United Nations General Assembly resolution ES-10/L.22

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UN General Assembly
Resolution ES‑10/L.22
United Nations General Assembly resolution A ES 10 L 22 vote.png

  Voted in favor
  Voted against
  Abstained
  Not present
Date 21 December 2017
Meeting no. 10th Emergency Special Session (continuation)
Code A/RES/ES‑10/L.22 (Document)
Subject Status of Jerusalem
Voting summary
128 voted for
9 voted against
35 abstained
21 absent
Result Recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void”

United Nations General Assembly resolution ES‑10/L.22 is a emergency session resolution declaring the status of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void.”.[1] It was adopted by the 37th Plenary meeting of the tenth emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly[2] during the tenure of the seventy-second session of the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 2017. The draft resolution was drafted by Yemen and Turkey.[3]Though strongly contested by the United States, it passed by 128 votes to nine against with 21 absentees and 35 abstentions.

Background[edit]

On 6 December 2017, US President Donald Trump said that he would recognise the status of Jerusalem as being Israel’s sovereign capital[4] in a departure from previous UNGA resolutions as well prevailing international norms where no state either recognises Jerusalem as a national capital nor has an embassy there. The move prompted protests from states and communities in many parts of the world.[5]

Following the failure of an United Nations Security Council resolution three days earlier, after an U.S. veto, to rescind the recognition by any states of Jerusalem as a national capital, Palestinian UN Ambassador Riyad Mansour said that the General Assembly would vote on a draft resolution calling for Trump’s declaration to be withdrawn. He sought to invoke Resolution 377, known as the “Uniting for Peace” resolution, to circumvent a veto. The resolution states that the General Assembly can call an Emergency Special Session to consider a matter “with a view to making appropriate recommendations to members for collective measures” if the Security Council fails to act.[6]

Campaign[edit]

On 20 December, US President Donald Trump threatened to cut US aid to countries voting against the US’ side.[7] The day before the vote, he said: “Let them vote against us…We don’t care…this isn’t like it used to be where they could vote against you and then you pay them hundreds of millions of dollars. We’re not going to be taken advantage of any longer.”[8]Ambassador Nikki Haley warned her country would remember and “take names” of every country that voted in favour of the resolution.[9][10][11][12] The governments of Turkey and Iran denounced USA’s threats as “anti-democratic” and “blackmail“.[13][14] She had sent to a letter to dozens of member states that warned Trump had asked her to “report back on those countries who voted against us.”[15] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan warned Trump that “he cannot buy Turkey’s democratic will with petty dollars” and “that opposition of other countries will teach the United States a good lesson”.[16][17]

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that Israel rejects this vote before it passes and called the UN “house of lies”.[18]

Canada’s, which was seeking re-negotiations of the NAFTA, Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland‘s spokesman confirmed its intention to abstain from the vote and that the resolution should not have come to the General Assembly.[19]

Content[edit]

The text of the resolution includes the following key statements:[20]

The General Assembly,

  • Bearing in mind the specific status of the Holy City of Jerusalem and, in particular, the need for the protection and preservation of the unique spiritual, religious and cultural dimensions of the City, as foreseen in the relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Stressing that Jerusalem is a final status issue to be resolved through negotiations in line with relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Expressing in this regard its deep regret at recent decisions concerning the status of Jerusalem,
  • Affirms that any decisions and actions which purport to have altered, the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council, and in this regard, calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem, pursuant to resolution 478 (1980) of the Security Council;
  • Demands that all States comply with Security Council resolutions regarding the Holy City of Jerusalem, and not to recognize any actions or measures contrary to those resolutions;
  • Reiterates its call for the reversal of the negative trends on the ground that are imperiling the two-State solution and for the intensification and acceleration of international and regional efforts and support aimed at achieving, without delay, a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East on the basis of the relevant United Nations resolutions, the Madrid terms of reference, including the principle of land for peace, the Arab Peace Initiative and the Quartet Roadmap and an end to the Israeli occupation that began in 1967.

It concluded in reading that “any decisions and actions, which purport to have altered the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council.”[21]

Motion[edit]

The motion was proposed by Yemen and Turkey.[22]

Debate[edit]

In introducing the resolution as Chair of the Arab Group, Yemen’s Amabassador said the US decision was a “blatant violation of the rights of the Palestinian people, as well as those of all Christians and Muslims.” He emphasized that it constituted a “dangerous breach of the Charter of the United Nations and a serious threat to international peace and security, while also undermining the chances for a two‑State solution and fuelling the fires of violence and extremism.”[23]

Turkey, who was the co-sponsor of the draft resolution, also spoke as current Chair of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation(OIC).[23] Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said that Trump’s decision was an outrageous assault to all universal values. “The Palestinians have the right to their own state based on 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital. This is the main parameter and only hope for a just and lasting peace in the region. However, the recent decision of a UN Member State to recognise Jerusalem, or Al-Quds, as the capital of Israel, violates international law, including all relevant UN resolutions.”[22]

The General Assembly heard from Palestinian Foreign Minister Riad Al‑Malki, who said that the meeting was “not because of any animosity to the United States of America” but instead the sessions was “called to make the voice of the vast majority of the international community — and that of people around the world — heard on the question of Jerusalem/Al‑Quds Al‑Sharif.” He called the US decision to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and to move its embassy there “an aggressive and dangerous move” which could inflame tensions and lead to a religious war that “has no boundaries.” He added that though the decision would have no impact on the city’s status, it would nevertheless compromise the role of the United States in the Middle East peace process.[23] He urged member states to reject “blackmail and intimidation.”[5]

US Ambassador Nikki Haley then said that her country was “singled out for attack” because of its recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. She added that: “The United States will remember this day in which it was singled out for attack in the General Assembly for the very act of exercising our right as a sovereign nation,” Haley said. We will remember it when we are called upon to once again make the world’s largest contribution to the United Nations, and so many countries come calling on us, as they so often do, to pay even more and to use our influence for their benefit.”[15] She added that: “America will put our embassy in Jerusalem. That is what the American people want us to do, and it is the right thing to do. No vote in the United Nations will make any difference on that…this vote will make a difference in how Americans view the UN.”[22]

Israel’s Ambassador Danny Danon then told the assembly that the vowed that “no General Assembly resolution will ever drive us from Jerusalem.”[4]

Venezuela’s Ambassador, speaking for the Non‑Aligned Movement (NAM), expressed “grave concern about Israel’s ongoing violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including attempts to alter the character, status and demographic composition of the City of Jerusalem. [It was] slso concerned about the decision to relocate the United States embassy [and] warned that such provocative actions would further heighten tensions, with potentially far‑reaching repercussions given the extremely volatile backdrop.[23]

Other speakers included, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Syria, Bangladesh, Cuba, Iran and China.[23]

Malaysia’s Ambassador Datuk Seri Mohammed Shahrul Ikram Yaakob said that, as a member of the OIC and NAM, “Malaysia joins the international community in expressing our deep concern and rejects the decision by the United States to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. It is also an infringement of the Palestinian people’s rights and their right to self determination.” He called for a peaceful two-state solution and that Malaysia is concerned the situation will only feed into the agenda of extremists.”[2]

Other speakers included, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and South Africa. The Permanent Observer for the Holy See, Tomasz Grysa, emphasised that Jerusalem was most sacred to the Abrahamic faiths and a symbol for millions of believers around the world who considered it their “spiritual capital.” Its significance went “beyond the question of borders, a reality that should be considered a priority in every negotiation for a political solution.” The Holy See, he said, called for a “peaceful resolution that would ensure respect for the sacred nature of Jerusalem and its universal value…reiterating that only international guarantee could preserve its unique character and status and provide assurance of dialogue and reconciliation for peace in the region.”[23]

