United Nations General Assembly resolution ES-10/L.22

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
UN General Assembly
Resolution ES‑10/L.22
United Nations General Assembly resolution A ES 10 L 22 vote.png

  Voted in favor
  Voted against
  Abstained
  Not present
Date 21 December 2017
Meeting no. 10th Emergency Special Session (continuation)
Code A/RES/ES‑10/L.22 (Document)
Subject Status of Jerusalem
Voting summary
128 voted for
9 voted against
35 abstained
21 absent
Result Recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void”

United Nations General Assembly resolution ES‑10/L.22 is a emergency session resolution declaring the status of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void.”.[1] It was adopted by the 37th Plenary meeting of the tenth emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly[2] during the tenure of the seventy-second session of the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 2017. The draft resolution was drafted by Yemen and Turkey.[3]Though strongly contested by the United States, it passed by 128 votes to nine against with 21 absentees and 35 abstentions.

Background[edit]

On 6 December 2017, US President Donald Trump said that he would recognise the status of Jerusalem as being Israel’s sovereign capital[4] in a departure from previous UNGA resolutions as well prevailing international norms where no state either recognises Jerusalem as a national capital nor has an embassy there. The move prompted protests from states and communities in many parts of the world.[5]

Following the failure of an United Nations Security Council resolution three days earlier, after an U.S. veto, to rescind the recognition by any states of Jerusalem as a national capital, Palestinian UN Ambassador Riyad Mansour said that the General Assembly would vote on a draft resolution calling for Trump’s declaration to be withdrawn. He sought to invoke Resolution 377, known as the “Uniting for Peace” resolution, to circumvent a veto. The resolution states that the General Assembly can call an Emergency Special Session to consider a matter “with a view to making appropriate recommendations to members for collective measures” if the Security Council fails to act.[6]

Campaign[edit]

On 20 December, US President Donald Trump threatened to cut US aid to countries voting against the US’ side.[7] The day before the vote, he said: “Let them vote against us…We don’t care…this isn’t like it used to be where they could vote against you and then you pay them hundreds of millions of dollars. We’re not going to be taken advantage of any longer.”[8]Ambassador Nikki Haley warned her country would remember and “take names” of every country that voted in favour of the resolution.[9][10][11][12] The governments of Turkey and Iran denounced USA’s threats as “anti-democratic” and “blackmail“.[13][14] She had sent to a letter to dozens of member states that warned Trump had asked her to “report back on those countries who voted against us.”[15] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan warned Trump that “he cannot buy Turkey’s democratic will with petty dollars” and “that opposition of other countries will teach the United States a good lesson”.[16][17]

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that Israel rejects this vote before it passes and called the UN “house of lies”.[18]

Canada’s, which was seeking re-negotiations of the NAFTA, Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland‘s spokesman confirmed its intention to abstain from the vote and that the resolution should not have come to the General Assembly.[19]

Content[edit]

The text of the resolution includes the following key statements:[20]

The General Assembly,

  • Bearing in mind the specific status of the Holy City of Jerusalem and, in particular, the need for the protection and preservation of the unique spiritual, religious and cultural dimensions of the City, as foreseen in the relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Stressing that Jerusalem is a final status issue to be resolved through negotiations in line with relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Expressing in this regard its deep regret at recent decisions concerning the status of Jerusalem,
  • Affirms that any decisions and actions which purport to have altered, the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council, and in this regard, calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem, pursuant to resolution 478 (1980) of the Security Council;
  • Demands that all States comply with Security Council resolutions regarding the Holy City of Jerusalem, and not to recognize any actions or measures contrary to those resolutions;
  • Reiterates its call for the reversal of the negative trends on the ground that are imperiling the two-State solution and for the intensification and acceleration of international and regional efforts and support aimed at achieving, without delay, a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East on the basis of the relevant United Nations resolutions, the Madrid terms of reference, including the principle of land for peace, the Arab Peace Initiative and the Quartet Roadmap and an end to the Israeli occupation that began in 1967.

It concluded in reading that “any decisions and actions, which purport to have altered the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council.”[21]

Motion[edit]

The motion was proposed by Yemen and Turkey.[22]

Debate[edit]

In introducing the resolution as Chair of the Arab Group, Yemen’s Amabassador said the US decision was a “blatant violation of the rights of the Palestinian people, as well as those of all Christians and Muslims.” He emphasized that it constituted a “dangerous breach of the Charter of the United Nations and a serious threat to international peace and security, while also undermining the chances for a two‑State solution and fuelling the fires of violence and extremism.”[23]

Turkey, who was the co-sponsor of the draft resolution, also spoke as current Chair of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation(OIC).[23] Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said that Trump’s decision was an outrageous assault to all universal values. “The Palestinians have the right to their own state based on 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital. This is the main parameter and only hope for a just and lasting peace in the region. However, the recent decision of a UN Member State to recognise Jerusalem, or Al-Quds, as the capital of Israel, violates international law, including all relevant UN resolutions.”[22]

The General Assembly heard from Palestinian Foreign Minister Riad Al‑Malki, who said that the meeting was “not because of any animosity to the United States of America” but instead the sessions was “called to make the voice of the vast majority of the international community — and that of people around the world — heard on the question of Jerusalem/Al‑Quds Al‑Sharif.” He called the US decision to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and to move its embassy there “an aggressive and dangerous move” which could inflame tensions and lead to a religious war that “has no boundaries.” He added that though the decision would have no impact on the city’s status, it would nevertheless compromise the role of the United States in the Middle East peace process.[23] He urged member states to reject “blackmail and intimidation.”[5]

US Ambassador Nikki Haley then said that her country was “singled out for attack” because of its recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. She added that: “The United States will remember this day in which it was singled out for attack in the General Assembly for the very act of exercising our right as a sovereign nation,” Haley said. We will remember it when we are called upon to once again make the world’s largest contribution to the United Nations, and so many countries come calling on us, as they so often do, to pay even more and to use our influence for their benefit.”[15] She added that: “America will put our embassy in Jerusalem. That is what the American people want us to do, and it is the right thing to do. No vote in the United Nations will make any difference on that…this vote will make a difference in how Americans view the UN.”[22]

Israel’s Ambassador Danny Danon then told the assembly that the vowed that “no General Assembly resolution will ever drive us from Jerusalem.”[4]

Venezuela’s Ambassador, speaking for the Non‑Aligned Movement (NAM), expressed “grave concern about Israel’s ongoing violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including attempts to alter the character, status and demographic composition of the City of Jerusalem. [It was] slso concerned about the decision to relocate the United States embassy [and] warned that such provocative actions would further heighten tensions, with potentially far‑reaching repercussions given the extremely volatile backdrop.[23]

Other speakers included, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Syria, Bangladesh, Cuba, Iran and China.[23]

Malaysia’s Ambassador Datuk Seri Mohammed Shahrul Ikram Yaakob said that, as a member of the OIC and NAM, “Malaysia joins the international community in expressing our deep concern and rejects the decision by the United States to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. It is also an infringement of the Palestinian people’s rights and their right to self determination.” He called for a peaceful two-state solution and that Malaysia is concerned the situation will only feed into the agenda of extremists.”[2]

Other speakers included, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and South Africa. The Permanent Observer for the Holy See, Tomasz Grysa, emphasised that Jerusalem was most sacred to the Abrahamic faiths and a symbol for millions of believers around the world who considered it their “spiritual capital.” Its significance went “beyond the question of borders, a reality that should be considered a priority in every negotiation for a political solution.” The Holy See, he said, called for a “peaceful resolution that would ensure respect for the sacred nature of Jerusalem and its universal value…reiterating that only international guarantee could preserve its unique character and status and provide assurance of dialogue and reconciliation for peace in the region.”[23]

After the motion was passed, more speeches continued with Estonia, who also spoke on behalf of other states. Australia’s Ambassador then explained her country’s government did “not support unilateral action that undermined the peace process [and] it did not believe today’s text would help to bring the parties back to the negotiating table.”[23]

Other speakers included, Paraguay, whose Ambassador said that the country would abstain because “the question of Jerusalem was a matter for the Security Council, as the primary body responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security.”[23] This was followed by El Salvador, Argentina and Romania.[23]

Canada’s Ambassador Marc-Andre Blanchard called the proposal “one-sided”[23] and said: “We are disappointed that this resolution is one sided and does not advance prospects for peace to which we aspire, which is why we have abstained on today’s vote.” He, however, added that Canada wanted to emphasise Jerusalem’s special significance to the Abrahamic religions of Jews, Muslims and Christians. “Denying the connection between Jerusalem and the Jewish, Muslim and Christian faiths undermines the integrity of the site for all. We also reiterate the need to maintain the status quo at Jerusalem’s Holy sites.[19]

Nicaragua’s explained its support of the resolution, as it “rebuffed recent unilateral attempts to modify the character and status of Jerusalem. Such unilateral actions were in blatant violation of resolution 2234 (2016) and others…unilateral actions jeopardised peace and stability in the Middle East and drew the international community further away from a solution.”[23]

Mexico’s Ambassador then explained the abstention and emphasised that convening an emergency session was a disproportionate response. “The United States must become part of the solution, not a stumbling block that would hamper progress…the international community was further than ever from agreement.”[23]

The Czech Republic then said that while it supported the European Union position, it had abstained because it “did not believe the draft resolution would contribute to the peace process.”[23]

Armenia said that is position “remained unchanged. The situation should be resolved through negotiations paving the way for lasting peace and security.”[23]

Hungary echoed Armenia’s stance and said it would not comment on the foreign relations of the United States.[23]

Latvia then spoke, before Estonia re-took the floor to say it had also spoken on behalf of Albania, Lithuania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.[23]

Result[edit]

Vote[24] Quantity States
Approve 128 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.
Reject 9 Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Togo, United States.
Abstain 35 Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Haiti, Hungary, Jamaica, Kiribati, Latvia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu.
Absent 21 Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor, El Salvador, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mongolia, Myanmar, Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Zambia.

Reactions[edit]

States

Israel – Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu rejected the result shortly after it was announced in call it “preposterous,” while he also thanked the states that supported “the truth” by not participating in “the theatre of the absurd.” He added that: “Jerusalem is our capital. Always was, always will be…But I do appreciate the fact that a growing number of countries refused to participate in this theatre of the absurd. So I appreciate that, and especially I want to again express our thanks to [US] President (Donald) Trump and Ambassador [Nikki] Haley, for their stalwart defence of Israel and their stalwart defence of the truth.” Defence Minister Avigdor Liberman, reminded Israelis of the longstanding Israeli disdain for such votes. “Let us just remember that this is the same UN about which our first ambassador to the organisation, Abba Eban, once said: ‘If Algeria introduced a resolution declaring that the earth was flat and that Israel had flattened it, it would pass by a vote of 164 to 13 with 26 abstentions’. There is nothing new in what just happened at the UN.” He also praised the US as “the moral beacon shining out of the darkness.” Minister of Strategic Affairs and Public Security Gilad Erdan said: “The historic connection between Israel and Jerusalem is stronger than any vote by the ‘United Nations’ — nations who are united only by their fear and their refusal to recognise the simple truth that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and the Jewish people.”

    • However, opposition Joint List Chairman and MK Ayman Odeh called the vote a wake-up call for Israel: “In the international arena, there still exists a large and definitive majority that believes that the Palestinian people, like all other nations, deserve a place in this world and the right to self-determination. This evening’s vote by the majority of the world’s nations against Trump’s announcement, in spite of the pressure and threats, flies in the face of Trump’s and Netanyahu’s diplomatic policy and is a clear statement by the international community in support of peace and the right of the Palestinians to an independent state, whose capital is East Jerusalem,”[8]
Media

Haaretz‘s Noa Landau, wrote, in citing unnamed diplomatic sourced, that Israel was particularly disappointed with countries like India that have enhanced bilateral relations with it recently. “The main disappointment in Israel was with the countries that have enhanced bilateral relations in recent years, especially those that share a particularly conservative worldview with the Netanyahu government. For example, India – whose Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, visited Israel in July, a tour that was memorable mainly for the pastoral photographs of him and Netanyahu embracing and wading in the waves – voted for the resolution against Israel and the United States.”[8]

Others

At a “Solidarity to Save Jerusalem” rally organised by the Barisan National government in Malaysia, one of the attendees Association of NextGen Christians of Malaysia President Joshua Hong said at the Putra Mosque: “We are here because we feel that the decision made by President Trump on announcing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel is merely a political decision. He added that the decision also hurts Christian and Arabic churches in Palestine and not just the Muslims. “To us as Christians, Jerusalem is a city of peace and after that announcement, we feel there is no more peace.I think it is not right and unjust. We believe we should continue pursuing the sustainable peace solution for Palestine and Israel, rather than just a single nation declaring it just like that.” He claimed that about 50 members of the group turned up in a show of support for the Palestinian people..[2]

Badminton at the 2016 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Badminton
at the Games of the XXXI Olympiad
Badminton, Rio 2016.png
Venue Riocentro – Pavilion 4
Dates 11–20 August
Competitors 172
«2012 2020»

The badminton tournaments at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro took place from 11 to 20 August at the fourth pavilion ofRiocentro. A total of 172 athletes competed in five events: men’s singles,men’s doubles, women’s singles, women’s doubles, and mixed doubles.[1]

Similar to 2012 format, a combination of group play and knockout stages had been maintained at these Games. In all the doubles tournaments, theBadminton World Federation instituted several changes to the competition rules after the match fixing scandal from the previous Olympics, as all pairs finishing second in their groups would be placed into another draw to determine who they face in the next round, while the top pair in each group must have a fixed position matched to its designated seed in the knockout phase.[2]

