2018 Commonwealth Games

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
XXI Commonwealth Games
2018 Commonwealth Games.svg

Logo of 2018 Commonwealth Games
Host city Gold CoastQueensland
Country Australia
Motto Share the Dream
Nations participating 71 CommonwealthTeams
Athletes participating 4,426
Events 275 in 19 sports
Opening ceremony 4 April
Closing ceremony 15 April
Officially opened by Charles, Prince of Wales
Officially closed by Edward, Earl of Wessex
Athlete’s Oath Karen Murphy
Queen’s Baton Final Runner Sally Pearson
Main venue Carrara Stadium
Website GC2018.com
<  XX XXII  >

The 2018 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XXI Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Gold Coast 2018, were an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that were held on the Gold CoastQueenslandAustralia, between 4 and 15 April 2018. It was the fifth time Australia had hosted the Commonwealth Games and the first time a major multi-sport event achieved gender equality by having an equal number of events for males and female atheletes.[1]

More than 4,400 athletes from 71 Commonwealth Games Associations took part including Gambia where were readmitted as a Commonwealth Games Federation member on 31 March 2018. With 275 sets of medals, the games featured 19 Commonwealth sports, including beach volleyballpara triathlon and women’s rugby sevens. These sporting events took place at 14 venues in the host city, two venues in Brisbane and one venue each in Cairns and Townsville.[2]

These were the first Commonwealth Games to take place under the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF) presidency of Louise Martin, CBE.[3]The host city Gold Coast was announced at the CGF General Assembly in BasseterreSaint Kitts, on 11 November 2011.[4] Gold Coast became the seventh Oceanian city to host the Commonwealth Games. These were the eighth games to be held in Oceania and Southern Hemisphere.

The host nation Australia topped the medal table for the fourth time in the past five Commonwealth Games, winning the most golds (80) and most medals overall (198). England and India finished second and third respectively.[5]VanuatuCook IslandsSolomon IslandsBritish Virgin Islands and Dominicaeach won their first commonwealth games medals.

Host selection[edit]

Countdown clock at Surfers Paradise

On 22 August 2008, the Premier of QueenslandAnna Bligh, officially launched Gold Coast City’s bid to host the Commonwealth Games in 2018. On 7 April 2009, the ABCreported a land exchange deal between Gold Coast City and State of Queensland for Carrara Stadium. According to Mayor Ron Clarke, the land would aid a potential bid for the 2018 Commonwealth Games. The land exchanged would be used as the site of an aquatics centre. In the same article, Mayor Clarke raised the question of the Australian Federal Government’s commitment to a 2018 Commonwealth Games bid in light of the Government’s support for Australia’s 2018 FIFA World Cup Finals bid.[7]On 16 April 2009, Queensland Premier Anna Bligh told reporters that a successful Commonwealth Games bid by Gold Coast City could help the tourist strip win a role in hosting the World Cup.[8]

“Some of the infrastructure that would be built for the Commonwealth Games will be useful for Gold Coast City to get a World Cup game out of the soccer World Cup if we’re successful as a nation,” she said. However the decision on the venues for the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cups were made eleven months prior to the bid decision for the 2018 Commonwealth Games, so the potential World Cup venues had already been chosen. On 3 June 2009, Gold Coast City was confirmed as Australia’s exclusive bidder vying for the 2018 Commonwealth Games.[9] “Should a bid proceed, Gold Coast City will have the exclusive Australian rights to bid as host city for 2018,” Bligh stated.

“Recently I met with the president and CEO of the Australian Commonwealth Games Association and we agreed to commission a full and comprehensive feasibility study into the potential for the 2018 Commonwealth Games,” she said. “Under the stewardship of Queensland Events new chair, Geoff Dixon, that study is now well advanced.” On 15 March 2010, it was announced that the Queensland Government will provide initial funding of A$11 million for the 2018 Commonwealth Games bid. The Premier of Queensland has indicated the Government’s support for the bid to the Australian Commonwealth Games Association.[10] On 31 March 2010, the Australian Commonwealth Games Association officially launched the bid to host the 2018 Commonwealth Games.[11] In October 2011, Gold Coast City Mayor Ron Clarke stated that the games would provide a strong legacy for the city after the games have ended.[12]

On 31 March 2010, a surprise bid was made for the 2018 Commonwealth Games by the Sri Lankan city of Hambantota. Hambantota was devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and is undergoing a major face lift. The first phase of the Port of Hambantota is nearing completion and it is funded by the government of China. The Mattala International Airport, which is the second international Airport of Sri Lanka is built close to Hambantota. A new Hambantota International Cricket Stadium had also been built, which had hosted matches in the 2011 Cricket World Cup.

On 10 November 2011, the Hambantota bidders claimed they had already secured enough votes to win the hosting rights.[13]However, on 11 November it was officially announced Gold Coast City had won the rights to host the games.[14][15]

2018 Commonwealth Games bidding results
City Country Votes
Gold Coast City Australia Australia 43
Hambantota Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 27

Administration[edit]

In February 2012, Mark Peters was appointed Chief Executive Officer of the Gold Coast City 2018 Commonwealth Games Corporation.[16] The Queensland Government Minister tasked with overseeing the Games was Kate Jones.[17]

Preparation[edit]

Venues[edit]

Concept image for Carrara Stadium and Carrara Sport and Leisure Centre

One of the key technical aspects of Gold Coast City’s successful bid was the fact that the city had 80 percent of the planned venues in place before the bidding deadline. The vast majority of venues were located within 20-minutes driving time of the Athletes Village in Parkwood and were broadly grouped into three areas; Central Gold Coast City, North Gold Coast City and South Gold Coast City. The only competitions held outside of Gold Coast City were track cycling and the preliminary rounds of Basketball which were held in Brisbane and Cairns or Townsvillerespectively, along with the shooting which was held in neighbouring Belmont.[18]

Athletes village[edit]

2018 Commonwealth Games Village

The 2018 Commonwealth Games Athletes Village provided accommodation and services to 6600 athletes and officials in 1252 permanent dwellings: 1170 one and two bedroom apartments and 82 three bedroom townhouses at Southport, Gold Coast.[19]

Queen’s baton relay[edit]

Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games Baton

The Gold Coast 2018 Queen’s Baton Relay was launched on Commonwealth Day, 13 March 2017, on the historic forecourt at Buckingham Palace, signalling the official countdown to the start of the Games. Accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh and Prince Edward The Earl of Wessex, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II heralded the start of the relay by placing her ‘message to the Commonwealth and its athletes’ into the distinctive loop-design Queen’s Baton which then set off on its journey around the globe. It traveled for 388 days, spending time in every nation and territory of the Commonwealth. The Gold Coast 2018 Queen’s Baton Relay was the longest in Commonwealth Games history. Covering 230,000 km over 388 days, the baton made its way through the six Commonwealth regions of Africa, the Americas, the Caribbean, Europe, Asia and Oceania.

The baton landed on Australian soil in December 2017 and then spent 100 days travelling through Australia, finishing its journey at the Opening Ceremony on 4 April 2018, where the message was removed from the Baton and read aloud by Charles, Prince of Wales.[20]

Transport[edit]

Gold Coast light rail extension at Helensvale

The Gold Coast light rail system, connected a number of the key games venues including the Gold Coast City Aquatic Centre, Broadwater Parklands and the Gold Coast Convention & Exhibition Centre with the major accommodation centres of Surfers Paradise and Broadbeach and the Athletes Village at Parklands. An extension to the system was announced in October 2015, connecting the then current terminus at Gold Coast University Hospital to the railway line to Brisbane at Helensvale. The extension opened in December 2017, in time for the games.[21]

Anti-doping[edit]

The Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority conducted an anti-doping drive in the months prior to the games, covering around 2500 tests of Australian athletes, as well as 500 tests against international athletes. Three Australians failed drug tests in this process, along with around 20 international athletes, subject to appeal. The Commonwealth Games Federation conducted in-competition testing and, matching protocol at the Olympic Games, launched a sample storage initiative to allow for future testing of samples up to ten years later, should detection technology improve.[22]

Participating teams[edit]

There were 71 nations competing at 2018 Commonwealth Games.[23] Maldives were scheduled to participate, but in October 2016 they withdrew from the Commonwealth.[24] The Gambia returned to the Commonwealth Games after being readmitted as a Commonwealth Games Federation member on 31 March 2018.[25]

Nations expected to compete at the 2018 Commonwealth Games in Gold Coast

[hide]Participating Commonwealth Games Associations: country name (number of participants)

Number of athletes by team[edit]

Calendar[edit]

OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events CC Closing ceremony
April 4
Wed
5
Thu
6
Fri
7
Sat
8
Sun
9
Mon
10
Tue
11
Wed
12
Thu
13
Fri
14
Sat
15
Sun
Events
Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Aquatics Diving pictogram.svg Diving 3 2 3 2 10
Swimming pictogram.svgSwimming 7 9 8 8 9 9 50
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 5 6 8 7 10 9 9 4 58
Badminton pictogram.svg Badminton 1 5 6
Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball 1 1 2
Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg Beach volleyball 2 2
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 16 16
Cycling
Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svgMountain biking 2 2
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg Road cycling 2 2 4
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg Track cycling 6 4 6 4 20
Gymnastics
Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svgArtistic 1 1 2 5 5 14
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svgRhythmic 1 1 4 6
Field hockey pictogram.svg Hockey 2 2
Lawn bowls pictogram.svg Lawn bowls 2 2 1 2 3 10
Netball pictogram.svg Netball 1 1
Powerlifting pictogram (Paralympics).svg Powerlifting 4 4
Rugby union pictogram.svg Rugby sevens 2 2
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 19
Squash pictogram.svg Squash 2 1 2 5
Table tennis pictogram.svg Table tennis 1 1 1 4 2 9
Triathlon pictogram.svg Triathlon 2 3 5
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 3 3 3 3 4 16
Wrestling pictogram.svg Wrestling 4 4 4 12
Daily medal events 19 17 22 31 33 26 15 24 27 44 17 275
Cumulative total 19 36 58 89 122 148 163 187 214 258 275
April 4th
Wed
5th
Thu
6th
Fri
7th
Sat
8th
Sun
9th
Mon
10th
Tue
11th
Wed
12th
Thu
13th
Fri
14th
Sat
15th
Sun
Total events

Sports[edit]

The regulations stated that from the 26 approved sports administered by Commonwealth Governing Bodies, a minimum of ten core sports and maximum of seventeen sports must be included in any Commonwealth Games schedule. The approved sports included the 10 core sports: athleticsbadmintonboxinghockeylawn bowlsnetball (for women), rugby sevenssquashswimming and weightlifting. Integrated disabled competitions were also scheduled for the Games in nine sports: swimming, athletics, cycling, table tennis, powerlifting and lawn bowls. Along with these events for the first time EAD events in triathlon were held, with the medals added to the final tally for each nation. A record 38 para events were contested at these games.[26] On 8 March 2016, beach volleyball was announced as the 18th sport.[27]

The program was broadly similar to that of the 2014 Commonwealth Games, with the major changes being the dropping of judo, the reintroduction of basketball, the debut of women’s rugby sevens and beach volleyball.[28]

On 7 October 2016, it was announced seven new events for women were added to the sport program, meaning there are an equal number of events for men and women. This marks the first time in history that a major multi-sport event has equality in terms of events. In total 275 events in 18 sports are being contested.[29][30]

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each sport.

Opening ceremony[edit]

The opening ceremony was held at Carrara Stadium in the Gold Coast, Australia, between 20:00 and 22:40 AEST, on 4 April 2018. Tickets for the ceremony started at 100 Australian dollars with half price tickets available for children.[31] The Head of the Commonwealth, Queen Elizabeth II, was represented by her son, Charles, Prince of Wales.[32]

Parade of Nations[edit]

Following tradition, the host of the previous gamesScotland entered first, followed by the rest of the European countries competing.[33] Following this, all countries paraded in alphabetical order from their respective regions. After the European countries entered, countries from Africa, the Americas, Asia, the Caribbean, and lastly Oceania marched in. The host nation of Australia entered last. Each nation was preceded by a placard bearer carrying a sign with the country’s name.

Closing ceremony[edit]

The closing ceremony was held at Carrara Stadium and was produced by Jack Morton Worldwide at a cost of AU$30 million. Australian pop stars Guy SebastianSamantha JadeDami Im and The Veronicas were among the performers along with children’s entertainers, The Wiggles.[34]

Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, declared the Games closed and passed the Commonwealth Games flag to Birmingham, England which will host the 2022 Games.[35]

The organising committee decided to bring in the athletes before the start of the ceremony. This caused an uproar on social media as, contrary to public expectations, none of the athletes were shown entering the stadium during the ceremony. Broadcast rights holders Channel 7 complained on air about the decision and concluded that, “it hasn’t really lived up to expectations”. Many spectators and athletes left during the ceremony, resulting in a half-empty stadium for much of the event.[36] Following this, the ABC claimed that Channel 7 was briefed on the closing ceremony schedule,[37] a claim which Channel 7 later refuted.[38]

Medal table[edit]

Only the top ten successful nations are displayed here.

The ranking in this table is consistent with International Olympic Committee convention in its published medal tables. By default, the table is ordered by the number of gold medals the athletes from a nation have won (in this context, a “nation” is an entity represented by a Commonwealth Games Association). The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If nations are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically by their three-letter country code. Australia tops the medal table rank with 80 gold, second England with 45 gold and third India with 26 gold.