After the motion was passed, more speeches continued with Estonia, who also spoke on behalf of other states. Australia’s Ambassador then explained her country’s government did “not support unilateral action that undermined the peace process [and] it did not believe today’s text would help to bring the parties back to the negotiating table.”[23]

Other speakers included, Paraguay, whose Ambassador said that the country would abstain because “the question of Jerusalem was a matter for the Security Council, as the primary body responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security.”[23] This was followed by El Salvador, Argentina and Romania.[23]

Canada’s Ambassador Marc-Andre Blanchard called the proposal “one-sided”[23] and said: “We are disappointed that this resolution is one sided and does not advance prospects for peace to which we aspire, which is why we have abstained on today’s vote.” He, however, added that Canada wanted to emphasise Jerusalem’s special significance to the Abrahamic religions of Jews, Muslims and Christians. “Denying the connection between Jerusalem and the Jewish, Muslim and Christian faiths undermines the integrity of the site for all. We also reiterate the need to maintain the status quo at Jerusalem’s Holy sites.[19]

Nicaragua’s explained its support of the resolution, as it “rebuffed recent unilateral attempts to modify the character and status of Jerusalem. Such unilateral actions were in blatant violation of resolution 2234 (2016) and others…unilateral actions jeopardised peace and stability in the Middle East and drew the international community further away from a solution.”[23]

Mexico’s Ambassador then explained the abstention and emphasised that convening an emergency session was a disproportionate response. “The United States must become part of the solution, not a stumbling block that would hamper progress…the international community was further than ever from agreement.”[23]

The Czech Republic then said that while it supported the European Union position, it had abstained because it “did not believe the draft resolution would contribute to the peace process.”[23]

Armenia said that is position “remained unchanged. The situation should be resolved through negotiations paving the way for lasting peace and security.”[23]

Hungary echoed Armenia’s stance and said it would not comment on the foreign relations of the United States.[23]

Latvia then spoke, before Estonia re-took the floor to say it had also spoken on behalf of Albania, Lithuania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.[23]

Result[edit]

Vote[24] Quantity States
Approve 128 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.
Reject 9 Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Togo, United States.
Abstain 35 Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Haiti, Hungary, Jamaica, Kiribati, Latvia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu.
Absent 21 Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor, El Salvador, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mongolia, Myanmar, Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Zambia.

Reactions[edit]

States

Israel – Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu rejected the result shortly after it was announced in call it “preposterous,” while he also thanked the states that supported “the truth” by not participating in “the theatre of the absurd.” He added that: “Jerusalem is our capital. Always was, always will be…But I do appreciate the fact that a growing number of countries refused to participate in this theatre of the absurd. So I appreciate that, and especially I want to again express our thanks to [US] President (Donald) Trump and Ambassador [Nikki] Haley, for their stalwart defence of Israel and their stalwart defence of the truth.” Defence Minister Avigdor Liberman, reminded Israelis of the longstanding Israeli disdain for such votes. “Let us just remember that this is the same UN about which our first ambassador to the organisation, Abba Eban, once said: ‘If Algeria introduced a resolution declaring that the earth was flat and that Israel had flattened it, it would pass by a vote of 164 to 13 with 26 abstentions’. There is nothing new in what just happened at the UN.” He also praised the US as “the moral beacon shining out of the darkness.” Minister of Strategic Affairs and Public Security Gilad Erdan said: “The historic connection between Israel and Jerusalem is stronger than any vote by the ‘United Nations’ — nations who are united only by their fear and their refusal to recognise the simple truth that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and the Jewish people.”

    • However, opposition Joint List Chairman and MK Ayman Odeh called the vote a wake-up call for Israel: “In the international arena, there still exists a large and definitive majority that believes that the Palestinian people, like all other nations, deserve a place in this world and the right to self-determination. This evening’s vote by the majority of the world’s nations against Trump’s announcement, in spite of the pressure and threats, flies in the face of Trump’s and Netanyahu’s diplomatic policy and is a clear statement by the international community in support of peace and the right of the Palestinians to an independent state, whose capital is East Jerusalem,”[8]
Media

Haaretz‘s Noa Landau, wrote, in citing unnamed diplomatic sourced, that Israel was particularly disappointed with countries like India that have enhanced bilateral relations with it recently. “The main disappointment in Israel was with the countries that have enhanced bilateral relations in recent years, especially those that share a particularly conservative worldview with the Netanyahu government. For example, India – whose Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, visited Israel in July, a tour that was memorable mainly for the pastoral photographs of him and Netanyahu embracing and wading in the waves – voted for the resolution against Israel and the United States.”[8]

Others

At a “Solidarity to Save Jerusalem” rally organised by the Barisan National government in Malaysia, one of the attendees Association of NextGen Christians of Malaysia President Joshua Hong said at the Putra Mosque: “We are here because we feel that the decision made by President Trump on announcing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel is merely a political decision. He added that the decision also hurts Christian and Arabic churches in Palestine and not just the Muslims. “To us as Christians, Jerusalem is a city of peace and after that announcement, we feel there is no more peace.I think it is not right and unjust. We believe we should continue pursuing the sustainable peace solution for Palestine and Israel, rather than just a single nation declaring it just like that.” He claimed that about 50 members of the group turned up in a show of support for the Palestinian people..[2]

Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Athletics
at the Games of the XXXI Olympiad
Athletics, Rio 2016.png
Venue Pontal (race walk)
Estádio Olímpico João Havelange
(track & field)
Sambódromo (marathon)
Dates 12–21 August
«2012 2020»
Athletics at the
2016 Summer Olympics
Athletics pictogram.svg
List of athletes
Track events
100 m men women
200 m men women
400 m men women
800 m men women
1500 m men women
5000 m men women
10,000 m men women
100 m hurdles women
110 m hurdles men
400 m hurdles men women
3000 m
steeplechase
men women
4 × 100 m relay men women
4 × 400 m relay men women
Road events
Marathon men women
20 km walk men women
50 km walk men
Field events
Long jump men women
Triple jump men women
High jump men women
Pole vault men women
Shot put men women
Discus throw men women
Javelin throw men women
Hammer throw men women
Combined events
Heptathlon women
Decathlon men

Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics were held during the last 10 days of the games, from 12–21 August 2016, at the Olympic Stadium. The sport of athletics in the 2016 Summer Olympics was split into three distinct sets of events: track and field events, road running events, and racewalking events.

Competition schedule[edit]

Track and field events were held at João Havelange Olympic Stadium, while the race walks and marathon start and finish in Recreio dos Bandeirantes and Sambódromo, respectively. Apart from the race walks and marathon, ten track and field events held finals in the morning session for the first time since 1988. This was implemented upon the request of the Rio 2016 Organizing Committee and the Olympic Broadcasting Service to be supported by the International Olympic Committee, ensuring that they received maximum visibility for the sport across all time zones.[2][3]

In the tables below, M stands for morning and A for afternoon.