The Games made use of about 8,400 shuttlecocks.[3]

Qualification[edit]

The Olympic qualification period took place between May 4, 2015 and May 1, 2016, and the Badminton World Federationrankings list, scheduled to publish on May 5, 2016, was used to allocate spots.[4] Unlike the previous Games, nations could only enter a maximum of two players each in the men’s and women’s singles, if both were ranked in the world’s top 16; otherwise, one quota place until the roster of thirty-eight players had been completed. Similar regulations in the singles tournaments also applied to the players competing in the doubles, as the NOCs could only enter a maximum of two pairs if both were ranked in the top eight, while the remaining NOCs were entitled to one until the quota of 16 highest-ranked pairs was filled.[5]

For each player who had qualified in more than one discipline, an additional quota place in each of the singles tournaments would have became free. If no player from one continent had qualify, the best ranked player from a respective continent would have got a quota place.[4]

Schedule[edit]

P Preliminaries R Round of 16 ¼ Quarterfinals ½ Semifinals F Final
Date → Thu 11 Fri 12 Sat 13 Sun 14 Mon 15 Tues 16 Wed 17 Thu 18 Fri 19 Sat 20
Event ↓ M A E M A E M A E M A E M E M E M E M E M E M E
Men’s singles P R ¼ ½ F
Men’s doubles P ¼ ½ F F
Women’s singles P R ¼ ½ F
Women’s doubles P ¼ ½ F
Mixed doubles P ¼ ½ F

M = Morning session, A = Afternoon session, E = Evening session

Participation[edit]

Participating nations[edit]

List of badminton players at the 2016 Summer Olympics

NOC Name Age Event and World Ranking (21 July 2016)
MS WS MD WD XD
 Australia Matthew Chau 9 November 1994 (age 23) 36
 Australia Robin Middleton 8 February 1985 (age 33) 28
 Australia Sawan Serasinghe 21 February 1994 (age 23) 36
 Australia Chen Hsuan-yu 1 June 1993 (age 24) 72
 Australia Leanne Choo 5 June 1991 (age 26) 28
 Austria David Obernosterer 30 May 1989 (age 28) 69
 Austria Elisabeth Baldauf 3 August 1990 (age 27) 75
 Belgium Yuhan Tan 21 April 1987 (age 30) 51
 Belgium Lianne Tan 20 November 1990 (age 27) 62
 Brazil Ygor Coelho de Oliveira 24 November 1996 (age 21) 64
 Brazil Lohaynny Vicente 2 May 1996 (age 21) 66
 Brunei Jaspar Yu Woon 14 November 1988 (age 29) 413
 Bulgaria Gabriela Stoeva 15 July 1994 (age 23) 16
 Bulgaria Stefani Stoeva 23 September 1995 (age 22) 16
 Bulgaria Linda Zechiri 27 July 1987 (age 30) 31
 Canada Martin Giuffre 5 October 1990 (age 27) 76
 Canada Michelle Li 3 November 1991 (age 26) 19
 China Chai Biao 10 October 1990 (age 27) 5
 China Chen Long 18 January 1989 (age 29) 2
 China Fu Haifeng 2 January 1984 (age 34) 4
 China Hong Wei 4 October 1989 (age 28) 5
 China Lin Dan 14 October 1983 (age 34) 3
 China Xu Chen 29 November 1984 (age 33) 6
 China Zhang Nan 1 March 1990 (age 27) 4 1
 China Li Xuerui 24 January 1991 (age 27) 3
 China Luo Ying 11 January 1991 (age 27) 7
 China Luo Yu 11 January 1991 (age 27) 7
 China Ma Jin 7 May 1988 (age 29) 6
 China Tang Yuanting 2 August 1994 (age 23) 2
 China Wang Yihan 18 January 1988 (age 30) 2
 China Yu Yang 7 April 1986 (age 31) 2
 China Zhao Yunlei 25 August 1986 (age 31) 1
 Chinese Taipei Chou Tien-chen 8 January 1990 (age 28) 7
 Chinese Taipei Lee Sheng-mu 3 October 1986 (age 31) 20
 Chinese Taipei Tsai Chia-hsin 25 July 1982 (age 35) 20
 Chinese Taipei Tai Tzu-ying 20 June 1994 (age 23) 8
 Cuba Osleni Guerrero 18 October 1989 (age 28) 60
 Czech Republic Petr Koukal 14 December 1985 (age 32) 83
 Czech Republic Kristína Gavnholt 12 September 1988 (age 29) 36
 Denmark Viktor Axelsen 4 June 1994 (age 23) 4
 Denmark Mathias Boe 11 July 1980 (age 37) 6
 Denmark Joachim Fischer Nielsen 23 November 1978 (age 39) 4
 Denmark Jan Østergaard Jørgensen 31 December 1987 (age 30) 5
 Denmark Carsten Mogensen 24 July 1983 (age 34) 6
 Denmark Line Kjærsfeldt 20 April 1994 (age 23) 24
 Denmark Christinna Pedersen 12 May 1986 (age 31) 6 4
 Denmark Kamilla Rytter Juhl 23 November 1983 (age 34) 6
 Estonia Raul Must 9 November 1987 (age 30) 40
 Estonia Kati Tolmoff 3 December 1983 (age 34) 71
 Finland Nanna Vainio 29 May 1991 (age 26) 63
 France Brice Leverdez 9 April 1986 (age 31) 39
 France Delphine Lansac 18 July 1995 (age 22) 51
 Great Britain Chris Adcock 27 April 1989 (age 28) 7
 Great Britain Marcus Ellis 14 September 1989 (age 28) 22
 Great Britain Chris Langridge 2 May 1985 (age 32) 22
 Great Britain Rajiv Ouseph 30 August 1986 (age 31) 15
 Great Britain Gabrielle Adcock 30 September 1990 (age 27) 7
 Great Britain Kirsty Gilmour 21 September 1993 (age 24) 15
 Great Britain Heather Olver 15 March 1986 (age 31) 25
 Great Britain Lauren Smith 26 September 1991 (age 26) 25
 Germany Michael Fuchs 22 April 1982 (age 35) 27 18
 Germany Johannes Schöttler 27 August 1984 (age 33) 27
 Germany Marc Zwiebler 13 March 1984 (age 33) 14
 Germany Johanna Goliszewski 9 May 1986 (age 31) 24
 Germany Birgit Michels 28 September 1984 (age 33) 18
 Germany Carla Nelte 21 September 1990 (age 27) 24
 Germany Karin Schnaase 14 February 1985 (age 33) 28
 Guatemala Kevin Cordón 28 November 1986 (age 31) 44
 Hong Kong Hu Yun 31 August 1981 (age 36) 12
 Hong Kong Lee Chun Hei 25 January 1994 (age 24) 16
 Hong Kong Ng Ka Long
24 June 1994 (age 23) 13
 Hong Kong Chau Hoi Wah 5 June 1986 (age 31) 16
 Hong Kong Poon Lok Yan 22 August 1991 (age 26) 31
 Hong Kong Tse Ying Suet 9 November 1991 (age 26) 31
 Hong Kong Yip Pui Yin 6 August 1987 (age 30) 34
 Hungary Laura Sárosi 11 November 1992 (age 25) 68
 India Manu Attri 31 December 1992 (age 25) 21
 India Srikanth Kidambi 7 February 1993 (age 25) 11
 India B. Sumeeth Reddy 26 September 1991 (age 26) 21
 India Jwala Gutta 7 September 1983 (age 34) 21
 India Saina Nehwal 17 March 1990 (age 27) 5
 India Ponnappa, AshwiniAshwini Ponnappa 18 September 1989 (age 28) 21
 India Sindhu, PusarlaPusarla Sindhu 5 July 1995 (age 22) 10
 Indonesia Ahmad, TontowiTontowi Ahmad 18 July 1987 (age 30) 3
 Indonesia Ahsan, MohammadMohammad Ahsan 7 September 1987 (age 30) 2
 Indonesia Jordan, PraveenPraveen Jordan 26 April 1993 (age 24) 5
 Indonesia Setiawan, HendraHendra Setiawan 25 August 1984 (age 33) 2
 Indonesia Sugiarto, TommyTommy Sugiarto 31 May 1988 (age 29) 8
 Indonesia Fanetri, LindaweniLindaweni Fanetri 18 January 1990 (age 28) 25
 Indonesia Maheswari, Nitya KrishindaNitya Krishinda Maheswari 16 December 1988 (age 29) 4
 Indonesia Natsir, LilyanaLilyana Natsir 9 September 1985 (age 32) 3
 Indonesia Polii, GreysiaGreysia Polii 11 August 1987 (age 30) 4
 Indonesia Susanto, DebbyDebby Susanto 3 May 1989 (age 28) 5
 Ireland Evans, ScottScott Evans 26 September 1987 (age 30) 74
 Ireland Magee, ChloeChloe Magee 29 November 1988 (age 29) 58
 Israel Zilberman, MishaMisha Zilberman 30 January 1989 (age 29) 52
 Italy Cicognini, JeanineJeanine Cicognini 14 November 1986 (age 31) 61
 Japan Endo, HiroyukiHiroyuki Endo 16 December 1986 (age 31) 8
 Japan Hayakawa, KenichiKenichi Hayakawa 5 April 1986 (age 31) 8
 Japan Kazuno, KentaKenta Kazuno 25 November 1985 (age 32) 15
 Japan Sasaki, ShoSho Sasaki 30 June 1982 (age 35) 25
 Japan Kurihara, AyaneAyane Kurihara 27 September 1989 (age 28) 15
 Japan Matsutomo, MisakiMisaki Matsutomo 8 February 1992 (age 26) 1
 Japan Okuhara, NozomiNozomi Okuhara 13 March 1995 (age 22) 6
 Japan Takahashi, AyakaAyaka Takahashi 19 April 1990 (age 27) 1
 Japan Yamaguchi, AkaneAkane Yamaguchi 6 June 1997 (age 20) 12
 Malaysia Peng Soon, ChanChan Peng Soon 27 April 1988 (age 29) 10
 Malaysia V Shem, GohGoh V Shem 20 May 1989 (age 28) 12
 Malaysia Chong Wei, LeeLee Chong Wei 21 October 1982 (age 35) 1
 Malaysia Wee Kiong, TanTan Wee Kiong 21 May 1989 (age 28) 12
 Malaysia Liu Ying, GohGoh Liu Ying 30 May 1989 (age 28) 10
 Malaysia Hoo Kah Mun, VivianVivian Hoo Kah Mun 19 March 1990 (age 27) 15
 Malaysia Jing Yi, TeeTee Jing Yi 8 February 1991 (age 27) 29
 Malaysia Khe Wei, WoonWoon Khe Wei 18 March 1989 (age 28) 15
 Mexico Muñoz, LinoLino Muñoz 8 February 1991 (age 27) 73
 Mauritius Foo Kune, KateKate Foo Kune 29 March 1993 (age 24) 69
 Netherlands Arends, JaccoJacco Arends 28 January 1991 (age 27) 17
 Netherlands Muskens, EefjeEefje Muskens 17 June 1989 (age 28) 11
 Netherlands Piek, SelenaSelena Piek 30 September 1991 (age 26) 11 17
 Poland Cwalina, AdamAdam Cwalina 26 January 1985 (age 33) 25
 Poland Dziółko, AdrianAdrian Dziółko 22 February 1990 (age 27) 53
 Poland Mateusiak, RobertRobert Mateusiak 13 January 1976 (age 42) 13
 Poland Wacha, PrzemysławPrzemysław Wacha 31 January 1981 (age 37) 25
 Poland Zięba, NadieżdaNadieżda Zięba 21 May 1984 (age 33) 13
 Portugal Martins, PedroPedro Martins 14 February 1990 (age 28) 63
 Portugal Santos, TelmaTelma Santos 1 August 1983 (age 34) 67
 South Africa Maliekal, JacobJacob Maliekal 1 January 1991 (age 27) 78
 Russia Ivanov, VladimirVladimir Ivanov 3 July 1987 (age 30) 13
 Russia Malkov, VladimirVladimir Malkov 9 April 1986 (age 31) 61
 Russia Sozonov, IvanIvan Sozonov 6 July 1989 (age 28) 13
 Russia Perminova, NataliaNatalia Perminova 14 November 1991 (age 26) 55
 Singapore Wong Zi Liang, DerekDerek Wong Zi Liang 13 January 1989 (age 29) 57
 Singapore Xiaoyu, LiangLiang Xiaoyu 11 January 1996 (age 22) 30
 South Korea Gi-jung, KimKim Gi-jung 14 August 1990 (age 27) 3
 South Korea Sa-rang, KimKim Sa-rang 22 August 1989 (age 28) 3
 South Korea Sung-hyun, KoKo Sung-hyun 21 May 1987 (age 30) 2
 South Korea Dong-keun, LeeLee Dong-keun 20 November 1990 (age 27) 16
 South Korea Yong-dae, LeeLee Yong-dae 11 September 1988 (age 29) 1
 South Korea Wan-ho, SonSon Wan-ho 17 May 1988 (age 29) 9
 South Korea Yeon-seong, YooYoo Yeon-seong 19 August 1986 (age 31) 1
 South Korea Yeon-ju, BaeBae Yeon-ju 26 October 1990 (age 27) 17
 South Korea Ye-na, ChangChang Ye-na 13 December 1989 (age 28) 9
 South Korea Kyung-eun, JungJung Kyung-eun 20 March 1990 (age 27) 5
 South Korea Ha-na, KimKim Ha-na 27 December 1989 (age 28) 2
 South Korea So-hee, LeeLee So-hee 14 June 1994 (age 23) 9
 South Korea Seung-chan, ShinShin Seung-chan 6 December 1994 (age 23) 5
 South Korea Ji-hyun, SungSung Ji-hyun 29 July 1991 (age 26) 7
 Spain Abian, PabloPablo Abian 12 June 1985 (age 32) 43
 Spain Marin, CarolinaCarolina Marin 15 June 1993 (age 24) 1
 Sri Lanka Karunaratne, NilukaNiluka Karunaratne 13 February 1985 (age 33) 95
 Switzerland Jaquet, SabrinaSabrina Jaquet 21 June 1987 (age 30) 82
 Suriname Opti, SorenSoren Opti 16 May 1997 (age 20) 326
 Sweden Hurskainen, HenriHenri Hurskainen 13 September 1986 (age 31) 50
 Thailand Issara, BodinBodin Issara 12 December 1990 (age 27) 14
 Thailand Ponsana, BoonsakBoonsak Ponsana 22 February 1982 (age 35) 32
 Thailand Amitrapai, SavitreeSavitree Amitrapai 19 November 1988 (age 29) 14
 Thailand Buranaprasertsuk, PorntipPorntip Buranaprasertsuk 24 October 1991 (age 26) 16
 Thailand Intanon, RatchanokRatchanok Intanon 5 February 1995 (age 23) 4
 Thailand Supajirakul, PuttitaPuttita Supajirakul 29 March 1996 (age 21) 17
 Thailand Taerattanachai, SapsireeSapsiree Taerattanachai 18 April 1992 (age 25) 17
 Turkey Bayrak, ÖzgeÖzge Bayrak 14 February 1992 (age 26) 52
 Ukraine Pochtarev, ArtemArtem Pochtarev 24 July 1993 (age 24) 75
 Ukraine Ulitina, MarijaMarija Ulitina 5 November 1991 (age 26) 64
 United States Chew, PhillipPhillip Chew 16 May 1994 (age 23) 35 27
 United States Pongnairat, SattawatSattawat Pongnairat 8 May 1990 (age 27) 35
 United States Shu, HowardHoward Shu 28 November 1990 (age 27) 62
 United States Lee, EvaEva Lee 7 August 1986 (age 31) 26
 United States Obanana, Paula LynnPaula Lynn Obanana 19 March 1985 (age 32) 26
 United States Subandhi, JamieJamie Subandhi 15 February 1989 (age 29) 27
 United States Wang, IrisIris Wang 2 September 1994 (age 23) 35
 Vietnam Tiến Minh, NguyễnNguyễn Tiến Minh 12 February 1983 (age 35) 33
 Vietnam Thị Trang, VũVũ Thị Trang 19 May 1992 (age 25) 44