Key

*   Host nation (Australia)

2018 Commonwealth Games medal table
Rank CGA Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Australia (AUS)* 80 59 59 198
2  England (ENG) 45 45 46 136
3  India (IND) 26 20 20 66
4  Canada (CAN) 15 40 27 82
5  New Zealand (NZL) 15 16 15 46
6  South Africa (RSA) 13 11 13 37
7  Wales (WAL) 10 12 14 36
8  Scotland (SCO) 9 13 22 44
9  Nigeria (NGR) 9 9 6 24
10  Cyprus (CYP) 8 1 5 14
Total (43 CGAs) 275 276 289 840

Marketing[edit]

Borobi

Motto[edit]

The official motto for the 2018 Commonwealth Games was “Share the Dream”. It was chosen to highlight the dreams and experience at the games that were shared by participants of the games, ranging from athletes to volunteers and the host country Australia to the world including the Commonwealth nations.[39]

Emblem[edit]

The emblem of the 2018 Commonwealth Games was a silhouette of the skyline and landscape of Gold Coast, the host city of the games.[40]

Mascot[edit]

Borobi was named as the mascot of the 2018 Commonwealth Games in 2016. Borobi is a blue koala, with indigenous markings on its body. The term “borobi” means koala in the Yugambeh language, spoken by the indigenous Yugambeh peopleof the Gold Coast and surrounding areas.[41]

Medals[edit]

At a charity gala held on 4 November 2017, the medals for the games were officially unveiled. Australian Indigenous artist Delvene Cockatoo-Collins designed the medals, while they were produced by the Royal Australian Mint. The design of the medals was inspired by the coastline of Gold Coast along with Indigenous culture.[42] Furthermore, Cockatoo-Collins mentioned, “the medal design represents soft sand lines which shift with every tide and wave, also symbolic of athletic achievement, The continual change of tide represents the evolution in athletes who are making their mark, Records are made and special moments of elation are celebrated”. Approximately 1,500 medals were created to be distributed to the medallists and each measures approximately 63 millimetres in diameter. The medals weigh between 138 and 163 grams.[43]

United Nations General Assembly resolution ES-10/L.22

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
UN General Assembly
Resolution ES‑10/L.22
United Nations General Assembly resolution A ES 10 L 22 vote.png

  Voted in favor
  Voted against
  Abstained
  Not present
Date 21 December 2017
Meeting no. 10th Emergency Special Session (continuation)
Code A/RES/ES‑10/L.22 (Document)
Subject Status of Jerusalem
Voting summary
128 voted for
9 voted against
35 abstained
21 absent
Result Recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void”

United Nations General Assembly resolution ES‑10/L.22 is a emergency session resolution declaring the status of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void.”.[1] It was adopted by the 37th Plenary meeting of the tenth emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly[2] during the tenure of the seventy-second session of the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 2017. The draft resolution was drafted by Yemen and Turkey.[3]Though strongly contested by the United States, it passed by 128 votes to nine against with 21 absentees and 35 abstentions.

Background[edit]

On 6 December 2017, US President Donald Trump said that he would recognise the status of Jerusalem as being Israel’s sovereign capital[4] in a departure from previous UNGA resolutions as well prevailing international norms where no state either recognises Jerusalem as a national capital nor has an embassy there. The move prompted protests from states and communities in many parts of the world.[5]

Following the failure of an United Nations Security Council resolution three days earlier, after an U.S. veto, to rescind the recognition by any states of Jerusalem as a national capital, Palestinian UN Ambassador Riyad Mansour said that the General Assembly would vote on a draft resolution calling for Trump’s declaration to be withdrawn. He sought to invoke Resolution 377, known as the “Uniting for Peace” resolution, to circumvent a veto. The resolution states that the General Assembly can call an Emergency Special Session to consider a matter “with a view to making appropriate recommendations to members for collective measures” if the Security Council fails to act.[6]

Campaign[edit]

On 20 December, US President Donald Trump threatened to cut US aid to countries voting against the US’ side.[7] The day before the vote, he said: “Let them vote against us…We don’t care…this isn’t like it used to be where they could vote against you and then you pay them hundreds of millions of dollars. We’re not going to be taken advantage of any longer.”[8]Ambassador Nikki Haley warned her country would remember and “take names” of every country that voted in favour of the resolution.[9][10][11][12] The governments of Turkey and Iran denounced USA’s threats as “anti-democratic” and “blackmail“.[13][14] She had sent to a letter to dozens of member states that warned Trump had asked her to “report back on those countries who voted against us.”[15] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan warned Trump that “he cannot buy Turkey’s democratic will with petty dollars” and “that opposition of other countries will teach the United States a good lesson”.[16][17]

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that Israel rejects this vote before it passes and called the UN “house of lies”.[18]

Canada’s, which was seeking re-negotiations of the NAFTA, Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland‘s spokesman confirmed its intention to abstain from the vote and that the resolution should not have come to the General Assembly.[19]

Content[edit]

The text of the resolution includes the following key statements:[20]

The General Assembly,

  • Bearing in mind the specific status of the Holy City of Jerusalem and, in particular, the need for the protection and preservation of the unique spiritual, religious and cultural dimensions of the City, as foreseen in the relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Stressing that Jerusalem is a final status issue to be resolved through negotiations in line with relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Expressing in this regard its deep regret at recent decisions concerning the status of Jerusalem,
  • Affirms that any decisions and actions which purport to have altered, the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council, and in this regard, calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem, pursuant to resolution 478 (1980) of the Security Council;
  • Demands that all States comply with Security Council resolutions regarding the Holy City of Jerusalem, and not to recognize any actions or measures contrary to those resolutions;
  • Reiterates its call for the reversal of the negative trends on the ground that are imperiling the two-State solution and for the intensification and acceleration of international and regional efforts and support aimed at achieving, without delay, a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East on the basis of the relevant United Nations resolutions, the Madrid terms of reference, including the principle of land for peace, the Arab Peace Initiative and the Quartet Roadmap and an end to the Israeli occupation that began in 1967.

It concluded in reading that “any decisions and actions, which purport to have altered the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council.”[21]

Motion[edit]

The motion was proposed by Yemen and Turkey.[22]

Debate[edit]

In introducing the resolution as Chair of the Arab Group, Yemen’s Amabassador said the US decision was a “blatant violation of the rights of the Palestinian people, as well as those of all Christians and Muslims.” He emphasized that it constituted a “dangerous breach of the Charter of the United Nations and a serious threat to international peace and security, while also undermining the chances for a two‑State solution and fuelling the fires of violence and extremism.”[23]

Turkey, who was the co-sponsor of the draft resolution, also spoke as current Chair of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation(OIC).[23] Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said that Trump’s decision was an outrageous assault to all universal values. “The Palestinians have the right to their own state based on 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital. This is the main parameter and only hope for a just and lasting peace in the region. However, the recent decision of a UN Member State to recognise Jerusalem, or Al-Quds, as the capital of Israel, violates international law, including all relevant UN resolutions.”[22]

The General Assembly heard from Palestinian Foreign Minister Riad Al‑Malki, who said that the meeting was “not because of any animosity to the United States of America” but instead the sessions was “called to make the voice of the vast majority of the international community — and that of people around the world — heard on the question of Jerusalem/Al‑Quds Al‑Sharif.” He called the US decision to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and to move its embassy there “an aggressive and dangerous move” which could inflame tensions and lead to a religious war that “has no boundaries.” He added that though the decision would have no impact on the city’s status, it would nevertheless compromise the role of the United States in the Middle East peace process.[23] He urged member states to reject “blackmail and intimidation.”[5]

US Ambassador Nikki Haley then said that her country was “singled out for attack” because of its recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. She added that: “The United States will remember this day in which it was singled out for attack in the General Assembly for the very act of exercising our right as a sovereign nation,” Haley said. We will remember it when we are called upon to once again make the world’s largest contribution to the United Nations, and so many countries come calling on us, as they so often do, to pay even more and to use our influence for their benefit.”[15] She added that: “America will put our embassy in Jerusalem. That is what the American people want us to do, and it is the right thing to do. No vote in the United Nations will make any difference on that…this vote will make a difference in how Americans view the UN.”[22]

Israel’s Ambassador Danny Danon then told the assembly that the vowed that “no General Assembly resolution will ever drive us from Jerusalem.”[4]

Venezuela’s Ambassador, speaking for the Non‑Aligned Movement (NAM), expressed “grave concern about Israel’s ongoing violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including attempts to alter the character, status and demographic composition of the City of Jerusalem. [It was] slso concerned about the decision to relocate the United States embassy [and] warned that such provocative actions would further heighten tensions, with potentially far‑reaching repercussions given the extremely volatile backdrop.[23]

Other speakers included, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Syria, Bangladesh, Cuba, Iran and China.[23]

Malaysia’s Ambassador Datuk Seri Mohammed Shahrul Ikram Yaakob said that, as a member of the OIC and NAM, “Malaysia joins the international community in expressing our deep concern and rejects the decision by the United States to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. It is also an infringement of the Palestinian people’s rights and their right to self determination.” He called for a peaceful two-state solution and that Malaysia is concerned the situation will only feed into the agenda of extremists.”[2]

Other speakers included, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and South Africa. The Permanent Observer for the Holy See, Tomasz Grysa, emphasised that Jerusalem was most sacred to the Abrahamic faiths and a symbol for millions of believers around the world who considered it their “spiritual capital.” Its significance went “beyond the question of borders, a reality that should be considered a priority in every negotiation for a political solution.” The Holy See, he said, called for a “peaceful resolution that would ensure respect for the sacred nature of Jerusalem and its universal value…reiterating that only international guarantee could preserve its unique character and status and provide assurance of dialogue and reconciliation for peace in the region.”[23]

After the motion was passed, more speeches continued with Estonia, who also spoke on behalf of other states. Australia’s Ambassador then explained her country’s government did “not support unilateral action that undermined the peace process [and] it did not believe today’s text would help to bring the parties back to the negotiating table.”[23]

Other speakers included, Paraguay, whose Ambassador said that the country would abstain because “the question of Jerusalem was a matter for the Security Council, as the primary body responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security.”[23] This was followed by El Salvador, Argentina and Romania.[23]

Canada’s Ambassador Marc-Andre Blanchard called the proposal “one-sided”[23] and said: “We are disappointed that this resolution is one sided and does not advance prospects for peace to which we aspire, which is why we have abstained on today’s vote.” He, however, added that Canada wanted to emphasise Jerusalem’s special significance to the Abrahamic religions of Jews, Muslims and Christians. “Denying the connection between Jerusalem and the Jewish, Muslim and Christian faiths undermines the integrity of the site for all. We also reiterate the need to maintain the status quo at Jerusalem’s Holy sites.[19]

Nicaragua’s explained its support of the resolution, as it “rebuffed recent unilateral attempts to modify the character and status of Jerusalem. Such unilateral actions were in blatant violation of resolution 2234 (2016) and others…unilateral actions jeopardised peace and stability in the Middle East and drew the international community further away from a solution.”[23]

Mexico’s Ambassador then explained the abstention and emphasised that convening an emergency session was a disproportionate response. “The United States must become part of the solution, not a stumbling block that would hamper progress…the international community was further than ever from agreement.”[23]

The Czech Republic then said that while it supported the European Union position, it had abstained because it “did not believe the draft resolution would contribute to the peace process.”[23]

Armenia said that is position “remained unchanged. The situation should be resolved through negotiations paving the way for lasting peace and security.”[23]

Hungary echoed Armenia’s stance and said it would not comment on the foreign relations of the United States.[23]

Latvia then spoke, before Estonia re-took the floor to say it had also spoken on behalf of Albania, Lithuania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.[23]

Result[edit]

Vote[24] Quantity States
Approve 128 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.
Reject 9 Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Togo, United States.
Abstain 35 Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Haiti, Hungary, Jamaica, Kiribati, Latvia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu.
Absent 21 Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor, El Salvador, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mongolia, Myanmar, Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Zambia.

Reactions[edit]

States

Israel – Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu rejected the result shortly after it was announced in call it “preposterous,” while he also thanked the states that supported “the truth” by not participating in “the theatre of the absurd.” He added that: “Jerusalem is our capital. Always was, always will be…But I do appreciate the fact that a growing number of countries refused to participate in this theatre of the absurd. So I appreciate that, and especially I want to again express our thanks to [US] President (Donald) Trump and Ambassador [Nikki] Haley, for their stalwart defence of Israel and their stalwart defence of the truth.” Defence Minister Avigdor Liberman, reminded Israelis of the longstanding Israeli disdain for such votes. “Let us just remember that this is the same UN about which our first ambassador to the organisation, Abba Eban, once said: ‘If Algeria introduced a resolution declaring that the earth was flat and that Israel had flattened it, it would pass by a vote of 164 to 13 with 26 abstentions’. There is nothing new in what just happened at the UN.” He also praised the US as “the moral beacon shining out of the darkness.” Minister of Strategic Affairs and Public Security Gilad Erdan said: “The historic connection between Israel and Jerusalem is stronger than any vote by the ‘United Nations’ — nations who are united only by their fear and their refusal to recognise the simple truth that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and the Jewish people.”