Q Qualifiers H Heats ½ Semifinals F Final
Men[4]
Date → Fri 12 Sat 13 Sun 14 Mon 15 Tue 16 Wed 17 Thu 18 Fri 19 Sat 20 Sun 21
Event ↓ M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A
100 m Q H ½ F
200 m H ½ F
400 m H ½ F
800 m H ½ F
1500 m H ½ F
5000 m H F
10,000 m F
110 m hurdles H ½ F
400 m hurdles H ½ F
3000 m steeplechase H F
4 × 100 m relay H F
4 × 400 m relay H F
Marathon F
20 km walk F
50 km walk F
Long jump Q F
Triple jump Q F
High jump Q F
Pole vault Q F
Shot put Q F
Discus throw Q F
Javelin throw Q F
Hammer throw Q F
Decathlon F
Women[4]
Date → Fri 12 Sat 13 Sun 14 Mon 15 Tue 16 Wed 17 Thu 18 Fri 19 Sat 20 Sun 21
Event ↓ M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A
100 m Q H ½ F
200 m H ½ F
400 m H ½ F
800 m H ½ F
1500 m H ½ F
5000 m H F
10,000 m F
100 m hurdles H ½ F
400 m hurdles H ½ F
3000 m steeplechase H F
4 × 100 m relay H F
4 × 400 m relay H F
Marathon F
20 km walk F
Long jump Q F
Triple jump Q F
High jump Q F
Pole vault Q F
Shot put Q F
Discus throw Q F
Javelin throw Q F
Hammer throw Q F
Heptathlon F

Qualification[edit]

The Olympic qualification criteria were simplified by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) from a two-tiered “A” and “B” standard approach to a single qualification standard. Each National Olympic Committee was entitled to send up to three athletes per event that had reached that standard in the period from 2015 to 11 July 2016. Nations without a qualified athlete could enter one male and one female athlete who had not achieved the standard. Marathon runners had additional ways to qualify in that top 20 World Championship or top 10 IAAF Gold Label race finishers were treated as having achieved the standard.[5]

The relay teams entered were the top eight finishers at the 2015 IAAF World Relays plus the next eight highest ranking teams on the seasonal lists (based on an aggregate of their best two times).[6]

Nations with a strong tradition in athletics which had many qualified athletes available for events typically held selection trials to determine their teams (such as the 2016 United States Olympic Trials), or relied on panel decisions by their national governing bodies to determine which athletes could compete.

Daily summaries[edit]

Marathon runner Vanderlei de Limalighting the Olympic flame

At the opening ceremony two figures from the sport of athletics played a key role: Olympic medallist in the marathon, Vanderlei de Lima, lit the Olympic flame for his home nation, while Kenya’s Kipchoge Keino became the first recipient of theOlympic Laurel for his efforts in promoting sport.[7] Unlike most Suummer Olympic Gams, the athletics stadium was not the venue for the opening ceremony in Rio de Janeiro – that honour went to Brazil’s foremost soccer venue, the Maracanã Stadium.[8]

First three days[edit]

On the first day, the first gold medal was won by Almaz Ayana of Ethiopia, who broke a long-standing world record in the women’s 10,000 metres by almost fifteen seconds. The race as a whole was historically fast, setting four of the five fastest times ever for the distance and seeing eight national records broken. China’s Wang Zhen was the first male winner of the 2016 Olympic athletics, topping the 20 kilometres race walk podium. With her final throw of the event, Michelle Carter won the United States’ first ever title in the women’s shot put, preventing Valerie Adams from winning a third straight title. The first half of the heptathlon saw two athletes set a world heptathlon best: Belgium’s Nafissatou Thiam and Great Britain’s Katarina Johnson-Thompson both cleared 1.98 m (6 ft 534 in) for the high jump.[9] (Their marks would have been sufficient for the individual high jump gold.)[10]

Mo Farah leading in the men’s 10,000 metres final

The second day opened with a first in Olympic history as a man succeeded his brother as Olympic champion. In a dramatic final round, German discus throwerChristoph Harting moved up from fourth to gold medal position with a personal best throw and topped the podium as his brother Robert Harting had four years earlier.Mo Farah – a double-Olympic champion from 2012 – defended his 10,000 m crown in spite of a fall which saw him slip to the back of the pack during the middle of race. Farah had been one of three gold medallists for Great Britain on a “Super Saturday” for the host nation at the 2012 London Games, but the two others of that day did not prevail in Rio de Janeiro. Jessica Ennis entered as favourite for the Olympic heptathlon but was runner-up to Belgian Nafissatou Thiam in an upset which saw the 21-year-old add over three hundred points to her personal best score. Defending Olympic long jump champion Greg Rutherford was reduced to third place as American Jeff Henderson won the closely fought men’s competition. Another defending champion was dethroned in the women’s 100 metres: Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce‘s attempt to become the first person to win three straight Olympic track titles was thwarted by Jamaican teammate Elaine Thompson.[11]

Usain Bolt winning the 100 m final

The morning final for the third day was the women’s marathon, which saw Jemima Sumgong win Kenya’s first Olympic gold medal for that event. The race was unusual in that two sets of twins crossed the line together: North Korea’s Kim Hye-song andKim Hye-gyong took tenth and eleventh while Germans Anna and Lisa Hahner were 81st and 82nd. Furthermore Estonia’s Lily, Leila and Liina Luik became the first triplets to feature in an Olympic final. In the women’s triple jump Caterine Ibargüenwon Colombia’s first Olympic gold medal in athletics. Usain Bolt achieved the feat fellow Jamaican Fraser-Pryce had failed to do one day earlier by taking his third straight Olympic 100 m title. This made him the most decorated athlete in the 100 metres at the Olympics. South Africa’s Wayde van Niekerk provided the second world record performance of the athletics programme with his win of the men’s 400 metres in 43.03 seconds. This knocked 0.15 seconds of Michael Johnson‘s time which had gone unbeaten since 1999.[12]

Days 4, 5 and 6[edit]

The third and last athletics world record at the Olympics came on day four. Poland’s Anita Włodarczyk was dominant in thehammer throw, becoming the first woman to throw beyond eighty metres three times in a competition and adding over a metre to her own world record with 82.29 m (269 ft 1134 in). Four of her six throws would have been sufficient to win. Another record was in sight for Ruth Jebet in the women’s 3000 metres steeplechase, though she missed the mark by a second after slowing to celebrate winning Bahrain’s first Olympic gold in any sport. In the women’s 400 m Allyson Felix was stopped from winning an historic fifth Olympic gold by Shaunae Miller of the Bahamas, who dived at the line to win the race. Men’s 800 metres world record holder David Rudisha defended his 800 m Olympic title, being the first man in over half a century to achieve that. A surprise victory for the hosts came via Thiago Braz da Silva, who added ten centimetres to his previous best to win in an Olympic record of 6.03 m ahead of world record holder Renaud Lavillenie of France.[13] Departing from Olympic traditions, the home crowd booed Lavillenie while he was attempting his final vault and he was booed again at the medal ceremony after comparing his treatment to that of Jesse Owens at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Nazi Germany. The partisan treatment was criticised by da Silva, IOC President Thomas Bach and IAAF president Sebastian Coe, though defended by some as an intrinsic part of Brazilian sporting culture.[14][15][16]

On the fifth morning, Croatia’s Sandra Perković became the only woman to defend an individual Olympic athletics title that year, topping the discus podium. Christian Taylor became the only man in the field events to defend his 2012 Olympic title, repeating his American 1–2 finish with teammate Will Claye. The United States was less successful in the men’s 110 metres hurdles: its athletes failed to gain a medal for the first time ever (bar the 1980 boycott) while Jamaican Omar McLeod won by over a tenth of a second. Faith Kipyegon was a clear winner in the women’s 1500 metres ahead of Ethiopia’s Genzebe Dibaba. Derek Drouin won Canada’s first Olympic gold in athletics in twenty years in the men’s high jump.[17] In the women’s 5000 m heats American Abbey D’Agostino and Nikki Hamblin of New Zealand fell during the race. D’Agostino stopped to help Hamblin to her feet, but then struggled herself with an injured ankle, which led Hamblin to help in turn so the pair could finish. The pair were later given the Fair Play award by the International Fair Play Committee for their show of sportsmanship.[18]