This is the list of the Badminton players who participated at the 2016 Summer Olympicsin Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 11–20 August 2016.

Medal summary

Medal table[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 China 2 0 1 3
2 Indonesia 1 0 0 1
Japan 1 0 1 2
Spain 1 0 0 1
5 Malaysia 0 3 0 3
6 Denmark 0 1 1 2
7 India 0 1 0 1
8 Great Britain 0 0 1 1
South Korea 0 0 1 1
Total 5 5 5 15

Medalists[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men’s singles
details
Chen Long
 China
Lee Chong Wei
 Malaysia
Viktor Axelsen
 Denmark
Men’s doubles
details
 China (CHN)
Fu Haifeng
Zhang Nan
 Malaysia (MAS)
Goh V Shem
Tan Wee Kiong
 Great Britain (GBR)
Chris Langridge
Marcus Ellis
Women’s singles
details
Carolina Marin
 Spain
P.V. Sindhu
 India
Nozomi Okuhara
 Japan
Women’s doubles
details
 Japan (JPN)
Misaki Matsutomo
Ayaka Takahashi
 Denmark (DEN)
Christinna Pedersen
Kamilla Rytter Juhl
 South Korea (KOR)
Jung Kyung-eun
Shin Seung-chan
Mixed doubles
details
 Indonesia (INA)
Tontowi Ahmad
Liliyana Natsir
 Malaysia (MAS)
Chan Peng Soon
Goh Liu Ying
 China (CHN)
Zhang Nan
Zhao Yunlei

Results[edit]

Men’s singles[edit]

Quarterfinals Semifinals Finals
A1   Lee Chong Wei (MAS) 21 21
C1   Chou Tien-chen (TPE) 9 15
A1   Lee Chong Wei (MAS) 15 21 22
E1   Lin Dan (CHN) 21 11 20
E1   Lin Dan (CHN) 21 11 21
H1   Srikanth Kidambi (IND) 6 21 18
A1   Lee Chong Wei (MAS) 18 18
P1   Chen Long (CHN) 21 21
I1   Rajiv Ouseph (GBR) 12 16
L1   Viktor Axelsen (DEN) 21 21
L1   Viktor Axelsen (DEN) 14 15
P1   Chen Long (CHN) 21 21 Bronze Medal Match
N1   Son Wan-ho (KOR) 11 21 11
P1   Chen Long (CHN) 21 18 21 E1   Lin Dan (CHN) 21 10 17
L1   Viktor Axelsen (DEN) 15 21 21

Women’s singles[edit]

Quarterfinals Semifinals Finals
A1   Carolina Marín (ESP) 21 21
C1   Sung Ji-hyun (KOR) 12 16
A1   Carolina Marín (ESP) 21 21
E1   Li Xuerui (CHN) 14 16
E1   Li Xuerui (CHN) 21 21
H1   Porntip Buranaprasertsuk (THA) 12 17
A1   Carolina Marín (ESP) 19 21 21
M1   P. V. Sindhu (IND) 21 12 15
J1   Nozomi Okuhara (JPN) 11 21 21
K1   Akane Yamaguchi (JPN) 21 17 10
J1   Nozomi Okuhara (JPN) 19 10
M1   P. V. Sindhu (IND) 21 21 Bronze Medal Match
M1   P. V. Sindhu (IND) 22 21
P1   Wang Yihan (CHN) 20 19 E1   Li Xuerui (CHN) w / o
J1   Nozomi Okuhara (JPN)

Men’s doubles[edit]

Quarterfinals Semifinals Finals
A1   Vladimir Ivanov (RUS)
 Ivan Sozonov (RUS)
13 21 16
D2   Chai Biao (CHN)
 Hong Wei (CHN)
21 16 21
D2   Chai Biao (CHN)
 Hong Wei (CHN)
18 21 17
B1   Goh V Shem (MAS)
 Tan Wee Kiong (MAS)
21 12 21
B1   Goh V Shem (MAS)
 Tan Wee Kiong (MAS)
17 21 21
A2   Lee Yong-dae (KOR)
 Yoo Yeon-seong (KOR)
21 18 19
B1   Goh V Shem (MAS)
 Tan Wee Kiong (MAS)
21 11 21
B2   Fu Haifeng (CHN)
 Zhang Nan (CHN)
16 21 23
B2   Fu Haifeng (CHN)
 Zhang Nan (CHN)
11 21 24
C1   Kim Gi-jung (KOR)
 Kim Sa-rang (KOR)
21 18 22
B2   Fu Haifeng (CHN)
 Zhang Nan (CHN)
21 21
C2   Marcus Ellis (GBR)
 Chris Langridge (GBR)
14 18 Bronze Medal Match
C2   Marcus Ellis (GBR)
 Chris Langridge (GBR)
21 21
D1   Hiroyuki Endo (JPN)
 Kenichi Hayakawa (JPN)
19 17 D2   Chai Biao (CHN)
 Hong Wei (CHN)
18 21 10
C2   Chris Langridge (GBR)
 Marcus Ellis (GBR)
21 19 21

Women’s doubles[edit]

Quarterfinals Semifinals Finals
A1   Misaki Matsutomo (JPN)
 Ayaka Takahashi (JPN)
21 18 21
C2   Vivian Hoo Kah Mun (MAS)
 Woon Khe Wei (MAS)
16 21 9
A1   Misaki Matsutomo (JPN)
 Ayaka Takahashi (JPN)
21 21
B1   Jung Kyung-eun (KOR)
 Shin Seung-chan (KOR)
16 15
B1   Jung Kyung-eun (KOR)
 Shin Seung-chan (KOR)
21 20 21
A2   Eefje Muskens (NED)
 Selena Piek (NED)
13 22 14
A1   Misaki Matsutomo (JPN)
 Ayaka Takahashi (JPN)
18 21 21
B2   Christinna Pedersen (DEN)
 Kamilla Rytter Juhl (DEN)
21 9 19
D2   Tang Yuanting (CHN)
 Yu Yang (CHN)
21 21
C1   Nitya Krishinda Maheswari (INA)
 Greysia Polii (INA)
11 14
D2   Tang Yuanting (CHN)
 Yu Yang (CHN)
16 21 19
B2   Christinna Pedersen (DEN)
 Kamilla Rytter Juhl (DEN)
21 14 21 Bronze Medal Match
B2   Christinna Pedersen (DEN)
 Kamilla Rytter Juhl (DEN)
28 18 21
D1   Chang Ye-na (KOR)
 Lee So-hee (KOR)
26 21 15 B1   Jung Kyung-eun (KOR)
 Shin Seung-chan (KOR)
21 21
D2   Tang Yuanting (CHN)
 Yu Yang (CHN)
8 17

Mixed doubles[edit]

Quarterfinals Semifinals Finals
A1   Zhang Nan (CHN)
 Zhao Yunlei (CHN)
21 21
D2   Kenta Kazuno (JPN)
 Ayane Kurihara (JPN)
14 12
A1   Zhang Nan (CHN)
 Zhao Yunlei (CHN)
16 15
C1   Tontowi Ahmad (INA)
 Liliyana Natsir (INA)
21 21
C1   Tontowi Ahmad (INA)
 Liliyana Natsir (INA)
21 21
A2   Praveen Jordan (INA)
 Debby Susanto (INA)
16 11
C1   Tontowi Ahmad (INA)
 Liliyana Natsir (INA)
21 21
C2   Chan Peng Soon (MAS)
 Goh Liu Ying (MAS)
14 12
C2   Chan Peng Soon (MAS)
 Goh Liu Ying (MAS)
21 21
B1   Robert Mateusiak (POL)
 Nadiezda Zieba (POL)
17 10
C2   Chan Peng Soon (MAS)
 Goh Liu Ying (MAS)
21 21
B2   Xu Chen (CHN)
 Ma Jin (CHN)
12 19 Bronze Medal Match
B2   Xu Chen (CHN)
 Ma Jin (CHN)
21 21
D1   Ko Sung-hyun (KOR)
 Kim Ha-na (KOR)
17 18 A1   Zhang Nan (CHN)
 Zhao Yunlei (CHN)
21 21
B2   Xu Chen (CHN)
 Ma Jin (CHN)
7 11

Archery at the 2016 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Archery
at the Games of the XXXI Olympiad
Archery, Rio 2016.png
Venue Sambadrome Marquês de Sapucaí
Dates 6–12 August
Competitors 128
«2012 2020»

The archery events at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeirowere held over a seven-day period from 6 to 12 August. Four events took place, all were staged at the Sambadrome Marquês de Sapucaí.

Competition format[edit]

A total of 128 athletes competed across the four events: the men’s individual, women’s individual, men’s team and women’s team.[1]

All four events were recurve archery events, held under the World Archery-approved 70-meter distance and rules. The competition started with an initial ranking round involving all 64 archers of each gender. Each archer would shoot a total of 72 arrows to be seeded from 1–64 according to their score.

The ranking round was also used to seed the teams from 1 to 12, by aggregating the individual scores for the members of each team.

Each event was played in a single-elimination tournament format, except for the semi-final losers, who would play off to decide the bronze medal winner.

Individual events[edit]

In the individual events, all 64 competitors entered the competition at the first round, the round of 64. The draw was seeded according to the result of the ranking round so the first seed shot against the 64th seed in the first round.

Each match was scored using the Archery Olympic Round, consisting of the best-of-five sets, with three arrows per set. The winner of each set received two points, and if the scores in the set had tied then each archer would have received one point. If at the end of five sets the score had been tied at 5–5, a single arrow shoot-off would have held and the closest to the center would be declared the winner.

Team events[edit]

In the team events, the top four seeded teams from the ranking round will receive a bye to the quarter-final. The remaining eight teams, seeded 5th to 12th, will compete for the remaining four places in the quarter-finals.

For the first time, the team event has followed the same Archery Olympic Round set system as the individual event.

Schedule[edit]

All times are Brasília Time (UTC−3).

Day Date Start Finish Event Phase
Day 0 Friday 5 August 2016 Men’s individual Ranking round
Women’s individual Ranking round
Day 1 Saturday 6 August 2016 9:00 17:45 Men’s team Eliminations/Medal round
Day 2 Sunday 7 August 2016 9:00 17:45 Women’s team Eliminations/Medal round
Day 3 Monday 8 August 2016 9:00 17:45 Men’s individual 1/32 & 1/16 Eliminations
Women’s individual 1/32 & 1/16 Eliminations
Day 4 Tuesday 9 August 2016 9:00 17:45 Men’s individual 1/32 & 1/16 Eliminations
Women’s individual 1/32 & 1/16 Eliminations
Day 5 Wednesday 10 August 2016 9:00 18:55 Men’s individual 1/32 & 1/16 Eliminations
Women’s individual 1/32 & 1/16 Eliminations
Day 6 Thursday 11 August 2016 9:00 17:10 Women’s individual 1/8 Eliminations/Quarter/Semi finals/Medal round
Day 7 Friday 12 August 2016 9:00 17:10 Men’s individual 1/8 Eliminations/Quarter/Semi finals/Medal round

Qualification[edit]

Each National Olympic Committee (NOC) was permitted to enter a maximum of six competitors, three per gender. NOCs that qualified teams for a particular gender were able to send a three-member team to the team event and also have each member compete in the individual event. There were 12 team spots for each gender, thus qualifying 36 individuals through team qualification. All other NOCs might earn a maximum of one quota place per gender for the individual events.[2]

Six places were reserved for Brazil as the host nation, and a further six were decided by the Tripartite Commission. The remaining 116 places were then allocated through a qualification process, in which archers earned quota places for their respective NOCs, though not necessarily for themselves.

