Going Viral

Is Ebola Here to Stay?

Kisses are at a premium in the capital of Liberia. Even a hug or a handshake between friends is often out of the question. That’s the new normal ever since Ebola began ravaging communities throughout Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. For much of the past year, residents of these west African countries have wondered if daily life will ever be able to return to the way things once were. And at the heart of the matter is a scientific question: has Ebola now found a permanent foothold among humans? The answer, however, is not easy to suss out. In fact, it’s a guessing game. Even for top scientists.

In public health terminology the word used to describe this kind of health threat is “endemic.” The term describes any malady that routinely crops up without having to be reintroduced from an outside source—either imported from another country or another species. The flu, for example, is endemic in the U.S. because various strains reappear the following year without any trouble. Yet the many Ebola outbreaks of the past 40 years are not referred to as endemic because the original source of the infection in each case is widely believed to be an animal that somehow infected a human.

Changing the technical description of the current outbreak from epidemic to endemic is more than a matter of semantics. The difference between responding to an epidemic versus an endemic disease is as great as the difference between preparing for a sprint versus a marathon. A sprint requires a massive surge of effort after which the runner can recover. A marathon, like endemic Ebola, requires an entirely different mindset and extensive resources to go the distance. Failure to prepare for a marathon leaves a runner puffing shortly into the race. And failure to prepare for endemic Ebola results in a higher body count than might otherwise occur. But a premature shift to prepping for endemic Ebola could also result in a higher body count by crippling the short-term response; it would rob responders of the emergency beds and equipment needed to tamp down the massive viral surge still plaguing west Africa. Consequently, wary top health officials must draw up blueprints for the current crisis while eyeing the unpredictable road ahead.

When it comes to Ebola, “To say it is endemic is, in one sense, to admit failure,” says Christopher Dye, who serves as director of strategy in the office of the director general at the World Health Organization. “Our goal, and our expectation, is that we will eliminate infection from the human population,” he says. But there is no firm cutoff for a time period or series of symptoms that would demarcate the line between Ebola transmission as a perpetual threat or just a virus that is taking too long to extinguish.

From the time Ebola was first recognized in 1976 until this past year the virus never managed to gain much ground. All of the prior outbreaks were located in such remote areas that the combination of fast action and the relative isolation of the communities allowed the outbreaks to remain contained. But following that same strategy in the current case was impossible because the outbreak occurred in the more populous intersection of three countries and quickly escalated to dwarf every earlier Ebola outbreak. Left unchecked, Ebola would have been even more devastating for west Africa and beyond. But since Ebola still managed to ravage so many communities in west Africa its longevity raises questions about when or if Ebola will be considered endemic.

But where did Ebola come from in the first place? The virus did not appear out of thin air. Most virologists think the outbreaks are the result of a spillover from one or more animals that naturally carry the virus. One leading theory is that humans have contracted Ebola by consuming infected fruit bats. Multiple research groups have theorized bats are behind the disease, partly because a closely related malady, Marburg disease, has been linked to bats. Endemic Ebola, however, could cut out the need to encounter an infected animal altogether. Instead, Ebola would continue to readily spread between humans since there would always be low levels of the virus in the population.

Dye first sounded the alarm of a future with endemic Ebola in a New England Journal of Medicine article in September. For the first time, he wrote, scientists must “face the possibility that [Ebola Virus Disease] will become endemic among the human population of west Africa, a prospect that has never previously been contemplated.” In a recent interview with Scientific American he spelled out what he meant: “I think the reason we have used the word endemic in the first instance is to emphasize that the persistence of transmission has been a lot longer than anything we’ve seen before,” he says. But it could also be used to point to the need for an entirely different kind of response, one that would hinge on addressing the virus beyond an exponential growth phase, “where we get the virus to low levels in the population and there will be a different kind of response. Then we might use the word endemic there too,” he says.