Conseslus Kipruto en route to the steeplechase title

In his last Olympic outing, Ezekiel Kemboi failed to defend his Olympic steeplechase title, which went to his Kenyan teammate Conseslus Kipruto in an Olympic record time. Kemboi’s initial bronze medal would have made him the first person to win three Olympic steeplechase medals, but a single step into the infield later saw him disqualified and Mahiedine Mekhissi-Benabbad of France achieve that feat in his place. Tianna Bartoletta beat the favourite in the women’s long jump, clearing a personal best of 7.17 m in the second to last round to leave her American rivalBrittney Reese with a silver medal. Americans also occupied the top spots in the women’s 100 metres hurdles with Brianna Rollins, Nia Ali and Kristi Castlin forming the first ever Olympic medal sweep by a nation in that event. The 100 m gold medallist Elaine Thompson completed a sprint double for Jamaica by defeating Dutch athlete Dafne Schippers in the women’s 200 metres final. High profile eliminations came in the men’s qualifiers as two strong contenders for Olympic titles, Paweł Fajdek in the hammer and Justin Gatlin in the 200 m, failed to progress.[19]

Final three days[edit]

Bolt with his third 200 m victory

The 400 metres hurdles finals were contested on day seven: Kerron Clement won the United States’s 19th men’s title and in contrast Dalilah Muhammad became the first American female winner. On a day of strong American performances, Ashton Eaton defended his decathlon title in an Olympic record score of 8893 points and in the men’s shot put Ryan Crouser greatly improved his best to 22.52 m (73 ft 1012 in) to break Ulf Timmermann‘s Olympic record from 1988 (among men’s Olympic records, only Bob Beamon‘s long jump had stood for longer).[20] The women’s javelin throw had an unexpected winner in Croatia’s Sara Kolak, whose winning mark of 66.18 m (217 ft 112 in) meant the 21-year-old had improved her best by over eight metres that year. The favourite delivered in the men’s 200 m, with Usain Bolt taking his third straight Olympic 200 m title by a margin of a quarter of a second. The women’s 4 × 100 metres relay heats featured the first ever re-run – Brazil has obstructed the American baton handover and the United States were allowed a solo run to qualify for the final on time, which they did.[21]

The American team after winning 4 × 100 m relay gold

The morning of the penultimate day began with two racewalking finals. In the men’s 50 km walk Matej Tóth overtook defending champion Jarred Tallent to win Slovakia’s first Olympic gold in athletics while Liu Hong return China to the top of the women’s 20 km walk podium. Ekaterini Stefanidi of Greece won the women’s pole vault after the pre-event favourites faltered. Dilshod Nazarov made history in the men’s hammer throw by becoming Tajikistan’s first Olympic gold medallist. Vivian Cheruiyot achieved a first for her country in the women’s 5000 metres by outrunning 10,000 m champion Almaz Ayana to take Kenya’s first ever gold in the distance event. In that race, Cheruiyot set the last of eight Olympic records in Rio. The 4 × 100 m finals delivered new highs for Olympic athletics. The American women overcame their qualification troubles by winning from lane one, making Allyson Felix the most successful female Olympian in athletics at five gold medals. Usain Bolt anchored the Jamaican men to the gold to complete a set of three consecutive victories across the 100 m, 200 m and relay (referred to as a “treble treble”). Bolt equalled Carl Lewis and Paavo Nurmi‘s record of nine Olympic gold medals in athletics.[22][23]

Vivian Cheruiyot celebrating Kenya’s first 5000 m women’s title

On the ninth and final day of action in the track and field stadium, Matthew Centrowitz Jr. secured a tactical win in the men’s 1500 m while Caster Semenyaused her sheer speed to win the women’s 800 m. Behind her Francine Niyonsabawon only the second ever medal for Burundi at the Olympics. In the women’s high jump, Ruth Beitia became Spain’s first female Olympic champion in athletics, though this was overshadowed by the fact her winning mark was the lowest since 1980 and she was outperformed by two heptathletes in Rio.[24] Thomas Röhler cleared ninety metres to win the men’s javelin throw. Mo Farah became the second most successful track athlete of the 2016 Rio Olympics by defending his 5000 m title, making him one of only two men alongside Finland’s Lasse Virén to have defended both long-distance titles at consecutive Olympics. In the last track events of the games, the United States won both the 4 × 400 metres relays. Their victory in the women’s race meant Allyson Felix set a record high for women’s Olympic athletics with six gold medals and nine medals overall.[25] The men’s marathon was contested on the last day of the Olympics and Eliud Kipchoge comfortably won by the largest margin since 1972.[26]

As in previous years, the United States won the most medals in athletics and at thirteen golds and 32 overall they won more than double the next most successful nations. In the absence of Russia, Kenya and Jamaica placed second and third with six gold medals and the only other nations to win more than ten medals in total. In the 2016 Olympic athletics programme, 141 medals were awarded and 43 nations reached the medal table.

Medal summary[edit]