    • However, opposition Joint List Chairman and MK Ayman Odeh called the vote a wake-up call for Israel: “In the international arena, there still exists a large and definitive majority that believes that the Palestinian people, like all other nations, deserve a place in this world and the right to self-determination. This evening’s vote by the majority of the world’s nations against Trump’s announcement, in spite of the pressure and threats, flies in the face of Trump’s and Netanyahu’s diplomatic policy and is a clear statement by the international community in support of peace and the right of the Palestinians to an independent state, whose capital is East Jerusalem,”[8]
Media

Haaretz‘s Noa Landau, wrote, in citing unnamed diplomatic sourced, that Israel was particularly disappointed with countries like India that have enhanced bilateral relations with it recently. “The main disappointment in Israel was with the countries that have enhanced bilateral relations in recent years, especially those that share a particularly conservative worldview with the Netanyahu government. For example, India – whose Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, visited Israel in July, a tour that was memorable mainly for the pastoral photographs of him and Netanyahu embracing and wading in the waves – voted for the resolution against Israel and the United States.”[8]

Others

At a “Solidarity to Save Jerusalem” rally organised by the Barisan National government in Malaysia, one of the attendees Association of NextGen Christians of Malaysia President Joshua Hong said at the Putra Mosque: “We are here because we feel that the decision made by President Trump on announcing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel is merely a political decision. He added that the decision also hurts Christian and Arabic churches in Palestine and not just the Muslims. “To us as Christians, Jerusalem is a city of peace and after that announcement, we feel there is no more peace.I think it is not right and unjust. We believe we should continue pursuing the sustainable peace solution for Palestine and Israel, rather than just a single nation declaring it just like that.” He claimed that about 50 members of the group turned up in a show of support for the Palestinian people..[2]

Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Athletics
at the Games of the XXXI Olympiad
Athletics, Rio 2016.png
Venue Pontal (race walk)
Estádio Olímpico João Havelange
(track & field)
Sambódromo (marathon)
Dates 12–21 August
«2012 2020»
Athletics at the
2016 Summer Olympics
Athletics pictogram.svg
List of athletes
Track events
100 m men women
200 m men women
400 m men women
800 m men women
1500 m men women
5000 m men women
10,000 m men women
100 m hurdles women
110 m hurdles men
400 m hurdles men women
3000 m
steeplechase
men women
4 × 100 m relay men women
4 × 400 m relay men women
Road events
Marathon men women
20 km walk men women
50 km walk men
Field events
Long jump men women
Triple jump men women
High jump men women
Pole vault men women
Shot put men women
Discus throw men women
Javelin throw men women
Hammer throw men women
Combined events
Heptathlon women
Decathlon men

Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics were held during the last 10 days of the games, from 12–21 August 2016, at the Olympic Stadium. The sport of athletics in the 2016 Summer Olympics was split into three distinct sets of events: track and field events, road running events, and racewalking events.

Competition schedule[edit]

Track and field events were held at João Havelange Olympic Stadium, while the race walks and marathon start and finish in Recreio dos Bandeirantes and Sambódromo, respectively. Apart from the race walks and marathon, ten track and field events held finals in the morning session for the first time since 1988. This was implemented upon the request of the Rio 2016 Organizing Committee and the Olympic Broadcasting Service to be supported by the International Olympic Committee, ensuring that they received maximum visibility for the sport across all time zones.[2][3]

In the tables below, M stands for morning and A for afternoon.

Q Qualifiers H Heats ½ Semifinals F Final
Men[4]
Date → Fri 12 Sat 13 Sun 14 Mon 15 Tue 16 Wed 17 Thu 18 Fri 19 Sat 20 Sun 21
Event ↓ M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A
100 m Q H ½ F
200 m H ½ F
400 m H ½ F
800 m H ½ F
1500 m H ½ F
5000 m H F
10,000 m F
110 m hurdles H ½ F
400 m hurdles H ½ F
3000 m steeplechase H F
4 × 100 m relay H F
4 × 400 m relay H F
Marathon F
20 km walk F
50 km walk F
Long jump Q F
Triple jump Q F
High jump Q F
Pole vault Q F
Shot put Q F
Discus throw Q F
Javelin throw Q F
Hammer throw Q F
Decathlon F
Women[4]
Date → Fri 12 Sat 13 Sun 14 Mon 15 Tue 16 Wed 17 Thu 18 Fri 19 Sat 20 Sun 21
Event ↓ M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A
100 m Q H ½ F
200 m H ½ F
400 m H ½ F
800 m H ½ F
1500 m H ½ F
5000 m H F
10,000 m F
100 m hurdles H ½ F
400 m hurdles H ½ F
3000 m steeplechase H F
4 × 100 m relay H F
4 × 400 m relay H F
Marathon F
20 km walk F
Long jump Q F
Triple jump Q F
High jump Q F
Pole vault Q F
Shot put Q F
Discus throw Q F
Javelin throw Q F
Hammer throw Q F
Heptathlon F

Qualification[edit]

The Olympic qualification criteria were simplified by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) from a two-tiered “A” and “B” standard approach to a single qualification standard. Each National Olympic Committee was entitled to send up to three athletes per event that had reached that standard in the period from 2015 to 11 July 2016. Nations without a qualified athlete could enter one male and one female athlete who had not achieved the standard. Marathon runners had additional ways to qualify in that top 20 World Championship or top 10 IAAF Gold Label race finishers were treated as having achieved the standard.[5]

The relay teams entered were the top eight finishers at the 2015 IAAF World Relays plus the next eight highest ranking teams on the seasonal lists (based on an aggregate of their best two times).[6]

Nations with a strong tradition in athletics which had many qualified athletes available for events typically held selection trials to determine their teams (such as the 2016 United States Olympic Trials), or relied on panel decisions by their national governing bodies to determine which athletes could compete.

Daily summaries[edit]

Marathon runner Vanderlei de Limalighting the Olympic flame

At the opening ceremony two figures from the sport of athletics played a key role: Olympic medallist in the marathon, Vanderlei de Lima, lit the Olympic flame for his home nation, while Kenya’s Kipchoge Keino became the first recipient of theOlympic Laurel for his efforts in promoting sport.[7] Unlike most Suummer Olympic Gams, the athletics stadium was not the venue for the opening ceremony in Rio de Janeiro – that honour went to Brazil’s foremost soccer venue, the Maracanã Stadium.[8]

First three days[edit]

On the first day, the first gold medal was won by Almaz Ayana of Ethiopia, who broke a long-standing world record in the women’s 10,000 metres by almost fifteen seconds. The race as a whole was historically fast, setting four of the five fastest times ever for the distance and seeing eight national records broken. China’s Wang Zhen was the first male winner of the 2016 Olympic athletics, topping the 20 kilometres race walk podium. With her final throw of the event, Michelle Carter won the United States’ first ever title in the women’s shot put, preventing Valerie Adams from winning a third straight title. The first half of the heptathlon saw two athletes set a world heptathlon best: Belgium’s Nafissatou Thiam and Great Britain’s Katarina Johnson-Thompson both cleared 1.98 m (6 ft 534 in) for the high jump.[9] (Their marks would have been sufficient for the individual high jump gold.)[10]

Mo Farah leading in the men’s 10,000 metres final

The second day opened with a first in Olympic history as a man succeeded his brother as Olympic champion. In a dramatic final round, German discus throwerChristoph Harting moved up from fourth to gold medal position with a personal best throw and topped the podium as his brother Robert Harting had four years earlier.Mo Farah – a double-Olympic champion from 2012 – defended his 10,000 m crown in spite of a fall which saw him slip to the back of the pack during the middle of race. Farah had been one of three gold medallists for Great Britain on a “Super Saturday” for the host nation at the 2012 London Games, but the two others of that day did not prevail in Rio de Janeiro. Jessica Ennis entered as favourite for the Olympic heptathlon but was runner-up to Belgian Nafissatou Thiam in an upset which saw the 21-year-old add over three hundred points to her personal best score. Defending Olympic long jump champion Greg Rutherford was reduced to third place as American Jeff Henderson won the closely fought men’s competition. Another defending champion was dethroned in the women’s 100 metres: Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce‘s attempt to become the first person to win three straight Olympic track titles was thwarted by Jamaican teammate Elaine Thompson.[11]

Usain Bolt winning the 100 m final

The morning final for the third day was the women’s marathon, which saw Jemima Sumgong win Kenya’s first Olympic gold medal for that event. The race was unusual in that two sets of twins crossed the line together: North Korea’s Kim Hye-song andKim Hye-gyong took tenth and eleventh while Germans Anna and Lisa Hahner were 81st and 82nd. Furthermore Estonia’s Lily, Leila and Liina Luik became the first triplets to feature in an Olympic final. In the women’s triple jump Caterine Ibargüenwon Colombia’s first Olympic gold medal in athletics. Usain Bolt achieved the feat fellow Jamaican Fraser-Pryce had failed to do one day earlier by taking his third straight Olympic 100 m title. This made him the most decorated athlete in the 100 metres at the Olympics. South Africa’s Wayde van Niekerk provided the second world record performance of the athletics programme with his win of the men’s 400 metres in 43.03 seconds. This knocked 0.15 seconds of Michael Johnson‘s time which had gone unbeaten since 1999.[12]

Days 4, 5 and 6[edit]

The third and last athletics world record at the Olympics came on day four. Poland’s Anita Włodarczyk was dominant in thehammer throw, becoming the first woman to throw beyond eighty metres three times in a competition and adding over a metre to her own world record with 82.29 m (269 ft 1134 in). Four of her six throws would have been sufficient to win. Another record was in sight for Ruth Jebet in the women’s 3000 metres steeplechase, though she missed the mark by a second after slowing to celebrate winning Bahrain’s first Olympic gold in any sport. In the women’s 400 m Allyson Felix was stopped from winning an historic fifth Olympic gold by Shaunae Miller of the Bahamas, who dived at the line to win the race. Men’s 800 metres world record holder David Rudisha defended his 800 m Olympic title, being the first man in over half a century to achieve that. A surprise victory for the hosts came via Thiago Braz da Silva, who added ten centimetres to his previous best to win in an Olympic record of 6.03 m ahead of world record holder Renaud Lavillenie of France.[13] Departing from Olympic traditions, the home crowd booed Lavillenie while he was attempting his final vault and he was booed again at the medal ceremony after comparing his treatment to that of Jesse Owens at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Nazi Germany. The partisan treatment was criticised by da Silva, IOC President Thomas Bach and IAAF president Sebastian Coe, though defended by some as an intrinsic part of Brazilian sporting culture.[14][15][16]

On the fifth morning, Croatia’s Sandra Perković became the only woman to defend an individual Olympic athletics title that year, topping the discus podium. Christian Taylor became the only man in the field events to defend his 2012 Olympic title, repeating his American 1–2 finish with teammate Will Claye. The United States was less successful in the men’s 110 metres hurdles: its athletes failed to gain a medal for the first time ever (bar the 1980 boycott) while Jamaican Omar McLeod won by over a tenth of a second. Faith Kipyegon was a clear winner in the women’s 1500 metres ahead of Ethiopia’s Genzebe Dibaba. Derek Drouin won Canada’s first Olympic gold in athletics in twenty years in the men’s high jump.[17] In the women’s 5000 m heats American Abbey D’Agostino and Nikki Hamblin of New Zealand fell during the race. D’Agostino stopped to help Hamblin to her feet, but then struggled herself with an injured ankle, which led Hamblin to help in turn so the pair could finish. The pair were later given the Fair Play award by the International Fair Play Committee for their show of sportsmanship.[18]

Conseslus Kipruto en route to the steeplechase title

In his last Olympic outing, Ezekiel Kemboi failed to defend his Olympic steeplechase title, which went to his Kenyan teammate Conseslus Kipruto in an Olympic record time. Kemboi’s initial bronze medal would have made him the first person to win three Olympic steeplechase medals, but a single step into the infield later saw him disqualified and Mahiedine Mekhissi-Benabbad of France achieve that feat in his place. Tianna Bartoletta beat the favourite in the women’s long jump, clearing a personal best of 7.17 m in the second to last round to leave her American rivalBrittney Reese with a silver medal. Americans also occupied the top spots in the women’s 100 metres hurdles with Brianna Rollins, Nia Ali and Kristi Castlin forming the first ever Olympic medal sweep by a nation in that event. The 100 m gold medallist Elaine Thompson completed a sprint double for Jamaica by defeating Dutch athlete Dafne Schippers in the women’s 200 metres final. High profile eliminations came in the men’s qualifiers as two strong contenders for Olympic titles, Paweł Fajdek in the hammer and Justin Gatlin in the 200 m, failed to progress.[19]

Final three days[edit]

Bolt with his third 200 m victory

The 400 metres hurdles finals were contested on day seven: Kerron Clement won the United States’s 19th men’s title and in contrast Dalilah Muhammad became the first American female winner. On a day of strong American performances, Ashton Eaton defended his decathlon title in an Olympic record score of 8893 points and in the men’s shot put Ryan Crouser greatly improved his best to 22.52 m (73 ft 1012 in) to break Ulf Timmermann‘s Olympic record from 1988 (among men’s Olympic records, only Bob Beamon‘s long jump had stood for longer).[20] The women’s javelin throw had an unexpected winner in Croatia’s Sara Kolak, whose winning mark of 66.18 m (217 ft 112 in) meant the 21-year-old had improved her best by over eight metres that year. The favourite delivered in the men’s 200 m, with Usain Bolt taking his third straight Olympic 200 m title by a margin of a quarter of a second. The women’s 4 × 100 metres relay heats featured the first ever re-run – Brazil has obstructed the American baton handover and the United States were allowed a solo run to qualify for the final on time, which they did.[21]

The American team after winning 4 × 100 m relay gold

The morning of the penultimate day began with two racewalking finals. In the men’s 50 km walk Matej Tóth overtook defending champion Jarred Tallent to win Slovakia’s first Olympic gold in athletics while Liu Hong return China to the top of the women’s 20 km walk podium. Ekaterini Stefanidi of Greece won the women’s pole vault after the pre-event favourites faltered. Dilshod Nazarov made history in the men’s hammer throw by becoming Tajikistan’s first Olympic gold medallist. Vivian Cheruiyot achieved a first for her country in the women’s 5000 metres by outrunning 10,000 m champion Almaz Ayana to take Kenya’s first ever gold in the distance event. In that race, Cheruiyot set the last of eight Olympic records in Rio. The 4 × 100 m finals delivered new highs for Olympic athletics. The American women overcame their qualification troubles by winning from lane one, making Allyson Felix the most successful female Olympian in athletics at five gold medals. Usain Bolt anchored the Jamaican men to the gold to complete a set of three consecutive victories across the 100 m, 200 m and relay (referred to as a “treble treble”). Bolt equalled Carl Lewis and Paavo Nurmi‘s record of nine Olympic gold medals in athletics.[22][23]

Vivian Cheruiyot celebrating Kenya’s first 5000 m women’s title

On the ninth and final day of action in the track and field stadium, Matthew Centrowitz Jr. secured a tactical win in the men’s 1500 m while Caster Semenyaused her sheer speed to win the women’s 800 m. Behind her Francine Niyonsabawon only the second ever medal for Burundi at the Olympics. In the women’s high jump, Ruth Beitia became Spain’s first female Olympic champion in athletics, though this was overshadowed by the fact her winning mark was the lowest since 1980 and she was outperformed by two heptathletes in Rio.[24] Thomas Röhler cleared ninety metres to win the men’s javelin throw. Mo Farah became the second most successful track athlete of the 2016 Rio Olympics by defending his 5000 m title, making him one of only two men alongside Finland’s Lasse Virén to have defended both long-distance titles at consecutive Olympics. In the last track events of the games, the United States won both the 4 × 400 metres relays. Their victory in the women’s race meant Allyson Felix set a record high for women’s Olympic athletics with six gold medals and nine medals overall.[25] The men’s marathon was contested on the last day of the Olympics and Eliud Kipchoge comfortably won by the largest margin since 1972.[26]

As in previous years, the United States won the most medals in athletics and at thirteen golds and 32 overall they won more than double the next most successful nations. In the absence of Russia, Kenya and Jamaica placed second and third with six gold medals and the only other nations to win more than ten medals in total. In the 2016 Olympic athletics programme, 141 medals were awarded and 43 nations reached the medal table.