Ebola expert Daniel Bausch, who has worked to quash Ebola during planning sessions in Geneva and on the ground in west Africa, unequivocally says that the epidemic that has led to more than 20,000 cases and 7,000 deaths is not at risk of becoming endemic in humans. Endemic Ebola, he says, would involve “long-standing perpetual transmission of Ebola virus in the area.” And although Ebola has ravaged west Africa since early 2014, the virus, he says, is on the correct path to be stamped out. An area would be considered Ebola-free after no new cases of Ebola appear for 42 days, twice the maximum incubation period for Ebola virus disease. Ebola may still crop up sporadically in the years to come, Bausch says, but “I think ultimately we will eventually get a handle on this, wait 42 days and call this outbreak over, so it is not fair to consider it endemic.”

Yet grappling with how to get answers to this endemic question through knowable, testable research is murky at best. As Bausch says, “What’s the difference between a big long outbreak that takes a long time to control and endemic disease?” The very characteristics of Ebola that make it so lethal also simultaneously block it from becoming a strong candidate to be endemic. Since Ebola kills pretty readily, for example, it doesn’t have the opportunity like HIV to pass itself on. And there’s no chronic carrier of this virus who appears to harbor the virus even after it has been eliminated from a community. Ebola can take months to be cleared from certain protected sites in the body like the gonads, but that’s not like HIV, which has true abilities to survive for years in the body and mount a resurgence if a patient stops taking medications to suppress the amount of virus circulating in the body.

Genetic sequencing can allow scientists to start answering questions about where the virus is coming from – say if Ebola was clearly just being passed from one person to the next or if the virus was being repeatedly introduced to communities from an outside source, likely an animal. One such study published in Science this summer concluded that so far Ebola circulating in Sierra Leone does not appear to haveoriginated from multiple reintroductions of the virus. Rather, by sequencing 99 Ebola virus genome sequences of the majority of Ebola patients in Sierra Leone this past spring the group found that all the cases were traceable to a “patient zero” of Ebola in the community. Yet if there was continuous reintroduction of the same strain of the virus from animals to humans there may not be significant enough mutations to detect what was happening and it could appear to be a continuous chain of transmission, cautions Gary Kobinger, head of the special pathogens program at the Public Health Agency of Canada. And if the virus, hypothetically, somehow adapted to the human population and became less aggressive over time then perhaps that would provide an early sign of endemicity, he says. But tracing that evolution would prove quite challenging. Still, top Ebola experts are not ready to start calling Ebola endemic, at least not yet.

One thing is certain: If Ebola is still persisting a year from now, “The whole response will need to be integrated back into the health system,” says Dye. Although changes to the Ebola response – like creating isolation units at hospitals in west Africa – are under active discussion, no plans are being made right now because the focus still needs to be on the emergency response, he says. Yet if Ebola does become truly endemic – perpetuating itself through the human population – that’s what would be needed. For starters, local health infrastructure would have to be significantly shored up to face such a harsh and long-standing threat. And health officials would need to be ready to immediately transport Ebola patients from one part of the country to isolation wards in another part of the country, says Dye.

The end result would need to look much more like the health care system in the U.S. or western Europe. In those locations dangerous infectious viruses appear relatively rarely and affected patients are placed in special isolation units at hospitals. That setup would be a significant financial and logistical undertaking for African nations, vastly different from the stand-alone specialized Ebola treatment units that currently accommodate hundreds of patients at a time. Gregory Taylor, the chief public health officer of Canada, states that the public health infrastructure build-up would also mean expanding west African lab capacities, something Canada has already been assisting with. And if low levels of Ebola manage to persist throughout 2015, Dye says, such infrastructure actions will need to be taken. After all, underestimating the power of Ebola to spread across west Africa is how the virus was able to flourish in the first place.

Are the Islamic State (ISIS) terrorists making good on their recent threat to spread Ebola?

ISIS fighters allegedly ‘have contracted Ebola’: World Health Organization investigating reports militants showed up at Iraqi hospital with the lethal disease.

