United Nations General Assembly resolution ES-10/L.22

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
UN General Assembly
Resolution ES‑10/L.22
United Nations General Assembly resolution A ES 10 L 22 vote.png

  Voted in favor
  Voted against
  Abstained
  Not present
Date 21 December 2017
Meeting no. 10th Emergency Special Session (continuation)
Code A/RES/ES‑10/L.22 (Document)
Subject Status of Jerusalem
Voting summary
128 voted for
9 voted against
35 abstained
21 absent
Result Recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void”

United Nations General Assembly resolution ES‑10/L.22 is a emergency session resolution declaring the status of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void.”.[1] It was adopted by the 37th Plenary meeting of the tenth emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly[2] during the tenure of the seventy-second session of the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 2017. The draft resolution was drafted by Yemen and Turkey.[3]Though strongly contested by the United States, it passed by 128 votes to nine against with 21 absentees and 35 abstentions.

Background[edit]

On 6 December 2017, US President Donald Trump said that he would recognise the status of Jerusalem as being Israel’s sovereign capital[4] in a departure from previous UNGA resolutions as well prevailing international norms where no state either recognises Jerusalem as a national capital nor has an embassy there. The move prompted protests from states and communities in many parts of the world.[5]

Following the failure of an United Nations Security Council resolution three days earlier, after an U.S. veto, to rescind the recognition by any states of Jerusalem as a national capital, Palestinian UN Ambassador Riyad Mansour said that the General Assembly would vote on a draft resolution calling for Trump’s declaration to be withdrawn. He sought to invoke Resolution 377, known as the “Uniting for Peace” resolution, to circumvent a veto. The resolution states that the General Assembly can call an Emergency Special Session to consider a matter “with a view to making appropriate recommendations to members for collective measures” if the Security Council fails to act.[6]

Campaign[edit]

On 20 December, US President Donald Trump threatened to cut US aid to countries voting against the US’ side.[7] The day before the vote, he said: “Let them vote against us…We don’t care…this isn’t like it used to be where they could vote against you and then you pay them hundreds of millions of dollars. We’re not going to be taken advantage of any longer.”[8]Ambassador Nikki Haley warned her country would remember and “take names” of every country that voted in favour of the resolution.[9][10][11][12] The governments of Turkey and Iran denounced USA’s threats as “anti-democratic” and “blackmail“.[13][14] She had sent to a letter to dozens of member states that warned Trump had asked her to “report back on those countries who voted against us.”[15] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan warned Trump that “he cannot buy Turkey’s democratic will with petty dollars” and “that opposition of other countries will teach the United States a good lesson”.[16][17]

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that Israel rejects this vote before it passes and called the UN “house of lies”.[18]

Canada’s, which was seeking re-negotiations of the NAFTA, Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland‘s spokesman confirmed its intention to abstain from the vote and that the resolution should not have come to the General Assembly.[19]

Content[edit]

The text of the resolution includes the following key statements:[20]

The General Assembly,

  • Bearing in mind the specific status of the Holy City of Jerusalem and, in particular, the need for the protection and preservation of the unique spiritual, religious and cultural dimensions of the City, as foreseen in the relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Stressing that Jerusalem is a final status issue to be resolved through negotiations in line with relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Expressing in this regard its deep regret at recent decisions concerning the status of Jerusalem,
  • Affirms that any decisions and actions which purport to have altered, the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council, and in this regard, calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem, pursuant to resolution 478 (1980) of the Security Council;
  • Demands that all States comply with Security Council resolutions regarding the Holy City of Jerusalem, and not to recognize any actions or measures contrary to those resolutions;
  • Reiterates its call for the reversal of the negative trends on the ground that are imperiling the two-State solution and for the intensification and acceleration of international and regional efforts and support aimed at achieving, without delay, a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East on the basis of the relevant United Nations resolutions, the Madrid terms of reference, including the principle of land for peace, the Arab Peace Initiative and the Quartet Roadmap and an end to the Israeli occupation that began in 1967.

It concluded in reading that “any decisions and actions, which purport to have altered the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council.”[21]

Motion[edit]

The motion was proposed by Yemen and Turkey.[22]

Debate[edit]

In introducing the resolution as Chair of the Arab Group, Yemen’s Amabassador said the US decision was a “blatant violation of the rights of the Palestinian people, as well as those of all Christians and Muslims.” He emphasized that it constituted a “dangerous breach of the Charter of the United Nations and a serious threat to international peace and security, while also undermining the chances for a two‑State solution and fuelling the fires of violence and extremism.”[23]

Turkey, who was the co-sponsor of the draft resolution, also spoke as current Chair of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation(OIC).[23] Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said that Trump’s decision was an outrageous assault to all universal values. “The Palestinians have the right to their own state based on 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital. This is the main parameter and only hope for a just and lasting peace in the region. However, the recent decision of a UN Member State to recognise Jerusalem, or Al-Quds, as the capital of Israel, violates international law, including all relevant UN resolutions.”[22]

The General Assembly heard from Palestinian Foreign Minister Riad Al‑Malki, who said that the meeting was “not because of any animosity to the United States of America” but instead the sessions was “called to make the voice of the vast majority of the international community — and that of people around the world — heard on the question of Jerusalem/Al‑Quds Al‑Sharif.” He called the US decision to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and to move its embassy there “an aggressive and dangerous move” which could inflame tensions and lead to a religious war that “has no boundaries.” He added that though the decision would have no impact on the city’s status, it would nevertheless compromise the role of the United States in the Middle East peace process.[23] He urged member states to reject “blackmail and intimidation.”[5]

US Ambassador Nikki Haley then said that her country was “singled out for attack” because of its recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. She added that: “The United States will remember this day in which it was singled out for attack in the General Assembly for the very act of exercising our right as a sovereign nation,” Haley said. We will remember it when we are called upon to once again make the world’s largest contribution to the United Nations, and so many countries come calling on us, as they so often do, to pay even more and to use our influence for their benefit.”[15] She added that: “America will put our embassy in Jerusalem. That is what the American people want us to do, and it is the right thing to do. No vote in the United Nations will make any difference on that…this vote will make a difference in how Americans view the UN.”[22]

Israel’s Ambassador Danny Danon then told the assembly that the vowed that “no General Assembly resolution will ever drive us from Jerusalem.”[4]

Venezuela’s Ambassador, speaking for the Non‑Aligned Movement (NAM), expressed “grave concern about Israel’s ongoing violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including attempts to alter the character, status and demographic composition of the City of Jerusalem. [It was] slso concerned about the decision to relocate the United States embassy [and] warned that such provocative actions would further heighten tensions, with potentially far‑reaching repercussions given the extremely volatile backdrop.[23]

Other speakers included, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Syria, Bangladesh, Cuba, Iran and China.[23]

Malaysia’s Ambassador Datuk Seri Mohammed Shahrul Ikram Yaakob said that, as a member of the OIC and NAM, “Malaysia joins the international community in expressing our deep concern and rejects the decision by the United States to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. It is also an infringement of the Palestinian people’s rights and their right to self determination.” He called for a peaceful two-state solution and that Malaysia is concerned the situation will only feed into the agenda of extremists.”[2]

Other speakers included, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and South Africa. The Permanent Observer for the Holy See, Tomasz Grysa, emphasised that Jerusalem was most sacred to the Abrahamic faiths and a symbol for millions of believers around the world who considered it their “spiritual capital.” Its significance went “beyond the question of borders, a reality that should be considered a priority in every negotiation for a political solution.” The Holy See, he said, called for a “peaceful resolution that would ensure respect for the sacred nature of Jerusalem and its universal value…reiterating that only international guarantee could preserve its unique character and status and provide assurance of dialogue and reconciliation for peace in the region.”[23]

After the motion was passed, more speeches continued with Estonia, who also spoke on behalf of other states. Australia’s Ambassador then explained her country’s government did “not support unilateral action that undermined the peace process [and] it did not believe today’s text would help to bring the parties back to the negotiating table.”[23]

Other speakers included, Paraguay, whose Ambassador said that the country would abstain because “the question of Jerusalem was a matter for the Security Council, as the primary body responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security.”[23] This was followed by El Salvador, Argentina and Romania.[23]

Canada’s Ambassador Marc-Andre Blanchard called the proposal “one-sided”[23] and said: “We are disappointed that this resolution is one sided and does not advance prospects for peace to which we aspire, which is why we have abstained on today’s vote.” He, however, added that Canada wanted to emphasise Jerusalem’s special significance to the Abrahamic religions of Jews, Muslims and Christians. “Denying the connection between Jerusalem and the Jewish, Muslim and Christian faiths undermines the integrity of the site for all. We also reiterate the need to maintain the status quo at Jerusalem’s Holy sites.[19]

Nicaragua’s explained its support of the resolution, as it “rebuffed recent unilateral attempts to modify the character and status of Jerusalem. Such unilateral actions were in blatant violation of resolution 2234 (2016) and others…unilateral actions jeopardised peace and stability in the Middle East and drew the international community further away from a solution.”[23]

Mexico’s Ambassador then explained the abstention and emphasised that convening an emergency session was a disproportionate response. “The United States must become part of the solution, not a stumbling block that would hamper progress…the international community was further than ever from agreement.”[23]

The Czech Republic then said that while it supported the European Union position, it had abstained because it “did not believe the draft resolution would contribute to the peace process.”[23]

Armenia said that is position “remained unchanged. The situation should be resolved through negotiations paving the way for lasting peace and security.”[23]

Hungary echoed Armenia’s stance and said it would not comment on the foreign relations of the United States.[23]

Latvia then spoke, before Estonia re-took the floor to say it had also spoken on behalf of Albania, Lithuania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.[23]

Result[edit]

Vote[24] Quantity States
Approve 128 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.
Reject 9 Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Togo, United States.
Abstain 35 Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Haiti, Hungary, Jamaica, Kiribati, Latvia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu.
Absent 21 Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor, El Salvador, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mongolia, Myanmar, Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Zambia.

Reactions[edit]

States

Israel – Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu rejected the result shortly after it was announced in call it “preposterous,” while he also thanked the states that supported “the truth” by not participating in “the theatre of the absurd.” He added that: “Jerusalem is our capital. Always was, always will be…But I do appreciate the fact that a growing number of countries refused to participate in this theatre of the absurd. So I appreciate that, and especially I want to again express our thanks to [US] President (Donald) Trump and Ambassador [Nikki] Haley, for their stalwart defence of Israel and their stalwart defence of the truth.” Defence Minister Avigdor Liberman, reminded Israelis of the longstanding Israeli disdain for such votes. “Let us just remember that this is the same UN about which our first ambassador to the organisation, Abba Eban, once said: ‘If Algeria introduced a resolution declaring that the earth was flat and that Israel had flattened it, it would pass by a vote of 164 to 13 with 26 abstentions’. There is nothing new in what just happened at the UN.” He also praised the US as “the moral beacon shining out of the darkness.” Minister of Strategic Affairs and Public Security Gilad Erdan said: “The historic connection between Israel and Jerusalem is stronger than any vote by the ‘United Nations’ — nations who are united only by their fear and their refusal to recognise the simple truth that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and the Jewish people.”