To be eligible to participate in the Olympic Games after the NOC has obtained a quota place, all archers must have achieved the following minimum qualification score (MQS):

  • Men: 70m round of 630
  • Women: 70m round of 600

The MQS must have been achieved between 26 July 2015 (starting at the 2015 World Archery Championships) and 11 July 2016 at a registered World Archery event.

Participating nations[edit]

Archers from 56 nations participated at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Competitors[edit]

Male archers

  • Entry list at 1 August 2016[1]
NOC Name Age Hometown World ranking Team ranking
 Australia Alec Potts February 9, 1996 (age 22) AustraliaSouth Australia Clayton Bay 108 19
 Australia Ryan Tyack June 2, 1991 (age 26) AustraliaQueensland Brisbane 59 19
 Australia Taylor Worth January 8, 1991 (age 27) AustraliaWestern Australia Yangebup 15 19
 Belarus Anton Prilepov February 5, 1984 (age 34) Belarus Mogilev 18
 Belgium Robin Ramaekers October 26, 1994 (age 23) Belgium Tongeren 97
 Brazil Marcus Dalmeida January 30, 1998 (age 20) BrazilRio de Janeiro (state) Rio de Janeiro 17 17
 Brazil Bernardo Oliveira June 8, 1993 (age 24) BrazilFederal District (Brazil) Brasilia 99 17
 Brazil Daniel Rezende Xavier August 31, 1982 (age 35) BrazilMinas Gerais Belo Horizonte 114 17
 Canada Crispin Duenas January 5, 1986 (age 32) CanadaOntario Toronto 20
 Chile Ricardo Soto October 20, 1999 (age 18) Chile Arica 113
 China Gu Xuesong June 21, 1993 (age 24) China Shanghai 39 3
 China Wang Dapeng December 3, 1996 (age 21) China Huangdao 118 3
 China Xing Yu March 12, 1991 (age 26) China Beijing 12 3
 Chinese Taipei Kao Hao-wen March 17, 1995 (age 22) Chinese Taipei Hualien 31 6
 Chinese Taipei Wei Chun-heng July 6, 1994 (age 23) Chinese Taipei Taoyuan 10 6
 Chinese Taipei Yu Guan-lin November 29, 1993 (age 24) Chinese Taipei Nantou 55 6
 Colombia Andres Pila May 11, 1991 (age 26) Colombia Montelíbano 82
 Cuba Adrian Andres Puentes Perez July 3, 1988 (age 29) Cuba Sancti Spíritus 123
 Egypt Ahmed El-Nemr November 21, 1978 (age 39) Egypt Cairo 156
 Fiji Robert Elder April 25, 1981 (age 36) Fiji Suva 199
 Finland Samuli Piippo January 1, 1980 (age 38) Finland Oulu 75
 France Lucas Daniel January 1, 1995 (age 23) France Riom 25 15
 France Pierre Plihon October 29, 1989 (age 28) France Nice 42 15
 France Jean-Charles Valladont March 20, 1989 (age 28) France Champigny-sur-Marne 4 15
 Germany Florian Floto April 12, 1988 (age 29) GermanyLower SaxonyBraunschweig 77
 Great Britain Patrick Huston January 5, 1996 (age 22) United KingdomNorthern Ireland Belfast 38
 India Atanu Das April 5, 1992 (age 25) India Kolkata 22
 Indonesia Riau Ega Agatha November 25, 1991 (age 26) Indonesia Blitar 29 14
 Indonesia Hendra Purnama November 12, 1997 (age 20) Indonesia Bantul 98 14
 Indonesia Muhammad Wijaya November 22, 1996 (age 21) Indonesia Jambi 209 14
 Italy Marco Galiazzo May 9, 1983 (age 34) Italy Padua 381 5
 Italy Mauro Nespoli November 22, 1987 (age 30) Italy Vigna di Valle 11 5
 Italy David Pasqualucci June 27, 1996 (age 21) Italy Genzano di Roma 28 5
 France Rene Philippe Kouassi December 14, 1979 (age 38) France Angers 279
 Japan Takaharu Furukawa August 9, 1984 (age 33) Japan Aomori 19
 Kazakhstan Sultan Duzelbayev March 12, 1994 (age 23) Kazakhstan Almaty 125
 Libya Ali Elghari January 31, 1997 (age 21) Libya Tripoli 440
 Malawi Areneo David June 6, 1995 (age 22) Malawi Gumulira 440
 Malaysia Haziq Kamaruddin July 21, 1993 (age 24) Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 100 18
 Malaysia Khairul Anuar Mohamad September 22, 1991 (age 26) Malaysia Kemaman 41 18
 Malaysia Muhammad Akmal Nor Hasrin July 15, 1995 (age 22) Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 235 18
 Mexico Ernesto Boardman February 23, 1993 (age 24) MexicoCoahuila Arteaga 16
 Mongolia Gantugs Jantsan April 12, 1972 (age 45) Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 114
 Nepal Jitbahadur Muktan August 31, 1979 (age 38) Nepal Kathmandu 338
 Netherlands Mitch Dielemans January 6, 1993 (age 25) Netherlands Geldrop 51 7
 Netherlands Sjef van den Berg April 14, 1995 (age 22) Netherlands Oss 5 7
 Netherlands Rick van der Ven April 14, 1991 (age 26) Netherlands Arnhem 7 7
 Norway Baard Nesteng May 14, 1979 (age 38) Norway Fredrikstad 52
 Slovakia Boris Balaz November 20, 1997 (age 20) Slovakia Liptovský Mikuláš 202
 South Korea Kim Woo-jin June 20, 1992 (age 25) South Korea Chungju 1 1
 South Korea Ku Bon-chan January 31, 1993 (age 25) South Korea Andong 2 1
 South Korea Lee Seung-yun April 18, 1995 (age 22) South Korea Seoul 8 1
 Spain Miguel Alvarino Garcia May 31, 1994 (age 23) SpainGalicia (Spain) A Coruña 9 9
 Spain Antonio Fernandez June 12, 1991 (age 26) SpainExtremadura Cáceres 23 9
 Spain Juan Rodriguez Liebana June 19, 1992 (age 25) SpainCommunity of Madrid Madrid 30 9
 Thailand Witthaya Thamwong September 19, 1987 (age 30) Thailand Lampang 101
 Tonga Hans Arne Jensen February 25, 1998 (age 19) Tonga Nuku’alofa 869
 Turkey Mete Gazoz June 8, 1999 (age 18) Turkey Istanbul 14
 Ukraine Viktor Ruban May 24, 1981 (age 36) Ukraine Kharkiv 36
 United States Brady Ellison October 27, 1988 (age 29) United StatesArizona Globe 6 2
 United States Zach Garrett April 8, 1995 (age 22) United StatesMissouri Wellington 3 2
 United States Jake Kaminski August 11, 1988 (age 29) United StatesNew York (state) Elma 26 2
 Venezuela Elias Malave October 26, 1989 (age 28) Venezuela Maturín 35
 Great Britain Gavin Ben Sutherland June 26, 1979 (age 38) United Kingdom Worthing 177

Female archers[edit]

  • Entry list at 1 August 2016[2]
NOC Name Age Hometown World ranking Team ranking
 Australia Alice Ingley January 13, 1993 (age 25) AustraliaWestern Australia Perth 353
 Austria Laurence Baldauff November 19, 1974 (age 43) Austria Vienna 93
 Azerbaijan Olga Senyuk January 23, 1991 (age 27) Azerbaijan Baku 83
 Bangladesh Shamoli Ray April 5, 1994 (age 23) Bangladesh Dhaka 175
 Bhutan Karma Karma June 6, 1990 (age 27) Bhutan Trashiyangtse 229
 Brazil Marina Canetta April 1, 1989 (age 28) BrazilSão Paulo (state) São Paulo 105 20
 Brazil Ane Marcelle dos Santos January 12, 1994 (age 24) BrazilRio de Janeiro (state) Maricá 64 20
 Brazil Sarah Nikitin December 27, 1988 (age 29) BrazilSão Paulo (state) São Paulo 126 20
 Canada Georcy Thiffeault Picard February 8, 1991 (age 27) CanadaQuebec Montreal 46
 China Cao Hui September 7, 1991 (age 26) China Liaoning 34 6
 China Qi Yuhong August 25, 1989 (age 28) China Shanghai 21 6
 China Wu Jiaxin February 28, 1997 (age 20) China Shanghai 20 6
 Chinese Taipei Le Chien-ying April 17, 1990 (age 27) Chinese Taipei Taipei 7 4
 Chinese Taipei Lin Shih-chia May 20, 1993 (age 24) Chinese Taipei Hsinchu 10 4
 Chinese Taipei Tan Ya-ting November 7, 1993 (age 24) Chinese Taipei Hsinchu 2 4
 Colombia Carolina Aguirre January 29, 1996 (age 22) Colombia Antioquia 79 13
 Colombia Ana Maria Rendon March 10, 1986 (age 31) Colombia Medellín 27 13
 Colombia Natalia Sanchez March 20, 1983 (age 34) Colombia Medellín 36 13
 Dominican Republic Yessica Camilo Gonzalez April 23, 1993 (age 24) Dominican Republic Santo Domingo 157
 Egypt Reem Mansour December 20, 1993 (age 24) Egypt Cairo 179
 Estonia Laura Nurmsalu June 1, 1994 (age 23) Estonia Viljandi 75
 Finland Taru Kuoppa November 14, 1983 (age 34) Finland Lahti 96
 Georgia Kristine Esebua March 19, 1985 (age 32) Georgia (country) Khobi 8 7
 Georgia Yuliya Lobzhenidze August 23, 1977 (age 40) Georgia (country) Tbilisi 85 7
 Georgia Khatuna Narimanidze February 2, 1974 (age 44) Georgia (country) Batumi 37 7
 Germany Lisa Unruh April 12, 1988 (age 29) GermanyBerlin Berlin 16
 Great Britain Naomi Folkard September 18, 1983 (age 34) United KingdomEngland Leamington Spa 67
 Greece Evangelia Psarra June 17, 1974 (age 43) Greece Thessaloniki 95
 India Deepika Kumari June 13, 1994 (age 23) India Jamshedpur 12 4
 India Bombayla Devi Laishram February 22, 1985 (age 32) India Imphal 69 4
 India Laxmirani Majhi January 26, 1989 (age 29) India Chittaranjan 15 4
 Indonesia Ika Rochmawati July 2, 1989 (age 28) Indonesia Bojonegoro 26
 Iran Zahra Nemati April 30, 1985 (age 32) Iran Tehran 47
 Italy Lucilla Boari March 24, 1997 (age 20) Italy Mantua 24 9
 Italy Claudia Mandia October 21, 1992 (age 25) Italy Salerno 74 9
 Italy Guendalina Sartori August 8, 1988 (age 29) Italy Monselice 17 9
 Japan Yuki Hayashi October 2, 1984 (age 33) Japan Kawanishi 33 10
 Japan Kaori Kawanaka August 3, 1991 (age 26) Japan Kotoura 13 10
 Japan Saori Nagamine July 5, 1993 (age 24) Japan Nagasaki 61 10
 Kazakhstan Luiza Saidiyeva March 17, 1994 (age 23) Kazakhstan Shymkent 107
 Kenya Shehzana Anwar August 21, 1989 (age 28) Kenya Nairobi 195
 Mexico Gabriela Bayardo February 18, 1994 (age 23) MexicoBaja California Tijuana 62 12
 Mexico Aida Roman May 21, 1988 (age 29) MexicoMexico City Mexico City 14 12
 Mexico Alejandra Valencia October 17, 1994 (age 23) MexicoSonora Hermosillo 18 12
 Moldova Alexandra Mirca October 11, 1993 (age 24) Moldova Chișinău 60
 Myanmar San Yu Htwe October 14, 1986 (age 31) Myanmar Mindat 191
 North Korea Kang Un-ju February 1, 1995 (age 23) North Korea Pyongyang 72
 Poland Karina Lipiarska-Palka February 16, 1987 (age 30) Poland Gmina Zabierzów 41
 Russia Tuiana Dashidorzhieva April 14, 1996 (age 21) RussiaZabaykalsky Krai Chita 11 2
 Russia Ksenia Perova February 8, 1989 (age 29) RussiaSverdlovsk Oblast Lesnoy 5 2
 Russia Inna Stepanova April 17, 1990 (age 27) RussiaBuryatia Ulan-Ude 48 2
 Slovakia Alexandra Longova February 7, 1994 (age 24) Slovakia Viničné 57
 South Korea Hye Jin Chang May 13, 1987 (age 30) South Korea Daegu 6 1
 South Korea Choi Mi-sun July 1, 1996 (age 21) South Korea Gwangju 1 1
 South Korea Ki Bo-bae February 20, 1988 (age 29) South Korea Gwangju 3 1
 Spain Adriana Martin April 17, 1997 (age 20) SpainCommunity of Madrid Madrid 51
 Sweden Christine Bjerendal February 3, 1987 (age 31) Sweden Lindome 77
 Tonga Karoline Lusitania Tatafu February 20, 1998 (age 19) Tonga Nuku’alofa 309
 Turkey Yasemin Anagoz October 14, 1998 (age 19) Turkey Izmir 31
 Ukraine Veronika Marchenko April 3, 1993 (age 24) Ukraine Lviv 9 8
 Ukraine Anastasia Pavlova February 9, 1995 (age 23) Ukraine Nova Kakhovka 44 8
 Ukraine Lidiia Sichenikova February 3, 1993 (age 25) Ukraine Chernivtsi 45 8
 United States Mackenzie Brown March 14, 1995 (age 22) United StatesTexas Flint 4
 Venezuela Leidys Brito July 5, 1984 (age 33) Venezuela Maturín 55