Men[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 metres
details
Usain Bolt
 Jamaica
9.81 Justin Gatlin
 United States
9.89 Andre De Grasse
 Canada
9.91
200 metres
details
Usain Bolt
 Jamaica
19.78 Andre De Grasse
 Canada
20.02 Christophe Lemaitre
 France
20.12
400 metres
details
Wayde van Niekerk
 South Africa
43.03 WR Kirani James
 Grenada
43.76 LaShawn Merritt
 United States
43.85
800 metres
details
David Rudisha
 Kenya
1:42.15 Taoufik Makhloufi
 Algeria
1:42.61NR Clayton Murphy
 United States
1:42.93
1500 metres
details
Matthew Centrowitz, Jr.
 United States
3:50.00 Taoufik Makhloufi
 Algeria
3:50.11 Nick Willis
 New Zealand
3:50.24
5,000 metres
details
Mo Farah
 Great Britain
13:03.30 Paul Kipkemoi Chelimo
 United States
13:03.90 Hagos Gebrhiwet
 Ethiopia
13:04.35
10,000 metres
details
Mo Farah
 Great Britain
27:05.17 Paul Tanui
 Kenya
27:05.64 Tamirat Tola
 Ethiopia
27:06.26
110 metres hurdles
details
Omar McLeod
 Jamaica
13.05 Orlando Ortega
 Spain
13.17 Dimitri Bascou
 France
13.24
400 metres hurdles
details
Kerron Clement
 United States
47.73 Boniface Mucheru Tumuti
 Kenya
47.78 NR Yasmani Copello
 Turkey
47.92NR
3000 metres steeplechase
details
Conseslus Kipruto
 Kenya
8:03.28 OR Evan Jager
 United States
8:04.28 Mahiedine Mekhissi-Benabbad
 France
8:11.52
4 × 100 metres relay
details
 Jamaica (JAM)
Asafa Powell,
Yohan Blake,
Nickel Ashmeade,
Usain Bolt,
Jevaughn Minzie,
Kemar Bailey-Cole
37.27  Japan (JPN)
Ryota Yamagata,
Shota Iizuka,
Yoshihide Kiryu,
Asuka Cambridge
37.60 AR  Canada (CAN)
Akeem Haynes,
Aaron Brown,
Brendon Rodney,
Andre De Grasse,
Mobolade Ajomale
37.64NR
4 × 400 metres relay
details
 United States (USA)
Arman Hall,
Tony McQuay,
Gil Roberts,
LaShawn Merritt,
Kyle Clemons,
David Verburg,
2:57.30  Jamaica (JAM)
Peter Matthews,
Nathon Allen,
Fitzroy Dunkley,
Javon Francis,
Rusheen McDonald
2:58.16  Bahamas (BAH)
Alonzo Russell,
Michael Mathieu,
Steven Gardiner,
Chris Brown,
Stephen Newbold
2:58.49
Marathon
details
Eliud Kipchoge
 Kenya
2:08:44 Feyisa Lilesa
 Ethiopia
2:09:54 Galen Rupp
 United States
2:10:05
20 kilometres walk
details
Wang Zhen
 China
1:19:14 Cai Zelin
 China
1:19:26 Dane Bird-Smith
 Australia
1:19:37
50 kilometres walk
details
Matej Tóth
 Slovakia
3:40:58 Jared Tallent
 Australia
3:41:16 Hirooki Arai
 Japan
3:41:24
High jump
details
Derek Drouin
 Canada
2.38 m Mutaz Essa Barshim
 Qatar
2.36 m Bohdan Bondarenko
 Ukraine
2.33 m
Pole vault
details
Thiago Braz da Silva
 Brazil
6.03 m OR,AR Renaud Lavillenie
 France
5.98 m Sam Kendricks
 United States
5.85 m
Long jump
details
Jeff Henderson
 United States
8.38 m Luvo Manyonga
 South Africa
8.37 m Greg Rutherford
 Great Britain
8.29 m
Triple jump
details
Christian Taylor
 United States
17.86 m Will Claye
 United States
17.76 m Dong Bin
 China
17.58 m
Shot put
details
Ryan Crouser
 United States
22.52 mOR Joe Kovacs
 United States
21.78 m Tomas Walsh
 New Zealand
21.36 m
Discus throw
details
Christoph Harting
 Germany
68.37 m Piotr Małachowski
 Poland
67.55 m Daniel Jasinski
 Germany
67.05 m
Hammer throw
details
Dilshod Nazarov
 Tajikistan
78.68 m Ivan Tsikhan
 Belarus
77.79 m Wojciech Nowicki
 Poland
77.73 m
Javelin throw
details
Thomas Röhler
 Germany
90.30 m Julius Yego
 Kenya
88.24 m Keshorn Walcott
 Trinidad and Tobago
85.38 m
Decathlon
details
Ashton Eaton
 United States
8893 ptsOR Kévin Mayer
 France
8834 ptsNR Damian Warner
 Canada
8666 pts

* Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats and received medals.

Women[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 metres
details
Elaine Thompson
 Jamaica
10.71 Tori Bowie
 United States
10.83 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
 Jamaica
10.86
200 metres
details
Elaine Thompson
 Jamaica
21.78 Dafne Schippers
 Netherlands
21.88 Tori Bowie
 United States
22.15
400 metres
details
Shaunae Miller
 Bahamas
49.44 Allyson Felix
 United States
49.51 Shericka Jackson
 Jamaica
49.85
800 metres
details
Caster Semenya
 South Africa
1:55.28NR Francine Niyonsaba
 Burundi
1:56.49 Margaret Wambui
 Kenya
1:56.89
1500 metres
details
Faith Kipyegon
 Kenya
4:08.92 Genzebe Dibaba
 Ethiopia
4:10.27 Jennifer Simpson
 United States
4:10.53
5000 metres
details
Vivian Cheruiyot
 Kenya
14:26.17OR Hellen Onsando Obiri
 Kenya
14:29.77 Almaz Ayana
 Ethiopia
14:33.59
10,000 metres
details
Almaz Ayana
 Ethiopia
29:17.45WR Vivian Cheruiyot
 Kenya
29:32.53NR Tirunesh Dibaba
 Ethiopia
29:42.56
100 metres hurdles
details
Brianna Rollins
 United States
12.48 Nia Ali
 United States
12.59 Kristi Castlin
 United States
12.61
400 metres hurdles
details
Dalilah Muhammad
 United States
53.13 Sara Petersen
 Denmark
53.55 NR Ashley Spencer
 United States
53.72
3000 metres steeplechase
details
Ruth Jebet
 Bahrain
8:59.75AR Hyvin Jepkemoi
 Kenya
9:07.12 Emma Coburn
 United States
9:07.63AR
4 × 100 metres relay
details
 United States (USA)
Tianna Bartoletta,
Allyson Felix,
English Gardner,
Tori Bowie,
Morolake Akinosun
41.02  Jamaica (JAM)
Christania Williams,
Elaine Thompson,
Veronica Campbell-Brown,
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce,
Simone Facey,
Sashalee Forbes
41.36  Great Britain (GBR)
Asha Philip,
Desiree Henry,
Dina Asher-Smith,
Daryll Neita,
41.77 NR
4 × 400 metres relay
details
 United States (USA)
Allyson Felix,
Phyllis Francis,
Natasha Hastings,
Courtney Okolo,
Taylor Ellis-Watson,
Francena McCorory
3:19.06  Jamaica (JAM)
Stephenie Ann McPherson,
Anneisha McLaughlin-Whilby,
Shericka Jackson,
Novlene Williams-Mills,
Christine Day,
Chrisann Gordon
3:20.34  Great Britain (GBR)
Eilidh Doyle,
Anyika Onuora,
Emily Diamond,
Christine Ohuruogu,
Kelly Massey
3:25.88
Marathon
details
Jemima Sumgong
 Kenya
2:24:04 Eunice Kirwa
 Bahrain
2:24:13 Mare Dibaba
 Ethiopia
2:24:30
20 kilometres walk
details
Liu Hong
 China
1:28:35 María Guadalupe González
 Mexico
1:28:37 Lü Xiuzhi
 China
1:28:42
High jump
details
Ruth Beitia
 Spain
1.97 m Mirela Demireva
 Bulgaria
1.97 m Blanka Vlašić
 Croatia
1.97 m
Pole vault
details
Ekaterini Stefanidi
 Greece
4.85 m Sandi Morris
 United States
4.85 m Eliza McCartney
 New Zealand
4.80 mNR
Long jump
details
Tianna Bartoletta
 United States
7.17 m Britney Reese
 United States
7.15 m Ivana Španović
 Serbia
7.08 mNR
Triple jump
details
Caterine Ibargüen
 Colombia
15.17 m Yulimar Rojas
 Venezuela
14.98 m Olga Rypakova
 Kazakhstan
14.74 m
Shot put
details
Michelle Carter
 United States
20.63 mNR Valerie Adams
 New Zealand
20.42 m Anita Márton
 Hungary
19.87 m NR
Discus throw
details
Sandra Perković
 Croatia
69.21 m Mélina Robert-Michon
 France
66.73 mNR Denia Caballero
 Cuba
65.34 m
Hammer throw
details
Anita Włodarczyk
 Poland
82.29 mWR Zhang Wenxiu
 China
76.75 m Sophie Hitchon
 Great Britain
74.54 mNR
Javelin throw
details
Sara Kolak
 Croatia
66.18 mNR Sunette Viljoen
 South Africa
64.92 m Barbora Špotáková
 Czech Republic
64.80 m
Heptathlon
details
Nafissatou Thiam
 Belgium
6810 ptsNR Jessica Ennis-Hill
 Great Britain
6775 pts Brianne Theisen-Eaton
 Canada
6653 pts

* Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats and received medals.