Medal summary[edit]

Men[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 metres
details
Usain Bolt
 Jamaica
9.81 Justin Gatlin
 United States
9.89 Andre De Grasse
 Canada
9.91
200 metres
details
Usain Bolt
 Jamaica
19.78 Andre De Grasse
 Canada
20.02 Christophe Lemaitre
 France
20.12
400 metres
details
Wayde van Niekerk
 South Africa
43.03 WR Kirani James
 Grenada
43.76 LaShawn Merritt
 United States
43.85
800 metres
details
David Rudisha
 Kenya
1:42.15 Taoufik Makhloufi
 Algeria
1:42.61NR Clayton Murphy
 United States
1:42.93
1500 metres
details
Matthew Centrowitz, Jr.
 United States
3:50.00 Taoufik Makhloufi
 Algeria
3:50.11 Nick Willis
 New Zealand
3:50.24
5,000 metres
details
Mo Farah
 Great Britain
13:03.30 Paul Kipkemoi Chelimo
 United States
13:03.90 Hagos Gebrhiwet
 Ethiopia
13:04.35
10,000 metres
details
Mo Farah
 Great Britain
27:05.17 Paul Tanui
 Kenya
27:05.64 Tamirat Tola
 Ethiopia
27:06.26
110 metres hurdles
details
Omar McLeod
 Jamaica
13.05 Orlando Ortega
 Spain
13.17 Dimitri Bascou
 France
13.24
400 metres hurdles
details
Kerron Clement
 United States
47.73 Boniface Mucheru Tumuti
 Kenya
47.78 NR Yasmani Copello
 Turkey
47.92NR
3000 metres steeplechase
details
Conseslus Kipruto
 Kenya
8:03.28 OR Evan Jager
 United States
8:04.28 Mahiedine Mekhissi-Benabbad
 France
8:11.52
4 × 100 metres relay
details
 Jamaica (JAM)
Asafa Powell,
Yohan Blake,
Nickel Ashmeade,
Usain Bolt,
Jevaughn Minzie,
Kemar Bailey-Cole
37.27  Japan (JPN)
Ryota Yamagata,
Shota Iizuka,
Yoshihide Kiryu,
Asuka Cambridge
37.60 AR  Canada (CAN)
Akeem Haynes,
Aaron Brown,
Brendon Rodney,
Andre De Grasse,
Mobolade Ajomale
37.64NR
4 × 400 metres relay
details
 United States (USA)
Arman Hall,
Tony McQuay,
Gil Roberts,
LaShawn Merritt,
Kyle Clemons,
David Verburg,
2:57.30  Jamaica (JAM)
Peter Matthews,
Nathon Allen,
Fitzroy Dunkley,
Javon Francis,
Rusheen McDonald
2:58.16  Bahamas (BAH)
Alonzo Russell,
Michael Mathieu,
Steven Gardiner,
Chris Brown,
Stephen Newbold
2:58.49
Marathon
details
Eliud Kipchoge
 Kenya
2:08:44 Feyisa Lilesa
 Ethiopia
2:09:54 Galen Rupp
 United States
2:10:05
20 kilometres walk
details
Wang Zhen
 China
1:19:14 Cai Zelin
 China
1:19:26 Dane Bird-Smith
 Australia
1:19:37
50 kilometres walk
details
Matej Tóth
 Slovakia
3:40:58 Jared Tallent
 Australia
3:41:16 Hirooki Arai
 Japan
3:41:24
High jump
details
Derek Drouin
 Canada
2.38 m Mutaz Essa Barshim
 Qatar
2.36 m Bohdan Bondarenko
 Ukraine
2.33 m
Pole vault
details
Thiago Braz da Silva
 Brazil
6.03 m OR,AR Renaud Lavillenie
 France
5.98 m Sam Kendricks
 United States
5.85 m
Long jump
details
Jeff Henderson
 United States
8.38 m Luvo Manyonga
 South Africa
8.37 m Greg Rutherford
 Great Britain
8.29 m
Triple jump
details
Christian Taylor
 United States
17.86 m Will Claye
 United States
17.76 m Dong Bin
 China
17.58 m
Shot put
details
Ryan Crouser
 United States
22.52 mOR Joe Kovacs
 United States
21.78 m Tomas Walsh
 New Zealand
21.36 m
Discus throw
details
Christoph Harting
 Germany
68.37 m Piotr Małachowski
 Poland
67.55 m Daniel Jasinski
 Germany
67.05 m
Hammer throw
details
Dilshod Nazarov
 Tajikistan
78.68 m Ivan Tsikhan
 Belarus
77.79 m Wojciech Nowicki
 Poland
77.73 m
Javelin throw
details
Thomas Röhler
 Germany
90.30 m Julius Yego
 Kenya
88.24 m Keshorn Walcott
 Trinidad and Tobago
85.38 m
Decathlon
details
Ashton Eaton
 United States
8893 ptsOR Kévin Mayer
 France
8834 ptsNR Damian Warner
 Canada
8666 pts

* Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats and received medals.

Women[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 metres
details
Elaine Thompson
 Jamaica
10.71 Tori Bowie
 United States
10.83 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
 Jamaica
10.86
200 metres
details
Elaine Thompson
 Jamaica
21.78 Dafne Schippers
 Netherlands
21.88 Tori Bowie
 United States
22.15
400 metres
details
Shaunae Miller
 Bahamas
49.44 Allyson Felix
 United States
49.51 Shericka Jackson
 Jamaica
49.85
800 metres
details
Caster Semenya
 South Africa
1:55.28NR Francine Niyonsaba
 Burundi
1:56.49 Margaret Wambui
 Kenya
1:56.89
1500 metres
details
Faith Kipyegon
 Kenya
4:08.92 Genzebe Dibaba
 Ethiopia
4:10.27 Jennifer Simpson
 United States
4:10.53
5000 metres
details
Vivian Cheruiyot
 Kenya
14:26.17OR Hellen Onsando Obiri
 Kenya
14:29.77 Almaz Ayana
 Ethiopia
14:33.59
10,000 metres
details
Almaz Ayana
 Ethiopia
29:17.45WR Vivian Cheruiyot
 Kenya
29:32.53NR Tirunesh Dibaba
 Ethiopia
29:42.56
100 metres hurdles
details
Brianna Rollins
 United States
12.48 Nia Ali
 United States
12.59 Kristi Castlin
 United States
12.61
400 metres hurdles
details
Dalilah Muhammad
 United States
53.13 Sara Petersen
 Denmark
53.55 NR Ashley Spencer
 United States
53.72
3000 metres steeplechase
details
Ruth Jebet
 Bahrain
8:59.75AR Hyvin Jepkemoi
 Kenya
9:07.12 Emma Coburn
 United States
9:07.63AR
4 × 100 metres relay
details
 United States (USA)
Tianna Bartoletta,
Allyson Felix,
English Gardner,
Tori Bowie,
Morolake Akinosun
41.02  Jamaica (JAM)
Christania Williams,
Elaine Thompson,
Veronica Campbell-Brown,
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce,
Simone Facey,
Sashalee Forbes
41.36  Great Britain (GBR)
Asha Philip,
Desiree Henry,
Dina Asher-Smith,
Daryll Neita,
41.77 NR
4 × 400 metres relay
details
 United States (USA)
Allyson Felix,
Phyllis Francis,
Natasha Hastings,
Courtney Okolo,
Taylor Ellis-Watson,
Francena McCorory
3:19.06  Jamaica (JAM)
Stephenie Ann McPherson,
Anneisha McLaughlin-Whilby,
Shericka Jackson,
Novlene Williams-Mills,
Christine Day,
Chrisann Gordon
3:20.34  Great Britain (GBR)
Eilidh Doyle,
Anyika Onuora,
Emily Diamond,
Christine Ohuruogu,
Kelly Massey
3:25.88
Marathon
details
Jemima Sumgong
 Kenya
2:24:04 Eunice Kirwa
 Bahrain
2:24:13 Mare Dibaba
 Ethiopia
2:24:30
20 kilometres walk
details
Liu Hong
 China
1:28:35 María Guadalupe González
 Mexico
1:28:37 Lü Xiuzhi
 China
1:28:42
High jump
details
Ruth Beitia
 Spain
1.97 m Mirela Demireva
 Bulgaria
1.97 m Blanka Vlašić
 Croatia
1.97 m
Pole vault
details
Ekaterini Stefanidi
 Greece
4.85 m Sandi Morris
 United States
4.85 m Eliza McCartney
 New Zealand
4.80 mNR
Long jump
details
Tianna Bartoletta
 United States
7.17 m Britney Reese
 United States
7.15 m Ivana Španović
 Serbia
7.08 mNR
Triple jump
details
Caterine Ibargüen
 Colombia
15.17 m Yulimar Rojas
 Venezuela
14.98 m Olga Rypakova
 Kazakhstan
14.74 m
Shot put
details
Michelle Carter
 United States
20.63 mNR Valerie Adams
 New Zealand
20.42 m Anita Márton
 Hungary
19.87 m NR
Discus throw
details
Sandra Perković
 Croatia
69.21 m Mélina Robert-Michon
 France
66.73 mNR Denia Caballero
 Cuba
65.34 m
Hammer throw
details
Anita Włodarczyk
 Poland
82.29 mWR Zhang Wenxiu
 China
76.75 m Sophie Hitchon
 Great Britain
74.54 mNR
Javelin throw
details
Sara Kolak
 Croatia
66.18 mNR Sunette Viljoen
 South Africa
64.92 m Barbora Špotáková
 Czech Republic
64.80 m
Heptathlon
details
Nafissatou Thiam
 Belgium
6810 ptsNR Jessica Ennis-Hill
 Great Britain
6775 pts Brianne Theisen-Eaton
 Canada
6653 pts

* Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats and received medals.

Medal table[edit]

Key

*   Host nation (Brazil)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 United States 13 10 9 32
2 Kenya 6 6 1 13
3 Jamaica 6 3 2 11
4 China 2 2 2 6
5 South Africa 2 2 0 4
6 Great Britain 2 1 4 7
7 Croatia 2 0 1 3
Germany 2 0 1 3
9 Ethiopia 1 2 5 8
10 Canada 1 1 4 6
11 Poland 1 1 1 3
12 Bahrain 1 1 0 2
Spain 1 1 0 2
14 Bahamas 1 0 1 2
15 Belgium 1 0 0 1
Brazil* 1 0 0 1
Colombia 1 0 0 1
Greece 1 0 0 1
Slovakia 1 0 0 1
Tajikistan 1 0 0 1
21 France 0 3 3 6
22 Algeria 0 2 0 2
23 New Zealand 0 1 3 4
24 Australia 0 1 1 2
Japan 0 1 1 2
26 Belarus 0 1 0 1
Bulgaria 0 1 0 1
Burundi 0 1 0 1
Denmark 0 1 0 1
Grenada 0 1 0 1
Mexico 0 1 0 1
Netherlands 0 1 0 1
Qatar 0 1 0 1
Venezuela 0 1 0 1
36 Cuba 0 0 1 1
Czech Republic 0 0 1 1
Hungary 0 0 1 1
Kazakhstan 0 0 1 1
Serbia 0 0 1 1
Trinidad and Tobago 0 0 1 1
Turkey 0 0 1 1
Ukraine 0 0 1 1
Total 47 47 47 141

Records[edit]

World and Olympic records[edit]

Event Date Name Nationality Result Type
Women’s 10,000 metres 12 August Almaz Ayana Ethiopia 29:17.45 min WR
Men’s 400 metres 14 August Wayde van Niekerk South Africa 43.03 sec WR
Women’s hammer throw 15 August Anita Włodarczyk Poland 82.29 m WR
Men’s pole vault 15 August Thiago Braz da Silva Brazil 6.03 m OR
Men’s 3000 metres steeplechase 17 August Conseslus Kipruto Kenya 8:03.28 min OR
Men’s shot put 18 August Ryan Crouser United States 22.52 m OR
Men’s decathlon 18 August Ashton Eaton United States 8893 pts =OR
Women’s 5000 metres 19 August Vivian Cheruiyot Kenya 14:26.17 min OR

Continental records[edit]

The women’s 10,000 metres provided the first two continental records of the Olympics, in Almaz Ayana’s African record andMolly Huddle‘s record for the North, Central American and Caribbean region.[27]

Event Date Name Nationality Result Type
Women’s 10,000 metres 12 August Almaz Ayana Ethiopia 29:17.45 min AR
Women’s 10,000 metres 12 August Molly Huddle United States 30:13.17 min AR
Men’s 400 metres 14 August Wayde van Niekerk South Africa 43.03 sec AR
3000 metres steeplechase 15 August Ruth Jebet Bahrain 8:59.75 min AR
3000 metres steeplechase 15 August Emma Coburn United States 9:07.63 min AR
Women’s hammer throw 15 August Anita Włodarczyk Poland 82.29 m AR
Men’s 4 × 100 m relay 18 August Tang Xingqiang
Xie Zhenye
Su Bingtian
Zhang Peimeng
China 37.82 sec AR
Men’s 4 × 100 m relay 18 August Ryota Yamagata
Shota Iizuka
Yoshihide Kiryu
Asuka Cambridge
Japan 37.68 sec AR
Men’s 4 × 100 m relay 19 August Ryota Yamagata
Shota Iizuka
Yoshihide Kiryu
Asuka Cambridge
Japan 37.60 sec AR

Participation[edit]

Participating nations[edit]

Russia’s athletics team was banned from competing at the 2016 Summer Olympics on June 17, 2016, when the IAAF voted unanimously to prevent them from competing. This punishment is because of the ongoing Russian doping scandal.[28][29]Darya Klishina was the only Russian athlete allowed to participate.