UK Daily Mail  (h/t Susan K) According to three media outlets an undisclosed number of militants displaying signs of the disease attended a hospital in the ISIS-held city of Mosul,  250 miles north of Baghdad.

Screen-Shot-2014-09-30-at-4.14.48-PM

While the reports, from Kurdish and pro-Iraqi sources, remain unconfirmed, WHO spokesman Christy Feig said the group are trying to reach out to officials in ISIS-held areas to offer help. UN workers are currently banned from entering ISIS-controlled areas in both Iraq and Syria so it is unlikely an operation in the region could be carried out.

Mosul has been under control of ISIS since June 2014 and over the past few weeks militants have reportedly executed more than a dozen doctors for refusing to treat injured fighters.

According to a report in Iraq’s pro-government newspaper, al Sabaah, the disease was brought to Mosul by ‘terrorists’ arriving ‘from several countries’ and Africa.

The reports have appeared in pro-government and Kurdish media but if true it could have catastrophic implications for people in ISIS-held areas as the group is against western science and medicine. It is not known if any of the surviving doctors in Mosul are equipped to test for Ebola or trained to treat patients and prevent the spread of the disease.

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Year in review 2014

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2014 (MMXIV) is the current year, and is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar(dominical letter E), the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium, the 14th year of the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

By the United Nations, 2014 is designated the:

 Horus of the horizon 2014
stuff that happen in 2014
Islamic terror attack

Global search

1.Robin Williams

2.World Cup

3.Ebola

4.Malaysia Airlines

5.ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

6.Flappy Bird

7.Conchita Wurst

8.ISIS

9.Frozen

10.Sochi Olympics

Global news

1.Ebola

2.ISIS

3.Malaysia Airlines

4.Crimea / Ukraine

5.Ferguson

6.Gaza and Israel

7.Scotish Referendum

8.Oscar Pistorius trial

US

1 Robin Williams

2.World Cup

3.Ebola

4.Malaysia Airlines

5.Flappy Bird

6.ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

7.ISIS

8.Ferguson

9.Frozen

10.Ukraine

 Natural Disaster

1.Hurricane Arthur

2.Chile Earthquake

3.Napa Earthquake

4.Hurricane Iselle

5.Oso Mudslide

6.Hurricane Odile

7.Arkansas Tornado

8.Hurricane Julio

9.Alaska Earthquake

10.Hurricane Ana

 People

1.Jennifer Lawrence

2.Kim Kardashian

3.Tracy Morgan

4.Ray Rice

5.Tony Stewart

6.Iggy Azalea

7.Donald Sterling

8.Adrian Peterson

9.Rene Zellweger

10.Jared Leto

 Pregnancies

1.Mila Kunis

2.Ciara

3.Kourtney Kardashian

4.Kate Middleton

5.Kerry Washington

6.Carrie Underwood

7.Scarlett Johansson

8.Hayden Panettiere

9.Blake Lively

10.Eva Mendes

 Losses of 2014

1.Robin Williams

2.Joan Rivers

3.Philip Seymour Hoffman

4.Maya Angelou

5.Jan Hooks

6.Harold Ramis

7.Shirley Temple

8.Lauren Bacall

9.Mickey Rooney

10.James Avery

University & Colleague

1Università degli Studi eCampus

The eCampus University, often simply abbreviated as “Uniecampus” is a private university founded in 2006 in Novedrate, Italy.

#170 most searched

2University of Mississippi

The University of Mississippi is a public, coeducational research university in Oxford, Mississippi, United States.

#28 most searched

3California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona is a public polytechnic university located in Pomona, California, United States.

#183 most searched

4Mississippi State University

The Mississippi State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, commonly known as Mississippi State University, is…Wikipedia

#104 most searched

5Florida State University

The Florida State University is a space-grant and sea-grant public research university located in the state capital city…Wikipedia

#8 most searched

6Indiana University Bloomington

Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university located in Bloomington, Indiana, United States.