Medal table[edit]

Key

*   Host nation (Brazil)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 United States 13 10 9 32
2 Kenya 6 6 1 13
3 Jamaica 6 3 2 11
4 China 2 2 2 6
5 South Africa 2 2 0 4
6 Great Britain 2 1 4 7
7 Croatia 2 0 1 3
Germany 2 0 1 3
9 Ethiopia 1 2 5 8
10 Canada 1 1 4 6
11 Poland 1 1 1 3
12 Bahrain 1 1 0 2
Spain 1 1 0 2
14 Bahamas 1 0 1 2
15 Belgium 1 0 0 1
Brazil* 1 0 0 1
Colombia 1 0 0 1
Greece 1 0 0 1
Slovakia 1 0 0 1
Tajikistan 1 0 0 1
21 France 0 3 3 6
22 Algeria 0 2 0 2
23 New Zealand 0 1 3 4
24 Australia 0 1 1 2
Japan 0 1 1 2
26 Belarus 0 1 0 1
Bulgaria 0 1 0 1
Burundi 0 1 0 1
Denmark 0 1 0 1
Grenada 0 1 0 1
Mexico 0 1 0 1
Netherlands 0 1 0 1
Qatar 0 1 0 1
Venezuela 0 1 0 1
36 Cuba 0 0 1 1
Czech Republic 0 0 1 1
Hungary 0 0 1 1
Kazakhstan 0 0 1 1
Serbia 0 0 1 1
Trinidad and Tobago 0 0 1 1
Turkey 0 0 1 1
Ukraine 0 0 1 1
Total 47 47 47 141

Records[edit]

World and Olympic records[edit]

Event Date Name Nationality Result Type
Women’s 10,000 metres 12 August Almaz Ayana Ethiopia 29:17.45 min WR
Men’s 400 metres 14 August Wayde van Niekerk South Africa 43.03 sec WR
Women’s hammer throw 15 August Anita Włodarczyk Poland 82.29 m WR
Men’s pole vault 15 August Thiago Braz da Silva Brazil 6.03 m OR
Men’s 3000 metres steeplechase 17 August Conseslus Kipruto Kenya 8:03.28 min OR
Men’s shot put 18 August Ryan Crouser United States 22.52 m OR
Men’s decathlon 18 August Ashton Eaton United States 8893 pts =OR
Women’s 5000 metres 19 August Vivian Cheruiyot Kenya 14:26.17 min OR

Continental records[edit]

The women’s 10,000 metres provided the first two continental records of the Olympics, in Almaz Ayana’s African record andMolly Huddle‘s record for the North, Central American and Caribbean region.[27]

Event Date Name Nationality Result Type
Women’s 10,000 metres 12 August Almaz Ayana Ethiopia 29:17.45 min AR
Women’s 10,000 metres 12 August Molly Huddle United States 30:13.17 min AR
Men’s 400 metres 14 August Wayde van Niekerk South Africa 43.03 sec AR
3000 metres steeplechase 15 August Ruth Jebet Bahrain 8:59.75 min AR
3000 metres steeplechase 15 August Emma Coburn United States 9:07.63 min AR
Women’s hammer throw 15 August Anita Włodarczyk Poland 82.29 m AR
Men’s 4 × 100 m relay 18 August Tang Xingqiang
Xie Zhenye
Su Bingtian
Zhang Peimeng
China 37.82 sec AR
Men’s 4 × 100 m relay 18 August Ryota Yamagata
Shota Iizuka
Yoshihide Kiryu
Asuka Cambridge
Japan 37.68 sec AR
Men’s 4 × 100 m relay 19 August Ryota Yamagata
Shota Iizuka
Yoshihide Kiryu
Asuka Cambridge
Japan 37.60 sec AR

Participation[edit]

Participating nations[edit]

Russia’s athletics team was banned from competing at the 2016 Summer Olympics on June 17, 2016, when the IAAF voted unanimously to prevent them from competing. This punishment is because of the ongoing Russian doping scandal.[28][29]Darya Klishina was the only Russian athlete allowed to participate.

The Refugee Olympic Team, in its first appearance, included six track and field athletes among it 10-strong team.[7]

[hide]Participating National Olympic Committees

Competitors[edit]

Doping[edit]

Russian Darya Klishina

The Olympic athletics competition was majorly affected by the ban of the All-Russia Athletic Federation (ARAF) by the sports governing body, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). The IAAF undertook this action to exclude all Russian athletes following the discovery of state-sponsored doping in Russia.[30] The Russian President accused the body of discrimination against his country’s athletes, saying the ban was a “collective punishment which has nothing to do with justice”. The Russian Minister for Sport, Vitaly Mutko, was directly implicated in the investigations.[31]

The members of Russia’s 68-strong team were allowed to appeal the ban and compete under a neutral flag if they could present evidence that they did not have links with the doping scandal and received testing independent of the Russian national anti-doping body. Only one athlete, United States-based long jumperDarya Klishina, met the criteria and was allowed to compete. Her selection garnered negative press in her home country.[32][33] The situation led pole vaulter Yelena Isinbayeva, one of Russia’s top athletes, to announce her intention to stand for ARAF President to resolve the crisis.[34]

Doping whistleblower Yuliya Stepanova was not allowed to compete

Yuliya Stepanova, a Russian runner who was key in unveiling the doping issue through her whistleblowing, attempted to gain permission from the international Olympic Committee to compete at the Games as an independent athlete, but was unsuccessful on the basis of her having previously failed a doping test. Her husband and coach Vitaly Stepanov, who also acted as whistleblower, said that the decision sent “a message that the World Anti-Doping Code and the values of Olympism are merely words on a page”.[35] The couple’s actions were widely denounced in Russia, with the president’s spokesman labelling the couple as “Judas”.[36]Stepanova received strong support from Travis Tygart, the head of the United States Anti-Doping Agency, who approved of her application to compete.[37]

Silvia Danekova of Bulgaria was the first athletics doping suspension at the Olympics, as the sample she had given on arrival was positive for EPO.[38] Two Kenyan officials were also sent home on doping points: coach John Anzrah impersonated runner Ferguson Rotich to give a doping control and Michael Rotich was expelled following allegations of forewarning athletes of unannounced drug tests.[39]

YES! Hungarian government will create an airtight system designed to prevent illegal alien Muslim invaders from entering the country

Writing for Index, Kata Janecskó, disclosed ‘shocking’ details of the Hungarian plan. Prime Minister Victor Orbán will do do two things during this week, and next, when the construction of the border fence at the Hungarian-Serbian border will be completed.

Hungary is caging the Muslim animals in detention camps

Euractiv (h/t Susan K)  First, Orbán will declare state of emergency, no matter how outrageous this may look to the EU dhimmis.

Second, starting on 15 September, modifications to the Penal Code and the Criminal Procedure Law will allow the following things to happen to an illegal alien:

Illegal aliens can try to enter Hungary at an official border crossing, where the authorities will stop them, realize that they do not have a Schengen visa, and send them back to Serbia.

If the illegals ask for asylum at the border crossing point, they will also be sent back to Serbia on the pretext that they should have claimed asylum in Serbia. The Hungarian authorities are happy that the EU Commission has declared Serbia a safe country and suitable for asylum seekers.

In the event that the Muslim invaders enter Hungary illegally, their act will be criminalized. Climbing the border fence, damaging it, even obstructing work at the, fence will trigger criminal charges.

Hungarian police feeding the animals by throwing sandwiches at them which caused EU dhimmi heads to explode:

Consequently, illegal aliens will be put under “house arrest” in a detention camp because they do not have a Hungarian address, then will be brought to a state-of-emergency court that will deliver a verdict in 8 days (in case they are caught on the border) or 15 days (if they are caught inside the country).