The Refugee Olympic Team, in its first appearance, included six track and field athletes among it 10-strong team.[7]

[hide]Participating National Olympic Committees

Competitors[edit]

Doping[edit]

Russian Darya Klishina

The Olympic athletics competition was majorly affected by the ban of the All-Russia Athletic Federation (ARAF) by the sports governing body, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). The IAAF undertook this action to exclude all Russian athletes following the discovery of state-sponsored doping in Russia.[30] The Russian President accused the body of discrimination against his country’s athletes, saying the ban was a “collective punishment which has nothing to do with justice”. The Russian Minister for Sport, Vitaly Mutko, was directly implicated in the investigations.[31]

The members of Russia’s 68-strong team were allowed to appeal the ban and compete under a neutral flag if they could present evidence that they did not have links with the doping scandal and received testing independent of the Russian national anti-doping body. Only one athlete, United States-based long jumperDarya Klishina, met the criteria and was allowed to compete. Her selection garnered negative press in her home country.[32][33] The situation led pole vaulter Yelena Isinbayeva, one of Russia’s top athletes, to announce her intention to stand for ARAF President to resolve the crisis.[34]

Doping whistleblower Yuliya Stepanova was not allowed to compete

Yuliya Stepanova, a Russian runner who was key in unveiling the doping issue through her whistleblowing, attempted to gain permission from the international Olympic Committee to compete at the Games as an independent athlete, but was unsuccessful on the basis of her having previously failed a doping test. Her husband and coach Vitaly Stepanov, who also acted as whistleblower, said that the decision sent “a message that the World Anti-Doping Code and the values of Olympism are merely words on a page”.[35] The couple’s actions were widely denounced in Russia, with the president’s spokesman labelling the couple as “Judas”.[36]Stepanova received strong support from Travis Tygart, the head of the United States Anti-Doping Agency, who approved of her application to compete.[37]

Silvia Danekova of Bulgaria was the first athletics doping suspension at the Olympics, as the sample she had given on arrival was positive for EPO.[38] Two Kenyan officials were also sent home on doping points: coach John Anzrah impersonated runner Ferguson Rotich to give a doping control and Michael Rotich was expelled following allegations of forewarning athletes of unannounced drug tests.[39]

Women’s Cricket World Cup

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ICC Women’s Cricket World Cup
Administrator International Cricket Council
Format Women’s ODI
First tournament 1973, England
Last tournament 2013, India
Current champion  Australia (6th title)
Most successful  Australia (6 titles)
Most runs Debbie Hockley (1,501)
Most wickets Lyn Fullston (39)
2013 Women’s Cricket World Cup

The ICC Women’s Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of women’s One Day International cricket. The event is organised by the sport’s governing body, the International Cricket Council(ICC). It was originally administered by the International Women’s Cricket Council until the two associations merged in 2005. The first tournament washeld in England in 1973, two years before the first men’s tournament.

Participation in the tournament has varied through the eight competitions: fifteen different teams have played, but only Australia, England and New Zealand have appeared in every tournament. India have appeared in all but two of the competitions. Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and Young Englandhave all appeared in just one tournament: in each case, the first competition, in 1973.

The most recent tournament, the 2013 Women’s Cricket World Cup, was held in India for the third time in February. In the final Australia beat West Indies by 114 runs at the Brabourne Stadium.

History[edit]

First World Cup[edit]

Women’s international cricket was first played in 1934, when a party from England toured Australia and New Zealand. The first Test match was played on 28–31 December 1934, and was won by England.[1] The first Test against New Zealand followed early the following year. These three nations remained the only Test playing teams in women’s cricket until 1960, when South Africa played a number of matches against England.[1] Limited overs cricket was first played by first-classteams in England in 1962.[2] Nine years later, the first international one day match was played in men’s cricket, whenEngland took on Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.[3]

Talks began in 1971 about holding a World Cup for women’s cricket, led by Jack Hayward.[4] South Africa, under pressure from the world for their apartheid laws, were not invited to take part in the competition.[5] Both of the other two Test playing nations, Australia and New Zealand were invited. Hayward had previously organised tours of the West Indies by England women, and it was from this region that the other two competing nations were drawn; Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago. To make up the numbers, England also fielded a “Young England” team, and an “International XI” was also included.[4] Five South Africans were invited to play for the International XI as a means of compensation for the team not being invited, but these invitations were later withdrawn.[5]

The inaugural tournament was held at a variety of venues across England in June and July 1973,[6] two years before the first men’s Cricket World Cup was played.[7] The competition was played as a round-robin tournament, and the last scheduled match was England against Australia. Australia went into the game leading the table by a solitary point: they had won four matches and had one abandoned. England had also won four matches, but they had lost to New Zealand.[6][8] As a result, the match also served as a de facto final for the competition. England won the match, held at Edgbaston, Birmingham by 92 runs to win the tournament.[9]

Tournament history[edit]

List of finals[edit]

Key to list of finals
dagger The final was played as a day/night game.
double-dagger The final was decided by the Duckworth–Lewis method.
  • The “Year” column refers to the year the World Cup was held, and links to the article about that tournament.
  • The links in the “Result” column point to the article about that tournament’s final game.
  • Links in the “Winners” and “Runners-up” columns point to the articles for the national cricket teams of the countries, not the articles for the countries.
  • There were no finals in 1973 and 1978 with the top team in the round robin competition being declared winners.
List of finals, along with the host nation and location and result of the final
Year Winner Result Runner-up Final venue Host nation(s)
1982[10]  Australia
152/7 (59 overs)
Australia won by 3 wickets  England
151/5 (60 overs)
Lancaster Park, Christchurch New Zealand
1988[11]  Australia
129/2 (44.5 overs)
Australia won by 3 wickets  England
127/7 (60 overs)
Melbourne Cricket Ground,Melbourne Australia
1993[12]  England
195/5 (60 overs)
England won by 67 runs  New Zealand
128 (55.1 overs)
Lord’s, London England
1997[13]  Australia
165/5 (47.4 overs)
Australia won by 5 wickets  New Zealand
164 (49.3 overs)
Eden Gardens, Kolkata India
2000[14]  New Zealand
184 (48.4 overs)
New Zealand won by 4 runs  Australia
180 (49.1 overs)
Bert Sutcliffe Oval, Lincoln New Zealand
2005[15]  Australia
215/4 (50 overs)
Australia won by 98 runs  India
117 (46 overs)
SuperSport Park, Centurion South Africa
2009  England
167/6 (46.1 overs)
England won by 4 wickets  New Zealand
166 (47.2 overs)
North Sydney Oval, Sydney Australia
2013  Australia
259/7 (50 overs)
Australia won by 114 runs  West Indies
145 (43.1 overs)
Brabourne Stadium, Mumbai India
2017 England
2021 New Zealand

Participation[edit]

Karen Rolton won the title twice as part of the Australian team.

Team 1973 1978 1982 1988 1993 1997 2000 2005 2009 2013
 Australia 2nd 1st 1st 1st 3rd 1st 2nd 1st 4th 1st
 Denmark 8th 1R
 England 1st 2nd 2nd 2nd 1st SF 5th SF 1st 3rd*
 India 4th 4th 4th SF SF 2nd 3rd* 7th
United Nations International XI 4th 5th
 Ireland 4th 5th QF 7th 8th
 Jamaica 6th
 Netherlands 5th 7th QF 8th
 New Zealand 3rd 3rd 3rd 3rd* 2nd 2nd 1st SF 2nd 4th
 Pakistan 1R 6th 8th
 South Africa QF SF 6th 7th 6th
 Sri Lanka QF 6th 7th 8th 5th
 Trinidad and Tobago 5th
England Young England 7th
 West Indies 6th 1R 5th 5th 2nd

Note: * indicates only when there was a match exclusively played for the 3rd spot

Records[edit]

World Cup records
Batting
Most runs Debbie Hockley  New Zealand 1,501 1982–2000 [16]
Highest average (min. 10 innings) Karen Rolton  Australia 74.92 1997–2009 [17]
Highest score Belinda Clark  Australia 229 not out 1997 [18]
Highest partnership Haidee Tiffen & Suzie Bates  New Zealand 262 2009 [19]
Most runs in a tournament Debbie Hockley  New Zealand 456 1997 [20]
Bowling
Most wickets Lyn Fullston  Australia 39 1982–1988 [21]
Lowest average (min. 500 balls bowled) Katrina Keenan  New Zealand 9.72 1997–2000 [22]
Best bowling figures Jackie Lord  New Zealand 6/10 1982 [23]
Most wickets in a tournament Lyn Fullston  Australia 23 1982 [24]
Fielding
Most dismissals (wicket-keeper) Jane Smit  England 40 1993–2005 [25]
Most catches (fielder) Janette Brittin  England 19 1982–1997 [26]
Team
Highest score  Australia (v Denmark) 412/3 1997 [27]
Lowest score  Pakistan (v Australia) 27 1997 [28]
Highest win %  Australia 87.16 [29]

References

Year in review 2013

 

2013 (MMXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (dominical letter F), the 2013th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 13th year of the3rd millennium, the 13th year of the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2010s decade.

Islamic terror attack

https://zeitgeist77.wordpress.com/2014/06/09/the-list-of-islamic-terror-attacks-from-2013/

EVENT

GLOBAL

1Boston Marathon

2Typhoon Haiyan

3Government Shutdown

42014 FIFA World Cup

5Chinese New Year (Ox)