    • However, opposition Joint List Chairman and MK Ayman Odeh called the vote a wake-up call for Israel: “In the international arena, there still exists a large and definitive majority that believes that the Palestinian people, like all other nations, deserve a place in this world and the right to self-determination. This evening’s vote by the majority of the world’s nations against Trump’s announcement, in spite of the pressure and threats, flies in the face of Trump’s and Netanyahu’s diplomatic policy and is a clear statement by the international community in support of peace and the right of the Palestinians to an independent state, whose capital is East Jerusalem,”[8]
Media

Haaretz‘s Noa Landau, wrote, in citing unnamed diplomatic sourced, that Israel was particularly disappointed with countries like India that have enhanced bilateral relations with it recently. “The main disappointment in Israel was with the countries that have enhanced bilateral relations in recent years, especially those that share a particularly conservative worldview with the Netanyahu government. For example, India – whose Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, visited Israel in July, a tour that was memorable mainly for the pastoral photographs of him and Netanyahu embracing and wading in the waves – voted for the resolution against Israel and the United States.”[8]

Others

At a “Solidarity to Save Jerusalem” rally organised by the Barisan National government in Malaysia, one of the attendees Association of NextGen Christians of Malaysia President Joshua Hong said at the Putra Mosque: “We are here because we feel that the decision made by President Trump on announcing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel is merely a political decision. He added that the decision also hurts Christian and Arabic churches in Palestine and not just the Muslims. “To us as Christians, Jerusalem is a city of peace and after that announcement, we feel there is no more peace.I think it is not right and unjust. We believe we should continue pursuing the sustainable peace solution for Palestine and Israel, rather than just a single nation declaring it just like that.” He claimed that about 50 members of the group turned up in a show of support for the Palestinian people..[2]

List of Banks owned by the Rothschild Family

“Give me control over a nations currency, and I care not who makes its laws” – Baron M.A. Rothschild

rothcrest

ROTHSCHILD OWNED BANKS:
Afghanistan, Bank of Afghanistan,
Albania, Bank of Albania,
Algeria, Bank of Algeria,
Argentina, Central Bank of Argentina,
Armenia, Central Bank of Armenia,
Aruba, Central Bank of Aruba,
Australia, Reserve Bank of Australia,
Austria, Austrian National Bank,
Azerbaijan, Central Bank of Azerbaijan Republic,
Bahamas, Central Bank of The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Central Bank of Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bank,
Barbados, Central Bank of Barbados,
Belarus, National Bank of the Republic of Belarus,
Belgium, National Bank of Belgium,
Belize, Central Bank of Belize,
Benin, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Bermuda, Bermuda Monetary Authority,
Bhutan, Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan,
Bolivia, Central Bank of Bolivia,
Bosnia, Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Bank of Botswana,
Brazil, Central Bank of Brazil,
Bulgaria, Bulgarian National Bank,
Burkina Faso, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Burundi, Bank of the Republic of Burundi,
Cambodia, National Bank of Cambodia,
Came Roon, Bank of Central African States,
Canada, Bank of Canada – Banque du Canada,
Cayman Islands, Cayman Islands Monetary Authority,
Central African Republic, Bank of Central African States,
Chad, Bank of Central African States,
Chile, Central Bank of Chile,

China, The People’s Bank of China,

Colombia, Bank of the Republic,
Comoros, Central Bank of Comoros,
Congo, Bank of Central African States,
Costa Rica, Central Bank of Costa Rica,
Côte d’Ivoire, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Croatia, Croatian National Bank,
Cuba, Central Bank of Cuba,
Cyprus, Central Bank of Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Czech National Bank,
Denmark, National Bank of Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Central Bank of the Dominican Republic,
East Caribbean area, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank,
Ecuador, Central Bank of Ecuador,
Egypt, Central Bank of Egypt ,
El Salvador, Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Bank of Central African States,
Estonia, Bank of Estonia,
Ethiopia, National Bank of Ethiopia,
European Union, European Central Bank,

money-world-

Fiji, Reserve Bank of Fiji,
Finland, Bank of Finland,
France, Bank of France,
Gabon, Bank of Central African States,
The Gambia, Central Bank of The Gambia,
Georgia, National Bank of Georgia,
Germany, Deutsche Bundesbank,
Ghana, Bank of Ghana,
Greece, Bank of Greece,
Guatemala, Bank of Guatemala,

Guinea Bissau, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Guyana, Bank of Guyana,
Haiti, Central Bank of Haiti ,
Honduras, Central Bank of Honduras,
Hong Kong, Hong Kong Monetary Authority,
Hungary, Magyar Nemzeti Bank,
Iceland, Central Bank of Iceland,
India, Reserve Bank of India,
Indonesia, Bank Indonesia,
Iran, The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran,

Iraq, Central Bank of Iraq,

Ireland, Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland,
Israel, Bank of Israel,
Italy, Bank of Italy,
Jamaica, Bank of Jamaica,
Japan, Bank of Japan,
Jordan, Central Bank of Jordan,
Kazakhstan, National Bank of Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Central Bank of Kenya,
Korea, Bank of Korea,
Kuwait, Central Bank of Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic,
Latvia, Bank of Latvia,
Lebanon, Central Bank of Lebanon,
Lesotho, Central Bank of Lesotho,

Libya, Central Bank of Libya,

us-homeland-security-seal-plaque_m-747261

Uruguay, Central Bank of Uruguay,
Lithuania, Bank of Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Central Bank of Luxembourg,
Macao, Monetary Authority of Macao,
Macedonia, National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia,
Madagascar, Central Bank of Madagascar,
Malawi, Reserve Bank of Malawi,
Malaysia, Central Bank of Malaysia,
Mali, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Malta, Central Bank of Malta,
Mauritius, Bank of Mauritius,
Mexico, Bank of Mexico,
Moldova, National Bank of Moldova,
Mongolia, Bank of Mongolia,
Montenegro, Central Bank of Montenegro,
Morocco, Bank of Morocco,
Mozambique, Bank of Mozambique,
Namibia, Bank of Namibia,
Nepal, Central Bank of Nepal,
Netherlands, Netherlands Bank,
Netherlands Antilles, Bank of the Netherlands Antilles,
New Zealand, Reserve Bank of New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Central Bank of Nicaragua,
Niger, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria,
Norway, Central Bank of Norway,
Oman, Central Bank of Oman,
Pakistan, State Bank of Pakistan,
Papua New Guinea, Bank of Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Central Bank of Paraguay,
Peru, Central Reserve Bank of Peru,
Philip Pines, Bangko Sentralng Pilipinas,
Poland, National Bank of Poland,
Portugal, Bank of Portugal,
Qatar, Qatar Central Bank,
Romania, National Bank of Romania,
Russia, Central Bank of Russia,

Rwanda, National Bank of Rwanda,
San Marino, Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino,
Samoa, Central Bank of Samoa,
Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency,

Senegal, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Serbia, National Bank of Serbia,
Seychelles, Central Bank of Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Bank of Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Monetary Authority of Singapore,
Slovakia, National Bank of Slovakia,
Slovenia, Bank of Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Central Bank of Solomon Islands,
South Africa, South African Reserve Bank,
Spain, Bank of Spain,
Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Bank of Sudan,
Surinam, Central Bank of Suriname,
Swaziland, The Central Bank of Swaziland,
Sweden, Sveriges Riksbank,
Switzerland, Swiss National Bank,

Tajikistan, National Bank of Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Bank of Tanzania,
Thailand, Bank of Thailand,
Togo, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Tonga, National Reserve Bank of Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Central Bank of Tunisia,
Turkey, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey,

Uganda, Bank of Uganda,
Ukraine, National Bank of Ukraine,
United Arab Emirates, Central Bank of United Arab Emirates,

United Kingdom, Bank of England,

United States, Federal Reserve, Federal Reserve Bank of New York,

US-FederalReserveSystem-Seal_svg_

Vanuatu, Reserve Bank of Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Central Bank of Venezuela,

Vietnam, The State Bank of Vietnam,
Yemen, Central Bank of Yemen,
Zambia, Bank of Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe,
Bank For International Settlements, (BIS),

Wahhabi / Hanabli movement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Islamic conservative” and “Conservative Islam” redirect here. For other conservative Islamist movements, see Muslim conservatism.

Wahhabism is named after an eighteenth century preacher and scholar, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792).[15] He started a revivalist movement in the remote, sparsely populated region of Nejd,[16] advocating a purging of practices such as the popular cult of saints, and shrine and tomb visitation, widespread among Muslims, but which he considered idolatry, impurities and innovations in Islam.[4][17] Eventually he formed a pact with a local leader Muhammad bin Saud offering political obedience and promising that protection and propagation of the Wahhabi movement, would mean “power and glory” and rule of “lands and men.”[18] The movement is centered on the principle of Tawhid,[19] or the “uniqueness” and “unity” of God.[17] The movement also draws from the teachings of Medieval theologian Ibn Taymiyyah and early jurist Ahmad ibn Hanbal.[20] It aspires to return to the earliest fundamental Islamic sources of the Quran and Hadith,[20] rejecting traditional Islamic legal scholarship beyond the first three generations of Muslims as an unnecessary innovation.[21][22]Wahhabism (Arabic: وهابية‎, Wahhābiyyah) or Wahhabi mission[1] (Arabic: ألدعوة ألوهابية‎, al-Da’wa al-Wahhābiyyah ) is a religious movement or sect or form[2] of Sunni Islam variously described as “orthodox”, “ultraconservative”,[6] “austere”,[2] “fundamentalist”,[7] “puritanical”[8] (or “puritan”),[9] an Islamic “reform movement” to restore “pure monotheistic worship”,[10] or an “extremist pseudo-Sunni movement”.[11] Adherents often object to the term Wahhabi or Wahhabism as derogatory, and prefer to be called Salafi or muwahhid.

Estimates of the number of adherents to Wahhabism vary, with one source giving a figure of 5 million Wahhabis in the GCC region.[23] According to Columbia University, the majority of the GCC’s Wahhabis are from Qatar, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia.[23] 46.87% of Qataris[23] and 44.8% ofEmiratis are Wahhabis.[23] 5.7% of Bahrainis are Wahhabis and 2.17% of Kuwaitis are Wahhabis.[23] Wahhabis are the “dominant minority” in Saudi Arabia.[24] There are 4 million Saudi Wahhabis since 22.9% of Saudis are Wahhabis (concentrated in Najd).[23] The alliance between followers of ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud’s successors (the House of Saud) created the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia—where Mohammed bin Abd Al-Wahhab’s teachings are state-sponsored and the dominant form of Islam[2][25]—and continues to this day. With the help of funding from petroleum exports[26] (and other factors[27]), the movement underwent “explosive growth” beginning in the 1970s and now has worldwide influence.[2]

Wahhabism has been accused of being “a source of global terrorism”,[28][29] and for causing disunity in the Muslim community by labeling non-Wahhabi Muslims as apostates[30] (takfir) thus paving the way for their bloodshed. It has also been criticized for the destruction of historic mazaars, mausoleums, and other Muslim and non-Muslim buildings and artifacts. The “boundaries” of what make up Wahabism have been called “difficult to pinpoint”,[37] but in contemporary usage, the terms Wahhabi and Salafi are often used interchangeably, and considered to be movements with different roots that have merged since the 1960s. But Wahhabism has also been called “a particular orientation within Salafism”,[4] or an ultra-conservative, Saudi brand of Salafism.[21][22]

Definitions and etymology

Definitions

Some definitions or uses of the term Wahhabi Islam include

  • “a corpus of doctrines, but also a set of attitudes and behavior, derived from the teachings of a particularly severe religious reformist who lived in central Arabia in the mid-eighteenth century.” (Gilles Kepel)[41]
  • “pure Islam” (David Commins paraphrasing supporters definition),[42] that does not deviate from Sharia law in any way and should be called Islam and not Wahhabism.(Prince Salman bin Abdul Aziz, the governor of the Saudi capital Riyadh)[13]
  • “a misguided creed that fosters intolerance, promotes simplistic theology, and restricts Islam’s capacity for adaption to diverse and shifting circumstances.” (David Commins paraphrasing opponents definition)[42]
  • “a conservative reform movement … the creed upon which the kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded, and [which] has influenced Islamic movements worldwide.” (Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world)[43]
  • “a sect dominant in Saudi Arabia and Qatar” with footholds in “India, Africa, and elsewhere”, with a “steadfastly fundamentalist interpretation of Islam in the tradition of Ibn Hanbal”. (Cyril Glasse)[19]
  • an “eighteenth-century reformist/revivalist movement for sociomoral reconstruction of society”, “founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab” (Oxford Dictionary of Islam).[44]
  • “a political trend” within Islam that “has been adopted for power-sharing purposes”, but cannot be called a sect because “It has no special practices, nor special rites, and no special interpretation of religion that differ from the main body of Sunni Islam,” (Abdallah Al Obeid, the former dean of the Islamic University of Medina and member of the Saudi Consultative Council)[37]
  • “the true salafist movement.” Starting out as a theological reform movement, it had “the goal of calling (da‘wa) people to restore the ‘real’ meaning of tawhid (oneness of God or monotheism) and to disregard and deconstruct ‘traditional’ disciplines and practices that evolved in Islamic history such as theology and jurisprudence and the traditions of visiting tombs and shrines of venerated individuals.” (Ahmad Moussalli)[45]
  • a term used by opponents of Salafism in hopes of besmirching that movement by suggesting foreign influence and “conjuring up images of Saudi Arabia”. The term is “most frequently used in countries where Salafis are a small minority” of the Muslim community but “have made recent inroads” in `converting` the local population to Salafism. (Quintan Wiktorowicz)[12]
  • a blanket term used inaccurately to refer to “any Islamic movement that has an apparent tendency toward misogyny, militantism, extremism, or strict and literal interpretation of the Quran and hadith” (Natana J. DeLong-Bas)[46]