According to the new procedural law, which by the way is against EU law, these illegals, whom are in fact defendants, will have to go to trial without access to court translators. Their documents will not be translated, and they will not receive a translated copy of the prosecutor’s charges and verdict.

Hungarian camerawoman was fired after video came out showing her tripping several muslim illegals

According to information obtained by Index.hu, large containers would be brought to the border to serve as temporary courts in the border crossing cases. Juveniles will not get special treatment. Appeals will be rejected almost immediately.

The new system makes sure that the illegals will have a criminal record in Hungary, and that they can be deported from Hungary with a notation in the Schengen Information System (SIS) that they have committed a crime. This would automatically deny them entry into the Schengen zone for 10 years.

MUSLIMS WERE HERE - as evidenced by the piles of garbage they leave behind

As a Schengen member, Hungary can add information in SIS, but adding to it illegal alien invaders would be a blatant misuse of this instrument.

Orbán has devised a procedure which may breach many international laws, but he is reported to believe that other leaders will also soon be fed up with refugees, and will soon copy what he is doing.

Röszke Camp in Hungary across the border from Serbia: Muslim invaders are desperate to avoid Hungarian officials for fear of being registered in the country and then returned to Serbia.

By BareNakedIslam 

National electoral calendar 2014

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For local elections, see Local electoral calendar 2014.

ContentsThis national electoral calendar for the year 2014 lists the national/federal direct elections to be held in 2014 in all sovereign states and their dependent territories. By-elections are excluded, though national referendumsare included. Specific dates are given where they have been announced.

National electoral calendar 2014

2014 elections.png

Countries with national elections or referendums:
Red – Presidential (or head of state)
purple  – Presidential and parliamentary/legislative
Blue  – Parliamentary/legislative
Green – Referendum and parliamentary/legislative
yellow – Referendum
orange  – Referendum and presidential
black  – Referendum, presidential and parliamentary/legislative
Gray – None

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Later

List of Banks owned by the Rothschild Family

“Give me control over a nations currency, and I care not who makes its laws” – Baron M.A. Rothschild

rothcrest

ROTHSCHILD OWNED BANKS:
Afghanistan, Bank of Afghanistan,
Albania, Bank of Albania,
Algeria, Bank of Algeria,
Argentina, Central Bank of Argentina,
Armenia, Central Bank of Armenia,
Aruba, Central Bank of Aruba,
Australia, Reserve Bank of Australia,
Austria, Austrian National Bank,
Azerbaijan, Central Bank of Azerbaijan Republic,
Bahamas, Central Bank of The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Central Bank of Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bank,
Barbados, Central Bank of Barbados,
Belarus, National Bank of the Republic of Belarus,
Belgium, National Bank of Belgium,
Belize, Central Bank of Belize,
Benin, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Bermuda, Bermuda Monetary Authority,
Bhutan, Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan,
Bolivia, Central Bank of Bolivia,
Bosnia, Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Bank of Botswana,
Brazil, Central Bank of Brazil,
Bulgaria, Bulgarian National Bank,
Burkina Faso, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Burundi, Bank of the Republic of Burundi,
Cambodia, National Bank of Cambodia,
Came Roon, Bank of Central African States,
Canada, Bank of Canada – Banque du Canada,
Cayman Islands, Cayman Islands Monetary Authority,
Central African Republic, Bank of Central African States,
Chad, Bank of Central African States,
Chile, Central Bank of Chile,

China, The People’s Bank of China,

Colombia, Bank of the Republic,
Comoros, Central Bank of Comoros,
Congo, Bank of Central African States,
Costa Rica, Central Bank of Costa Rica,
Côte d’Ivoire, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Croatia, Croatian National Bank,
Cuba, Central Bank of Cuba,
Cyprus, Central Bank of Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Czech National Bank,
Denmark, National Bank of Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Central Bank of the Dominican Republic,
East Caribbean area, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank,
Ecuador, Central Bank of Ecuador,
Egypt, Central Bank of Egypt ,
El Salvador, Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Bank of Central African States,
Estonia, Bank of Estonia,
Ethiopia, National Bank of Ethiopia,
European Union, European Central Bank,

money-world-

Fiji, Reserve Bank of Fiji,
Finland, Bank of Finland,
France, Bank of France,
Gabon, Bank of Central African States,
The Gambia, Central Bank of The Gambia,
Georgia, National Bank of Georgia,
Germany, Deutsche Bundesbank,
Ghana, Bank of Ghana,
Greece, Bank of Greece,
Guatemala, Bank of Guatemala,

Guinea Bissau, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Guyana, Bank of Guyana,
Haiti, Central Bank of Haiti ,
Honduras, Central Bank of Honduras,
Hong Kong, Hong Kong Monetary Authority,
Hungary, Magyar Nemzeti Bank,
Iceland, Central Bank of Iceland,
India, Reserve Bank of India,
Indonesia, Bank Indonesia,
Iran, The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran,

Iraq, Central Bank of Iraq,

Ireland, Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland,
Israel, Bank of Israel,
Italy, Bank of Italy,
Jamaica, Bank of Jamaica,
Japan, Bank of Japan,
Jordan, Central Bank of Jordan,
Kazakhstan, National Bank of Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Central Bank of Kenya,
Korea, Bank of Korea,
Kuwait, Central Bank of Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic,
Latvia, Bank of Latvia,
Lebanon, Central Bank of Lebanon,
Lesotho, Central Bank of Lesotho,

Libya, Central Bank of Libya,

us-homeland-security-seal-plaque_m-747261

Uruguay, Central Bank of Uruguay,
Lithuania, Bank of Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Central Bank of Luxembourg,
Macao, Monetary Authority of Macao,
Macedonia, National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia,
Madagascar, Central Bank of Madagascar,
Malawi, Reserve Bank of Malawi,
Malaysia, Central Bank of Malaysia,
Mali, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Malta, Central Bank of Malta,
Mauritius, Bank of Mauritius,
Mexico, Bank of Mexico,
Moldova, National Bank of Moldova,
Mongolia, Bank of Mongolia,
Montenegro, Central Bank of Montenegro,
Morocco, Bank of Morocco,
Mozambique, Bank of Mozambique,
Namibia, Bank of Namibia,
Nepal, Central Bank of Nepal,
Netherlands, Netherlands Bank,
Netherlands Antilles, Bank of the Netherlands Antilles,
New Zealand, Reserve Bank of New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Central Bank of Nicaragua,
Niger, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria,
Norway, Central Bank of Norway,
Oman, Central Bank of Oman,
Pakistan, State Bank of Pakistan,
Papua New Guinea, Bank of Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Central Bank of Paraguay,
Peru, Central Reserve Bank of Peru,
Philip Pines, Bangko Sentralng Pilipinas,
Poland, National Bank of Poland,
Portugal, Bank of Portugal,
Qatar, Qatar Central Bank,
Romania, National Bank of Romania,
Russia, Central Bank of Russia,

Rwanda, National Bank of Rwanda,
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Civitan International

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Civitan)
This article is about the adult service organization. For the youth service organization, see Junior Civitan International.
Civitan International
Civitan International new logo.png
Founded 1917
Founder Courtney Shropshire
Focus Developmental Disabilities
Location
Area served Worldwide in 28 countries
Method Community service through service clubs, charitable grants
Members 40,000
Revenue US$ 2,200,000 (2007)
Slogan “Building Volunteer Leaders in Clubs Around the World”
Website http://www.civitan.org

Civitan International, based in Birmingham, Alabama, is an association of community service clubs founded in 1917. The organization aims “to build good citizenship by providing a volunteer organization of clubs dedicated to serving individual and community needs with an emphasis on helping people with developmental disabilities.” The organization includes 40,000 members (referred to as Civitans) in almost 1,000 clubs around the world.