External links

Medal summary[edit]

Medal table[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 South Korea 4 0 1 5
2 United States 0 1 1 2
3 Germany 0 1 0 1
France 0 1 0 1
Russia 0 1 0 1
6 Australia 0 0 1 1
Chinese Taipei 0 0 1 1
Total 4 4 4 12

Medalists[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men’s individual
details
Ku Bon-chan
 South Korea
Jean-Charles Valladont
 France
Brady Ellison
 United States
Men’s team
details
 South Korea (KOR)
Ku Bon-chan
Lee Seung-yun
Kim Woo-jin
 United States (USA)
Brady Ellison
Zach Garrett
Jake Kaminski
 Australia (AUS)
Alec Potts
Ryan Tyack
Taylor Worth
Women’s individual
details
Chang Hye-jin
 South Korea
Lisa Unruh
 Germany
Ki Bo-bae
 South Korea
Women’s team
details
 South Korea (KOR)
Chang Hye-jin
Choi Mi-sun
Ki Bo-bae
 Russia (RUS)
Tuyana Dashidorzhieva
Ksenia Perova
Inna Stepanova
 Chinese Taipei (TPE)
Le Chien-ying
Lin Shih-chia
Tan Ya-ting

25 Strangest Geological Formations On Earth

Compulsory voting

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Compulsory voting, enforced.
Compulsory voting, not enforced.
Compulsory voting, enforced (only men).
Compulsory voting, not enforced (only men).
Historical: the country had compulsory voting in the past.

ContentsCompulsory voting is a system in which electors are obliged to vote in elections or attend a polling place on voting day. If an eligible voter does not attend a polling place, he or she may be subject to punitive measures such as fines or community service. As of August 2013, 22 countries were recorded as having laws for compulsory voting and 11 of these 22 countries as enforcing these laws in practice.

History[edit]

Athenian democracy held that it was every citizen‘s duty to participate in decision making, but attendance at the assembly was voluntary. Sometimes there was some form of social opprobrium to those not participating. For example, Aristophanes‘s comedy Acharnians 17–22, in the 5th century BC, shows public slaves herding citizens from the agora into the assembly meeting place (pnyx) with a red-stained rope. Those with red on their clothes were fined.[2] This usually happened if fewer than 6,000 people were in attendance, and more were needed for the assembly to continue.

Arguments for[edit]

Supporters of compulsory voting generally look upon voter participation as a civic duty, similar to taxation, jury duty, compulsory education or military service; one of the ‘duties to community’ mentioned in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[3] They believe that by introducing an obligation to vote, it helps to overcome the occasional inconvenience that voting imposes on an individual in order to produce governments with more stability, legitimacy and a genuine mandate to govern, which in turn benefits that individual even if their preferred candidate or party isn’t elected into power.

Compulsory voting systems can confer a high degree of political legitimacybecause they result in high voter turnout.[4] The victorious candidate represents a majority of the population, not just the politically motivated individuals who would vote without compulsion.[5]

Compulsory voting also prevents disenfranchisement of the socially disadvantaged. In a similar way that the secret ballot is designed to prevent interference with the votes actually cast, compelling voters to the polls for an election reduces the impact that external factors may have on an individual’s capacity to vote such as the weather, transport, or restrictive employers. If everybody must vote, restrictions on voting are easily identified and steps are taken to remove them. Countries with compulsory voting generally hold elections on a Saturday or Sunday to ensure that working people can fulfill their duty to cast their vote. Postal and pre-poll voting is provided to people who cannot vote on polling day, and mobile voting booths may also be taken to old age homes, hospitals and remote communities to cater for immobilized citizens.

If voters do not want to support any given choice, they may cast spoilt votes or blank votes. According to compulsory voting supporters, this is preferred to not voting at all because it ensures there is no possibility that the person has been intimidated or prevented from voting should they wish. In certain jurisdictions, voters have the option to vote none of the above if they do not support any of the candidates to indicate clear dissatisfaction with the candidate list rather than simple apathy at the whole process.

Another perceived benefit of the large turnout produced by compulsory voting is that it becomes more difficult for extremist or special interest groups to get themselves into power or to influence mainstream candidates. Under a non-compulsory voting system, if fewer people vote then it is easier for lobby groups to motivate a small section of the people to the polls and influence the outcome of the political process. The outcome of an election where voting is compulsory reflects more of the will of the people (Who do I want to lead the country?) rather than reflecting who was more able to convince people to take time out of their day to cast a vote (Do I even want to vote today?).

Other advantages to compulsory voting are the stimulation of broader interest politics, as a sort of civil education and political stimulation, which creates a better informed population. Also, since campaign funds are not needed to goad voters to the polls, the role of money in politics decreases. High levels of participation decreases the risk of political instability created by crises or charismatic but sectionally focused demagogues.[5]

There is also a correlation between compulsory voting, when enforced strictly, and improved income distribution, as measured by the Gini coefficient and the bottom income quintiles of the population.[6]

Arguments against[edit]

Voting may be seen as a civic right rather than a civic duty. While citizens may exercise their civil rights (free speech, right to an attorney, etc.) they are not compelled to. Furthermore, compulsory voting may infringe other rights. For example,Jehovah’s Witnesses and most Christadelphians believe that they should not participate in political events. Forcing them to vote ostensibly denies them their freedom of religious practice. In some countries with compulsory voting, Jehovah’s Witnesses and others may be excused on these grounds. If however they are forced to go to the polling place, they can still use a blank or invalid vote.

Similarly, compulsory voting may be seen as an infringement of Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which guarantees freedom of political opinion and thus the right of citizens to believe in a political system other than a democratic one, such as an absolute monarchy. However, it may also be argued that citizens may legitimately be required to vote since the right to believe in a different political system does not conflict with the obligation to conform with legal requirements of the system in place.

Another argument against compulsory voting, prevalent among legal scholars in the United States, is that it is essentially a compelled speech act, which violates freedom of speech because the freedom to speak necessarily includes the freedomnot to speak.[7]

Some do not support the idea of voters being compelled to vote for candidates they have no interest in or knowledge of. Others may be well-informed, but have no preference for any particular candidate, or may have no wish to give support to the incumbent political system. In compulsory voting areas, such people often vote at random simply to fulfill legal requirements: the so-called donkey vote may account for 1–2% of votes in these systems[citation needed], which may affect the electoral process. Similarly, citizens may vote with a complete absence of knowledge of any of the candidates or deliberately skew their ballot to slow the polling process or disrupt the election.

Low voter participation in a voluntary election may not be the result of political apathy. It may be simply an expression of the citizenry’s political will, indicating satisfaction with the political establishment in an electorate.[citation needed]

The Australian system of preferential voting means a person’s vote usually ends up favouring one of the two main political parties, even though the voter may not wish to advantage either. Former Australian opposition leader Mark Latham urged Australians to lodge blank votes for the 2010 election. He stated the government should not force citizens to vote or threaten them with a fine.[8] At the 2013 federal election, despite the threat of a non-voting fine of up to $170,[9] there was a turnout of only 92%,[10] of whom 6% lodged either informal or blank ballot papers.[11] In the corresponding Senate election, contested by over 50 groups,[12] legitimate manipulation of the group voting tickets and single transferable vote routing resulted in the election of one senator, Ricky Muir of the Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party, who had initially received only 0.5% of first-preference support.[13] The system was accused of undermining the entitlement of voters “to be able to make real choices, not forced ones—and to know who they really are voting for.”[14]

By countries[edit]

Historical[edit]

  • Austria – introduced in 1924 and exercised during 1925 presidential elections
  • Chile – removed from the Constitution and replaced with voluntary voting in 2009; voluntary voting was regulated and put into practice in 2012; all eligible citizens over 17 are automatically enrolled (only those over 18 on election day may vote; although the act of voting itself is voluntary, polling officer duties are not if chosen by a commission for the job)[15]
  • Fiji – Abolished in 2014 [16]
  • Italy – Introduced in 1945, abolished in 1993.
  • Netherlands – introduced 1917 along with universal suffrage, abolished in 1967.
  • Spain – 1907–1923, but not enforced
  • US State of Georgia in 1777 (10 years before the adoption of the federal Constitution of 1787):

    Every person absenting himself from an election, and shall neglect to give in his or their ballot at such election, shall be subject to a penalty not exceeding five pounds; the mode of recovery and also the appropriation thereof, to be pointed out and directed by act of the legislature: Provided, nevertheless, That a reasonable excuse shall be admitted.

    Constitution of Georgia, 5 February 1777, Article XII [17]

This provision was omitted from the revised Georgia constitution of 1789.[citation needed]

Present day[edit]

As of August 2013, 22 countries were recorded as having compulsory voting.[1] Of these, only 10 countries (and one Swiss canton) enforce it. Of the 30 member states of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 10 had forms of compulsory voting.[19]

Enforced[edit]

These are the 11 countries that enforce compulsory voting:

  • Argentina – Introduced in 1912.[20] Compulsory for citizens between 18 and 70 years old, non-compulsory for those older than 70 and between 16 and 18. (However in primaries, citizens under 70 may refuse to vote, if they formally express their decision to the electoral authorities, at least 48 hours before the election. This is valid only for the subsequent primary, and needs to be repeated each time the voter wishes not to participate.)
  • Australia – Introduced in 1924.[20] Compulsory for federal and state elections for citizens 18 years of age and above. The requirement is for the person to enroll, attend a polling station and have their name marked off the electoral roll as attending, receive a ballot paper and take it to an individual voting booth, mark it, fold the ballot paper and place it in the ballot box. The act does not explicitly state that a choice must be made, it only states that the ballot paper be ‘marked’. According to the act how a person marks the paper is completely up to the individual. In some states, local council elections are also compulsory.[21] At the 2010 Tasmanian state election, with a turnout of 335,353 voters, about 6,000 people were fined $26 for not voting, and about 2,000 paid the fine.[22]
  • Brazil[23] – Compulsory for literate citizens between 18 and 70 years old. Non-compulsory for Brazilian Youth age 16-17 or over 70 or illiterate citizens of any age. A justification form for not voting can be filled at election centers and post offices.
  • Cyprus – Introduced in 1960.[20]
  • Ecuador – Introduced in 1936.[20] Compulsory for citizens between 18 and 65 years old; non-compulsory for citizens aged 16–18, illiterate people, and those older than 65.
  • Liechtenstein
  • Luxembourg – Voluntary for those over 70.
  • Nauru – Introduced in 1965.[20]
  • Peru[24] – Introduced in 1933.[20] Compulsory for citizens between 18 and 70 years old, non-compulsory for those older than 70.
  • Singapore – Compulsory for citizens above 21 years old on 1 January of the year of election
  • Uruguay – Introduced in 1934, but not put into practice until 1970.[20]
  • Schaffhausen canton in Switzerland has compulsory voting – Introduced to Switzerland in 1904, but abolished in all other cantons by 1974.[20]

Not enforced[edit]

Countries that have compulsory voting on the law books but do not enforce it:

Measures to encourage voting[edit]

Although voting in a country may be compulsory, penalties for failing to vote are not always strictly enforced. In Australiaand Brazil, providing a legitimate reason for not voting (such as being sick or outside the country) is accepted. In Argentina, those who were ill on voting day are excused by requesting a doctor to prove their condition; those over 500 km (310 mi) away from their voting place are also excused by asking for a certificate at a police station near where they are. Belgianvoters can vote in an embassy if they are abroad or can empower another voter to cast the vote in their name; the voter must give a “permission to vote” and carry a copy of the eID card and their own on the actual elections.