#37 most searched

7Tidewater Community College

Tidewater Community College, also known as “TCC,” is a two-year higher education institution in South Hampton Roads with…Wikipedia

#190 most searched

8Louisiana State University

Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College is a public coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana…Wikipedia

#19 most searched

9University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut is a public research university in the U.S. state of Connecticut.

#34 most searched

10Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University is a public, state-related research university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

#1 most searched

Scientist

1Stephen Wolfram

Stephen Wolfram is a scientist and technologist known for his contributions to theoretical physics, for his pioneering.

#2 most searched

2Haruko Obokata

Haruko Obokata is a Japanese stem-cell biologist and the Research Unit Leader of the Laboratory for Cellular Reprogramming.

#117 most searched

3Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research.

#3 most searched

4Dorothy Hodgkin

Dorothy Mary Hodgkin, OM, FRS, known professionally as Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin or simply Dorothy Hodgkin, was a British…Wikipedia

#59 most searched

5Mary Anning

Mary Anning was a British fossil collector, dealer, and palaeontologist who became known around the world for important.

#61 most searched

6Percy Lavon Julian

Percy Lavon Julian was an American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants.

#56 most searched

7John Eleuthère du Pont

John Eleuthère du Pont was a convicted murderer, an American multimillionaire, and member of the prominent du Pont family.

#60 most searched

8Peter Higgs

Peter Ware Higgs CH FRS FRSE is a British theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize laureate and emeritus professor at the.

#58 most searched

9Jonas Salk

Jonas Edward Salk was an American medical researcher and virologist. He discovered and developed the first successful.

#26 most searched

10Dian Fossey

Dian Fossey was an American zoologist, primatologist, and anthropologist who undertook an extensive study of gorilla groups.

#41 most searched

 Actors

1.Jared Leto

2.Matthew McConaughey

3.Macaulay Culkin

4.Chris Pratt

5.Theo James

6.Ansel Elgort

7.Jamie Dornan

8.Alfonso Ribeiro

9.James McAvoy

10.Laurence Fishburne

 Actresses

1.Jennifer Lawrence

2.Renee Zellweger

3.Betty White

4.Ellen Page

5.Kim Novak

6.Margot Robbie

7.Jacqueline Bisset

8.Lena Dunham

9.Melanie Griffith

10.Lea Thompson

 Athletes

1.Ray Rice

2.Adrian Peterson

3.Richard Sherman

4.Paul George

5.Carmelo Anthony

6.Derek Jeter

7.Johnny Manziel

8.Russell Wilson

9.Tony Gwynn

10.Tim Howard

 Politicians

1.Barack Obama

2.Chris Christie

3.Rand Paul

4.Rick Perry

5.Ted Cruz

6.Joe Biden

7.Elizabeth Warren

8.Scott Walker

9.Paul Ryan

10.Harry Reid

Us Governor

1Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-born American actor, filmmaker, activist, businessman, investor, writer,.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Chris Christie

Christopher James “Chris” Christie is the 55th Governor of New Jersey and a leading member of the Republican Party.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

3Rick Perry

James Richard “Rick” Perry is an American politician who is the 47th and current Governor of Texas.

+2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

4Jesse Ventura

James George Janos, better known by his stage name, Jesse Ventura, is an American politician, actor, author, naval veteran..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

5Andrew Cuomo

Andrew Mark Cuomo is an American politician who is the 56th and current Governor of New York.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

6Scott Walker

Scott Kevin Walker is an American Republican Party politician who is the 45th Governor of Wisconsin.

+5 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

7Rick Scott

Richard Lynn “Rick” Scott is an American businessman and politician who has been the 45th Governor of Florida since 2011.

+5 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

8Jeb Bush

John Ellis “Jeb” Bush served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007. He is the second son of former President George H.

+8 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Bob McDonnell

Robert Francis “Bob” McDonnell is a former American politician. He was the 71st Governor of Virginia.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

10Jerry Brown

Edmund Gerald “Jerry” Brown, Jr. is an American politician who currently serves as the 39th Governor of California since..