Etymology

Wahhabis under the leadership ofAbdullah bin Saud destroyed the tomb of Hussein bin Ali (Muhammad‘s grandson and an important figure in both Sunni and Shia Islam), furthermore Islam‘s holiest shrines inMakkah and Madinah were damaged and innocent civilians were put to death when they objected to it.[34][35]Abdullah bin Saud was captured, put on trial and executed in Istanbul bySunni Ottomans.[47]

According to Saudi writer Abdul Aziz Qassim, it was the Ottomans who “first labelled Abdul Wahhab’s school of Islam in Saudi Arabia as Wahhabism”. The British also adopted it and expanded its use in the Middle East. In the US the term “Wahhabi” was used in the 1950s to refer to “puritan Muslims”, according to Life magazine.[48]

Wahhabis do not like—or at least did not like—the term. Ibn Abd-Al-Wahhab’s was averse to the elevation of scholars and other individuals, including using a person’s name to label an Islamic school.[31] According to Robert Lacey “the Wahhabis have always disliked the name customarily given to them” and preferred to be called Muwahhidun. English translation of that term, “Unitarians,” however causes confusion with the Christian denomination (Unitarian Universalism) and other terms have not caught on. Like the Christian Quakers then, Wahhabis have “remained known by the name first assigned to them by their detractors.”[49]

According to social scientist Quintan Wiktorowicz, “Wahhabi” has also been used by its opponents “to denote foreign influence”, particularly in countries where they are “a small minority of the Muslim community, but have made recent inroads in “converting” the local population to the movement ideology”.[12]

According to Saudi author Abdul Aziz Qassim, the name Wahhabis prefer is “the reform or Salafi movement of the Sheikh”.[50] Wiktorowicz also urges use of the term Salafi, maintaining

one would be hard pressed to find individuals who refer to themselves as Wahhabis or organizations that use “Wahhabi” in their title, or refer to their ideology in this manner (unless they are speaking to a Western audience that is unfamiliar with Islamic terminology, and even then usage is limited and often appears as “Salafi/Wahhabi”).[12]

However, authors at Global Security and Library of Congress state the term is now commonplace and used even by Wahhabi scholars in the Najd,[4][51] often called the “heartland” of Wahhabism.[52]

American scholar Christopher M. Blanchard distinguishes between the two by using Wahhabism to refer to “a conservative Islamic creed centered in and emanating from Saudi Arabia,” and Salafiyya to refer to “a more general puritanical Islamic movement that has developed independently at various times and in various places in the Islamic world.”[31]

History

The Wahhbi mission started as a revivalist movement in the remote, arid region of Nejd. With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, the Al Saud dynasty, and with it Wahhabism, spread to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. After the discovery of petroleum near the Persian Gulf in 1939, it had access to oil export revenues, revenue that grew to billions of dollars. This money—spent on books, media, schools, universities, mosques, scholarships, fellowships, lucrative jobs for journalists, academics and Islamic scholars—gave Wahhabism a “preeminent position of strength” in Islam around the world.[53]

In the country of Wahhabism’s founding—and by far the largest and most powerful country where it is the state religion—Wahhabi ulama gained control over education, law, public morality and religious institutions in the 20th century, while permitting as a “trade-off” doctrinally objectionable actions such as the import of modern technology and communications, and dealings with non-Muslims, for the sake of the consolidation of the power of its political guardian, the Al Saud dynasty.[54]

However, in the last couple of decades of the twentieth century several crises worked to erode Wahhabi “credibility” in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the Muslim world—the November 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque by militants; the deployment of US troops in Saudi during the 1991 Gulf War against Iraq; and the 9/11 2001 al-Qaeda attacks on New York and Washington.[55]

In each case the Wahhabi establishment was called on to support the dynasty’s efforts to suppress religious dissent—and in each case it did [55]—exposing its dependence on the Saudi dynasty and its often unpopular policies.[56][57]

In the West, the end of the Cold War and the anti-communist alliance with conservative, religious Saudi Arabia, and the 9/11 attacks created enormous distrust towards the kingdom and especially its official religion.[58]

Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab

The founder of Wahhabism, Mohammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, was born around 1700 in a small oasis town in the Najd region, in what is now central Saudi Arabia. He studied inBasra (in what is now Iraq)[59][60] and possibly Mecca and Medina while there to perform Hajj,[61][62] before returning to his home town of ‘Uyayna in 1740. There he worked to spread (what he believed to be) the call (da’wa) for a restoration of true monotheistic worship,[63] purified of innovations, such as invoking or making vows to “holy men” or “saints”. The “pivotal idea” of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s teaching was that people who called themselves Muslims but who participated in such innovations were not just misguided or committing a sin, but were “outside the pale of Islam altogether,” as were Muslims who disagreed with his definition. [64]

This included not just lax, unlettered, nomadic Bedu, but Shia, Sufi, and Ottomans.[65] Such infidels were not to be killed outright, but to be given a chance to repent first.[66][67]

With the support of the ruler of the town—Uthman ibn Mu’ammar—he carried out some of his religious reforms in ‘Uyayna, including the demolishing of the tomb of Zayd ibn al-Khattab (one of the Sahaba (companions) of the prophet Muhammad), and the stoning to death of an adulterous woman.[68] However, a more powerful chief, (Sulaiman ibn Muhammad ibn Ghurayr), pressured Uthman ibn Mu’ammar to expell him from ‘Uyayna.[69]

Alliance with the House of Saud

Further information: First Saudi State

The First Saudi state1744-1818

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932

The ruler of nearby town, Muhammad ibn Saud, invited ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab to join him, and in 1744 a pact was made between the two. [70] Ibn Saud would protect and propagate the doctrines of the Wahhabi mission, while ibn Abdul Wahhab “would support the ruler, supplying him with `glory and power.`” Whoever championed his message, ibn Abdul Wahhab promised, `will, by means of it, rule and lands and men.` [18] Ibn Saud would abandon un-Sharia taxation of local harvests, and in return God might compensate him with booty from conquest and sharia compliant taxes that would exceed what he gave up.[71] The alliance between the Wahhabi mission and Al Saud family has “endured for more than two and half centuries,” surviving defeat and collapse.[70][72] The two families have intermarried multiple times over the years and in today’s Saudi Arabia, the minister of religion is always a member of the Al ash-Sheikh family, (i.e. a descendent of Ibn Abdul Wahhab).[73]

According to most sources, Ibn Abd al-Wahhab declared jihad against neighboring tribes, whose practices of praying to saints, making pilgrimages to tombs and special mosques, he believed to be the work of idolaters/unbelievers. [32] [66][74][75] (One academic disputes this. According to Natana DeLong-Bas, Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was restrained in urging fighting with perceived unbelievers, preferring to preach and persuade rather than attack. It was only after the death of Muhammad bin Saud in 1765 that, according to DeLong-Bas, Muhammad bin Saud’s son and successor, Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad, used a “convert or die” approach to expand his domain,[79] and when Wahhabis adopted the takfir ideas ofIbn Taymiyya.[80])

Conquest expanded through the Arabian Peninsula until it conquered Mecca and Medina the early 19th century. [51][81] (It was at this time, according to DeLong-Bas, that Wahhabis embraced the ideas of Ibn Taymiyya—which allow self-professed Muslim who do not follow Islamic law to be declared non-Muslims—to justify their warring and conquering the Muslim Sharifs of Hijaz.[80])

One of their most noteworthy and controversial attacks was on Karbala in 1802 (1217 AH). There, according to a Wahhabi chronicler `Uthman b. `Abdullah b. Bishr: “The Muslims”—as the Wahhabis referred to themselves, not feeling the need to distinguish themselves from other Muslims, since they did not believe them to be Muslims —

scaled the walls, entered the city … and killed the majority of its people in the markets and in their homes. [They] destroyed the dome placed over the grave of al-Husayn [and took] whatever they found inside the dome and its surroundings … the grille surrounding the tomb which was encrusted with emeralds, rubies, and other jewels … different types of property, weapons, clothing, carpets, gold, silver, precious copies of the Qur’an.”[82]

Wahhabis also massacred the male population and enslaved the women and children of the city of Ta’if in Hejaz in 1803.[83]

The Ottoman Empire eventually succeeded in counterattacking. In 1818 they defeated Al Saud, leveling the capital (Diriyah, executing the Al-Saud emir, exiling the emirate’s polittical and relgious leadership,[72][84] and otherwise unsuccessfully attempted to stamp out not just the House of Saud but the Wahhabi mission.[85] A second, smaller Saudi state (Emirate of Nejd) lasted from 1819-1891. Its borders being within Najd, Wahhabism was protected from further Ottoman or Egyptian campaigns by the Nejd’s isolation, lack of valuable resources, and that era’s limited communication and transportation.[86]

By the 1880s, at least among townsmen if not bedohin, Wahhabi strict monotheistic doctrine had become the native religious culture of the Najd.[87]

Abdul-Aziz Ibn Saud

Ibn Saud, the first king of Saudi Arabia

Further information: History of Saudi Arabia

T. E. Lawrence was sympathetic toSalafi elements in the Arabian Peninsula that intended to oust theOttoman Empire.

In 1901, Abdul-Aziz Ibn Saud, a fifth generation descendent of Muhammad ibn Saud,[88] began a military campaign that led to the conquest of much of the Arabian peninsula and the founding of present day Saudi Arabia, after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.[89] The result that safeguarded of the vision of Islam based around the tenets of Islam as preached by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab was not bloodless, as 40,000 public executions and 350,000 amputations were carried out during its course, according to some estimates.

Under the reign of Abdul-Aziz, “political considerations trumped religious idealism” favored by pious Wahhabis. His political and military success gave the Wahhabi ulama control over religious institutions with jurisdiction over considerable territory, and in later years Wahhabi ideas formed the basis of the rules and laws concerning social affairs, and shaped the kingdom’s judicial and educational policies.[94] But protests from Wahhabi ulama were overridden when it came to consolidating power in Hijaz and al-Hasa, avoiding clashes with the great power of the region (Britain), adopting modern technology, establishing a simple governmental administrative framework, or signing an oil concession with the U.S. [95] The Wahhabi ulama also issued a fatwa affirming that “only the ruler could declare a jihad”[96] (a violation of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s teaching according to Deong-Bas.[46])

As the realm of Wahhabism expanded under Ibn Saud into areas of Shiite (Al-Hasa, conquered in 1913) and pluralistic Muslim tradition (Hejaz, conquered in 1924-5), Wahhabis pressed for forced conversion of Shia and an eradication of (what they saw as) idolatry. Ibn Saud sought “a more relaxed approach”.[97]

In al-Hasa, efforts to stop the observance of Shia religious holidays and replace teaching and preaching duties of Shia clerics with Wahhabi, lasted only a year.[98]

In Mecca and Jeddah (in Hejaz) prohibition of tobacco, alcohol, playing cards and listening to music on the phonograph was looser than in Najd. Over the objections of Wahhabi ulama, Ibn Saud permitted both the driving of automobiles and the attendance of Shia at hajj.[99]

Enforcement of the commanding right and forbidding wrong, such as enforcing prayer observance and separation the sexes, developed a prominent place during the second Saudi emirate, and in 1926 a formal committee for enforcement was founded in Mecca.

While Wahhabi warriors swore loyalty to monarchs of Al Saud, there was one major rebellion. King Abdul-Aziz put down rebelling Ikhwan—nomadic tribesmen turned Wahhabi warriors who opposed his “introducing such innovations as telephones, automobiles, and the telegraph” and his “sending his son to a country of unbelievers (Egypt)”. [102] Britain had aided Abdul-Aziz, and when the Ikhwan attacked the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, as a continuation of jihad to expand the Wahhabist realm, Abdul-Aziz struck, killing hundreds before the rebels surrendered in 1929.[103]

Connection with the outside

Before Abdul-Aziz, during most of the second half of the 19th century, there was a strong aversion in Wahhabi lands to mixing with “idolaters” (which included most of the Muslim world). Voluntary contact was considered by Wahhabi clerics to be at least a sin, and if one enjoyed the company of idolaters, and “approved of their religion”, an act of unbelief. [104] Travel outside the pale of Najd to the Ottoman lands “was tightly controlled, if not prohibited altogether”.[105]

Over the course of its history, however, Wahhabism has became more accommodating towards the outside world.[106] In the late 1800s, Wahhabis found Muslims with at least similar beliefs—first with Ahl-i Hadith in India,[107] and later with Islamic revivalists in Arab states (one being Mahmud Sahiri al-Alusi in Baghdad).[108] The revivalists and Wahhabis shared a common interest in Ibn Taymiyya‘s thought, the permissibility of ijtihad, and the need to purify worship practices of innovation.[109] In the 1920s, Rashid Rida, a pioneerSalafist whose periodical al-Manar was widely read in the Muslim world, published an “anthology of Wahhabi treatises,” and a work praising the Ibn Saud as “the savior of the Haramayn [the two holy cities] and a practitioner of authentic Islamic rule”. [110][111]

In a bid “to join the Muslim mainstream and to erase the reputation of extreme sectarianism associated with the Ikhwan,” in 1926 Ibn Saud convened a Muslim congress of representatives of Muslim governments and popular associations.[112] By the early 1950s, the “pressures” on Ibn Saud of controlling the regions of Hejaz and al-Hasa — “outside the Wahhabi heartland”—and of “navigating the currents of regional politics” “punctured the seal” between the Wahhabi heartland and the “land of idolatry” outside.