6Australian Open

7Eurovision Song Contest

8Wimbledon

9Syria Conflict

10EuroBasket

US

1Boston Marathon

2Government Shutdown

3VMAs

4Moore, Oklahoma Tornado

5Royal Baby

6Zimmerman Trial

7Typhoon Haiyan

8New Pope

9Syria Conflict

10Mayweather vs. Canelo

Top Trending

GLOBAL

1Nelson Mandela

2Paul Walker

3iPhone 5s

4Cory Monteith

5Harlem Shake

6Boston Marathon

7Royal Baby

8Samsung Galaxy S4

9PlayStation 4

10North Korea

US

1Paul Walker

2Boston Marathon Bombing

3Nelson Mandela

4Cory Monteith

5iPhone 5s

6Government Shutdown

7James Gandolfini

8Harlem Shake

9Royal Baby

10Adrian Peterson

Annual Events

1Black Friday

2Cyber Monday

3Daytona 500

4Chinese New Year

5Tour de France

6AMAs

7French Open

8Cinco de Mayo

9Yom Kippur

Google+ hash tag

1#Boston

2#BreakingBad

3#TyphoonHaiyan

4#MileyCryus

5#Pope

6#Mandela

7#SFBatKid

8#MarriageEquality

9#GovermentShutdown

10#DrakeHands

Boys Names

1Luke

2Austin

3Jackson

4Adrian

5Jordan

6Alexander

7Carson

8Cameron

9Christopher

10Cooper

Girls Names

1Fallon

2Chloe

3Jaden

4Harper

5Logan

6Emma

7Cadenza

8Lily

9Sloane

10Mia

People

Global

1Nelson Mandela

2Paul Walker

3Malala Yousafzai

4James Gandolfini

5Miley Cyrus

6Oscar Pistorius

7Jennifer Lawrence

8Aaron Hernandez

9Charlie Hunnam

10Adrian Peterson

Us

1Paul Walker

2Cory Monteith

3Aaron Hernandez

4Adrian Peterson

5Miley Cyrus

6James Gandolfini

7Paula Deen

8Mindy McCready

9Trayvon Martin

10Amanda Bynes

People, Most Searched

1Miley Cyrus

2Drake

3Kim Kardashian

4Justin Bieber

5Beyonce

6Rihanna

7Taylor Swift

8Selena Gomez

9Katy Perry

10Kanye West

Dating Services

1Match.com

2Chemistry.com

3PlentyOfFish.com

4Zoosk.com

5eHarmony.com

6FriendFinder.com

7Tinder

8Hinge

9OurTime.com

10OkCupid

Destination Wedding Locations

1Mexico

2Bahamas

3Kauai

4Caribbean

5Jamaica

6Italy

7Las Vegas

8Florida

9Costa Rica

10Bermuda

Weddings

1Kerry Washington and Nnamdi Asomugha

2Michael Jordan and Yvette Prieto

3Aaron Paul and Lauren Parsekian

4NeNe Leakes and Gregg Leakes

5Melissa Gilbert and Timothy Busfield

6Jesse James and Alexis Dejoria

7George Lucas and Mellody Hobson

8Kelly Clarkson and Brandon Blackstock

9Sean Parker and Alexandra Lenas

10Shenae Grimes and Josh Beech

Honeymoon Locations

1New Zealand

2Cancún

3Maldives

4Bali

5Thailand

6Belize

7St. Lucia

8Tahiti

9Caribbean

10Croatia

Celebrity Pregnancies

1Kim Kardashian

2Kate Middleton

3Megan Fox

4Shakira

5Jessica Simpson

6Halle Berry

7Tamar Braxton

8Olivia Wilde

9Kerry Washington

10Jennifer Love Hewitt

Celebrity Break-Ups

1Miley Cyrus and Liam Hemsworth

2Taylor Swift and Harry Styles

3Kris Jenner and Bruce Jenner

4Nina Dobrev and Ian Somerhalder

5Miranda Kerr and Orlando Bloom

6Jennifer Lawrence and Nicholas Hoult

7Ryan Seacrest and Julianne Hough

8Katy Perry and John Mayer

9Marc Jacobs and Harry Louis

10Michael Douglas and Catherine Zeta-Jones

Deaths of 2013

1Paul Walker

2Nelson Mandela

3Cory Monteith

4James Gandolfini

5Mindy McCready

6Roger Ebert

7Margaret Thatcher

8Chris Kyle

9Lee Thompson Young

10Lou Reed

Athletes

Global

1Oscar Pistorius

2Aaron Hernandez

3Adrian Peterson

4Kevin Ware

5Lance Armstrong

6Gareth Bale

7Jason Collins

8Lamar Odom

9Ray Lewis

10Chris Kelly

Us

1Aaron Hernandez

2Adrian Peterson

3Kevin Ware

4Jason Collins

5Oscar Pistorius

6Lamar Odom

7Richie Incognito

8Ray Lewis

9Colin Kaepernick

10Lindsey Vonn

Performing Artists

1Cory Monteith

2Amanda Bynes

3James Gandolfini

4Charlie Hunnam

5Robin Thicke

6Lea Michele

7Miley Cyrus

8Mindy McCready

9Daft Punk

10Dakota Johnson

Politicians

Male Politicians

1Nelson Mandela

2Ted Cruz

3Barack Obama

4Hugo Chavez

5Rand Paul

6Rob Ford

7Kim Jong Un

8John Kerry

9John F. Kennedy

10Joe Biden

Female Politicians

1Wendy Davis

2Dianne Feinstein

3Kathleen Sebelius

4Janet Napolitano

5Kay Hagan

6Angela Merkel

7Mary Landrieu

8Candice Miller

9Marsha Blackburn

10Park Geun-hye

US governors

1Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-born American actor, filmmaker, activist, businessman, investor, writer,…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

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2Chris Christie

Christopher James “Chris” Christie is the 55th Governor of New Jersey and a leading member of the Republican Party…Wikipedia

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3Jesse Ventura

James George Janos, better known by his stage name, Jesse Ventura, is an American politician, actor, author, naval veteran…Wikipedia

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4Andrew Cuomo

Andrew Mark Cuomo is an American politician who is the 56th and current Governor of New York…Wikipedia

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5Rick Perry

James Richard “Rick” Perry is an American politician who is the 47th and current Governor of Texas…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

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9 years in top 10

6Eliot Spitzer

Eliot Laurence Spitzer is an American lawyer, political commentator, and Democratic Party politician who served as the…Wikipedia

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7Kathleen Sebelius

Kathleen Sebelius is an American politician who served as the 21st United States Secretary of Health and Human Services…Wikipedia

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8Jerry Brown

Edmund Gerald “Jerry” Brown, Jr. is an American politician who currently serves as the 39th Governor of California since…Wikipedia

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9Bob McDonnell

Robert Francis “Bob” McDonnell is a former American politician. He was the 71st Governor of Virginia…Wikipedia

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10Mike Huckabee

Michael Dale “Mike” Huckabee is an American politician who served as the 44th Governor of Arkansas…Wikipedia

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11Scott Walker

Scott Kevin Walker is an American Republican Party politician who is the 45th Governor of Wisconsin…Wikipedia

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12Rick Scott

Richard Lynn “Rick” Scott is an American businessman and politician who has been the 45th Governor of Florida since 2011…Wikipedia

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13Mark Sanford

Marshall Clement “Mark” Sanford, Jr. is an American politician and member of the Republican Party. He currently serves as the U.S…Wikipedia

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14Janet Napolitano

Janet Ann Napolitano is an American politician, lawyer, and university administrator who currently serves as the president…Wikipedia

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15Deval Patrick

Deval Laurdine Patrick is an American politician, civil rights lawyer, the 71st and current Governor of Massachusetts…Wikipedia

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16Jeb Bush

John Ellis “Jeb” Bush served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007. He is the second son of former President George H…Wikipedia

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17George Wallace

George Corley Wallace, Jr. was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive…Wikipedia

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18Bobby Jindal

Piyush “Bobby” Jindal is an American politician who is the 55th and current Governor of Louisiana and the Vice Chairman…Wikipedia

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19Edwin Edwards

Edwin Washington Edwards is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who served as the U.S…Wikipedia

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20Joe Manchin

Joseph “Joe” Manchin III is the junior United States Senator from West Virginia…Wikipedia

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Government bodies

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2US Congress

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3National Park Service

The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all U.S. national parks, many…Wikipedia

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4US House of Representatives

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5Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation is a governmental agency belonging to the United States Department of Justice that…Wikipedia

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6US Supreme Court

The Supreme Court of the United States was established pursuant to Article III of the United States Constitution in 1789…Wikipedia

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7United Nations

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8US Department of Housing and Urban Development

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9Judiciary

The judiciary is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state…Wikipedia

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10US Department of Labor

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11United States Department of Defense

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6 years in top 10

12Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency is one of the principal intelligence-gathering agencies of the United States federal government…Wikipedia

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13United States Department of Education

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14United States Department of State

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15United States Department of Homeland Security

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16United States Department of Transportation

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17United States district court

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18U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

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19Drug Enforcement Administration

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20United States Office of Personnel Management

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News Sources

1CNN

2Fox News

3TIME

4Google News

5BBC

6Yahoo! News

7AP

8Huffington Post

9MSN News

10Al Jazeera America

Social Media Sites

1Tumblr

2Facebook

3LinkedIn

4SoundCloud

5Google+

6Goodreads

7Wattpad

8Yelp

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10deviantART

Health Issues

1Flu

2Cold

3Labor

4Diarrhea

5Balance

6Diet

7Back Pain

8Allergies

9Rash

10Lupus

Medications

1Paracetamol

Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen, or APAP, chemically named N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, is a widely used over-the-counter…Wikipedia

#3 most searched

2Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug derivative of propionic acid used for relieving pain, helping with…Wikipedia

#2 most searched

3Steroid

Steroids comprise a group of cyclical organic compounds whose basis is a characteristic arrangement of seventeen carbon…Wikipedia

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4Oseltamivir

Oseltamivir INN, marketed under the trade name Tamiflu, is an antiviral licensed to prevent or slow the spread of influenza…Wikipedia

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5Sulfamethoxazole

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6Diphenhydramine

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9Prednisolone

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, a derivative of cortisol, which is used to treat a variety of inflammatory…Wikipedia

#146 most searched

10Methylprednisolone

Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid or corticosteroid drug. It is marketed in the USA and Canada under the…Wikipedia

#89 most searched

Marketing

Consumer Electronics

Global

1iPhone 5s

2Samsung Galaxy S4

3PlayStation 4

4Xbox One

5Nexus 5

6HTC One

7iPad Air

8Blackberry 10

9Samsung Galaxy Note 3

10Nokia Lumia 1020

Us

1Playstation 4

2Samsung Galaxy S4

3iPhone 5s

4iPhone 5c

5iPad Air

6iPad Mini

7HTC One

8Chromecast

9Nexus 5

Mobile/Tablet Apps

1Bitstrips

2Vine

3Candy Crush

4MeetMe

5Snapchat

6Ruzzle

7Instagram

8Feedly

9Tinder

10InstaFriends

Food Companies

1Pizza Hut

2Domino’s

3Starbucks

4McDonalds

5Jimmy Johns

6Subway

7Olive Garden

8Buffalo Wild Wings

9Applebees

10Chipotle

Foods

1Pizza

Pizza is an oven-baked flat bread typically topped with tomato sauce and cheese…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

2Chicken

Chickens are the most common type of poultry in the world, and were some of the first domesticated animals…Wikipedia

+2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

3Cake

Cake is a form of bread or bread-like food. In its modern forms, it is typically a sweet baked dessert…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

4Coffee

Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from the roasted or baked seeds of several species of an evergreen shrub of the genus Coffea…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

5Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

6Egg

Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

7Cheese

Cheese is a food derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

9 years in top 10

8Chocolate

Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown, food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground, often flavored…Wikipedia

+2 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

9Beer

Beer is an alcoholic beverage produced by the saccharification of starch and fermentation of the resulting sugar…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

10Bread

Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

11Cookie

In the United States and Canada a cookie is a small, flat, baked treat, usually containing flour, eggs, sugar, and either…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

9 years in top 10

12Tea

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis…Wikipedia

+2 since last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

13Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum L…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

14Salad

A salad is a dish consisting of small pieces of raw or cooked food mixed with a sauce and almost always served cold…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

15Soup

Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm, that is made by combining ingredients such as meat and vegetables…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

16Milk

Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals…Wikipedia

+3 since last year

17Sugar

Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

18Sauce

In cooking, a sauce is liquid, cream or semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

19Hamburger

A hamburger is a sandwich consisting of one or more cooked patties of ground meat, usually beef, placed inside a sliced bun…Wikipedia

New in chart

20Fruit

In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries,…Wikipedia

New in chart

Business people

1Willie Robertson

Willie Jess Robertson is an American TV personality, businessman, outdoorsman, hunter, and author…Wikipedia

#2 most searched

2Charles R. Schwab

Charles Robert Schwab, Jr. is an American businessman and investor and the founder of the Charles Schwab Corporation.Wikipedia

#3 most searched

3Lynda Weinman

Lynda Weinman is an American business owner, computer instructor, and author, who founded an online software training web…Wikipedia

#12 most searched

4Carole Middleton

Carole Elizabeth Middleton, is a former air stewardess turned businesswoman, and the mother of Catherine, Duchess of…Wikipedia

#26 most searched

5David A. Siegel

David Alan Siegel is an American businessman. He is the founder of Westgate Resorts Ltd, where he serves as president and…Wikipedia

#28 most searched

6Jeanie Buss

Jeanie Buss is part-owner and president of the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association…Wikipedia

#48 most searched

7J. P. Morgan

John Pierpont “J.P.” Morgan was an American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate…Wikipedia

#14 most searched

8Leigh Anne Tuohy

Leigh Anne Tuohy is an American interior designer. She is best known for being featured in Michael Lewis’ 2006 book, The…Wikipedia

#102 most searched

9Paul W. Robertson

Paul William Robertson was a Canadian businessperson, media executive and producer known for his work in animated television…Wikipedia

#103 most searched

10Elon Musk

Elon Reeve Musk is a South Africa-born, Canadian American business magnate, inventor, and investor…Wikipedia

#15 most searched

Apparel Brands and Retailers

1Kohl’s

2JCPenney

3Nordstrom

4Forever 21

5Victoria’s Secret

6Old Navy

7Macy’s

8American Eagle

9Nike

10Dillard’s

Fashion brands

1Forever 21

Forever 21 is an American chain of fashion retailers with its headquarters in Los Angeles, California and sales of $3.7 billion in 2013…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

2American Eagle Outfitters

American Eagle Outfitters is an American clothing and accessories retailer, headquartered in the Southside Works Neighborhood…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

3H&M

H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB is a Swedish multinational retail-clothing company, known for its fast-fashion clothing for men…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

4Hollister Co.

Hollister Co., often advertised as Hollister or HCo., is an American lifestyle brand owned by Abercrombie & Fitch Co…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

5Tiffany & Co.

Tiffany & Company is an American multinational luxury jewelry and specialty retailer, having headquarters in New York City, United States…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

6Abercrombie & Fitch

Abercrombie & Fitch is an American retailer that focuses on casual wear for young consumers, and is headquartered in New…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

7Gucci

Gucci is an Italian fashion and leather goods brand, part of the Gucci Group, which is owned by French company Kering…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

8Zara

Zara is a Spanish clothing and accessories retailer based in Arteixo, Galicia, and founded in 1975 by Amancio Ortega and Rosalía Mera…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

9Rolex

Rolex SA and its subsidiary Montres Tudor SA design, manufacture, distribute and service wristwatches sold under the Rolex…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

10Wet Seal

Wet Seal is a young women’s clothing retailer headquartered in Foothill Ranch, California…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

High Fashion Brands

1Versace

2Michael Kors

3Diesel Black Gold

4Gucci

5Kate Spade

6Rachel Zoe

7Prabal Gurung

8Givenchy

9Mulberry

10Luca Luca

Jewelry Brands

1Gucci

2Kendra Scott

3Sucre

4Jennifer Meyer

5Jennifer Fisher

6Better Late Than Never

7Gemfields

8Latest Revival

9Suzannah Wainhouse

10Winifred Grace

Shoe Brands

1TOMS
2Aldo
3Nike
4Jessica Simpson
5Steve Madden
6Nine West
7SUPRA
8Coach
9PUMA
10Vans

Fortune 500

1Google

2Facebook

3Apple

4Yahoo!