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

11Charlie Crist

Charles Joseph “Charlie” Crist, Jr. is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th Governor of Florida from 2007 to 2011.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

12Mike Huckabee

Michael Dale “Mike” Huckabee is an American politician who served as the 44th Governor of Arkansas..

-2 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

13Kathleen Sebelius

Kathleen Sebelius is an American politician who served as the 21st United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.

-6 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

14Bobby Jindal

Piyush “Bobby” Jindal is an American politician who is the 55th and current Governor of Louisiana and the Vice Chairman.

+4 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

15George Wallace

George Corley Wallace, Jr. was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive..

+2 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

16Pat Quinn

Patrick Joseph “Pat” Quinn III is an American politician who is the 41st and current Governor of Illinois.

New in chart

17Mark Warner

Mark Robert Warner is an American politician and the senior United States Senator from Virginia, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

18Jan Brewer

Janice Kay “Jan” Brewer is the 22nd Governor of the U.S. state of Arizona, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

19Huey Long

Huey Pierce Long, Jr., nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana.

New in chart

20Tom Corbett

Thomas Wingett “Tom” Corbett, Jr. is an American politician who is the 46th and current Governor of Pennsylvania.

New in chart

Books

1.Boy, Snow, Bird

2.Blood Will Out

3.Savage Harvest: A Tale of Cannibals. Colonialism and Michael Rockefeller’s Tragic Quest for Primitive Art

4.City of Heavenly Fire

5.Flash Boys

6.The Invention of Wings

7.All the Light We Cannot See

8.Words of Radiance

9.Yes Please

10.Capital in the Twenty First Century

 TV Shows

1.Game of Thrones

2.True Detective

3.Orange is the New Black

4.The Following

5.American Horror Story

6.Gotham

7.South Park

8.House of Cards

9.Outlander

10.The 100

Movie trailer

1.Gone Girl trailer

2.Interstellar trailer

3.Divergent trailer

4.Frozen trailer

5.The Lego Movie trailer

6.The Avengers 2 trailer

7.Godzilla trailer

8.The Hunger Games: Mockingjay Part 1 trailer

9.Annabelle trailer

10.Maleficent trailer

Movie

1.Frozen

2.Interstellar

3.Divergent

4.Gone Girl

5.Lone Survivor

6.Godzilla

7.22 Jump Street

8.Big Hero 6

9.Annabelle

10.Maleficent

Music Artist

1.Iggy Azalea

2.Lorde

3.Sam Smith

4.Meghan Trainor

5.Solange Knowles

6.Nicki Minaj

7.Weird Al

8.Sia

9.Daft Punk

10.Taylor Swift

 Song lyrics

1.Say Something lyrics

2.Anaconda lyrics

3.Fancy lyrics

4.Happy lyrics

5.Blank Space lyrics

6.Royals lyrics

7.Dark Horse lyrics

8.Bang Bang lyrics

9.Counting Stars lyrics

10.Wrecking Ball lyrics

 Music festivals

1.Coachella

2.Mysteryland

3.Boston Calling

4.Hard Summer

5.Electric Forest

6.Firefly Music Festival

7.Austin City Limits

8.South by Southwest

9.Outside Lands

10.Fun Fun Fun Fest

 Beers

1.Budweiser

2.Corona

3.Keystone

4.Miller

5.Blue Moon

6.Coors

7.Bud Light

8.PBR

9.Modelo

10.Sierra Nevada

 Video Games

1.Destiny

2.Titanfall

3.Watch Dogs

4.ArcheAge

5.Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare

6.Madden 15

7.Mario Kart 8

8.Dragon Age Inquisition

9.Battlefield Hardline

10.League of Angels

Cars

1.Ford

2.Jeep

3.Dodge

4.Toyota

5.General Motors

6.Subaru

7.Honda

8.Nissan

9.BMW

10.Tesla

Countries

1Ukraine

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the largest country entirely within Europe…Wikipedia

#18 most searched

2Korea

Korea, called Hanguk in South Korea and Joseon in North Korea, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct…Wikipedia

#36 most searched

3Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its..

