah II dismisses Prime Minister Rifai and his cabinet[103]
  • On October 2011, Abdullah dismisses Prime Minister Bakhit and his cabinet after complaints of slow progress on promised reforms[104]
  • On April 2012, as the protests continues, Al-Khasawneh resigned, and the King appoints Fayez al-Tarawneh as the new Prime Minister of Jordan[105]
  • On October 2012, King Abdullah dissolves the parliament for new earlyelections, and appoints Abdullah Ensour as the new Prime Minister of Jordan[106]
3[107] Protests and governmental changes
 Oman 17 January 2011 Ended in May 2011 2–6[113][114][115] Protests and governmental changes
 Egypt 25 January 2011 Government overthrown on 11 February 2011. The replacement Islamist government was ousted by military. Ongoing violence in response to the coup. Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak; Mubarak sentenced to life in prison for ordering the killing of protesters. Protests over the imposition of an Islamist-backed constitution by the Muslim Brotherhood and Mohamed Morsi precipitate acoup d’état by the military.Timeline of events

1,700[61] Government overthrown;Replacement government overthrown
 Yemen 27 January 2011 Government overthrown on 27 February 2012 Overthrow of Ali Abdullah Saleh; Saleh granted immunity from prosecution

2,000[129] Government overthrown
 Djibouti 28 January 2011 Ended in March 2011 2[130] Minor protests
 Somalia 28 January 2011 Ended in June 2012 2[130] Minor protests
 Sudan 30 January 2011 Ongoing
  • President Bashir announces he will not seek another term in 2015[131]
14[132][133][134] Minor protests
 Iraq 23 December 2012 Ongoing
  • Prime Minister Maliki announces that he will not run for a 3rd term;[135]
  • Resignation of provincial governors and local authorities[136]
11[137] Major protests
 Bahrain 14 February 2011 Ongoing
  • Economic concessions by King Hamad[138]
  • Release of political prisoners[139]
  • Negotiations with Shia representatives[140]
  • GCC intervention at the request of the Government of Bahrain
  • Head of the National Security Apparatus removed from post[141]
  • Formation of a committee to implement BICI report recommendations[142]
120[143] Sustained civil disorder and government changes
 Libya 17 February 2011 Government overthrown on 23 August 2011 Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by rebel forces

25,000-30,000+[146] Government overthrown
 Kuwait 19 February 2011 0[149] Protests and governmental changes
 Morocco 20 February 2011 Ended in March–April 2012 6[152] Protests and governmental changes
 Mauritania 25 February 2011 Ongoing 3[153] Minor protests
 Lebanon 27 February 2011 Ended in December 2011 0 Protests and governmental changes
 Saudi Arabia 11 March 2011 Ongoing 24[159] Minor protests
 Syria 15 March 2011 Ongoing
  • Release of some political prisoners[160][161]
  • Dismissal of Provincial Governors[162][163]
  • Resignation of the Government[164]
  • End of Emergency Law
  • Resignations from Parliament[165]
  • Large defections from the Syrian army and clashes between soldiers and defectors[166]
  • Formation of the Free Syrian Army
  • The Free Syrian Army takes controls of large swathes of land across Syria.
  • Battles between the Syrian government’s army and the Free Syrian Army in many governorates.
  • Formation of the Syrian National Council[167]
  • Syria suspended from the Arab League
  • Several countries recognize Syrian government in exile
  • Kurdish fighters enter the war by mid-2013
106,000+[168] Ongoing civil war
 Iran 15 April 2011 Ended on 18 April 2011 12 Major protests
 Israel 15 May 2011 Ended on 5 June 2011 12–40[169][170] Major protests
 Palestine 4 September 2012 finished
  • Salam Fayyad states that he is “‘willing to resign”[171]
  • Fayyad ultimately resigns on 13 April 2013.[172]
0 Protests and governmental changes
Total death toll  134,239+
  • 5 Governments overthrown (Egypt twice)
  • 6 Protests & governmental changes
  • 5 Minor protests
  • 4 Major protests
  • 1 Civil disorder and governmental changes
  • 2 Civil wars

 

 

Casualties of the Syrian Civil War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Doctors and medical staff treating injured rebel fighters and civilians in Aleppo

Estimates of deaths in the Syrian Civil War, per opposition activist groups, vary between 95,850[1][2] and 130,435.[3] On 24 July 2013, the United Nations put out an estimate of over 100,000 that had died in the war.[4]

UNICEF reported that over 500 children had been killed by early February 2012.[5][6] Another 400 children have been reportedly arrested and tortured in Syrian prisons.[7][8] Both claims have been contested by the Syrian government.[9] Additionally, over 600 detainees and political prisoners have died under torture.[10] By late December 2013, the opposition activist group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported the number of children killed in the conflict had risen to 7,014, while at the same time 4,695 women were also killed.[3] According to the UN, 6,561 children were killed by mid-June 2013.[11] The Oxford Research Group said that a total of 11,420 children had been killed in the conflict by late November 2013.[12]