A major current in regional politics at that time was secular nationalism, which, Gamal Abdul Nasser, was sweeping the Arab world. To combat it, Wahhabi missionary outreach worked closely with Saudi foreign policy initiatives. In May 1962, a conference in Mecca organized by Saudis discussed ways to combat secularism and socialism. In its wake, theWorld Muslim League was established.[115] To propagate Islam and `repel inimical trends and dogmas`, the League opened branch offices around the globe. [75] It developed closer association between Wahhabis and leading Salafis, and made common cause with the Islamic revivalist Muslim Brotherhood, Ahl al-Hadith and the Jamaat-i Islami, combating Sufism and “innovative” popular religious practices[115] and rejecting the West and Western “ways which were so deleterious of Muslim piety and values.” [116] Missionaries were sent to West Africa, where the League funded schools, distributed religious literature, and gave scholarships to attend Saudi religious universities. One result was the Izala Societywhich fought Sufism in Nigeria, Chad, Niger, and Cameroon.[117]

An event that had a great effect on Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia[118] was the “infiltration of the transnationalist revival movement” in the form of thousands of pious, Islamist Arab Muslim Brotherhood refugees from Egypt following Nasser’s clampdown on the brotherhood[119] (and also from similar nationalist clampdowns in Iraq[120] and Syria.[121]), to help staff the new school system of (the largely illiterate) Kingdom. [122] Brethern refugees

The Brotherhood’s Islamist ideology differed from the more conservative Wahhabism which preached loyal obedience to the king. The Brotherhood dealt in what one author (Robert Lacey) called “change-promoting concepts” like social justice, and anticolonialism, and gave “a radical, but still apparently safe, religious twist” to the Wahhabi values Saudi students “had absorbed in childhood”. With the Brotherhood’s “hands-on, radical Islam”, jihad became a “practical possibility today”, not just part of history.[123]

The Brethren were ordered by the Saudi clergy and government not to attempt to proselytize or otherwise get involved in religious doctrinal matters within the Kingdom, but nonetheless “took control” of Saudi Arabia’s intellectual life” by publishing books and participating in discussion circles and salons held by princes. [124] In time they took leading roles in key governmental ministries,[125] and had influence on education curriculum.[126] An Islamic university in Medina created in 1961 to train—mostly non-Saudi—proselytizers to Wahhabism, [127] became “a haven” for Muslim Brother refugees from Egypt.[128] The Brothers’ ideas eventually spread throughout the kingdom and had great effect on Wahhabism—although observers differ as to whether this was by “undermining” it[118][129]) or “blending” with it.

Growth

In the 1950s and 60s within Saudi Arabia, the Wahhabi ulama maintained their hold on religious law courts, presided over the creation of Islamic universities, and a public school system which gave students “a heavy dose of religious instruction”.[132] Outside of Saudi the Wahhabi ulama became “less combative” toward the rest of the Muslim world. In confronting the challenge of the West, Wahhabi doctrine “served well” for many Muslims as a “platform” and “gained converts beyond the peninsula.”[132][133]

A number of reasons have been given for this success. The growth in popularity and strength of both Arab nationalism (although Wahhabis opposed any form of nationalism as an ideology, Saudis were Arabs, and their enemy the Ottoman caliphate was ethnically Turkish),[27] and Islamic reform (specifically reform by following the example of those first three generations of Muslims known as the Salaf);[27] the destruction of the Ottoman Empire which sponsored their most effective critics,[134] the destruction of another rival, the Khilafa in Hejaz, in 1925.[27] Not least in importance was the money Saudi Arabia earned from exporting oil.[53]

Petroleum export era

The pumping and export of oil from Saudi Arabia started during World War II, and its earnings helped fund religious activities in the 1950s and 60. But it was the 1973 oil crisis and quadrupling in the price of oil that both increased the kingdom’s wealth astronomically and enhanced its prestige by demonstrating its international power as a leader of OPEC. By 1980, Saudi Arabia was earning every three days the income from oil it had taken a year to earn before the embargo.[135] Tens of billions of dollars of this money were spent on books, media, schools, scholarships for students (from primary to post-graduate), fellowships and subsidies to reward journalists, academics and Islamic scholars, the building of hundreds of Islamic centers and universities, and over one thousand schools and one thousand mosques.[136][137] [138] During this time Wahhabism attained what Gilles Kepel called a “preeminent position of strength in the global expression of Islam.”[53]

Afghanistan jihad

The “apex of cooperation” between Wahhabis and Muslim revivalist groups was the Afghan jihad.[139]

In December 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan—its poor Muslim neighbor—concerned about a growing Islamic insurgency against a friendly, pro-modernization regime there. Shortly thereafter, Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, a Muslim Brother cleric with ties to Saudi religious institutions,[140] issued a fatwa[141] declaring defensive jihad in Afghanistan against the atheist Soviet Union, “fard ayn”, a personal (or individual) obligation for all Muslims. The edict was supported by Saudi Arabia’s Grand Mufti (highest religious scholar),Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, among others.[142][143]

Between 1982 and 1992 an estimated 35,000 individual Muslim volunteers went to Afghanistan to fight the Soviets and their Afghan regime. Thousands more attended frontier schools teeming with former and future fighters. Somewhere between 12,000 and 25,000 of these volunteers came from Saudi Arabia.[144] Saudi Arabia and the other conservative Gulf monarchies also provided considerable financial support to the jihad — $600 million a year by 1982.[145]

By 1989, Soviet troops had withdrawn and within a few years not only had the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul collapsed, so had the Soviet Union.

This Saudi/Wahhabi religious triumph further stood out in the Muslim world because many Muslim-majority states (and the PLO) were allied with the Soviet Union and did not support the Afghan jihad.[146] But many jihad volunteers (most famously Osama bin Laden) returning home to Saudi and elsewhere were often radicalized by Islamic militants who were “much more extreme than their Saudi sponsors.”[146]

“Erosion” of Wahhabism

Grand Mosque seizure

Main article: Grand Mosque Seizure

In 1979, 400–500 Islamist insurgents using smuggled weapons and supplies, took over the Grand mosque in Mecca, called for an overthrow of the monarchy, denounced the Wahhabi ulama as royal puppets, and announced the arrival of the Mahdi of “end time“. The insurgents deviated from Wahhabi doctrine in significant details,[147] but were alsoassociated with leading Wahhabi ulama (Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz knew the insurgent’s leader, Juhayman al-Otaybi).[148] Their seizure of Islam‘s holiest site, the taking hostage of hundreds of hajj pilgrims, and the deaths of hundreds of militants, security forces and hostages caught in crossfire during the two week long retaking of the mosque, all shocked theIslamic world[149] and did not enhance the prestige of Al Saud as “custodians” of the mosque.

The incident also damaged the prestige of the Wahhabi establishment. Saudi leadership sought and received Wahhabi fatawa to approve the military removal of the insurgents and after that to execute them.[150] But Wahhabi clerics also fell under suspicion for involvement with the insurgents. [151] In part as a consequence, Sahwa clerics influenced by Brethren’s ideas were given freer reign. Their ideology was also thought more likely to compete with the recent Islamic revolutionism/third-worldism of the Iranian Revolution.[151]

Although the insurgents were motivated by religious puritanism, the incident was not followed by a crackdown on other religious purists, but by giving greater power to the ulama and religious conservatives to more strictly enforce Islamic codes in myriad ways[152]—from the banning of women’s images in the media to adding even more hours of Islamic studies in school and giving more power and money to the religious police to enforce conservative rules of behaviour.[153][154][155]

1990 Gulf War

In August 1990 Iraq invaded and annexed the oil-rich emirate of Kuwait. Concerned that Saddam Hussein might push south and seize its own oil fields, Saudis requested military support from the US and allowed tens of thousands of US troops to be based in the Kingdom to fight Iraq.[125]

But what “amounted to seeking infidels’ assistance against a Muslim power” was difficult to justify in terms of Wahhabi doctrine.

Again Saudi authorities sought and received a fatwa from leading Wahhabi ulama supporting their action. The fatwa failed to persuade many conservative Muslims and ulama who strongly opposed US presence, including the Muslim Brotherhood-supported the Sahwah “Awakening” movement that began pushing for political change in the Kingdom.[158]Outside the kingdom, Islamist/Islamic revival groups that had long received aid from Saudi and had ties with Wahhabis (Arab jihadists, Pakistani and Afghan Islamists) supported Iraq, not Saudi.[26]

During this time and later, many in the Wahhabi/Salafi movement (such as Osama bin Laden) not only no longer looked to the Saudi monarch as an emir of Islam, but supported his overthrow, focusing on jihad (Salafist jihadists) against the US and (what they believe are) other enemies of Islam. (This movement is sometimes called neo-Wahhabi or neo-salafi.)

After 9/11

The 2001 9/11 attacks on (Saudi’s putative ally) the US that killed almost 3,000 people and caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage[161] were assumed by many (at least outside the kingdom) to be “an expression of Wahhabism”, since the Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden and most of the 9/11 hijackers are Saudi nationals.[162] A backlash in the formerly hospitable US against the kingdom focused on its official religion that came to be considered by “some … a doctrine of terrorism and hate.”[58]

Inside the kingdom, Crown Prince Abdullah addressed the country’s religious, tribal, business, and media leadership following the attacks in a series of televised gatherings calling for a strategy to correct what has gone wrong. According to author Robert Lacey, the gatherings and later articles and replies by a top cleric (Dr. Adullah Turki) and two top Al Saud princes (Prince Turki Al-Faisal, Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz), served as an occasion to sort out who had the ultimate power in the kingdom—the Al Saud dynasty and not the ulema. It was declared that it has always been the role of executive rulers in Islamic history to exercise power and the job of the religious scholars to advise, never to govern.[123]

In 2003-2004, Saudi Arabia saw a wave of Al-Qaeda-related suicide bombings, attacks on Non-Muslim foreigners and gun battles between Saudi security forces and militants. One reaction to the attacks was a trimming back of the Wahhabi establishment’s domination of religion and society. “National Dialogues” were held that “included Shiites, Sufis, liberal reformers, and professional women.”[163] In 2009, as part of what some called an effort to “take on the ulema and reform the clerical establishment”, King Abdullah issued a decree that only “officially approved” religious scholars would be allowed to issue fatwas in Saudi Arabia. The king also expanded the Council of Senior Scholars (containing officially approved religious scholars) to include scholars from Sunni schools of Islamic jurisprudence other than the Hanbali madhabShafi’i, Hanafi and Maliki schools.[164]

Relations with the Muslim Brotherhood have deteriorated steadily. After 9/11, the then interior minister Prince Nayef, blamed the Brotherhood, for extremism in the kingdom,[165] and he declared it guilty of “betrayal of pledges and ingratitude” and “the source of all problems in the Islamic world”, after it was elected to power in Egypt.[166] In March 2014 the Saudi government declared the Brotherhood a “terrorist organization”.[125]

Wahhabi influence in Saudi Arabia, however, remained tangible in the physical conformity in dress, in public deportment, and in public prayer. Most significantly, the Wahhabi legacy was manifest in the social ethos that presumed government responsibility for the collective moral ordering of society, from the behavior of individuals, to institutions, to businesses, to the government itself. [167]

Memoirs of Mr. Hempher

A widely circulated but discredited apocryphal description of the founding of Wahhabism[168][169] known as Memoirs of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy to the Middle East (other titles have been used),[170] alleges that a British agent named Hempher was responsible for creation of Wahhabism. In the “memoir”, Hempher corrupts Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, manipulating him[171] to preach his new interpretation of Islam for the purpose of sowing dissension and disunity among Muslims so that “We, the English people, … may live in welfare and luxury.”[170]

Practices

As a religious revivalist movement that works to bring Muslims back from it believes are foreign accretions that have corrupted Islam,[172] and believes that Islam is a complete way of life and so has prescriptions for all aspects of life, Wahhabism is quite strict in what it considers Islamic behavior.