#22 most searched

4Indonesia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia and Oceania..

#30 most searched

5Iraq

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia that borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east,.

#35 most searched

6Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#17 most searched

7Qatar

Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign Arab country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar.

#69 most searched

8Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea..

#15 most searched

9Bermuda

Bermuda, also referred to in legal documents as the Bermudas or Somers Isles, is a British Overseas Territory in the North.

#59 most searched

10Palestine

Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

#109 most searched

Cities

1Sochi

Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia..

#152 most searched

2Sonoma

Sonoma is a historically significant city in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, United States, surrounding its.

#135 most searched

3Manchester

Manchester is a city in Greater Manchester with a population of 514,417 in 2013; it lies within the United Kingdom’s second..

#124 most searched

4Kansas City

Kansas City or K.C. is the most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Missouri.

#35 most searched

5Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#79 most searched

6Cleveland

Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state…Wikipedia

#28 most searched

7Green Bay

Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the State of Wisconsin, located at the head of Green Bay,

#73 most searched

8Saint Paul

Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the state of Minnesota. As of 2013, the city’s estimated population was 294,873..

#128 most searched

9Dallas

Dallas is a major city in Texas and is one of the two urban centers of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the…Wikipedia

#5 most searched

10Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

#114 most searched

Energy Company

1Duke Energy

Duke Energy, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is the largest electric power holding company in the United States..

+1 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

9 years in top 10

2Chevron

Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. Headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active…Wikipedia

+3 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3National Grid plc

National Grid plc is a British multinational electricity and gas utility company headquartered in London, United Kingdom…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

4BP

BP plc, sometimes referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company…Wikipedia

-3 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Florida Power & Light

Florida Power & Light Company, the principal subsidiary of NextEra Energy Inc., commonly referred to by its initials, FPL…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

7Xcel Energy

Xcel Energy Inc. is a utility holding company based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, serving more than 3.3 million electric…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

8ExxonMobil

Exxon Mobil Corp., or ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas, United States…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

9Public Service Enterprise Group

Public Service Enterprise Group, founded as the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and later renamed Public Service…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

10Consolidated Edison

Consolidated Edison, Inc., commonly known as Con Edison or Con Ed, is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

Financial company

1Wells Fargo

Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational banking and financial services holding company which is headquartered..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Bank of America

Bank of America is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Chase

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase, is a national bank that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

4Capital One

Capital One Financial Corporation is a U.S.-based bank holding company specializing in credit cards, home loans, auto..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5American Express

The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Citibank

Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational Citigroup.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7PNC Financial Services

PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. is an American financial services corporation, with assets of approximately $271.2 billion.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

8USAA

The United Services Automobile Association is a Texas-based Fortune 500 diversified financial services group of companies.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Fidelity Investments

FMR LLC or Fidelity Investments is an American multinational financial services corporation…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

10State Farm Insurance

State Farm is a group of insurance and financial services companies in the United States. The company also has operations in Canada.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

Retail company

1Amazon.com

Amazon.com, Inc. is an American international electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, United States.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Walmart

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., branded as Walmart, is an American multinational retail corporation that operates chains of large.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Target Corporation

Target Corporation is an American retailing company, founded in 1902 and headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

New in chart

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

4The Home Depot

The Home Depot is an American retailer of home improvement and construction products and services.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Best Buy

Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics corporation headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Lowe’s

Lowe’s is an American chain of retail home improvement and appliance stores that has retail stores in the United States,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7Costco

Costco Wholesale Corporation is an American membership-only warehouse club that provides a wide selection of merchandise.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

8Walgreens

The Walgreen Company is the largest drug retailing chain in the United States. As of May 31, 2014, the company operated.

+2 since last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

9J. C. Penney

  1. C. Penney Company Inc., known as JCPenney, is a chain of American mid-range department stores based in Plano, Texas..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

10Toys “R” Us

Toys “R” Us, Inc. is an American toy and juvenile-products retailer founded in 1948 and headquartered in Wayne, New Jersey…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

Medicine

1Advil

Advil is a brand of ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Advil is manufactured by Pfizer and has been on the market since 1984.