5Target

6Wells Fargo

7Home Depot

8Best Buy

9Lowe’s

10Nike

Financial companies

1Wells Fargo

Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational banking and financial services holding company which is headquartered…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

2Bank of America

Bank of America is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

3Chase

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase, is a national bank that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

4Capital One

Capital One Financial Corporation is a U.S.-based bank holding company specializing in credit cards, home loans, auto…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

5American Express

The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

6Citibank

Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational Citigroup…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

7PNC Financial Services

PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. is an American financial services corporation, with assets of approximately $271.2 billion…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

8USAA

The United Services Automobile Association is a Texas-based Fortune 500 diversified financial services group of companies…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

9Fidelity Investments

FMR LLC or Fidelity Investments is an American multinational financial services corporation…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

10State Farm Insurance

State Farm is a group of insurance and financial services companies in the United States. The company also has operations in Canada…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

Energy companies

1BP

BP plc, sometimes referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

2Duke Energy

Duke Energy, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is the largest electric power holding company in the United States…Wikipedia

+2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

3Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

4National Grid plc

National Grid plc is a British multinational electricity and gas utility company headquartered in London, United Kingdom…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

5Chevron

Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. Headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active…Wikipedia

-3 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

6ExxonMobil

Exxon Mobil Corp., or ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas, United States…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

7Florida Power & Light

Florida Power & Light Company, the principal subsidiary of NextEra Energy Inc., commonly referred to by its initials, FPL…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

8Xcel Energy

Xcel Energy Inc. is a utility holding company based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, serving more than 3.3 million electric…Wikipedia

+2 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

9Consolidated Edison

Consolidated Edison, Inc., commonly known as Con Edison or Con Ed, is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies…Wikipedia

-3 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

10Progress Energy

Progress Energy, headquartered in Raleigh, North Carolina, is a subsidiary of Duke Energy and prior to its merger with…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

9 years in top 10

New Cars, Trending

12014 Chevy Volt

22013 Acura NSX

32014 Fiat 500

42014 Chevy Sonic

52014 Ford Focus

62014 Kia Optima

72014 MINI Cooper

82013 Scion iQ

92014 Subaru BRZ

102014 Lexus GS 350

New Cars, Most Searched

12014 Corvette Stingray

22014 Chevrolet Camaro

32013 Honda Civic

42014 Honda Accord

52013 Jeep Wrangler

62014 Ford F-150

72014 Jeep Grand Cherokee

82014 Ford Explorer

92013 Range Rover

102014 Nissan Altima

Car Companies

1Tesla

2Bugatti

3MINI

4Ford

5Jeep

6Toyota

7GMC

8Dodge

9Subaru

10Mazda

Hybrid and Electric Cars

1Chevy Volt

2Fisker Karma

3Toyota Prius C

4Toyota Prius V

5Toyota Camry Hybrid

6Hyundai Sonata Hybrid

7Kia Optima Hybrid

8Ford Focus Electric

9Honda Civic Hybrid

10Mitsubishi I-Miev

Donations

1Donate to Philippines

2Donate to Oklahoma

3Donate to Boston

4Donate to Wikipedia

5Donate to Moore

6Donate to Russia

7Donate to OptiFine

8Donate to Cancer

9Donate to Uttarkhand

10Donate to WikiLeaks

Colleges and Universities

1University of Phoenix

2Liberty University

3Columbia University

4Ashford University

5Northwestern University

6University of Michigan

7University of Washington

8Duke University

9Ohio State University

10Cornell University

Countries & regions

1United States

The United States of America, commonly referred to as the United States, America, and sometimes the States, is a federal…Wikipedia

#1 most searched

2United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe…Wikipedia

#4 most searched

3North Korea

North Korea, officially the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula…Wikipedia

#22 most searched

4Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia…Wikipedia

#19 most searched

5Russia

Russia or, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic…Wikipedia

#14 most searched

6Poland

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech…Wikipedia

#38 most searched

7Mexico

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in North America…Wikipedia

#2 most searched

8Germany

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe consisting…Wikipedia

#15 most searched

9Syria

Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to…Wikipedia

#35 most searched

10Canada

Canada is a country in North America consisting of ten provinces and three territories…Wikipedia

#5 most searched

Cities US

1Las Vegas

Las Vegas, officially the City of Las Vegas and often known as simply Vegas, is the most populous city in the state of…Wikipedia

#7 most searched

2Boston

Boston is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States…Wikipedia

#3 most searched

3New York City

New York – referred to as New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it…Wikipedia

#1 most searched

4Chicago

Chicago is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles…Wikipedia

#2 most searched

5Los Angeles

Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles, often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in the U.S…Wikipedia

#5 most searched

6Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh is the seat of Allegheny County and with a population of 305,841 is the second-largest city in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania…Wikipedia

#25 most searched

7Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, “the District”, or simply D.C…Wikipedia

#10 most searched

8Buffalo

Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City…Wikipedia

#41 most searched

9Dallas

Dallas is a major city in Texas and is one of the two urban centers of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the…Wikipedia

#6 most searched

10Cleveland

Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state…Wikipedia

#33 most searched

Animals

1Turkey

The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas…Wikipedia

#16 most searched

2Dog

The domestic dog is a member of the Canidae family of the mammalian order Carnivora…Wikipedia

#1 most searched

3Cat

The domestic cat is a small, usually furry, domesticated, and carnivorous mammal…Wikipedia

#2 most searched

4Horse

The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae…Wikipedia

#3 most searched

5Owl

Owls, birds of the order Strigiformes, include about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified…Wikipedia

#28 most searched

6Iguana

Iguana is a genus of herbivorous lizards native to tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, several islands in Polynesia…Wikipedia

#151 most searched

7Camel

A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as “humps” on its back…Wikipedia

#44 most searched

8Lobster

Clawed lobsters comprise a family of large marine crustaceans. They have long bodies with muscular tails, and live in…Wikipedia

#18 most searched

9Goat

The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe…Wikipedia

#26 most searched

10Tiger

The tiger is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to 3.38 m over curves and weighing up to 388.7 kg in the wild…Wikipedia

#20 most searched

Endangered Species

1Tiger

2Killer Whale

3Red Panda

4Ocelot

5Dugong

6Saola

7Brown Bear

8Harpy Eagle

9Hammerhead Shark

10Great White Shark

Dog Breeds

1Bulldog

2Chihuahua

3Poodle

4Golden Retriever

5Pug

6Pomeranian

7Shih Tzu

8Collie

9Beagle

10Maltese

Authors

1Tom Clancy

2John Green

3Ree Drummond

4Vince Flynn

5Orson Scott Card

6Sylvia Day

7Stephen King

8Neil Gaiman

9Veronica Roth

10Maya Banks

Books

1Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead

2The Great Gatsby

3Divergent

4Soul Healing Miracles: Ancient and New Sacred Wisdom, Knowledge, and the Practical Techniques for Healing the Spiritual, Mental, Emotional and Physical Bodies

5The Fault in Our Stars

6Wonder

7Happy, Happy, Happy: My Life and Legacy as the Duck Commander

8The Book Thief

9Strengths Based Leadership: Great Leaders, Teams, and Why People Follow

10The House of Hades (Heroes of Olympus, Book 4)

Drinks

1Coffee

Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from the roasted or baked seeds of several species of an evergreen shrub of the genus Coffea…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

2Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

3Beer

Beer is an alcoholic beverage produced by the saccharification of starch and fermentation of the resulting sugar…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

4Tea

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

5Milk

Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

6Juice

Juice is a liquid that is naturally contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

7Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in stores, restaurants, and vending machines throughout the world…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

8Cocktail

When used to refer to any generic alcoholic mixed drink, cocktail may mean any beverage that contains two or more ingredients…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

9Vodka

Vodka is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

10Smoothie

A smoothie is a blended and sometimes sweetened beverage made from fresh fruit, vegetables and in special cases can contain…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

11Whisky

Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

9 years in top 10

12Rum

Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

13Champagne

Champagne is a sparkling wine produced from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France following rules that demand…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

14Milkshake

A milkshake is a sweet, cold beverage which is usually made from milk, ice cream, or iced milk, and flavorings or sweeteners…Wikipedia

+5 since last year

15Margarita

The margarita is a cocktail consisting of tequila, triple sec and lime or lemon juice, often served with salt on the rim of the glass…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

16Lemonade

Lemonade is a lemon-flavored drink sweetened with sugar. In different parts of the world, there are variations on the drink and its name…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

17Ale

Ale is a type of beer brewed from malted barley using a warm fermentation with a strain of brewers’ yeast…Wikipedia

-1 since last year

18Cider

Cider is a fermented alcoholic beverage made from the unfiltered juice of apples…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

19Espresso

Espresso is coffee brewed by forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans…Wikipedia

New in chart

20Latte

A latte is a coffee drink made with espresso and steamed milk. The term as used in English is a shortened form of the…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

 

DJs

1Moby

Richard Melville Hall, known by his stage name Moby, is an American singer-songwriter, musician, DJ and photographer…Wikipedia

#3 most searched

2W&W

W&W is a Dutch electronic dance music duo from Breda, consisting of Dutch Willem van Hanegem and Wardt van der Harst…Wikipedia

#26 most searched

3Avicii

Tim Bergling, better known by his stage name Avicii is a Swedish EDM DJ, remixer, and record producer…Wikipedia

#2 most searched

4Hardwell

Robbert van de Corput, better known by his stage name Hardwell, is a Dutch progressive and electro house DJ and music producer…Wikipedia

#14 most searched

5Armin van Buuren

Armin van Buuren is a Dutch music producer and DJ. He is known for mostly playing progressive trance and uplifting trance…Wikipedia

#12 most searched

6Headhunterz

Willem Rebergen, better known by his stage name Headhunterz, is a Dutch DJ and music producer…Wikipedia

#91 most searched

7Diplo

Thomas Wesley Pentz, better known by his stage name Diplo, is an American DJ, music producer, rapper, and songwriter based…Wikipedia

#11 most searched

8Mr. C

Richard West is a British DJ, musician, actor and rapper, who uses the monikers Mr.C, Sycophant Slags & Indigo Kidz…Wikipedia

#77 most searched

9Sasha

Sasha is a Welsh DJ and record producer. Sasha began his career playing acid house dance music in the late 1980s…Wikipedia

#42 most searched

10Classixx

Classixx is an American production and DJ duo, based in Los Angeles, composed of Michael David and Tyler Blake…Wikipedia

#102 most searched

Dance Moves

1Gangnam Style

2The Cat Daddy

3The Dougie

4The Wobble

5YMCA

6The Bernie

7The John Wall

8Macarena

9Cotton Eye Joe

10Shuffling

Beer

1Blue Moon

2Bud Light

3Bud Light Platinum

4Kingfisher

5Stella Artois

6Bud Light Lime

7Coors

8Yuengling

9Birra Moretti

10Coors Light

Whiskeys

1Johnnie Walker

Johnnie Walker is a brand of Scotch Whisky owned by Diageo that originated in Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, Scotland…Wikipedia

#2 most searched

2J&B

Justerini & Brooks is a fine wine business selling wines to merchants, restaurants, hotels and private clients…Wikipedia

#15 most searched

3Jameson

Jameson is a blended Irish whiskey produced by the Irish Distillers subsidiary of Pernod Ricard…Wikipedia

#3 most searched

4Pappy Van Winkle’s Family Reserve

Pappy Van Winkle’s Family Reserve is the flagship brand of bourbon whiskey owned by the “Old Rip Van Winkle Distillery” company…Wikipedia

#8 most searched

5Jack Daniel’s

Jack Daniel’s is a brand of Tennessee whiskey that is the highest selling American whiskey in the world…Wikipedia

#1 most searched

6Maker’s Mark

Maker’s Mark is a small-batch bourbon whisky that is distilled in Loretto, Kentucky, by Beam Suntory…Wikipedia

#5 most searched

7Macallan

The Macallan distillery is a single malt Scotch whisky distillery in Craigellachie, Moray…Wikipedia

#7 most searched

8Lagavulin

Lagavulin distillery is an Islay single malt Scotch whisky distillery in Lagavulin on the island of Islay, Scotland…Wikipedia

#16 most searched

9Jim Beam

Jim Beam is brand of bourbon whiskey produced in Clermont, Kentucky by Beam Suntory…Wikipedia

#6 most searched

10Haig

Haig is brand of Scotch whisky, originally manufactured by John Haig & Co Ltd. The distillery is now part of the Diageo conglomerate…Wikipedia

#36 most searched

TV Shows

Global

1Under The Dome

2Defiance

3Big Brother 15

4Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

5Here Comes Honey Boo Boo

6Sleepy Hollow

7Masters of Sex

8Homeland

9The Blacklist

10Survivor

Us

1Breaking Bad

2Game of Thrones

3Orange Is the New Black

4Scandal

5House of Cards

6Downton Abbey

7Suits

8NCIS

9Dexter

10New Girl

TV Shows, Most Searched

global

1Breaking Bad

2Duck Dynasty

3Big Bang Theory

4Good Morning America

5South Park

6True Blood

7Big Brother 15

8New Girl

9Castle

10Scandal

US

1Breaking Bad

2Duck Dynasty

3Big Bang Theory

4Good Morning America

5South Park

6True Blood

7Big Brother 15

8New Girl

9Castle

10Scandal

TV Series Finales

global

1Breaking Bad

2Buckwild

3Ready for Love

4Zero Hour

5Deception

6Dexter

7Red Widow

8Smash

9All My Children

10Golden Boy

US

1Breaking Bad

2Game of Thrones

3Orange Is the New Black

4Scandal

5House of Cards

6Downton Abbey

7Suits

8NCIS

9Dexter

10New Girl

Movies

Global

1Man of Steel

2Iron Man 3

3World War Z

4Django Unchained

5Despicable Me 2

6Gravity

7Chennai Express

8Les Misérables

9The Conjuring

10Argo

Us

1Man of Steel

2Iron Man 3

3World War Z

4Jobs

5The Conjuring

6The Great Gatsby

7Despicable Me 2

8The Purge

9Pacific Rim

Kids’ TV

1Sofia the First

Sofia the First is an American-British-Spanish-French computer-animated television series that incorporates characters…Wikipedia

#22 most searched

2Sam & Cat

Sam & Cat is an American teen sitcom that originally aired from June 8, 2013 to July 17, 2014, on Nickelodeon…Wikipedia

#31 most searched

3Lego Legends of Chima

Lego Legends of Chima is a theme of Lego toys released in 2013. The toys are set in a fantasy-style land called “Chima”,…Wikipedia

#48 most searched

4My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic

My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic is a children’s animated television series produced by Hasbro Studios in the United…Wikipedia

#2 most searched

5Girl Meets World

Girl Meets World is an American coming of age television sitcom. The series made its debut on June 27, 2014 on Disney…Wikipedia

#52 most searched

6Dora the Explorer

Dora the Explorer is an American educational animated TV series created by Chris Gifford, Valerie Walsh, and Eric Weiner…Wikipedia

#4 most searched

7Liv and Maddie

Liv and Maddie is an American sitcom created by John Beck and Ron Hart and produced by It’s a Laugh Productions for Disney Channel…Wikipedia

#86 most searched

8Teen Titans Go!