This does not mean however, that all adherents agree on what is required or forbidden, or that rules have not varied by area or changed over time. In Saudi Arabia the strict religious atmosphere of Wahhabi doctrine is visible in the conformity in dress, public deportment, and public prayer,[173] and makes its presence felt by the wide freedom of action of the “religious police“, clerics in mosques, teachers in schools, and judges (who are religious legal scholars) in Saudi courts.[174]

Commanding right and forbidding wrong

Wahhabism is noted for its policy of “compelling its own followers and other Muslims strictly to observe the religious duties of Islam, such as the five prayers”, and for “enforcement of public morals to a degree not found elsewhere”.[175]

While other Muslims might urge abstention from alcohol, modest dress, and salat prayer, for Wahhabis prayer “that is punctual, ritually correct, and communally performed not only is urged but publicly required of men.” Not only is wine forbidden, but so are “all intoxicating drinks and other stimulants, including tobacco.” Not only is modest dress prescribed, but the type of clothing that should be worn, especially by women (a black abaya, covering all but the eyes and hands) is specified.[51]

Following the preaching and practice of Abdul Wahhab that coercion should be used to enforce following of sharia, an official committee has been empowered to “Command the Good and Forbid the Evil” (the so-called “religious police”) [160][175] in Saudi Arabia—the one country founded with the help of Wahhabi warriors and whose scholars and pious dominate many aspects of the Kingdom’s life. Committee “field officers” enforce strict closing of shops at prayer time, segregation of the sexes, prohibition of the sale and consumption of alcohol, driving of motor vehicles by women, and other social restrictions.[176]

A large number of practices have been reported forbidden by Saudi Wahhabi officials, preachers or religious police. Practices that have been forbidden as Bida’a (innovation) orshirk and sometimes “punished by flogging” during Wahhabi history include performing or listening to music, dancing, fortune telling, ambulets, television programs (unless religious), smoking, playing backgammon, chess, or cards, drawing human or animal figures, acting in a play or writing fiction (both are considered forms of lying), dissecting cadavers (even in criminal investigations and for the purposes of medical research), recorded music played over telephones on hold, the sending of flowers to friends or relatives who are in the hospital Common Muslim practices Wahhabis believe are contrary to Islam include listening to music in praise of Muhammad, praying to God while visiting tombs (including the tomb of Muhammad), celebrating mawlid (birthday of the Prophet),[182] the use of ornamentation on or in mosques.[183] The driving of motor vehicles by women is allowed in every country but Wahhabi-dominated Saudi Arabia,[184] the famously strict Taliban practiced dream interpretation, discouraged by Wahhabis.[185][186]

Wahhabism emphasizes `Thaqafah Islamiyyah` or Islamic culture and the importance of avoiding non-Islamic cultural practices and non-Muslim friendship no matter how innocent these may appear, on the grounds that the Sunna forbids imitating non-Muslims.[189] Foreign practices sometimes punished and sometimes simply condemned by Wahhabi preachers as unIslamic, include celebrating foreign days (such as Valentine’s Day[190] or Mothers Day.[187][189]) shaving, cutting or trimming of beards,[191] giving of flowers,[192]standing up in honor of someone, celebrating birthdays (including the Prophet’s), keeping or petting dogs.[180] Wahhabi scholars have warned against taking non-Muslims as friends, smiling at or wishing them well on their holidays.[193]

Wahhabis are not in unamimous agreement on what is forbidden as sin. Some Wahhabi preachers or activists go further than the official Saudi Arabian Council of Senior Scholarsin forbidding (what they believe to be) sin. Several wahhabis have declared Football (Soccer) forbidden for a variety of reasons (because it is a non-Muslim, foreign practice—because of the revealing uniforms, or because of the foreign non-Muslim language (foul, penalty kick) used in matches.[194] [195]) The Saudi Grand Mufti, on the other hand has declared football permissable (halal). [196]

Senior Wahhabi leaders in Saudi Arabia have determined that Islam forbids the traveling or working outside the home by a woman without their husband’s permission—permission which may be revoked at any time—on the grounds that the different physiological structures and biological functions of the different genders mean that each sex is assigned a different role to play in the family. [197] As mentioned before, Wahhabism also forbids the driving of motor vehicles by women. Sexual intercourse out of wedlock may be punished with beheading[198] although sex out of wedlock is permissible with a slave women (Prince Bandar bin Sultan was the product of “a brief encounter” between his father Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz” — the Saudi defense minister for many years — and “his slave, a black servingwoman”)[123] or was before slavery was banned in Saudi Arabia in 1962.[199]

Despite this strictness, senior Wahhabi scholars of Islam in the Saudi kingdom have made exceptions in ruling on what is haram. Foreign non-Muslim troops are forbidden in Arabia except when the king needed them to confront Saddam Hussein in 1990; gender mixing of men and women is forbidden, and fraternization with non-Muslims is discouraged, but not at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). Movie theaters and driving by women are forbidden except at the ARAMCO compound in eastern Saudi, populated by workers for the company that provides almost all the government’s revenue. (The exceptions made at KAUST are also in effect at ARAMCO.)[200]

And more general rules of what is permissible have changed over time. Abdul-Aziz Ibn Saud imposed Wahhabi doctrines and practices “in a progressively gentler form” as his early 20th century conquests expanded his state into urban areas, especially the Hejab.[201] After vigorous debate Wahhabi religious authorities in Saudi Arabia allowed the use of paper money (in 1951), the abolition of slavery (in 1962), education of females (1964), and use of television (1965).[199] Music the the sound of which once might have led to summary execution is now commonly heard on Saudi radios. [201] Minarets for mosques and use of funeral markers, which were once forbidden, are now allowed. Prayer attendance which was once enforced by flogging, is no longer. [202]

Appearance

Wahhabism (and Salafism) puts great store in public behavior and appearance. It is said that a “badge” of a Salafi or Wahhabi is a robe to short to cover the ankle, and an untrimmed beard.[203]

However, the “long, white flowing thobe” has been called the “Wahhabi national dress” of Saudi Arabia.[204]

Wahhabiyya mission

Wahhabi mission, or Dawah Wahhabiyya, is to spread purified Islam through the world, both Muslim and non-Muslim. [205] Tens of billions of dollars have been spent by the Saudi government and charities on mosques, schools, education materials, scholarships, throughout the world to promote Islam and the Wahhabi interpretation of it. Tens of thousands of volunteers[144] and several billion dollars also went in support of the jihad against the atheist communist regime governing Muslim Afghanistan.[145]

Regions

Wahhabism originated in Nejd region, and its conservative practices have stronger support there than in regions in the kingdom to the east or west of it.[206] [207] [208] Glasse credits the softening of some Wahhabi doctrines and practices on the conquest of the Hejaz region “with its more cosmopolitan traditions and the traffic of pilgrims which the new rulers could not afford to alienate”.[201]

The only other country “whose native population is Wahhabi and that adheres to the Wahhabi creed”, is the small gulf monarchy of Qatar [209][210] whose version of Wahhabism is notably less strict.

Unlike Saudi Arabia, Qatar made significant changes in the 1990s. Women are now allowed to drive and travel independently; non-Muslims are permitted to consume alcohol and pork. The country sponsors a film festival, has a “world-class art museums”, host the Al Jazeera and will hold the 2022 football World Cup, and has no religious force that polices public morality. Qatari’s attribute its different interpretation of Islam to the absence of an indigenous clerical class and autonomous bureaucracy (religious affairs authority, endowments, Grand Mufti), the fact that Qatari rulers do not derive their legitimacy from such a class. [210][211]

Beliefs

The Wahhabi subscribe to Sunni Islam (though some people dispute that a Wahhabi is a Sunni).[212] and the primary doctrine of the uniqueness and unity of God (Tawhid);[17][213]the first aspect of which is belief in Allah and His Lordship, that He alone is the believer’s lord, or Rabb; the second being that once one affirms the oneness of worship to Allah and Allah alone; the third being the belief and affirmation of Allah’s Names and Attributes.

Wahhabi theology is very precise in its creed or Aqeedah where the Quran and Hadith are the only fundamental and authoritative texts taken with the understanding of the Salaf. Commentaries and “the examples of the early Muslim community (Ummah) and the four Rightly Guided Caliphs (AD 632–661)” known as Athar narrations are used to support these texts, hence the name of the school of theology given as Athari, but are not considered independently authoritative.[46]

Ibn Abd al-Wahhab further explains in his book Kitab al-Tawhid, which draws directly on material from the Quran and the narrations of the Prophet, that worship in Islam includes conventional acts of worship such as the five daily prayers; fasting; Dua (supplication); Istia’dha (seeking protection or refuge); Ist’ana (seeking help), and Istigatha to Allah (seeking benefits and calling upon Allah alone). Therefore, making du’a or calling upon anyone or anything other than God, or seeking supernatural help and protection that is only befitting of a divine being from something other than Allah alone are acts of “shirk” and contradict the tenets of Tawhid.[214][page needed] Ibn Abd al-Wahhab further explains that Muhammad during his lifetime tried his utmost to identify and repudiate all actions that violated these principles.[214][page needed]

The most important of these commentaries are those by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab in particular his book Kitab al-Tawhid, and the works of Ibn Taymiyyah.[citation needed] Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was a follower of Ahmad ibn Hanbal‘s school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) like most in Nejd at the time, but “was opposed to any of the schools (Madh’hab) being taken as an absolute and unquestioned authority”.[214][page needed]

However Ibn Abd al-Wahhab did not totally condemn taqlid, or blind adherence, only at scholarly level in the face of a clear evidence or proof from a hadeeth or Qur’anic text.[215]Although Wahhabis are associated with the Hanbali school, early disputes did not center on fiqh.[216]

Politics[edit]

According to ibn Abdal-Wahhab there are three objectives for Islamic government and society: “to believe in Allah, enjoin good behavior, and forbid wrongdoing.” This doctrine has been sustained by Wahhabis since his death in missionary literature, sermons, fatwa rulings, and explications of religious doctrine.[51] According to Muhammad ibn Abdal-Wahhab’s teachings, a Muslim must present a bayah, or oath of allegiance, to a Muslim ruler during his lifetime to ensure his redemption after death. The ruler, conversely, is owed unquestioned allegiance from his people so long as he leads the community according to the laws of God.[51][217] Wahhabis have traditionally given their allegiance to the House of Saud, but a movement of “Salafi jihadis” has developed among those who believe Al Saud has abandoned the laws of God.[159][160] Wahhabis are similar to Islamists such as theMuslim Brotherhood in their belief in Islamic dominion over politics and government and the importance of dawah (proselytizing or preaching of Islam) not just towards non-Muslims but towards erring Muslims. However Wahhabi preachers are conservative and do not deal with concepts such as social justice, anticolonialism, or economic equality, expounded upon by Islamist Muslims.[218]

Condemnation of “priests” and other religious leaders[edit]

Wahhabism denounces the practice of total blind adherence to the interpretations of scholars, at a scholarly level, and of practices passed on within the family or tribe.[citation needed]Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was dedicated to champion these principles and combat what was seen as the stagnation of Islamic scholarship which the majority of Muslims had seemingly fully adhered to without question, through taqlid of the established Ottoman clergy at the time.[citation needed]

His idea was that what he perceived to be blind deference to religious authority obstructs this direct connection with the Qur’an and Sunnah, leading him to deprecate the importance and full authority of leaders at the time, such as the scholars and muftis of the age. When arguing for his positions, Ibn Abd al-Wahhab would use translations and interpretation of the verses (known as ayat in Arabic) of the Qur’an that were contrary to the consensus amongst the scholars of the age, and positions against which there had been consensus for centuries. This methodology was considered extremely controversial at the time, in opposition to established clergy of the era, and was refuted as being erroneous by a number of scholars.[219][220][221] However the Wahhabi movement saw itself as championing the re-opening of ijtihad, being intellectual pursuit of scholarly work clarifying opinions in the face of new evidence being a newly proven sound or sahih hadeeth, a discovered historical early ijma (scholarly consensus from the early Muslims) or a suitable analogy,qiyas, based on historical records; in contrast to the witnessed saturation of Islamic jurisprudence that no longer considered ijtihad to be a viable alternative to total scholarly taqlid, being total submission to previous scholarly opinion regardless of unquestionable proof that contradicts this.[222]

Fiqh

A popular misconception associated with the movement of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab is the condemnation of the legal schools of jurisprudence, however documentation of a letter correspondence by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab recorded by his son Abdallah refutes this accusation.[223]

And also we are upon the madhhab of Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal in the matters of jurisprudence, and we do not show rejection to the one who made taqleed of one of the four Imaams as opposed to those besides them… And we do not deserve the status of absolute ijtihaad and there is none amongst us who lays claim to it, except that in some of the issues (of jurisprudence), when a plain, clear text from the Book, or a Sunnah unabrogated, unspecified and uncontradicted by what is stronger than it, and by which one of the four Imaams have spoken, we take it and we leave our madhhab … And we do not investigate (scrutinize) anyone in his madhhab, nor do we find fault with him except when we come across a plain, clear text which opposes the madhhab of one of the four Imaams and it is a matter through which an open and apparent symbol

… Thus, there is no contradiction between (this and) not making the claim of independent ijtihaad, because a group from the scholars from the four madhhabs are preceded choosing certain preferred opinions in certain matters, who, whilst making taqleed of the founders of the madhhab (in general), opposed the madhhab (in those matters).