 

 

Overall deaths[edit]

 

Total deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria (18 March 2011 – 18 October 2013)

 

Weekly deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria (18 March 2011 – 18 October 2013)

The number of fatalities in the conflict, according to the Syrian opposition website Syrian Martyrs, is 92,120, updated to 31 December 2013.[13] The number includes 18,538 rebels, including 289 foreign fighters, but does not include members of the government security forces or pro-government foreign combatants who have died.[14] 736 foreign civilians who have died in the conflict are also included in the toll, most of them, 589, being Palestinians.[15] The Syrian Martyrs number is significantly higher than the ones presented by other organisations, including the UN, one reason being they record deaths even when no name is given for the reportedly killed individual.[16]

Governorate Number of deaths
Latakia 1,008
Rif Dimashq 22,709
Homs 13,345
Hama 6,299
Al-Hasakah 771
Daraa 7,893
Aleppo 15,493
Deir ez-Zor 5,117
Damascus 7,051
Tartus 516
Quneitra 551
Idlib 9,934
As-Suwayda 65
Ar-Raqqah 1,368
Total 92,120

Other estimates range from 95,850 to 130,435. Except for the SNHR figure, which excludes pro-government fighters, all of the following totals include civilians, rebels and security forces:

Source Casualties Time period
France 120,000 killed 15 March 2011 – 23 September 2013
Next Century Foundation 92,497 killed 4 June 2012 – 30 November 2013
Syrian Network for Human Rights 109,736 killed 15 March 2011 – 30 November 2013
Center for Documentation of Violations 95,852 killed 15 March 2011 – 7 January 2014
Syrian Observatory for Human Rights 130,433 killed 15 March 2011 – 30 December 2013

Al Jazeera journalist Nir Rosen reported that many of the deaths reported daily by activists are in fact armed insurgents falsely presented as civilian deaths, but confirmed that real civilian deaths do occur on a regular basis.[25] A number of Middle East political analysts, including those from the Lebanese Al Akhbar newspaper, have also urged caution.

This was later confirmed when in late May 2012, Rami Abdulrahman of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, which is one of the opposition-affiliated groups counting the number of those killed in the uprising, stated that civilians who had taken up arms during the conflict were being counted under the category of “civilians”.

In May 2013, SOHR stated that at least 41,000 of those killed during the conflict were Alawites.[32]

The Next Century Foundation offer an alternative analysis of casualty figures. Their calculations are made by using figures from the Center for Documentation of Violations in Syria (VDC), Syrian Shuhada (Syrian Martyrs), Syrian Observatory for Human RightsLocal Coordination Committees of Syria (LCC) and Damascus Centre for Human Rights from June 2012 to the present. Figures for civilian, rebel and government casualties are calculated separately and added together for an overall total.[33]

Combatant deaths[edit]

Government forces[edit]

Pro-government combatants Casualties
Syrian military and police 30,000[34]–32,013[3] killed
Shabiha and National Defense Force 19,729 killed[3]
Lebanese Hezbollah 262 killed[3]
Other non-Syrian Shiite militiamen 286 killed[3]

The Syrian Army fatalities figure also includes at least 37 members of the Palestinian PLA.[35]

The Shabiha and NDF fatalities figure also includes at least 20 Palestinian PFLP–GC members.

The non-Syrian Shiite militiamen fatalities figure includes: 96–160 Iraqi Shia militiamen,[41] 16 Iranian IRGC soldiers, 3 Iranian volunteer fighters[47] and one member of the Lebanese Amal Movement.[48]

Except one death (August 2011),[49] all of the Hezbollah fatalities have occurred since September 2012.[50]

In addition, 1,000 civilian government officials have also been killed.[51] In early December 2013, rebels claimed that a pro-government Russian fighter was killed in fighting in Aleppo.[52]

Opposition forces[edit]

Due to the opposition’s policy of counting rebel fighters that were not defectors as civilians a comprehensive number of rebels killed in the conflict, thus far, has not been ascertained. In late November 2012, the opposition activist group SOHR estimated that at least 10,000 rebels had been killed, but noted the possibility of the figure being higher because the rebels, like the government, were lying about how many of their forces had died to make it look like they were winning.[54] In March 2013, SOHR stated that the actual number of killed rebels and government forces could be double the number they were already able to document.[55]

The following tables provide examples of news reports which identify rebel casualties. The first table shows reports of rebel deaths for the period up to 30 December 2013, and those not included in SOHR’s daily death tolls before and after 30 December 2013. The second table shows day-by-day reports of rebel deaths by SOHR after 30 December 2013.