#53 most searched

2Tylenol

Tylenol is an American brand of drugs advertised for reducing pain, reducing fever, and relieving the symptoms of allergies.

#7 most searched

3Triamcinolone acetonide

Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various skin conditions, to relieve the discomfort of.

#122 most searched

4Anxiolytic

An anxiolytic is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents…Wikipedia

#131 most searched

5Adderall

Adderall is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention deficit.

#2 most searched

6Cortisone

Cortisone is a 21-carbon steroid hormone. It is one of the main hormones released by the adrenal gland in response to stress..

#72 most searched

7Tums

Tums is an antacid made of sucrose and calcium carbonate manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

#133 most searched

8Gabapentin

Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant and analgesic drug. It was originally developed to treat epilepsy, and is currently also..

#14 most searched

9Triamcinolone

Triamcinolone is a long-acting synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.

#70 most searched

10Insulin

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

#37 most searched

Animals

1Pig

A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates.

#10 most searched

2Bear

Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds.

#6 most searched

3Ape

Apes are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid catarrhine primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia and distinguished.

#64 most searched

4Pony

A pony is a small horse. Depending on context, a pony may be a horse that is under an approximate or exact height at the.

#42 most searched

5Eagle

Eagle is a common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae; it belongs to several groups of genera.

#32 most searched

6Lion

The lion is one of the five big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae.

#11 most searched

7Turkey

The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.

#12 most searched

8Dolphin

Dolphins are cetacean mammals closely related to whales and porpoises. There are almost forty species of dolphin in 17 genera.

#29 most searched

9Duck

Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese.

#16 most searched

10Bison

Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and four extinct species are recognized.

#131 most searched

Chemical weapon

1Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen.

#4 most searched

2Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, less reactive than its.

#19 most searched

3Lithium

Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali.

#22 most searched

4Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series.

#3 most searched

5Carbon

Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is.

#5 most searched

6Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a bright yellow dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal.

#1 most searched

7Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal and.

#9 most searched

8Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It is the lightest pnictogen and at room temperature,

#16 most searched

9Krypton

Krypton is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 elements.

#49 most searched

10Thorium

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only.

#46 most searched

Space object

1Moon

The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. Although not the largest natural satellite in the Solar System, it is, among.

#1 most searched

267P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko, officially designated 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko and sometimes shortened to 67P/C-G, is a.

#35 most searched

3Io

Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter. It is the fourth-largest moon and has the highest…Wikipedia

#15 most searched

4Ceres

Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

#16 most searched

5Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fourth-largest planet by diameter.

#10 most searched

6Europa

Europa, is the sixth-closest moon of the planet Jupiter, and the smallest of its four Galilean satellites, but still the.

#13 most searched

7Alpha Lupi

Alpha Lupi is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Lupus. According to the Bortle Dark-Sky Scale, the.

#61 most searched

8Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

#4 most searched

9Pluto

Pluto is the largest object in the Kuiper belt, and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun.

#8 most searched

10Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has no natural satellite.

#5 most searched

Events

January

February

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October

November

December[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 2014
Further information: Category:2014 deaths
Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

In fiction

German Medics Report on Drug Success for Ebola Patient

German doctors on Friday gave details of how an experimental drug together with advanced intensive care helped save a Ugandan physician who had been airlifted from Sierra Leone with Ebola.

A prototype drug called FX06, designed to stop hemorrhage, was given to the patient after the doctors got special authorization from their hospital’s ethics committee, they reported in The Lancet.

“Even though the patient was critically ill, we were able to support him long enough for his body to start antibody production and for the virus to be cleared by his body’s defenses,” said Timo Wolf of University Hospital Frankfurt.

The Frankfurt team and the makers of the experimental drug had announced its use in early November.

Publication in The Lancet, a leading peer-reviewed medical journal, validates this announcement.