This was seen as a revival of the tradition recorded whereby the early students of the scholars of the Madh’habs would leave their teacher’s position in light of a newly found evidence once the hadeeth had been collected.[224]

“… and this is not contradictory to the lack of the claim to ijtihaad. For it has been that a group of the imaams of the four madhaahib had their own particular views regarding certain matters that were in opposition to their madhhab, whose founder they followed.” [225]

However some modern day adherents to wahhabism consider themselves to be ‘non-imitators’ or ‘not attached to tradition’, and therefore answerable to no school of law at all, observing instead what they would call the practice of early Islam. However, to do so does correspond to the ideal aimed at by Ibn Hanbal, and thus they can be said to be of his ‘school’ however only a scholar would be capable of this level of ijtihad and most Salafi scholars warn against this for the uneducated laymen.[226]

Theology

Adherents to the Wahhabi movement take their theological viewpoint with an aspiration to assimilate with the beliefs of the early Muslims, being the first three generations otherwise known as the Salaf. This theology was taken from exegesis of the Quran and statements of the early Muslims and later codified by a number of scholars, the most well known being the 13th century Syrian scholar Ibn Taymiyyah, into what is now known as the Athari theological creed. This was upheld by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in his various works on theology.[227]

And it is that we accept the aayaat and ahaadeeth of the Attributes upon their apparent meanings, and we leave their true meanings, while believing in their realities, to Allaah ta’aalaa. For Maalik, one of the greatest of the ‘ulamaa’ of the Salaf, when asked about al-istiwaa’ in His Saying (ta’aalaa): “Ar-Rahmaan rose over the Throne.” [Taa-Haa: 5] said: “Al-istiwaa’ is known, the “how” of it is unknown, believing in it is waajib, and asking about it is bid’ah.” [225]

Some criticism accuses this school as being anthropomorphic however Ibn Taymiyyah in his work Al-Aqidah Al-Waasitiyyah refutes the stance of the Mushabbihah (those who liken the creation with God: anthropomorphism) and those who deny, negate, and resort to allegorical/metaphorical interpretations of the Divine Names and Attributes. He contends that the methodology of the Salaf is to take the middle path between the extremes of anthropomorphism and negation/distortion. He further states that salaf affirmed all the Names and Attributes of God without tashbih (establishing likeness), takyeef (speculating as to “how” they are manifested in the divine), ta’teel (negating/denying their apparent meaning) and without ta’weel (giving it secondary/symbolic meaning which is different from the apparent meaning).[228][229]

Population

One of the more detailed estimates of religious population in the Persian Gulf is by Mehrdad Izady who estimates, “using cultural and not confessional criteria”, only than 4.56 million Wahhabis in the Persian Gulf region, about 4 million from Saudi Arabia, (mostly the Najd), and the rest coming overwhelmingly from the Emirates and Qatar.[23] Most Sunni Qatarisare Wahhabis (46.87% of all Qataris)[23] and 44.8% of Emiratis are Wahhabis.[23] 5.7% of Bahrainis are Wahhabis and 2.17% of Kuwaitis are Wahhabis.[23]

Notable leaders

There has traditionally been a recognized head of the Wahhabi “religious estate”, often a member of Al ash-Sheikh (a decedent of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab) or related to another religious head. For example, Abd al-Latif was the son of Abd al-Rahman ibn Hasan.

  • Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792) was the founder of the Wahhabi movement.[230]
  • Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1752-1826) was the head of Wahhabism after his father retired from public life in 1773. After the fall of the first Saudi emirate, Abd Allah went into exile in Cairo where he died.[230]
  • Sulayman ibn Abd Allah (1780-1818) was a grandson of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and author of an influential treatise that restricted travel to and residing in land of idolaters (i.e. land outside of the Wahhabi area).[231]
  • Abd al-Rahman ibn Hasan (1780-1869) was head of the religious estate in the second Saudi emirate.[230]
  • Abd al-Latif ibn Abd al-Rahman (1810-1876) Head of religious estate in 1860 and early 1870s.[230]
  • Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Latif Al ash-Sheikh (1848-1921) was the head of religious estate during period of Rashidi rule and the early years of King Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud.[230]
  • Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh (1893-1969) was the head of Wahhabism in mid twentieth century. He has been said to have “dominated the Wahhabi religious estate and enjoyed unrivaled religious authority.”[232]

In more recent times, a couple of Wahhabi clerics have risen to prominence that have no relation to ibn Abd al-Wahhab.

  • Abdul Aziz Bin Baz, has been called “the most prominent proponent” of Wahhabism during his time. He died in 1999.[233]
  • Muhammad ibn al-Uthaymeen, another “giant” died in 2001. According to David Dean Commins, no one “has emerged” with the same “degree of authority in the Saudi religious establishment” since their deaths.[233]

International influence and propagation

Explanation for influence

Khaled Abou El Fadl attributed the appeal of Wahhabism to some Muslims as stemming from

  • Arab nationalism, which followed the Wahhabi attack on the Ottoman Empire
  • Reformism, which followed a return to Salaf (as-Salaf aṣ-Ṣāliḥ😉
  • Destruction of the Hejaz Khilafa in 1925;
  • Control of Mecca and Medina, which gave Wahhabis great influence on Muslim culture and thinking;
  • Oil, which after 1975 allowed Wahhabis to promote their interpretations of Islam using billions from oil export revenue.[234]

Scholar Gilles Kepel, agrees that the tripling in the price of oil in the mid-1970s and the progressive takeover of Saudi Aramco in the 1974–1980 period, provided the source of much influence of Wahhabism in the Islamic World.

… the financial clout of Saudi Arabia had been amply demonstrated during the oil embargo against the United States, following the Arab-Israeli war of 1973. This show of international power, along with the nation’s astronomical increase in wealth, allowed Saudi Arabia’s puritanical, conservative Wahhabite faction to attain a preeminent position of strength in the global expression of Islam. Saudi Arabia’s impact on Muslims throughout the world was less visible than that of Khomeini‘s Iran, but the effect was deeper and more enduring. …. it reorganized the religious landscape by promoting those associations and ulemas who followed its lead, and then, by injecting substantial amounts of money into Islamic interests of all sorts, it won over many more converts. Above all, the Saudis raised a new standard — the virtuous Islamic civilization — as foil for the corrupting influence of the West.[53]

Funding factor

Estimates of Saudi spending on religious causes abroad include “upward of $100 billion”,[235] between $2 and 3 billion per year since 1975. (compared to the annual Soviet propaganda budget of $1 billion/year),[236] and “at least $87 billion” from 1987-2007[237]

Its largesse funded an estimated “90% of the expenses of the entire faith”, throughout the Muslim World, according to journalist Dawood al-Shirian.[238] It extended to young and old, from children’s madrasas to high-level scholarship.[239] “Books, scholarships, fellowships, mosques” (for example, “more than 1,500 mosques were built from Saudi public funds over the last 50 years”) were paid for.[240] It rewarded journalists and academics, who followed it and built satellite campuses around Egypt for Al Azhar, the oldest and most influential Islamic university.[137] Yahya Birt counts spending on “1,500 mosques, 210 Islamic centres and dozens of Muslim academies and schools”.[236][241]

This financial has done much to overwhelm less strict local interpretations of Islam, according to observers like Dawood al-Shirian and Lee Kuan Yew,[238] and has caused the Saudi interpretation (sometimes called “petro-Islam”[242]) to be perceived as the correct interpretation—or the “gold standard” of Islam—in many Muslims’ minds.[243][244]

Criticism and controversy

Criticism by other Muslims

Among the criticism, or comments made critics, of Wahhabi movement are

  • that it is not so much strict and uncompromising as aberrant,[245] going beyond the bounds of Islam in its restricted definition of tawhid (montheism), and much too willing to takfir(declare non-Muslim and subject to execution) Muslims it found in violation of Islam[246] (in the second Wahhabi-Saudi jihad/conquest of the Arabian peninsula, an estimated 400,000 were killed or wounded according to some estimates[90][91][92][93]);
  • that bin Saud’s agreement to wage jihad to spread Ibn Abdul Wahhab’s teachings had more to do with traditional Nejd practice of raiding — “instinctive fight for survival and appetite for lucre”—than with religion.[247]
  • that it has no connection to other Islamic revival movements;[75]
  • that unlike other revivalists, its founder Abd ul-Wahhab showed little scholarship—writing little and making even less commentary [75]
  • that its contention that ziyara (visiting tombs of Muhammad, his family members, descendants, companions, or Sufi saints) and tawassul (intercession), violate tauhid al-‘ibada(directing all worship to God alone) has no basis in tradition, in consensus or in hadith, and that even if it did, it would not be grounds for excluding practioners of ziyara andtawassul from Islam[246]
  • that historically Wahhabis have had a suspicious willingness to ally itself with non-Muslim powers (specifically America and Britain), and in particular to ignore the encroachments into Muslim territory of a non-Muslim imperial power (the British) while waging jihad and weakening the Muslim Caliphate (Ottomans)[248][249] and
  • that Wahhabi strictness in matters of hijab and separation of the sexes, has led not to a more pious and virtuous—if less colorful and fun environment—Saudi Arabia, but to a society showing a very unIslamic lack of respect towards women.

Initial opposition

Allegedly the first people to oppose Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab were his father Abd al-Wahhab and his brother Salman Ibn Abd al-Wahhab who was an Islamic scholar andqadi. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s brother wrote a book in refutation of his brothers’ new teachings, called: “The Final Word from the Qur’an, the Hadith, and the Sayings of the Scholars Concerning the School of Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab”), also known as: “Al-Sawa`iq al-Ilahiyya fi Madhhab al-Wahhabiyya” (“The Divine Thunderbolts Concerning the Wahhabi School”).[250]

In “The Refutation of Wahhabism in Arabic Sources, 1745–1932”,[250] Hamadi Redissi provides original references to the description of Wahhabis as a divisive sect (firqa) and outliers (Kharijites) in communications between Ottomans and Egyptian Khedive Muhammad Ali. Redissi details refutations of Wahhabis by scholars (muftis); among them Ahmed Barakat Tandatawin, who in 1743 describes Wahhabism as ignorance (Jahala).

Shi’a criticism

In 1801 and 1802, the Saudi Wahhabis under Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud attacked and captured the holy Shia cities of Karbala and Najaf in Iraq and destroyed the tombs of Husayn ibn Ali who is the grandson of Muhammad, and son of Ali (Ali bin Abu Talib), the son-in-law of Muhammad (see: Saudi sponsorship mentioned previously). In 1803 and 1804 the Saudis captured Mecca and Madinah and demolished various venerated shrines, monuments and removed a number of what was seen as sources or possible gateways to polytheism or shirk – such as the shrine built over the tomb of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad. In 1998 the Saudis bulldozed and allegedly poured gasoline over the grave ofAminah bint Wahb, the mother of Muhammad, causing resentment throughout the Muslim World.[251][252][253] Shi’a and other minorities in Islam insist that Wahhabis are behind targeted killings in many countries such as Iraq, Pakistan and Bahrain.