Date Casualties Detail
15 March 2011 – 30 December 2013 29,083[3]–52,290[56] killed Number also includes Kurdish YPG militiamen and foreign jihadists.[57]
14 April 2013 28 killed 50 were killed during fighting at the Wadi Deif military base,[58] 22 were included in the above total.[59]
16–21 April 2013 123 killed 150 were killed during the battle for Jdeidat al-Fadl,[60] 27 were included in the above total.[61][62]
2 June 2013 14–17 killed Killed after they were ambushed by Hezbollah while trying to launch rockets into Shi’ite areas of the Beqaa Valley.[63]
19 May – 5 June 2013 172–241 killed 431–500 rebels were killed during the Battle of al-Qusayr, 259 were included in the above total.
early June 2013 13 killed A jihadist suicide bomber blew himself up at a rebel command post killing 12 FSA fighters.[64]
4–5 August 2013 47 killed 60 rebels were killed at the start of the Latakia offensive,[65] 13 were included in the above total.
5 August 2013 11 killed 21 rebels were killed during the final assault on Menagh Air Base,[66] 10 were included in the above total.
20 November 2013 26 killed 35 rebels were killed during the final assault on the Kindi hospital in Aleppo,[67] 9 were included in the above total.[68]
21 December 2013 32 killed Killed after they were ambushed by Hezbollah in Wadi al-Jamala while infiltrating Lebanon from Syria.[69]

 

It should be noted that at least 90 rebel suicide bombers[82] and 86 rebel child soldiers[83] have been killed in the conflict.

Foreigners killed[edit]

Foreign civilians killed[edit]

Country Number of deaths
Palestinians 589[15]–1,597[84]
Iraq 47
Lebanon 41
Jordan 22[15][95]
Turkey 17
Saudi Arabia 14[15]
Somalia 15[95]
Egypt 11[15]
Libya 9[15]
Tunisia 9[15]
France 4[95]
Sudan 4[15]
United Kingdom 4
Afghanistan 3[103]
Australia 2[15]
Kuwait 2[15]
Azerbaijan 1[15]
Belgium 1[15]
Greece 1[15]
Italy 1[104]
Japan 1[15]
Russia 1[15]
Israel 1[15]
United States 1[15]
Yemen 1[15]
Unknown 2[15]

Note: The higher figure of 1,600 Palestinians killed in the conflict includes several dozens of Palestinian combatants from both sides and not just civilians. 700 of the killed Palestinians were residents of the Yarmouk Camp.

Foreign opposition fighters killed[edit]

6,913 foreign opposition fighters have been killed, according to the SOHR. The nationalities of some are as follows: 232 Saudis 145 Libyans, 131-204 Tunisians, 100 Azerbaijanis, 88 Turks, 85-210 Jordanians, 75 Palestinians, 46 Kuwaitis,43 Chechens, 39 Egyptians, 37 Lebanese,24 Moroccans,20 Belgians, 17 Iraqis,16 Dagestanis, 15 Albanians, 13 Afghans, 13 Bosniaks, 12 Algerians, 11 Frenchmen,11 Germans, 9 Danes, 8 Russians, 8 Qataris, 7-22 Britons, 6 Dutch, 6 Australians, 6 Emiratis, 6 Swedes, 5 Bahrainis, 5 Yemenis, 3 Americans, 3 Canadians,3 Irishmen, 3 Pakistanis, 3 Tajiks, 2 Chinese, 2 Italians, 2 Eritreans, 2 Kyrgyz, 2 Mauritanians, 2 Omanis, 2 Somalis, 2 Sudanese, 1 Armenian, 1 Bulgarian, 1 Chadian, 1 Finn, 1 Indonesian, 1 Iranian,1 Israeli-Arab, 1 Romanian, 1 Spaniard and 1 Uzbek.

In another estimate, 9,944 foreign opposition fighters have been killed, according to the Jihadist Salafist Movement in Jordan, with the nationalities being as follows: 1,902 Tunisians, 1,807 Libyans, 1,432 Iraqis, 828 Lebanese, 821 Egyptians, 800 Palestinians, 714 Saudis, 571 Yemenis, 412 Moroccans, 274 Algerians, 210 Jordanians, 91 Omanis, 71 from Kuwaitis, 42 Somalis, 30 Albanians and Caucasians, 21 Bahrainis, 9 Emiratis, 8 Qataris, 3 Sudanese and 1 Mauritanian.

Foreign soldiers killed

25 foreign soldiers have been killed during the conflict.

On 2 March 2013, one Iraqi soldier was killed during clashes between Syrian rebels and government forces at a Syrian-Iraqi border crossing. On 4 March 2013, 13 Iraqi soldiers were killed by unknown gunmen near the border with Syria while they were transporting 65 Syrian soldiers and government officials back to their country after they had retreated to Iraq a few days earlier. 48 of the Syrians were also killed in the attack.[164] On 9 June 2013, Syrian rebels attacked a southern Iraqi border post, killing one Iraqi guard and wounding two. On 14 July 2013, another attack by fighters from the Syrian side of the border left one Iraqi policeman dead and five others wounded.