Teen Titans Go! is an American animated television series based on the DC Comics fictional superhero team, the Teen Titans…Wikipedia

#58 most searched

9Dog with a Blog

Dog with a Blog is an American television sitcom that premiered on Disney Channel on October 12, 2012. It stars G…Wikipedia

#29 most searched

10Kratts’ Creatures

Kratts’ Creatures is a half-hour children’s television program on PBS Kids. The show was hosted by the Kratt Brothers, Chris and Martin…Wikipedia

#81 most searched

Video Games

1Grand Theft Auto V

2Cookie Clicker

3Atari Breakout

4Candy Crush

5BioShock Infinite

6Cube World

7Battlefield 4

8Neverwinter

9SimCity

10Skylanders SWAP Force

Sports

1Basketball

2Running

3Football

4Golf

5Shooting

6Hockey

7Tennis

8CrossFit

9Bowling

10Hunting

Sports teams

1Texas Longhorns football

The 1950 Texas Longhorns football team represented the University of Texas in the 1950 NCAA college football season…Wikipedia

#104 most searched

2Chicago Blackhawks

The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois…Wikipedia

#14 most searched

3Mexico national football team

The Mexico national football team represents Mexico in association football and is governed by the Mexican Federation of…Wikipedia

#55 most searched

4Boston Red Sox

The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts, that competes in Major League Baseball…Wikipedia

#3 most searched

5Boston Bruins

The Boston Bruins are a professional ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts, United States…Wikipedia

#19 most searched

6United States men’s national soccer team

The United States men’s national soccer team, often referred to as the USMNT, represents the United States in international soccer…Wikipedia

#41 most searched

7San Antonio Spurs

The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas…Wikipedia

#28 most searched

8Seattle Seahawks

The Seattle Seahawks are a professional American football franchise based in Seattle, Washington…Wikipedia

#9 most searched

9Miami Dolphins

The Miami Dolphins are a professional American football team based in the Miami metropolitan area…Wikipedia

#30 most searched

10Los Angeles Dodgers

The Los Angeles Dodgers are a professional baseball team located in Los Angeles, California…Wikipedia

#13 most searched

Sports teams

1Texas Longhorns football

The 1950 Texas Longhorns football team represented the University of Texas in the 1950 NCAA college football season…Wikipedia

#104 most searched

2Chicago Blackhawks

The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois…Wikipedia

#14 most searched

3Mexico national football team

The Mexico national football team represents Mexico in association football and is governed by the Mexican Federation of…Wikipedia

#55 most searched

4Boston Red Sox

The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts, that competes in Major League Baseball…Wikipedia

#3 most searched

5Boston Bruins

The Boston Bruins are a professional ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts, United States…Wikipedia

#19 most searched

6United States men’s national soccer team

The United States men’s national soccer team, often referred to as the USMNT, represents the United States in international soccer…Wikipedia

#41 most searched

7San Antonio Spurs

The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas…Wikipedia

#28 most searched

8Seattle Seahawks

The Seattle Seahawks are a professional American football franchise based in Seattle, Washington…Wikipedia

#9 most searched

9Miami Dolphins

The Miami Dolphins are a professional American football team based in the Miami metropolitan area…Wikipedia

#30 most searched

10Los Angeles Dodgers

The Los Angeles Dodgers are a professional baseball team located in Los Angeles, California…Wikipedia

#13 most searched

Stadiums / Arenas

1AT&T Park

2BB&T Center

3Sleep Train Arena

4Forest National

5United Center

6Staples Center

7Rose Bowl

8Verizon Center

9Madison Square Garden

10Yankee Stadium

Scientists

1Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around…Wikipedia

#1 most searched

2John Venn

John Venn, FRS, FSA was an English logician and philosopher noted for introducing the Venn diagram, used in the fields of…Wikipedia

#30 most searched

3William Herschel

Sir Frederick William Herschel, KH, FRS was a German-born British astronomer, composer, and brother of Caroline Herschel…Wikipedia

#16 most searched

4Robert Resnick

Robert Resnick was a physics educator and author of physics textbooks. He was born in Baltimore, Maryland on January 11,…Wikipedia

#102 most searched

5Alfred Kinsey

Alfred Charles Kinsey was an American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who in 1947 founded…Wikipedia

#32 most searched

6Léon Foucault

Jean Bernard Léon Foucault was a French physicist best known for his demonstration of the Foucault pendulum, a device…Wikipedia

#52 most searched

7Grace Hopper

Grace Murray Hopper was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral…Wikipedia

#35 most searched

8Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics…Wikipedia

#17 most searched

9White Watson

White Watson was an early English geologist, sculptor, stonemason and carver, marble-worker and mineral dealer…Wikipedia

#85 most searched

10Martin Lowry

Thomas Martin Lowry CBE FRS was an English physical chemist who developed the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory simultaneously…Wikipedia

#117 most searched

Chemical elements

1Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive…Wikipedia

#14 most searched

2Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. Its common oxidation number is +2…Wikipedia

#8 most searched

3Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a bright yellow dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal…Wikipedia

#1 most searched

4Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic…Wikipedia

#7 most searched

5Silver

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it possesses…Wikipedia

#2 most searched

6Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen…Wikipedia

#10 most searched

7Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity…Wikipedia

#5 most searched

8Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6…Wikipedia

#26 most searched

9Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series…Wikipedia

#3 most searched

10Aluminum

Aluminium is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery white, soft, ductile metal…Wikipedia

#4 most searched

Events[edit]

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 2013
Further information: Category:2013 deaths
Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

In fiction[edit]

List of Banks owned by the Rothschild Family

“Give me control over a nations currency, and I care not who makes its laws” – Baron M.A. Rothschild

rothcrest

ROTHSCHILD OWNED BANKS:
Afghanistan, Bank of Afghanistan,
Albania, Bank of Albania,
Algeria, Bank of Algeria,
Argentina, Central Bank of Argentina,
Armenia, Central Bank of Armenia,
Aruba, Central Bank of Aruba,
Australia, Reserve Bank of Australia,
Austria, Austrian National Bank,
Azerbaijan, Central Bank of Azerbaijan Republic,
Bahamas, Central Bank of The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Central Bank of Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bank,
Barbados, Central Bank of Barbados,
Belarus, National Bank of the Republic of Belarus,
Belgium, National Bank of Belgium,
Belize, Central Bank of Belize,
Benin, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Bermuda, Bermuda Monetary Authority,
Bhutan, Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan,
Bolivia, Central Bank of Bolivia,
Bosnia, Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Bank of Botswana,
Brazil, Central Bank of Brazil,
Bulgaria, Bulgarian National Bank,
Burkina Faso, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Burundi, Bank of the Republic of Burundi,
Cambodia, National Bank of Cambodia,
Came Roon, Bank of Central African States,
Canada, Bank of Canada – Banque du Canada,
Cayman Islands, Cayman Islands Monetary Authority,
Central African Republic, Bank of Central African States,
Chad, Bank of Central African States,
Chile, Central Bank of Chile,

China, The People’s Bank of China,

Colombia, Bank of the Republic,
Comoros, Central Bank of Comoros,
Congo, Bank of Central African States,
Costa Rica, Central Bank of Costa Rica,
Côte d’Ivoire, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Croatia, Croatian National Bank,
Cuba, Central Bank of Cuba,
Cyprus, Central Bank of Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Czech National Bank,
Denmark, National Bank of Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Central Bank of the Dominican Republic,
East Caribbean area, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank,
Ecuador, Central Bank of Ecuador,
Egypt, Central Bank of Egypt ,
El Salvador, Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Bank of Central African States,
Estonia, Bank of Estonia,
Ethiopia, National Bank of Ethiopia,
European Union, European Central Bank,

money-world-

Fiji, Reserve Bank of Fiji,
Finland, Bank of Finland,
France, Bank of France,
Gabon, Bank of Central African States,
The Gambia, Central Bank of The Gambia,
Georgia, National Bank of Georgia,
Germany, Deutsche Bundesbank,
Ghana, Bank of Ghana,
Greece, Bank of Greece,
Guatemala, Bank of Guatemala,

Guinea Bissau, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Guyana, Bank of Guyana,
Haiti, Central Bank of Haiti ,
Honduras, Central Bank of Honduras,
Hong Kong, Hong Kong Monetary Authority,
Hungary, Magyar Nemzeti Bank,
Iceland, Central Bank of Iceland,
India, Reserve Bank of India,
Indonesia, Bank Indonesia,
Iran, The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran,

Iraq, Central Bank of Iraq,

Ireland, Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland,
Israel, Bank of Israel,
Italy, Bank of Italy,
Jamaica, Bank of Jamaica,
Japan, Bank of Japan,
Jordan, Central Bank of Jordan,
Kazakhstan, National Bank of Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Central Bank of Kenya,
Korea, Bank of Korea,
Kuwait, Central Bank of Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic,
Latvia, Bank of Latvia,
Lebanon, Central Bank of Lebanon,
Lesotho, Central Bank of Lesotho,

Libya, Central Bank of Libya,

us-homeland-security-seal-plaque_m-747261

Uruguay, Central Bank of Uruguay,
Lithuania, Bank of Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Central Bank of Luxembourg,
Macao, Monetary Authority of Macao,
Macedonia, National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia,
Madagascar, Central Bank of Madagascar,
Malawi, Reserve Bank of Malawi,
Malaysia, Central Bank of Malaysia,
Mali, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Malta, Central Bank of Malta,
Mauritius, Bank of Mauritius,
Mexico, Bank of Mexico,
Moldova, National Bank of Moldova,
Mongolia, Bank of Mongolia,
Montenegro, Central Bank of Montenegro,
Morocco, Bank of Morocco,
Mozambique, Bank of Mozambique,
Namibia, Bank of Namibia,
Nepal, Central Bank of Nepal,
Netherlands, Netherlands Bank,
Netherlands Antilles, Bank of the Netherlands Antilles,
New Zealand, Reserve Bank of New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Central Bank of Nicaragua,
Niger, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria,
Norway, Central Bank of Norway,
Oman, Central Bank of Oman,
Pakistan, State Bank of Pakistan,
Papua New Guinea, Bank of Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Central Bank of Paraguay,
Peru, Central Reserve Bank of Peru,
Philip Pines, Bangko Sentralng Pilipinas,
Poland, National Bank of Poland,
Portugal, Bank of Portugal,
Qatar, Qatar Central Bank,
Romania, National Bank of Romania,
Russia, Central Bank of Russia,

Rwanda, National Bank of Rwanda,
San Marino, Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino,
Samoa, Central Bank of Samoa,
Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency,

Senegal, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Serbia, National Bank of Serbia,
Seychelles, Central Bank of Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Bank of Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Monetary Authority of Singapore,
Slovakia, National Bank of Slovakia,
Slovenia, Bank of Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Central Bank of Solomon Islands,
South Africa, South African Reserve Bank,
Spain, Bank of Spain,
Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Bank of Sudan,
Surinam, Central Bank of Suriname,
Swaziland, The Central Bank of Swaziland,
Sweden, Sveriges Riksbank,
Switzerland, Swiss National Bank,

Tajikistan, National Bank of Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Bank of Tanzania,
Thailand, Bank of Thailand,
Togo, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Tonga, National Reserve Bank of Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Central Bank of Tunisia,
Turkey, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey,

Uganda, Bank of Uganda,
Ukraine, National Bank of Ukraine,
United Arab Emirates, Central Bank of United Arab Emirates,

United Kingdom, Bank of England,

United States, Federal Reserve, Federal Reserve Bank of New York,

US-FederalReserveSystem-Seal_svg_

Vanuatu, Reserve Bank of Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Central Bank of Venezuela,

Vietnam, The State Bank of Vietnam,
Yemen, Central Bank of Yemen,
Zambia, Bank of Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe,
Bank For International Settlements, (BIS),

Ferguson admits chikungunya spreading to western Jamaica

KINGSTON, Jamaica — Minister of Health, Dr Fenton Ferguson, said Tuesday that Jamaica has not yet peaked in terms of the expected spread of the chikungunya epidemic.

Dr Ferguson told the House of Representatives that the parishes which had suffered the epidemic earliest have already peaked including St Thomas, are now seeing a downward trend.

“But, as you go further west you are going to be seeing more persons affected,” Ferguson said.

However, he explained that it was not the movement of mosquitoes which was causing the spread, but the movement of people.

“A person who is infected in St Thomas, leaves and goes to Montego Bay, is bitten by the aedes aegypti mosquito in Montego Bay and, after eight days, can infect someone there. So we will continue to get the spread, but we have to continue to manage the source reduction while we kill the adult mosquitoes,” he said.

He added that, in terms of the aerial spraying, there was still concern about it, as it relates to people with respiratory illnesses and bee keepers who have suffered losses. He said that discussions were still taking place.

“In fact, I have been approached by private sector persons who want to give support. (But) I am still awaiting the best advice, before making such decision. So it is not a closed thing,” he stated.

Ferguson admitted that his ministry has been pursuing the use of using genetically modified mosquitoes to get rid of the virus carrying vectors. He said that it is something the ministry has been pursuing with Jamaica’s high commission in London and is looking at that possibility.

He said that his Ministry was also moving to strengthen its public relations department, as well as cooperating with the Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) and the medical doctors associations to assist with public education.

Balford Henry