The unnamed 38-year-old male doctor had been airlifted to Frankfurt in early October, five days after the onset of Ebola symptoms, and admitted to a Biosafety 4 facility, the highest level of medical security, the study said.

Within three days of admission, he was suffering from failure of the lungs, kidneys and gastro-intestinal tract, as well as haemorrhaging blood vessels, a hallmark of Ebola infection.

He was placed on a ventilator and kidney dialysis and administered with antibiotics and a three-day course of FX06.

Called a fibrin-derived peptide, FX06 is designed to seal off the walls of blood vessels, which become permeable when infected by a haemorrhagic virus.

The peptide works by binding to the surface of endothelial cells, which form the inner cell layer of blood vessels. It latches onto the cells via a target called VE-cadherin.

The drug was invented at Vienna General Hospital and is made by a small Austrian firm called MChE-F4Pharma.

It had previously been tested on lab mice infected with the dengue virus and was also put through a trial among 234 European patients to assess its potential for limiting damage to cardiac tissue after a heart attack.

The combination of intensive care and the drug helped the Ugandan patient to stabilize and then recover, the doctors reported.

After a 30-day observation period, no trace of Ebola was found in his blood, and he was released from hospital to return to his family.

But the Lancet study also reported that shortly after this case, another Ebola patient with acute Ebola and haemorrhage was treated with FX06 at a hospital in the eastern Germany city of Leipzig, but died.

Treating Ebola cases in intensive care is a task with “complexity and specific challenges,” it warned.

FX06 is “a potentially valuable therapeutic candidate” for fighting the disease, the authors said, calling for the drug to be assessed in clinical trials.

More than 6,900 people have died in the latest Ebola epidemic, which is centered on the west African states of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the World Health Organization (WHO) said on Wednesday.

Sierra Leone’s leading doctor dies of Ebola

Sierra Leone’s leading doctor died of Ebola on Thursday, hours after the arrival in the country of an experimental drug that could have been used to treat him, the government’s chief medical officer said.

Victor Willoughby was diagnosed with Ebola last week after he treated a man with organ-related problems. The patient, a senior banker, was later diagnosed with Ebola and has since died.

The drug, ZMab, was transported in frozen form on a BrusselsAirlines flight that arrived overnight. Before it could thaw, Willoughby’s condition deteriorated, said chief medical officer Brima Kargbo.

His death brings to 12 the number of Sierra Leone doctors to have contracted the virus. Eleven have died. In all, 142 health workers have been infected with the disease in the West African country and 109 have died, according to World Health Organization figures.

Sierra Leone, neighboring Guinea and Liberia are at the heart of the world’s worst recorded outbreak of Ebola. Rates of infection are rising fastest in Sierra Leone, which now accounts for more than half of the 18,603 confirmed cases of the virus.

The overall death toll from the epidemic has risen to 6,915 as of Dec. 14, the WHO said on Wednesday, adding that the increase in cases in Sierra Leone appeared to have slowed.

Kargbo said Willoughby’s death was one of the most tragic to hit the country since the passing, in July, of its only virologist and Ebola specialist, Dr Shek Humar Khan.

“We all looked up to Dr Willoughby and would consult him on many issues relating to our medical profession,” Kargbo said.

Ebola centers in Sierra Leone overflowed on Wednesday as health workers combed the streets of the capital Freetown for patients, after the government launched a major operation to contain the epidemic.

Dr M’Baimba Baryoh, a surgeon at Connaught hospital Freetown who described Dr Willoughby as a “very good friend”, said Sierra Leone had desperate need of more foreign healthcare workers as local staff were overstretched.

“We’ve lost personal friends and colleagues we’ve worked with. It’s extremely depressing and frustrating. You can talk to someone today and tomorrow they are Ebola-infected,” he said.

“The tension, the depression, it’s a lot of pressure. You start having nightmares because of Ebola.”

(Reporting by Umaru Fofana and Emma Farge; Editing by Matthew Mpoke Bigg andAndrew Roche)