States that sanction nonvoters with fines generally impose small or nominal penalties. However, penalties for failing to vote are not limited to fines and legal sanctions. Belgian voters who repeatedly fail to vote in elections may be subject todisenfranchisement. Singapore voters who fail to vote in a general election or presidential election will be subjected to disenfranchisement until a valid reason is given or a fine is paid. Goods and services provided by public offices may be denied to those failing to vote in Peru and Greece. In Brazil, people who fail to vote in an election are barred from obtaining a passport and subject to other restrictions until settling their situation before an electoral court or after they have voted in the two most recent elections. If a Bolivian voter fails to participate in an election, the person may be denied withdrawal of the salary from the bank for three months.[28][33]

List of Banks owned by the Rothschild Family

“Give me control over a nations currency, and I care not who makes its laws” – Baron M.A. Rothschild

rothcrest

ROTHSCHILD OWNED BANKS:
Afghanistan, Bank of Afghanistan,
Albania, Bank of Albania,
Algeria, Bank of Algeria,
Argentina, Central Bank of Argentina,
Armenia, Central Bank of Armenia,
Aruba, Central Bank of Aruba,
Australia, Reserve Bank of Australia,
Austria, Austrian National Bank,
Azerbaijan, Central Bank of Azerbaijan Republic,
Bahamas, Central Bank of The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Central Bank of Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bank,
Barbados, Central Bank of Barbados,
Belarus, National Bank of the Republic of Belarus,
Belgium, National Bank of Belgium,
Belize, Central Bank of Belize,
Benin, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Bermuda, Bermuda Monetary Authority,
Bhutan, Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan,
Bolivia, Central Bank of Bolivia,
Bosnia, Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Bank of Botswana,
Brazil, Central Bank of Brazil,
Bulgaria, Bulgarian National Bank,
Burkina Faso, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Burundi, Bank of the Republic of Burundi,
Cambodia, National Bank of Cambodia,
Came Roon, Bank of Central African States,
Canada, Bank of Canada – Banque du Canada,
Cayman Islands, Cayman Islands Monetary Authority,
Central African Republic, Bank of Central African States,
Chad, Bank of Central African States,
Chile, Central Bank of Chile,

China, The People’s Bank of China,

Colombia, Bank of the Republic,
Comoros, Central Bank of Comoros,
Congo, Bank of Central African States,
Costa Rica, Central Bank of Costa Rica,
Côte d’Ivoire, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Croatia, Croatian National Bank,
Cuba, Central Bank of Cuba,
Cyprus, Central Bank of Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Czech National Bank,
Denmark, National Bank of Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Central Bank of the Dominican Republic,
East Caribbean area, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank,
Ecuador, Central Bank of Ecuador,
Egypt, Central Bank of Egypt ,
El Salvador, Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Bank of Central African States,
Estonia, Bank of Estonia,
Ethiopia, National Bank of Ethiopia,
European Union, European Central Bank,

money-world-

Fiji, Reserve Bank of Fiji,
Finland, Bank of Finland,
France, Bank of France,
Gabon, Bank of Central African States,
The Gambia, Central Bank of The Gambia,
Georgia, National Bank of Georgia,
Germany, Deutsche Bundesbank,
Ghana, Bank of Ghana,
Greece, Bank of Greece,
Guatemala, Bank of Guatemala,

Guinea Bissau, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Guyana, Bank of Guyana,
Haiti, Central Bank of Haiti ,
Honduras, Central Bank of Honduras,
Hong Kong, Hong Kong Monetary Authority,
Hungary, Magyar Nemzeti Bank,
Iceland, Central Bank of Iceland,
India, Reserve Bank of India,
Indonesia, Bank Indonesia,
Iran, The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran,

Iraq, Central Bank of Iraq,

Ireland, Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland,
Israel, Bank of Israel,
Italy, Bank of Italy,
Jamaica, Bank of Jamaica,
Japan, Bank of Japan,
Jordan, Central Bank of Jordan,
Kazakhstan, National Bank of Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Central Bank of Kenya,
Korea, Bank of Korea,
Kuwait, Central Bank of Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic,
Latvia, Bank of Latvia,
Lebanon, Central Bank of Lebanon,
Lesotho, Central Bank of Lesotho,

Libya, Central Bank of Libya,

us-homeland-security-seal-plaque_m-747261

Uruguay, Central Bank of Uruguay,
Lithuania, Bank of Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Central Bank of Luxembourg,
Macao, Monetary Authority of Macao,
Macedonia, National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia,
Madagascar, Central Bank of Madagascar,
Malawi, Reserve Bank of Malawi,
Malaysia, Central Bank of Malaysia,
Mali, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Malta, Central Bank of Malta,
Mauritius, Bank of Mauritius,
Mexico, Bank of Mexico,
Moldova, National Bank of Moldova,
Mongolia, Bank of Mongolia,
Montenegro, Central Bank of Montenegro,
Morocco, Bank of Morocco,
Mozambique, Bank of Mozambique,
Namibia, Bank of Namibia,
Nepal, Central Bank of Nepal,
Netherlands, Netherlands Bank,
Netherlands Antilles, Bank of the Netherlands Antilles,
New Zealand, Reserve Bank of New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Central Bank of Nicaragua,
Niger, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria,
Norway, Central Bank of Norway,
Oman, Central Bank of Oman,
Pakistan, State Bank of Pakistan,
Papua New Guinea, Bank of Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Central Bank of Paraguay,
Peru, Central Reserve Bank of Peru,
Philip Pines, Bangko Sentralng Pilipinas,
Poland, National Bank of Poland,
Portugal, Bank of Portugal,
Qatar, Qatar Central Bank,
Romania, National Bank of Romania,
Russia, Central Bank of Russia,

Rwanda, National Bank of Rwanda,
San Marino, Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino,
Samoa, Central Bank of Samoa,
Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency,

Senegal, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Serbia, National Bank of Serbia,
Seychelles, Central Bank of Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Bank of Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Monetary Authority of Singapore,
Slovakia, National Bank of Slovakia,
Slovenia, Bank of Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Central Bank of Solomon Islands,
South Africa, South African Reserve Bank,
Spain, Bank of Spain,
Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Bank of Sudan,
Surinam, Central Bank of Suriname,
Swaziland, The Central Bank of Swaziland,
Sweden, Sveriges Riksbank,
Switzerland, Swiss National Bank,

Tajikistan, National Bank of Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Bank of Tanzania,
Thailand, Bank of Thailand,
Togo, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Tonga, National Reserve Bank of Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Central Bank of Tunisia,
Turkey, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey,

Uganda, Bank of Uganda,
Ukraine, National Bank of Ukraine,
United Arab Emirates, Central Bank of United Arab Emirates,

United Kingdom, Bank of England,

United States, Federal Reserve, Federal Reserve Bank of New York,

US-FederalReserveSystem-Seal_svg_

Vanuatu, Reserve Bank of Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Central Bank of Venezuela,

Vietnam, The State Bank of Vietnam,
Yemen, Central Bank of Yemen,
Zambia, Bank of Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe,
Bank For International Settlements, (BIS),

House of Habsburg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Habsburg” redirects here. For the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, see House of Lorraine. For other uses, see Habsburg (disambiguation).
House of Habsburg
The ancient coat of arms of the Counts of Habsburg.
Country Austria, Kingdom of Germany,Holy Roman Empire, Sicily,Naples, Spain, HungaryCroatia,Empire of Mexico, Bohemia,Portugal and other smaller historical states
Titles
Founded 11th century: Radbot, Count of Habsburg
Dissolution 1780
Ethnicity Germans (Austrian), Spanish
Cadet branches
  1. Jump up^ titular claim rather than de facto

The House of Habsburg (/ˈhæbs.bɜrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːps.bʊʁk]), also spelled Hapsburg,[1] was one of the most important royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England (King Consort),Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, and Habsburg Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities.

The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding “Count of Habsburg” to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

By 1276, Count Radbot’s seventh generation descendant, Rudolph of Habsburg, had moved the family’s power base from Habsburg Castle to theDuchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918.

A series of dynastic marriages[2] enabled the family to vastly expand its domains, to include Duchy of Burgundy, Spanish Empire and her colonial empire, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Hungary, and other territories into the inheritance. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty.

The House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century. The senior branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by theHouse of Bourbon. The remaining branch went extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and completely in 1780 with the death of his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa of Austria. It was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg.

Contents

 [hide

Principal roles[edit]

Their principal roles were as:

Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above.

History[edit]

Counts of Habsburg[edit]

The Habsburg dominions around 1200 in the area of modern day Switzerland are shown as      Habsburg, among the houses of      Savoy,     Zähringer and      Kyburg

The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle’s name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. Most people[who?] assume the name to be derived from the High GermanHabichtsburg (Hawk Castle), but some historians and linguists are convinced that the name comes from the Middle High German word “hab/hap” meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.[3][4][5] The Habsburg Castle was thefamily seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Zürichgau, Aargau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg.[6]

Kings of the Romans[edit]

By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV (1218–1291) had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance. Due to these impressive preconditions, on 1 October 1273 Rudolph was chosen as the King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany.[6]

In 1282, the Habsburgs gained the rulership of the Duchy of Austria, which they then held for over 600 years, until 1918. Through the forged Privilegium Maius document (1358/59), a special bond was created between the House and Austria. The document, forged at the behest of Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (1339–1365), also attempted to introduce rules to preserve the unity of the family’s Austrian lands. In the long term, this indeed succeeded, but Rudolph’s descendants ignored the rule, leading to the separation of the Albertian and Leopoldian family lines in 1379.[6]

By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1437, Duke Albert V (1397–1439) became the ruler of Bohemia and Hungary, expanding the family’s political horizons. The next year, Albert V was crowned as the King of the Romans as Albert II. After his early death in war with the Turks in 1439, and after the death of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia and Hungary again. National kingdoms were established in these areas, and the Habsburgs were not able to restore their influence there for decades.

Holy Roman Emperors[edit]

Growth of the Habsburg Empire in Eastern Europe.

In 1440, Frederick III was chosen by the Electoral College to succeed Albert II as the king. After several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial throne over the years, success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas Vcrowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. In Frederick III, the Pope found an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliar movement.[6]

While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. In contrast to Frederick, who was rather distant to his family, Eleanor had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick’s children, and therefore played an important role in the family’s rise to prominence. After Frederick III’s coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously for centuries, until 1806.[6]

As Emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family’s internal conflicts, often making use of the privilegium maius. He was able to restore the unity of the house’s Austrian lands, as theAlbertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tyrolean branch of the Leopoldian line in 1490/1496. Frederick’s aim was to make Austria a united country, stretching from the Rhine to the Murand Leitha.[6]

On the external front, one of Frederick’s main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), in which he forced Charles the Bold of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick’s son Maximilian.[6] The wedding, which took place on the evening of August 16, 1477, ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the Low Countries. After Mary’s early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary’s children, Philip the Handsome. Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favour of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493.[7]

After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new King of the Romans, receiving the nameMaximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French, who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the “chosen Emperor,” and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that, in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope’s consent. In 1530 Emperor Charles V became the last person to be crowned as the Emperor by the Pope.[7]

A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green, but do not include the lands of the Holy Roman Empire over which they presided, nor the vast Castilian holdings outside of Europe, and particularly in America.

Maximilian’s rule (1493–1519) was a time of great expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian’s son, Philip the Handsome (also known as Phillip the Fair), married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile,Aragon and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (including their colonies in America), Southern Italy, Austria and the Low Countries.[8]

The foundations for the later empire of Austria-Hungary were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II, King of Hungary, and Maximilian’s granddaughter Mary; and between her brother, Archduke Ferdinand and Vladislaus’ daughter, Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on 22 July 1515, and has been described by some historians as the First Congress of Viennadue to its significant implications for Europe’s political landscape. As all the children were still minors, the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but his designs were ultimately successful: on Louis’s death in 1526, Maximilian’s grandson, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, became the King of Bohemia.

By the time of Charles V the “World Emperor” and his “empire on which the sun never sets”, the Habsburg dynasty achieved, for the first and only time in their history, the position of a true world power.

Division of the house: Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs[edit]

The Habsburg Dominions in 1700, not showing their overseas empire, but showing the division between the Spanish and Austrian branch with their losses and gains.

After the April 21, 1521 assignment of the Austrian lands to Ferdinand Iby his brother Emperor Charles V (also King Charles I of Spain) (1516–1556), the dynasty split into the junior branch of the AustrianHabsburgs and the senior branch of the Spanish Habsburgs. The Austrian Habsburgs held the title of Holy Roman Emperor after Charles’ death in 1558, as well as the Habsburg Hereditary Lands and the Kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary.

The senior Spanish branch ruled over Spain, its Italian possessions and its colonial empire, the Netherlands, and, for a time (1580-1640), Portugal. Hungary was partly under Habsburg rule from 1526. For 150 years most of the country was occupied by the Ottoman Turks but these territories were re-conquered in 1683–1699.

In the secret Oñate treaty, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs settled their mutual claims. The Spanish Habsburgs died out in 1700 (prompting the War of the Spanish Succession), as did the last male of the Austrian Habsburg line in 1740 (prompting theWar of the Austrian Succession), and finally the last female of the Habsburg male line in 1780.

Extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs[edit]

The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by the frequent use of consanguineous marriages, it’s known their proverb that ‘The best spouse for an Habsburg is another Habsburg’, with a cumulatively deleterious effect on their gene pool. Marriages between first cousins, or between uncle and niece, were commonplace in the family. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests that inbreeding directly led to their extinction. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line Charles II, who was severely disabled from birth, perhaps by genetic disorders, possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, probably because of “remote inbreeding“.[9][10]

Extinction of the Austrian Habsburgs[edit]

The Austrian branch went extinct in the male person in 1740 with the death of Charles VI and in the female person in 1780 with the death of his daughter Maria Theresa and was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German:Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. The heiress of the last Austrian Habsburgs Maria Theresa had married Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine[11] (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, but from different empresses), and their descendants carried on the Habsburg tradition from Vienna under the dynastic name Habsburg-Lorraine, although technically a new ruling house came into existence in the Austrian territories, the House of Lorraine (see Dukes of Lorraine family tree). It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within both lines contributed to their extinctions.

Habsburg-Lorraine[edit]

Austria-Hungary in 1915
Austria-Hungary map new.svg
Kingdoms and countries of Austria-Hungary:
Cisleithania (Empire of Austria[12]): 1. Bohemia, 2.Bukovina, 3. Carinthia, 4. Carniola, 5. Dalmatia, 6. Galicia, 7. Küstenland, 8. Lower Austria, 9. Moravia, 10. Salzburg, 11. Silesia, 12. Styria, 13. Tirol, 14. Upper Austria, 15.Vorarlberg;
Transleithania (Kingdom of Hungary[12]): 16. Hungary proper 17. Croatia-Slavonia; 18. Bosnia and Herzegovina (Austro-Hungarian condominium)

On August 6, 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved under the French Emperor Napoleon I‘s reorganization of Germany. However, in anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on 11 August 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804.