Sunni and Sufi criticism

One early rebuttal of Wahhabism, (by Sunni jurist Ibn Jirjis) argued that Whoever declares that there is no god but God and prays toward Mecca is a believer, supplicating the dead is permitted because it is not a form of worship but merely calling out to them, and that worship at graves is not idolatry unless the supplicant believes that buried saints have the power to determine the course of events. (These arguments were specifically rejected as heretical by the Wahhabi leader at the time.) [254]

The Syrian professor and scholar Dr. Muhammad Sa’id Ramadan al-Buti criticises the Salafi movement in a few of his works.[255]

The Sufi Islamic Supreme Council of America founded by the Naqshbandi sufi Shaykh Hisham Kabbani classify Wahhabbism as being extremist and heretical based on Wahhabbism’s rejection of sufism and what they believe to be traditional sufi scholars.[256][257][258]

Non-Religious motivations

According to at least one critic, the 1744-1745 alliance between Ibn Abdul Wahhab and the tribal chief Muhammad bin Saud to wage jihad on neighboring allegedly false-Muslims, was a “consecration” by Ibn Abdul Wahhab of bin Saud tribe’s long standing raids on neighboring oases by “renaming those raids jihad.” Part of the Nejd’s “Hobbesian state of perpetual war pitted Beouin bribes against one another for control of the scarce resources that could stave off starvation.” And a case of substituting fath, “the `opening` or conquest of a vast territory through religious zeal”, for the “instinctive fight for survival and appetite for lucre.” [247]

Wahhabism in the United States

A study conducted by the NGO Freedom House found Wahhabi publications in mosques in the United States. These publications included statements that Muslims should not only “always oppose” infidels “in every way”, but “hate them for their religion … for Allah’s sake”, that democracy “is responsible for all the horrible wars… the number of wars it started in the 20th century alone is more than 130 wars,” and that Shia and certain Sunni Muslims were infidels.[259][260] In a response to the report, the Saudi government stated, “[It has] worked diligently during the last five years to overhaul its education system” but “[o]verhauling an educational system is a massive undertaking.”[261]

A review of the study by Institute for Social Policy and Understanding (ISPU) complained the study cited documents from only a few mosques, arguing most mosques in the U.S. are not under Wahhabi influence.[262] ISPU comments on the study were not entirely negative however, and concluded:

American-Muslim leaders must thoroughly scrutinize this study. Despite its limitations, the study highlights an ugly undercurrent in modern Islamic discourse that American-Muslims must openly confront. However, in the vigor to expose strains of extremism, we must not forget that open discussion is the best tool to debunk the extremist literature rather than a suppression of First Amendment rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution.[262]

Militant and political Islam

What connection, if any, there is between Wahhabism and Jihadi Salafis is disputed. Natana De Long-Bas, senior research assistant at the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University, argues:

The militant Islam of Osama bin Laden did not have its origins in the teachings of Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab and was not representative of Wahhabi Islam as it is practiced in contemporary Saudi Arabia, yet for the media it came to define Wahhabi Islam during the later years of bin Laden’s lifetime. However “unrepresentative” bin Laden’s global jihad was of Islam in general and Wahhabi Islam in particular, its prominence in headline news took Wahhabi Islam across the spectrum from revival and reform to global jihad.[263]

Noah Feldman distinguishes between what he calls the “deeply conservative” Wahhabis and what he calls the “followers of political Islam in the 1980s and 1990s,” such as Egyptian Islamic Jihad and later Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri. While Saudi Wahhabis were “the largest funders of local Muslim Brotherhood chapters and other hard-line Islamists” during this time, they opposed jihadi resistance to Muslim governments and assassination of Muslim leaders because of their belief that “the decision to wage jihad lay with the ruler, not the individual believer”.[264]

An analysis by START of the Global Terrorism Database reveals an increase from a few hundred in 1976 to 10,000 acts in 1983. In 2012, it found more than 8,500 terrorist attacks killed nearly 15,500 people, and six of the seven most deadly terror groups were affiliated with al Qaeda.[265]

However, Karen Armstrong states that Osama bin Laden, like most extremists, followed the ideology of Sayyid Qutb, not “Wahhabism”.[266]

Destruction of Islam’s early historical sites

The Wahhabi teachings disapprove of veneration of the historical sites associated with early Islam, on the grounds that only God should be worshipped and that veneration of sites associated with mortals leads to idolatry.[267] Many buildings associated with early Islam, including mazaar, mausoleums and other artifacts have been destroyed in Saudi Arabia by Wahhabis from early 19th century through the present day.[34][35] This practice has proved controversial and has received considerable criticism from Sunni and Shia Muslims and in the non-Muslim World.

Rejection of appellation

The appellation ‘Wahhabi’ is rejected by many people, including Muslims and non-Muslims who have studied the phenomenon. The term is mostly prevalent in anti-Saudi Arabiandiscourses, and is subsequently especially popular with Shias; in Saudi Arabia, the term ‘Wahhabi’ is virtually non-existent. The status of ‘Wahhabism’ as a distinct, separate sect of Islam is widely disputed.

Saudi Arabian Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud publicly dismissed the label ‘Wahhabism’ as ‘a doctrine that doesn’t exist here (Saudi Arabia)’ and said that ‘Wahhabism’ was a term coined by enemies of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. He defied efforts to locate the deviance of the form of Islam practiced in Saudi Arabia from the teachings of the Quranand Prophetic Hadiths.[268][269]

In his book ‘The Road the Mecca’, Muhammad Asad contends that Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Al-Wahhab‘s initial idea was nothing more than a literal revivification of Islamic principles[270] and puts no emphasis at all on the spiritual side of Islam. He also said that the idea’s acquisition of power further putrefied it:

Тhe history of Wahbab Najd is the history оf а religious idea which first rose on the wings of enthusiasm апd longing and then sank down into the lowlands of pharisaic self-righteousness. For all virtue destroys itself as soon as it ceases to be longing and humility.

[7][Islamic group]The Musilm Brotherhood

 

The Brotherhood’s stated goal is to instill the Qur’an and Sunnah as the “sole reference point for …ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community … and state.” The organization seeks to make Muslim countries become Islamic caliphates, which includes the isolation of women and non-Muslims from public life  The movement is also known for engaging in political violence. They were responsible for creating Hamaswho grew to infamy for its suicide bombings of Israelis during the first and second intifada. Muslim Brotherhood supporters are also suspected of having established the well-known terrorist groupAl-Qaeda and for assassinating political opponents like, Egyptian Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha The Muslim Brotherhood started as a religious social organization; preaching Islam, teaching the illiterate, setting up hospitals and even launching commercial enterprises. As it continued to rise in influence, starting in 1936, it began to oppose British rule in Egypt. Many Egyptian nationalists accuse the Muslim Brotherhood of violent killings during this period. After the Arab defeat in the First Arab-Israeli war, the Egyptian government dissolved the organization and arrested its members. It supported the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but after an attempted assassination of Egypt’s president it was once again banned and repressed .The Muslim Brotherhood has been suppressed in other countries as well, most notably in Syria in 1982 during the Hama massacre.       Now before we get in def  here are some thing you need to know The Muslim Brotherhood is financed by contributions from its members, who are required to allocate a portion of their income to the movement. Some of these contributions are from members who work in Saudi Arabia and other oil rich country.   The Muslim Brotherhood logo fits its motto: “Allah is our objective. The Prophet is our leader. The Qur’an is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope. Allahu akbar!”  There is what the logo mean Description: A brown square frames a green circle with a white perimeter. Two swords cross inside the circle beneath a red Koran. The cover of the Koran says: “Truly, it is the Generous Koran.” The Arabic beneath the sword handles translates as “Be prepared.”   Explanation: The swords reinforce the group’s militancy and, as traditional weapons, symbolize historic Islam. They also reinforce the group’s commitment to jihad. The Koran denotes the group’s spiritual foundation. The motto, “Be prepared,” is a reference to a Koranic verse that talks of preparing to fight the enemies of God.

  • The Brotherhood’s goal is to turn the world into an Islamist empire. The Muslim Brotherhood, founded in Egypt in 1928, is a revolutionary fundamentalist movement to restore the caliphate and strict shariah (Islamist) law in Muslim lands and, ultimately, the world. Today, it has chapters in 80 countries.

“It is in the nature of Islam to dominate, not to be dominated, to impose its law on all nations and to extend its power to the entire planet.” —Muslim Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna In the control and conker there are group in the us that claim to be a relief agency but it more than that A document that has surfaced in the trial of the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development (HLF), a charity long suspected of supporting terrorists by funneling money to Hamas and its officials, purports to outline a strategic vision of the future of Islamic work in North America.  The document – An Explanatory Memorandum On the General Strategic Goal for the Group in North America – appears to be the work of the Muslim Brotherhood.  It is written by Mohamed Akram (Adlouni), an alleged Muslim Brotherhood official and one of many unindicted coconspirators in the HLF trial. Some observers suggest that this document identifies a conspiracy by the Muslim Brotherhood to convert the United States to an Islamic nation.  Other observers suggest that the document proves how several Islamic organizations are linked to the Muslim Brotherhood and are working together to achieve the goals listed in the document.   

  • The Brotherhood wants America to fall. It tells followers to be “patient” because America “is heading towards its demise.” The U.S. is an infidel that “does not champion moral and human values and cannot lead humanity.” Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammed Badi, Sept. 2010   Major Attacks
  • The Brotherhood claims western democracy is “corrupt,” “unrealistic.” and “false.” Former Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammed Mahdi Akef
  • The Brotherhood  calls for jihad against “the Muslim’s real enemies, not only Israel but also the United States. Waging jihad against both of these infidels is a commandment of Allah that cannot be disregarded.” —Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammed Badi, Sept. 2010  but The Muslim Brotherhood no longer openly conducts terrorist operations directly as we have seen now  it is primarily a political organization that supports terrorism and terrorist causes. Many of its members, however, have engaged in terrorist activities and the group has spawned numerous terrorist groups, such as Hamas and Egyptian Islamic Jihad and al kida

2002: Suspected in suicide bombing in Grozny. 1979: Suspected in attacking Syrian military academy in Aleppo. 50 Syrian artillery cadets killed

  • The Brotherhood assassinated Anwar Sadat in 1981 for making peace with the hated “Zionist entity.” it also assassinated Egypt’s prime minister in 1948 and attempted to assassinate President Nasser in 1954.
  • Hamas is a “wing of the Muslim Brotherhood,” according to the Hamas Charter, Chapter 2. The Charter calls for the murder of Jews, the “obliteration” of Israel and its replacement with an Islamist theocracy.
  • The Brotherhood supports Hezbollah’s war against the Jews. Brotherhood leader Mahdi Akef declared he was “prepared to send 10,000 jihad fighters immediately to fight at the side of Hezbollah” during Hezbollah’s war against Israel in 2006.
  • The Brotherhood glorifies Osama bin Laden. Osama is “in all certainty, a mujahid (heroic fighter), and I have no doubt in his sincerity in resisting the occupation, close to Allah on high.” —Former Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Mahdi Akef, Nov. 2007
  • The Brotherhood “sanctioned martyrdom operations in Palestine.They do not have bombs, so they turn themselves into bombs. This is a necessity.”  Muslim Brotherhood Spiritual leader Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Dec. 17, 2010
  • The Brotherhood advocates violent jihad: The “change that the [Muslim] nation seeks can only be attained through jihad and sacrifice and by raising a jihadi generation that pursues death just as the enemies pursue life,” said Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Badi in a September 2010 sermon. Major terrorists came out of the Muslim Brotherhood, including bin Laden’s deputy Ayman al-Zawahiri and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (mastermind of the 9/11 attacks).
  • The Brotherhood advocates a deceptive strategy in democracies: appear moderate and use existing institutions to gain power. “The civilizational-jihadist process…is a kind of grand jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and ‘sabotaging’ its miserable house…so that it is eliminated and God’s religion is made victorious overall other religions,” reads a US Muslim Brotherhood 1991 document. It believes it can conquer Europe peacefully: “After having been expelled twice, Islam will be victorious and reconquer Europe….I am certain that this time, victory will be won not by the sword but by preaching and [Islamic] ideology.” — Muslim Brotherhood Spiritual leader Yusuf al-Qaradawi, “Fatwa,” 2003
  • The Brotherhood uses democracy, but once in power it will replace democracy with fundamentalist sharia law because it is the “true democracy.” “The final, absolute message from heaven contains all the values which the secular world claims to have invented….Islam and its values antedated the West by founding true democracy.” —Former Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Mahdi Akef, Nov. 200

Preaching, political agitation and advocating terrorism. The brotherhood participates in elections and attempts to gain influence through the political process. Although it is banned in Egypt, members of the brotherhood have been elected to the legislature there and in Jordan. It also promotes violence against the U.S. and Israel.