History[edit]

In 1917, a group of Birmingham, Alabama, businessmen were members of the local Rotary club. Many of the men thought that the club focused too much on increasing the business of club members, so they surrendered their club’s charter. Led by Courtney Shropshire, a local doctor, they formed an independent service club named Civitan, derived from the Latin word for citizenship.[1] Since the creation of Esperanto in 1887 “civitan” has been the root—civitano in common usage—for the word “citizen”. Rotary’s first fellowship was its Esperanto-speaking fellowship.[2]

The United States entered World War I just one month after the club formed. With all attention focused on the war, Civitan remained a local organization. Some of the earliest projects the club undertook supported soldiers,[3] helped European war orphans, and encouraged voter participation through the payment of poll taxes.[4]

Herbert Hoover (bottom right) holding a reception for delegates to the 12th Civitan International Convention

Shropshire envisioned an international organization of Civitan clubs dedicated to serving humanity. The process to incorporate was begun, and the International Association of Civitan Clubs was founded in 1920. In the years immediately following World War I, the organization saw rapid growth. By June 1922 at the second international convention, delegates from 115 clubs attended; there were more than 3,300 Civitans throughout the United States. Service clubs like Civitan were extremely popular, since they promoted the spirit of optimism which characterized much of the Roaring Twenties.

The vast multiplication of voluntary organizations for altruistic purposes are themselves proof of the ferment of spirituality, service, and mutual responsibility. These associations for advancement of public welfare, improvement, morals, charity, public opinion, health, the clubs and societies for recreation and intellectual advancement, represent something moving at a far greater depth than “joining.” They represent the widespread aspiration for mutual advancement, self-expression, and neighborly helpfulness.
Herbert Hoover, 1922[5]

The club suffered sharp declines in membership and fundraising during the Great Depression. Some also questioned the necessity of service clubs after the New Deal‘s creation of relief programs. The organization persevered, in part due to cooperation with Rotary, Kiwanis, and Lions clubs. One of the few brightspots in the 1930s was the creation and rapid growth of the first Junior Civitan clubs.

B-25 named for the Shadyside Civitan Club

The organization experienced another noticeable drop in membership at the outbreak of World War II, since many of its civic-minded members were among the first to volunteer for military service. Civitans who remained at home organized scrap metal collections,war bond sales, and blood drives. One club in Birmingham, Alabama, held so many successful bond drives that the Army Air Forces named a B-25[6] and a P-47[7] in the club’s honor.

The period after World War II saw another surge in growth. There were 10,000 members by 1947,[8] with membership tripling in size between 1946 and 1956 as Civitan became the sixth largest service club in the United States.[9] By 1960, there were 34,000 active Civitans in 998 clubs.[10] One reason that Civitan expanded so quickly was the flexibility that it allowed to clubs in other countries. Compromises over issues such as the Civitan creed and membership dues allowed the ethnically diverse organization to maintain a strong sense of unity.[11]

By the 1950s, Civitan’s focus had shifted to helping the developmentally disabled. The Civitan International Foundation, established in 1960, provided financial support for many organizations and programs which benefited developmentally disabled individuals. By 2005, the Civitan International Foundation had provided $13,000,000 in grants to the UABCivitan International Research Center, the first institution in the United States to focus solely on researching developmental disabilities.[12]

Charitable work[edit]

Service projects[edit]

Each club is issued a banner when it is organized. Patches are added to the banner to recognize significant awards, achievements, and milestones.

On a local level, individual Civitan clubs undertake various service projects which benefit their local communities. Examples of club projects include maintaining a section of highway (the Tyler Civitan Club was the first to volunteer for the Adopt a Highway program),[13] promoting the creation of hospitals,[14] honoring community leaders,[15] supporting local reading programs,[16] sponsoring children in financial need,[17]purchasing playground equipment for developmentally disabled children,[18] and holding events for developmentally disabled individuals.[19]Clubs operate independently of the international organization or other clubs, leaving them free to participate in whatever service they deem appropriate.

Focus on developmental disabilities[edit]

While individual clubs are free to pursue their own projects, on an international level Civitan is focused on service to the developmentally disabled. This emphasis was adopted in 1956,[20] with Civitans becoming some of the first to provide special training for teachers of developmentally disabled children.[21]

Civitan continues to focus on assisting those with developmental disabilities. In 1990, the Civitan International Research Center was established on the campus of the University of Alabama at Birmingham with a $20,000,000 grant from the Civitan International Foundation.[22] The Civitan International Research Center was the first institution of its kind in the United States to be focused solely on the research of developmental disabilities. Medical professionals from all over the world also come to the center for training on developmental disabilities.

Clergy Appreciation Week[edit]

One of Civitan’s most significant international events is Clergy Appreciation Week, inspired by the story of the Four Chaplains. Begun in 1964, the interfaith event honors the sacrifice of the Four Chaplains by encouraging citizens to thank the clergy who serve their communities.[23][24]The week usually involves Civitan clubs presenting local clergy with an award or certificate of appreciation. Local mayors often sign a proclamation recognizing Clergy Appreciation Week and encouraging its observance.

Junior Civitan International[edit]

Junior Civitan International is one of Civitan’s oldest and most successful programs. Students between the ages of 13 and 18 can join a Junior Civitan club at their school or in their community. Each Junior Civitan club is sponsored by a senior Civitan club and promotes student leadership, character development, and community service.

YP Civitan[edit]

YP Civitan clubs are designed to provide community service and networking opportunities for young professionals aged 21 to 35. YP Civitan of Greensboro, North Carolina was chartered on June 25, 2013 as the first YP Civitan club.[25]

World Citizenship Award[edit]

Dwight Eisenhower receives the World Citizenship Award on June 9, 1966.

Civitan has awarded its World Citizenship Award to those “who have made significant contributions to mankind.”[10] Recipients of the award include Winston Churchill, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Wernher von Braun, Thor Heyerdahl, and Eunice Kennedy Shriver

Candy Box Project[edit]

The Civitan Candy Box Project, one of Civitan’s oldest and most successful fundraising programs, has raised $50,000,000 since its inception in 1976. Civitan volunteers place boxes of mints at businesses in their community, and patrons donate money to take a piece of candy. Volunteers collect the money, keeping some for club service projects and sending the rest to Civitan International for its charitable projects.[26]

Claxton fruitcake sales[edit]

Civitan’s other important fundraiser involves the sale of Claxton Bakery’s fruitcakes. This partnership began in 1951 when Tampa Civitan club (#0202) member Earl Carver enjoyed the cake so much that he suggested they be sold nationally as a fundraiser.[27] Each year during the holiday season, local Civitan clubs sell millions of pounds of fruitcake.[28] The proceeds from these sales benefit Civitan International’s work with developmentally disabled persons.

International activities[edit]

Civitan has clubs in 29 countries and maintains a strong international focus. Because of its long history of service in West Africa, Civitan was invited by the Special Court for Sierra Leone to monitor the war crimes trial of former Liberian President Charles Taylor, held at the International Criminal Court facilities in The Hague.[29] Civitan clubs are active in the following countries:[30]

Famous Civitans[edit]

Several well-known individuals have been Civitans, including:[31]

See also