Emperor Francis I of Austria used the official full list of titles: “We, Francis the First, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria; King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia,Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine,Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and LowerSilesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, and Friule; Prince ofBerchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg,Gorizia, and Gradisca and of the Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria“.

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 created a personal union, whereby the House of Habsburg agreed to share power with the separate Hungarian government, dividing the territory of the former Austrian Empire between them. The Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent entities enjoying equal status[13] Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor (see k. u. k.). This prevailed until the Habsburgs’ deposition from both Austria and Hungary in 1918 following defeat in World War I.

On 11 November 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria’s right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officiallyabdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law which revoked Charles’ rights and dethroned the Habsburgs.

The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg, Emperor Charles’ eldest son, renounced all claims to the throne.

The dynasty’s motto, “Leave the waging of wars to others! But you, happy Austria, marry; for the realms which Mars awards to others, Venus transfers to you.”,[14] indicates the knack of the Habsburgs to have members intermarry into other royal houses in order to build alliances and inherit territory. Empress Maria Theresa is recognized quite notably for it and is sometimes referred to as the “Great-Grandmother of Europe”.[citation needed]

Family tree[edit]

This family tree only includes male scions of the direct House of Habsburg who survived to adulthood.

Habsburg Family Tree.jpg

Similarly, this family tree only includes male scions of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine who survived to adulthood:

Habsburg-Lorraine Genealogy.PNG

Monarchs of the House of Habsburg[edit]

The Habsburg Empire was never composed of a single unified and unitary state as Bourbon France, Hohenzollern Germany, or Great Britain was. It was made up of an accretion of territories that owed their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg as hereditary lord. The Habsburgs had mostly married the heiresses of these territories, most famously of Spain and the Netherlands. They used their coats of arms then as a statement of their right to rule all these territories. As there were many territories, so their arms were complex and reflected the waxing and waning position of the Habsburgs within European power politics. It was not until the 19th century (see below Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) that the arms began to take on their own life as symbols of a state which may have an existence outside of the Habsburg dynasty. A complete listing of the arms can be found at the Habsburg Armory.

Ancestors[edit]

Counts of Habsburg[edit]

Rangkronen-Fig. 18.svg

Arms of the Counts of Habsburgs. The Habsburgs all but abandoned this for the arms of Austria. It only reappeared in their triarch family arms in 1805.

Before Rudolph rose to German king, the Habsburgs were Counts in what is today southwestern Germany and Switzerland.

Dukes/Archdukes of Austria[edit]

Ducal Hat of Styria.svg

The arms of Austria, originally belonging to the Babenburg dukes. They became all but synonmous with the Habsburgs, as the Habsburgs abandoned their own arms for these.

In the late Middle Ages, when the Habsburgs expanded their territories in the east, they often ruled as dukes of the Duchy of Austria which covered only what is today Lower Austria (Niederösterreich) and the eastern part of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich). The Habsburg possessions also included the rest of what was then called Inner Austria (Innerösterreich), i.e. the Duchy of Styria, and then expanded west to include the Duchy of Carinthia and Carniola in 1335 and the Count of Tirol in 1363. Their original scattered possessions in the southern Alsace, south-western Germany and Vorarlberg were collectively known as Further Austria.

The senior Habsburg dynast generally ruled Lower Austria from Vienna as archduke (“paramount duke”) of Duchy of Austria. The Styrian lands had already been ruled in personal union by theBabenberg dukes of Austria since 1192 and were finally seized with the Austrian lands by the Habsburg king Rudolph I of Germany upon his victory in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. In 1335 Rudolph’s grandson Duke Albert II of Austria also received the Carinthian duchy with the adjacentMarch of Carniola at the hands of Emperor Louis the Bavarian as Imperial fiefs.

The Habsburg dukes gradually lost their homelands south of the Rhine and Lake Constance to the expanding Old Swiss Confederacy. Unless mentioned explicitly, the dukes of Austria also ruled over Further Austria until 1379, after that year, Further Austria was ruled by the Princely Count of Tyrol. Names in italics designate dukes who never actually ruled.

When Albert’s son Duke Rudolf IV of Austria in 1365, his younger brothers Albert III and Leopold IIIquarelled about his heritage and in the Treaty of Neuberg of 1379 finally split the Habsburg territories: The Albertinian line would rule in the Archduchy of Austria proper (then sometimes referred to as “Lower Austria” (Niederösterreich), but comprising modern Lower Austria and most of Upper Austria), while the Leopoldian line ruled in the Styrian, Carinthian and Carniolan territories, subsumed under the denotation of “Inner Austria”. At that time their share also comprised Tyrol and the original Habsburg possessions in Swabia, called Further Austria; sometimes both were collectively referred to as “Upper Austria” (Oberösterreich) in that context, also not to be confused with the modern state of that name.

After the death of Leopold’s eldest son William in 1406, the Leopoldinian line was further split among his brothers into the Inner Austrian territory under Ernest the Iron and a Tyrolean/Further Austrian line under Frederick IV. In 1457 Ernest’s son Duke Frederick V of Inner Austria also gained the Austrian archduchy after his Albertine cousin Ladislaus the Posthumoushad died without issue. 1490 saw the reunification of all Habsburg lines, when Archduke Sigismund of Further Austria and Tyrol resigned in favour of Frederick’s son Maximilian I. In 1512, the Habsburg territories were incorporated into the Imperial Austrian Circle.

Archduke of Austria, was invented in the Privilegium Maius, a 14th-century forgery initiated by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. Originally, it was meant to denote the “ruler” (thus “Arch-“) of the duchy of Austria, usually from Vienna, in an effort to put the Habsburgs on a par with the Prince-electors, as Austria had been passed as hereditary prince-electors of the empire when the Golden Bull of 1356 assigned that title to the highest ranking Imperial princes. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognise the title.

The archducal title was only officially recognized in 1453 by Emperor Frederick III.[15] Emperor Frederick III himself used just “Duke of Austria”, never Archduke, until his death in 1493. The title was first granted to Frederick’s younger brother, Albert VI of Austria (d. 1463), who used it at least from 1458.

In 1477, Frederick III also granted the title archduke to his first cousin, Sigismund of Austria, ruler of Further Austria. Frederick’s son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, started to use the title, but apparently only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy (d. 1482), as Archduke never appears in documents issued jointly by Maximilian and Mary as rulers in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled “Duke of Austria”). The title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and Philip (his under-age son) in the Low Countries.

Archduke was initially borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg territory, i.e., only by males and their consorts,appanages being commonly distributed to cadets. But these “junior” archdukes did not thereby become independent hereditary rulers, since all territories remained vested in the Austrian crown. Occasionally a territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet.

From the 16th century onward, archduke and its female form, archduchess, came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg (e.g., Queen Marie Antoinette of France was born Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria.

  • Rudolph II, son of Rudolph I, duke of Austria and Styria together with his brother 1282–1283, was dispossessed by his brother, who eventually would be murdered by one of Rudolph’s sons.
  • Albert I (Albrecht I), son of Rudolph I and brother of the above, duke from 1282–1308; was Holy Roman Emperor from 1298–1308. See also below.
  • Rudolph III, oldest son of Albert I, designated duke of Austria and Styria 1298–1307
  • Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne), brother of Rudolph III. Duke of Austria and Styria (with his brother Leopold I) from 1308–1330; officially co-regent of emperor Louis IV since 1325, but never ruled.
  • Leopold I, brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria from 1308–1326.
  • Albert II (Albrecht II), brother of the above, duke of Further Austria from 1326–1358, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1358, duke of Carinthia after 1335.
  • Otto the Jolly (der Fröhliche), brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1339 (together with his brother), duke of Carinthia after 1335.
  • Rudolph IV the Founder (der Stifter), oldest son of Albert II. Duke of Austria and Styria 1358–1365, Duke of Tirol after 1363.

After the death of Rudolph IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III ruled the Habsburg possessions together from 1365 until 1379, when they split the territories in the Treaty of Neuberg, Albert keeping the Duchy of Austria and Leopold ruling over Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Windic March, Tirol, and Further Austria.

Albertine line: Dukes of Austria[edit]

Ducal Hat of Styria.svg
  • Albert III (Albrecht III), duke of Austria until 1395, from 1386 (after the death of Leopold) until 1395 also ruled over the latter’s possessions.
  • Albert IV (Albrecht IV), duke of Austria 1395–1404, in conflict with Leopold IV.
  • Albert V (Albrecht V), duke of Austria 1404–1439, Holy Roman Emperor from 1438–1439 as Albert II. See also below.
  • Ladislaus Posthumus, son of the above, duke of Austria 1440–1457.

Leopoldine line: Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol[edit]

Ducal Hat of Styria.svg
Armoiries Habsbourg-Styrie.svg
  • Leopold III, duke of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Further Austria until 1386, when he was killed in the Battle of Sempach.
  • William (Wilhelm), son of the above, 1386–1406 duke in Inner Austria (Carinthia, Styria)
  • Leopold IV, son of Leopold III, 1391 regent of Further Austria, 1395–1402 duke of Tyrol, after 1404 also duke of Austria, 1406–1411 duke of Inner Austria

Leopoldine-Inner Austrian sub-line[edit]

Ducal Hat of Styria.svg

Leopoldine-Tyrol sub-line[edit]

Ducal Hat of Styria.svg
  • Frederick IV (Friedrich), brother of Ernst, 1402–1439 duke of Tyrol and Further Austria
  • Sigismund, also spelled Siegmund or Sigmund, 1439–1446 under the tutelage of the Frederick V above, then duke of Tyrol, and after the death of Albrecht VI in 1463 also duke of Further Austria.

Reuniting of Habsburg possessions[edit]

Sigismund had no children and adopted Maximilian I, son of duke Frederick V (emperor Frederick III). Under Maximilian, the possessions of the Habsburgs would be united again under one ruler, after he had re-conquered the Duchy of Austriaafter the death of Matthias Corvinus, who resided in Vienna and styled himself duke of Austria from 1485–1490.

King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors prior to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions[edit]

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg

Kings of Hungary and Bohemia prior to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions[edit]

Crown of Saint Stephen.svg
Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg

Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria[edit]

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg
Archducal Coronet.svg

The title Archduke of Austria, the one most famously associated with the Habsburgs, was invented in thePrivilegium Maius, a 14th-century forgery initiated by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. Originally, it was meant to denote the ruler of the (thus ‘Arch’)duchy of Austria, in an effort to put that ruler on par with the Prince-electors, as Austria had been passed over in the Golden Bull of 1356, when the electorships had been assigned. Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognize the title. Ladislaus the Posthumous, Duke of Austria, who died in 1457, was never in his lifetime authorized to use it, and accordingly, not he nor anyone in his branch of the dynasty ever used the title.

Duke Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title “archduke”. This title was only officially recognized in 1453 by his son, Emperor Frederick III, when the Habsburgs had (permanently) gained control of the office of the Holy Roman Emperor. Emperor Frederick III himself used just Duke of Austria, never Archduke, until his death in 1493.

Frederick’s son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, started to use the title, but apparently only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy (died 1482) as the title never appears in documents of joint Maximilian and Mary rule in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled Duke of Austria). The title appears first in documents of joint Maximilian and Philip(his under-age son) rule in the Low Countries. It only gained currency with Charles V and the descendants of his brother, the Emperor Ferdinand.

Titular Dukes of Burgundy, Lords of the Netherlands[edit]

Cross of Burgundy-Gules and Link.svg
Coat of Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg

The reigning duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian’s father Frederick III. Charles controlled not only Burgundy (both dukedom and county), but the wealthy and powerfulNetherlands, the real center of his power. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy’s expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire, and to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles’s only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian. After the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on the evening of 16 August 1477, after the death of Charles.[16] Mary and the Habsburgs lost the Duchy of Burgundy to France, but managed to defend and hold onto the rest what became the 17 provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. After Mary’s death in 1482, Maximilian acted as regent for his son:

  • Mary of Hungary, dowager queen of Hungary, sister of Charles V, governor of the Netherlands, 1531–1555 Blason marie de hongrie 4.svg Coat of Arms of Mary of Austria as Queen of Hungary.svg
  • Don John of Austria, illegitimate son of Charles V, victor of Lepanto, governor of the Netherlands, 1576–1578 Coat of Arms of John of Austria (1545-1578).svg

The Netherlands were frequently governed directly by a regent or governor-general, who was a collateral member of the Habsburgs. By the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 Charles V combined the Netherlands into one administrative unit, to be inherited by his son Philip II. Charles effectively united the Netherlands as one entity. The Habsburgs controlled the 17 Provinces of the Netherlands until the Dutch Revolt in the second half of the 16th century, when they lost the seven northern Protestant provinces. They held onto the southern Catholic part (roughly modern Belgium and Luxembourg) as the Spanish and Austrian Netherlands until they were conquered by French Revolutionary armies in 1795. The one exception to this was the period of (1601-1621), when shortly before Philip II died on 13 September 1598, he renounced his rights to the Netherlands in favor of his daughter Isabella and her fiancé, Archduke Albert of Austria, a younger son of Emperor Maximilian II. The territories reverted to Spain on the death of Albert in 1621, as the couple had no surviving offspring, and Isabella acted as regent-governor until her death in 1633:

King of England[edit]

Spanish Habsburgs: Kings of Spain, Kings of Portugal (1581–1640)[edit]

Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg

Coat of arms of Spanish Habsburgs (1581–1621 Version) showing the shield as kings of Portugal. Portugal regained its independence in 1640, and when Spain acknowledged this in 1668, it was removed.

The Habsburg Kingdom(s) of Spain were more a personal union of possessions of the Habsburg king and dynast, who was King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Valencia, sometime of Portugal, Naples and Sicily, Duke of Milan, and Lord of the Americas, as well as Duke of Brabant, Count of Flanders and Holland, Duke of Luxemburg (i.e. all the Habsburg Netherlands). A listing of a number of the titles can be seen here. The dynast (head of the Spanish Habsburgs, i.e. the King, showed this wide range of claims in his arms. There are many more variants of these arms in the Habsburg Armory, Spanish Section as well as coat of arms of the King of Spain, coat of arms of Spain, coat of arms of the Prince of Asturias, and coats of arms of Spanish Monarchs in Italy. The Spanish Habsburgs also kept up the Burgundian court tradition of the dynast being known by a “nickname” (e.g. the Bold, the Prudent, the Bewitched).[17] In Spain they were known as the ““Casa de Austria”, and illegitimate sons were known as “de Austria” (see Don Juan de Austria and Don Juan José de Austria).

  • Charles I 1516–1556, aka Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; divided the House into Austrian and Spanish lines The meanings of his arms are analyzed here. Arms of Charles II of Spain (1668-1700).svg Middle Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor-Middle (1530-1556).svg

The War of the Spanish Succession took place after the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line, to determine the inheritance of Charles II.

Spanish branch’s family tree with connections to Emperors’ branch

Austrian Habsburgs: Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria[edit]

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg
Crown of Saint Stephen.svg
Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg
Archducal Coronet.svg

The main junior line of the house ruled the Duchy of Austria, as well as the Kingdom of Bohemia and theKingdom of Hungary. The dynasty however was split up again in 1564 among the children of deceased Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg. The Inner Austrian line founded by Archduke Charles II prevailed again, when his son and successor as regent of Inner Austria (i.e. the Duchy of Styria, the Duchy of Carniola with March of Istria, the Duchy of Carinthia, the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, and the Imperial City of Trieste, ruled from Graz) Ferdinand II in 1619 became Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor as well as King of Bohemia and Hungary in 1620. The Further Austrian/Tyrolean line of Ferdinand’s brother ArchdukeLeopold V survived until the death of his son Sigismund Francis in 1665, whereafter their territories ultimately returned to common control with the other Austrian Habsburg lands. Inner Austrian stadtholders went on to rule until the days of Empress Maria Theresa in the 18th century.

The War of the Austrian Succession took place after the extinction of the male line of the Austrian Habsburg line upon the death of Charles VI. The direct Habsburg line itself became totally extinct with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria, when it was followed by the House of Lorraine, styled of Habsburg-Lorraine.

Holy Roman Emperors and their families

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria[edit]

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg
Crown of Saint Stephen.svg
Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg
Archducal Coronet.svg

Queen Maria Christina of Austria of Spain, great-granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor above. Wife of Alfonso XII of Spain and mother of Alfonso XIII of the House of Bourbon. Alfonso XIII’s wife Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was descended from King George I of Great Britain from the Habsburg Leopold Line {above}.

The House of Habsburg-Lorraine retained Austria and attached possessions after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; see below.

A son of Leopold II was Archduke Rainer of Austria whose wife was from the House of Savoy; a daughter Adelaide, Queen of Sardina was the wife of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia and King of Italy. Their Children married into the Royal Houses of Bonaparte; Saxe-Coburg and Gotha {Bragança} {Portugal}; Savoy {Spain}; and the Dukedoms of Montferrat and Chablis.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Emperors of Austria[edit]

Imperial Crown of Austria (Heraldry).svg
Wappen Habsburg-Lothringen Schild.svg

Small Coat of Arms of the Austrian Empire adopted by Francis I in 1804. On the center is the Small (personal) Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine adopted by Emperor Francis I. It shows (left to right) the arms of Habsburg, which had all but been abandoned in favor of Austria when the Habsburgs acquired Austria, the Arms of Austria, and the Arms of Lorraine.

  • Francis I, Emperor of Austria 1804–1835: formerly Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor Armoiries Léopold II Habsbourg Lorraine.svg Wappen Habsburg-Lothringen Schild.svg

(→Family Tree)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Grand dukes of Tuscany[edit]

Coat of arms of the House of Habsurg-Lorraine (Tuscany line).svg

Francis Stephen assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Tuscany line, post monarchy[edit]

House of Habsburg-Lorraine (Austria-Este): Dukes of Modena[edit]

The duchy of Modena was assigned to a minor branch of the family by the Congress of Vienna. It was lost to Italian unification. The Dukes named their line the House of Austria-Este, as they were descended from the daughter of the last D’Este Duke of Modena.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Modena line, post monarchy[edit]

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Empress consort of France[edit]

  • Marie Louise of Austria 1810–1814

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Duchess of Parma[edit]

The duchy of Parma was likewise assigned to a Habsburg, but did not stay in the House long before succumbing to Italian unification. It was granted to the second wife of Napoleon I of France, Maria Luisa Duchess of Parma, a daughter of theFrancis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the mother of Napoleon II of France. Napoleon had divorced his wife Rose de Tascher de la Pagerie (better known to history as Josephine de Beauharnais) in her favour.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Emperor of Mexico[edit]

Coat of Arms of the Mexican Empire adopted by Maximilian I in 1864

Maximilian, the adventurous second son of Archduke Franz Karl, was invited as part ofNapoleon III‘s manipulations to take the throne of Mexico, becoming Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The conservative Mexican nobility, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire. His consort, Charlotte of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold I of Belgiumand a princess of the House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, encouraged her husband’s acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Empress Carlota of Mexico. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in “Cerro de las Campanas” in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Juárez.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Heads of the House of Habsburg (post-monarchy)[edit]

Charles I was expelled from his domains after World War I and the empire was abolished.

Current personal arms of the head of the house of Habsburg, claiming only the personal title ofArchduke

see Line of succession to the Austro-Hungarian throne

Burials[edit]

Kings of Hungary[edit]

The kingship of Hungary remained in the Habsburg family for centuries; but as the kingship was not strictly inherited (Hungary was an elective monarchy until 1687) and was sometimes used as a training ground for young Habsburgs, as “Palatine” of Hungary, the dates of rule do not always match those of the primary Habsburg possessions. Therefore, the kings of Hungary are listed separately.

Crown of Saint Stephen.svg
Arms of Hungary.svg

Albertine line: Kings of Hungary[edit]

Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Hungary[edit]

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Hungary[edit]

Coa Hungary Country History Mid (1915).svg

Kings of Bohemia[edit]

Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg
Blason Boheme.svg

The kingship of Bohemia was from 1306 a position elected by its nobles.[citation needed] As a result, it was not an automatically inherited position. Until rule of the Ferdinand I Habsburgs didn’t gain hereditary accession to the throne and were shifted by other dynasties. Hence, the kings of Bohemia and their ruling dates are listed separately.

Main line[edit]

Albertine line: Kings of Bohemia[edit]

Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Bohemia[edit]

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Bohemia[edit]

From the accession of Maria Theresa, the kingship of Bohemia became united with the Austrian possessions.

Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire[edit]

The arms of dominion began to take on a life of their own in the 19th century as the idea of the state as independent from the Habsburg dynasty took root. They are the national arms as borne by a sovereign in his capacity as head of state and represent the state as separate from the person of the monarch or his dynasty. That very idea had been, here to fore, foreign to the concept of the Habsburg state. The state had been the personal property of the Habsburg dynast. Since the states, territories, and nationalities represented were in many cases only united to the Austro-Hungarian Empire by their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg as hereditary lord, these full (“grand”) arms of dominion of Austria-Hungary reflect the complex political infrastructure that was necessarily to accommodate the many different nationalities and groupings within the empire after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

Shield of the Austrian part of the empire (1867–1915).

Enumeration

After 1867 the eastern part of the empire, also calledTransleithania, was mostly under the domination of theKingdom of Hungary. The shield integrated the arms of the kingdom of Hungary, with two angels and supporters and the crown of St. Stephen, along with the territories that were subject to it:

The Kingdom of Dalmatia, the Kingdom of Croatia, theKingdom of Slavonia (conjoined with Croatia as the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia – formally known as the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, although the claim to Dalmatia was mostly de jure), the Great Principality of Transylvania, the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina(1915-1918), the City of Fiume and its district (modernRijeka), and in the center, the Kingdom of Hungary.

The western or Austrian part of the empire, Cisleithania, continued using the shield of the Empire in 1815 but with the seals of various member territories located around the central shield. Paradoxically, some of these coats of arms belonged to the territories that were part of the Hungarian part of the empire and shield. This shield, the most frequently used until 1915, was known as the middle shield. There was also the small shield, with just the personal arms of the Habsburgs, as used in 1815.

I II III IV V
Coa Hungary Country History (19th Century).svg Wappen Königreich Galizien & Lodomerien.png Wappen Erzherzogtum Österreich unter der Enns.png Wappen Herzogtum Salzburg.png Wappen Herzogtum Steiermark.png
Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Archduchy of Austria Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Styria
VI VII VIII
Wappen Gefürstete Grafschaft Tirol.png Wappen Herzogtum Kärnten.png Wappen Herzogtum Krain.png Wappen Markgrafschaft Mähren.png Wappen Herzogtum Schlesien.png
Duchy of Tirol Duchy of Carinthia andDuchy of Carniola(Marshalled) Margraviate of Moraviaand Duchy of Silesia(Marshalled)
IX X XI
Wappen Großfürstentum Siebenbürgen.png CoA of Kingdom of Illyria.svg Wappen Königreich Böhmen.png
Great Principality of Transylvania Kingdom of Illyria Kingdom of Bohemia

Version of 1915[edit]

In 1915, in the middle of World War I, Austria-Hungary adopted a heraldic composition uniting the shield that was used in the Hungarian part, also known as the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, with a new version of the medium shield of the Austrian part as depicted above in the section on the main line of the Emperors of Austria.

Before 1915, the arms of the different territories of the Austrian part of the Empire (heraldry was added to some areas not shown in the previous version and to the left to the Hungarian part) appeared together in the shield positioned on the double-headed eagle coat of arms of the Austrian Empire as an inescutcheon. The eagle was inside a shield with a gold field. The latter shield was supported by two griffins and was topped by the Austrian Imperial Crown (previously these items were included only in the large shield). Then, shown in the center of both arms of dominion, as an inescutcheon to the inescutcheon, is the small shield, i.e. personal arms, of the Habsburgs. All this was surrounded by the collar Order of the Golden Fleece[19][20]

Middle Coat of arms of the Austrian part of the Empire in 1915. It shows as a center shield (inescutcheon) the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine over the arms of dominions of the Habsburg lands. It usually had the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine in the center.

In the heraldic composition of 1915, the shields of the two foci of the empire, Austria and Hungary, were brought together. The griffin supporter on the left was added for Austria and an angel on the right as a supporter for Hungary. The center featured the personal arms of the Habsburgs (Habsburg, Austria and Lorraine). This small shield was topped with a royal crown and surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, below which was the Military Order of Maria Theresa, below which was the collars of the Orders of St. Stephen’s and Leopold. At the bottom was the motto that read “AC INDIVISIBILITER INSEPARABILITER” (“indivisible and inseparable”). There were other simplified versions which did not have the supports depicted, and the simple shields of Austria and Hungary. These were the arms of the Empire of Austria with an inescutcheon of Austria, and the Arms of Hungary (with chequer of Croatia at the tip).

Middle Common Coat of Arms of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1915 showing most of the larger possessions of the Austrian Empire (left shield) and the Kingdom of Hungary (right shield). The personal arms of the Habsburg-Lorraines is in the center. The collection of territories that acknowledged the head of the Habsburgs as personal ruler shown by this representation put the Empire at a distinct disadvantage in comparison with the unified nation states that it shared the continent of Europe with.

Austrian Lands
Shield Partition Territory
Austrian shield.jpgWappen Österreichische Länder 1915 (Mittel) Numbers.png I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
XVI
XVII
XVIII
XIX
XX
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia
Duchy of Salzburg
Margraviate of Moravia
County of Tirol
Duchy of Bukovina
Province of Vorarlberg
Margraviate of Istria
County of Gorizia (part of the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca)
County of Gradisca (also part of the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca)
Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Conjoined)
Imperial Free City of Trieste
Archduchy of Lower Austria
Archduchy of Upper Austria
Duchy of Styria
Duchy of Carniola
Duchy of Carinthia
Archduchy of Austria
Territories of the crown of St. Stephen
Shield Partition Territory
Coa Hungary Country History Mid (1915).svgWappen Ungarische Länder 1915 (Mittel) Numbers.png I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
Kingdom of Dalmatia (Hungarian portion)
Kingdom of Croatia
Kingdom of Slavonia
Grand Principality of Transylvania
Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Conjoined)
City of Fiume and its district
Kingdom of Hungary
Personal Shield of they Dynasty
Shield Partition Significance
Wappen Habsburg-Lothringen Schild.svg I
II
III
Count of Habsburg
Archduke of Austria
Duke of Lorraine

Gallery[edit]

Wappen Ungarische Länder 1867 (Mittel).png Coa Hungary Country History med (1915).svg Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
Arms of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (1867–1915) Arms of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (1915–1918) Small Arms of Austria (Cisleithania)(1805–1918)
Wappen Österreichische Länder 1915 (Klein).png Wappen Kaiser Franz Joseph I.png Wappen Österreich-Ungarn 1916 (Klein).png
Simple Arms of Cisleithania (1915–1918) Personal Arms of the Emperor Franz Josef(1848–1916) Simple Arms of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire. (1915–1918)

See also[edit]

Notes