  • The Brotherhood’s view of women’s rights is to subjugate and segregate women: The ideal society would include “a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior…segregation of male and female students; private meetings between men and women, unless within the permitted degrees of relationship, to be counted as a crime for which both will be censured…prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes.” —Muslim Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna, “Five Tracts”

The Brotherhood supports Female Genital Mutilation: “[the Americans] wage war on Muslim leaders, the traditions of its faith and its ideas. They even wage war against female circumcision, a practice current in 36 countries, which has been prevalent since the time of the Pharaohs.” —Former Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Mahdi Akef, 2007

  • The Brotherhood will not treat non-Muslim minorities, such as Coptic Christians, as equals. “Allah’s word will reign supreme and the infidels’ word will be inferior.” —Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Badi, Sept. 2010
  • The Brotherhood refuses to commit to continuing the Israel-Egypt peace treaty. Muslim Brotherhood leaders have said that “as far as the movement is concerned, Israel is a Zionist entity occupying holy Arab and Islamic lands…and we will get rid of it no matter how long it takes.” —Former Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Muhammad Mahdi Akef, 2005 and 2007
  • The Brotherhood has anti-Semitic roots. It supported the Nazis, organized mass demonstrations against the Jews with slogans promoting ethnic cleansing like “Down with the Jews!” and “Jews get out of Egypt and Palestine!” in 1936; carried out a violent pogrom against Egypt’s Jews in November 1945; and made sure that Nazi collaborator and Palestinian Mufti al-Hussein was granted asylum in Egypt in 1946.
  • The Brotherhood remains virulently anti-Semitic. “Today the Jews are not the Israelites praised by Allah, but the descendants of the Israelites who defied His word. Allah was angry with them and turned them into monkeys and pigs….There is no doubt that the battle in which the Muslims overcome the Jews [will come]….In that battle the Muslims will fight the Jews and kill them.” —Muslim Brotherhood Spiritual leader Yusuf al-Qaradawi

Beliefs The Brotherhood’s credo was and is, “Allah is our objective; the Quran is our law, the Prophet is our leader; Jihad is our way; and death for the sake of Allah is the highest of our aspirations. The Brotherhood’s English language website describes the principles of the Muslim Brotherhood as including firstly the introduction of the Islamic Sharia’s as “the basis for controlling the affairs of state and society” and secondly, work to unify “Islamic countries and states, mainly among the Arab states, and liberating them from foreign imperialism”. According to a spokesman, the Muslim Brotherhood believe in reform, democracyfreedom of assemblypress, etc. We believe that the political reform is the true and natural gateway for all other kinds of reform. We have announced our acceptance of democracy that acknowledges political pluralism, the peaceful rotation of power and the fact that the nation is the source of all powers. As we see it, political reform includes the termination of the state of emergency, restoring public freedoms, including the right to establish political parties, whatever their tendencies may be, and the freedom of the press, freedom of criticism and thought, freedom of peaceful demonstrations, freedom of assembly, etc. It also includes the dismantling of all exceptional courts and the annulment of all exceptional laws, establishing the independence of the judiciary, enabling the judiciary to fully and truly supervise general elections so as to ensure that they authentically express people’s will, removing all obstacles that restrict the functioning of civil society organizations, etc. Its founder, Hassan Al-Banna, was influenced by Islamic reformers Muhammad Abdu and Rashid Rida. In the group’s belief, the Quran and Sunnah constitute a perfect way of life and social and political organization that God has set out for man. Governments must be based on this system and eventually unified in a Caliphate. The Muslim Brotherhood’s goal, as stated by Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna was to reclaim Islam’s manifest destiny, an empire, stretching from Spain to Indonesia.[21] It preaches that Islam enjoins man to strive for social justice, the eradication of poverty and corruption, and political freedom to the extent allowed by the laws of Islam. The Brotherhood strongly opposes Western colonialism, and helped overthrow the pro-western monarchies in Egypt and other Muslim countries during the early 20th century. On the issue of women and gender the Muslim Brotherhood interprets Islam conservatively. Its founder called for “a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior”, “segregation of male and female students”, a separate curriculum for girls, and “the prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes … The Muslim Brotherhood is a movement, not a political party, but members have created political parties in several countries, such as the Islamic Action Front in Jordan and Hamas in Gaza and the West Bank and the newly created Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt. These parties are staffed by Brotherhood members but kept independent from the Muslim Brotherhood to some degree, unlike Hizb ut-Tahrir which is highly centralized. There are breakaway groups from the movement, including the Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya and Al Takfir Wal Hijra. Osama bin Laden criticized the Brotherhood, and accused it of betraying jihad and the ideals of Sayyid Qutb, an influential Brother Member and author of Milestones.     Organization From the Transcripts the following hierarchical Organization structure can be derived:

  • The Shura Council has the duties of planning, charting general policies and programs that achieve the goal of the Group. Its resolutions are binding to the Group and only the General Organizational Conference can modify or annul them and the Shura Office has also the right to modify or annul resolutions of the Executive Office. It follows the implementation of the Group policies and programs. It directs the Executive Office and it forms dedicated branch committees to assist in that
  • Executive Office (Guidance Office) with its leader the General Masul (General Guide) and its members, both appointed by the Shura Office, has to follow up and guide the activities of the General Organization. It submits a periodical report to the Shura Council about its work and of the activity of the domestic bodies and the general organizations. It distributes its duties to its members according to the internal bylaws.

It has the following divisions (not complete): – Executive leadership – Organizational office – Secretariat general – Educational office – Political office – Sisters office The Muslim Brotherhood aimed to build a transnational organization, founding groups in Lebanon (in 1936), Syria (1937), and Transjordan (1946). It also recruited among the foreign students in Cairo where its headquarters became a center and meeting place for representatives from the whole Muslim world In each country there is a Branch committee with a Masul (leader) appointed by the General Executive leadership with essentially the same Branch-divisions as the Executive office has. To the duties of every branch belong fundraising, infiltrating and overtaking other Muslim organizations for the sake of uniting the Muslims to dedicate them to the general goals of the Muslim Brotherhood. My view Let look at the spread of the Muslim brother hood across the mena country  and the rest of the world mena mean middle east north Africa as u see the Arad spring or as I would like to called it menar middle east north Africa revolution benefit the Muslim brotherhood because the dictator at the time keep them at bay because they as the west like to called it a terries organization .now that they are gone of power reduce they are taking control  of the country slowly and they are going to suppress religious  freedom impost share law  so when y this is all over the mena country will be worst of than it was .I an not defending the former dictator the need to held accountable for their crime but if I had to choose I will choose them  because they understand where the line are drawn .an as they keep exploring new territory that pre dominantly Christian .even the us benefit in this revolution because   of the oil that there so they are working with then just like al kida which it part of them to achieve their goal but  remember in will back fire on then just like when they the us as their enemy and they still don’t learn   because us dollar are still reaching them directly or indirectly In Egypt Main article: Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt Founding Hassan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood in the city of Ismailia in March 1928 along with six workers of the Suez Canal Company, as a Pan-Islamic, religious, political, and social movement. The Suez Canal Company helped Banna build the mosque in Ismailia that would serve as the Brotherhood’s headquarters, according to Richard Mitchell’s The Society of Muslim Brothers. According to al-Banna, contemporary Islam had lost its social dominance, because most Muslims had been corrupted by Western influences. Sharia law based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah were seen as laws passed down by God that should be applied to all parts of life, including the organization of the government and the handling of everyday problems. Al-Banna was populist in his message of protecting workers against the tyranny of foreign and monopolist companies. It founded social institutions such as hospitals, pharmacies, schools, etc. Al-Banna held highly conservative views on issues such as women’s rights, opposing equal rights for women, but supporting the establishment of justice towards women. The Brotherhood grew rapidly going from 800 members in 1936, to 200,000 by 1938, 500,000 in 1948. Post WWII Muslim Brotherhood fighters in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War In November 1948, following several bombings and assassination attempts, the government arrested 32 leaders of the Brotherhood’s “secret apparatus” and banned the Brotherhood. At this time the Brotherhood was estimated to have 2000 branches and 500,000 members or sympathizers.\ in succeeding months Egypt’s prime minister was assassinated by a Brotherhood member, and following that Al-Banna himself was assassinated in what is thought to be a cycle of retaliation. In 1952, members of the Muslim Brotherhood were accused of taking part in the Cairo Fire that destroyed some “750 buildings” in downtown Cairo — mainly night clubs, theatres, hotels, and restaurants frequented by British and other foreigners. In 1952 Egypt’s monarchy was overthrown by nationalist military officers supported by the Brotherhood. However the Brotherhood opposed the secularist constitution of the coup leaders and in 1954 some historians claim they attempted to assassinate Egypt’s President (Gamal Abdel Nasser), and blame it on the “secret apparatus” of the Brotherhood (this attempt was unsuccessful). The Brotherhood was again banned and this time thousands of its members were imprisoned, many being tortured and held for years in prisons and concentration camps. Since the 1970s the Egyptian Brotherhood has disavowed violence and sought to participate in Egyptian politics. Imprisoned Brethren were released and the organization was tolerated to varying degrees with periodic arrests and crackdowns until the 2011 Revolution. Mubarak era In the 2005 parliamentary elections, the Brotherhood’s candidates, who had to run as independents because of their illegality as a political party, won 88 seats (20% of the total). (The legal opposition won only 14 seats.) This was despite electoral irregularities, including the arrest of hundreds of Brotherhood members. The Brotherhood became “in effect, the first opposition party of Egypt’s modern era Accounts differ over the Brotherhood’s record in parliament. Initially there was widespread skepticism inside and outside Egypt towards the Muslim Brotherhood’s commitment to democracy, along with fears of “severe restrictions on its freedom of opinion and belief” in both religious matters, and “social, political, economic and cultural affairs.” But by 2007 a The New York Times journalist wrote: “While many secular critics fear that the brotherhood harbors a hidden Islamist agenda, so far the organization has posed a democratic political challenge to the regime, not a theological one.”; and another report praised the Muslim Brotherhood for an “unmatched record of attendance”, forming a coalition to fight the extension of Egypt’s emergency law, and generally attempting to transform “the Egyptian parliament into a real legislative body, as well as an institution that represents citizens and a mechanism that keeps government accountable”. However, in December 2006, a campus demonstration by Muslim Brotherhood students in uniforms, demonstrating martial arts drills betrayed “the group’s intent to plan for the creation of militia structures, and a return by the group to the era of ‘secret cells,'” according to Jameel Theyabi. Another report highlighted the Muslim Brotherhood’s efforts in Parliament to combat what one member called the `current US-led war against Islamic culture and identity,’ forcing the Minister of Culture (Farouk Hosny) to ban the publication of three novels on the ground they promoted blasphemy and unacceptable sexual practices. In October 2007, the Muslim Brotherhood issued a detailed political platform. Amongst other things it called for a board of Muslim clerics to oversee the government, and limiting the office of the presidency to Muslim men. In the “Issues and Problems” chapter of the platform, it declared that a woman was not suited to be president because the post’s religious and military duties “conflict with her nature, social and other humanitarian roles.” While underlining “equality between men and women in terms of their human dignity,” the document warned against “burdening women with duties against their nature or role in the family. Since 2005 Muslim Brotherhood members in Egypt have also become a significant movement online, with some “cyber activists” critical of the organization. Whether or not the Brotherhood would unconditionally or conditionally dissolve Egypt’s 32-year peace treaty with Israel is disputed within the Brotherhood. While the deputy leader of the Brotherhood has said the Brotherhood would seek the dissolution of Egypt’s 32-year peace treaty with Israel, a Brotherhood spokesman said that the Brotherhood would respect the treaty as long as “Israel shows real progress on improving the lot of the Palestinians.” The Brotherhood remains the largest opposition group in Egypt, advocating Islamic reform, democratic system and maintaining a vast network of support through Islamic charities working among poor Egyptians. Ex-Knesset member and author Uri Avery argued that the Muslim Brotherhood is above all ‘an Arab and Egyptian party, deeply embedded in Egyptian history, more Arab and more Egyptian than fundamentalist.’ They have never been fanatical, and throughout their history, the outstanding quality they exhibit is ‘pragmatism’ and adherence to their religious principles. They form “an old established party which has earned much respect with its steadfastness in the face of recurrent persecution, torture, mass arrests and occasional executions. Its leaders are untainted by the prevalent corruption, and admired for their commitment to social work.” 2011 revolution and after Following the 2011 Egyptian revolution and fall of Hosni Mubarak, the group was legalized. The Brotherhood supported the constitutional referendum in March 2011 which was also supported by the Egyptian army and opposed by Egyptian liberals. On 30 April 2011, it launched a new party called the Freedom and Justice Party, which reportedly plans to “contest up to half the seats” in the Egyptian parliamentary election scheduled for September 2011. The party “rejects the candidacy of women or Copts for Egypt’s presidency”, but not for cabinet positions. Some splinter groups have appeared in the wake of the revolution Over 30 million people voted (over 60 percent of the eligible voters) in the elections. Over a third of these people voted for the Freedom and Justice Party put forward by the Muslim Brotherhood. The party won 127 seats through the party list and 108 individual seats for a total of 235 seats. The parliament consists of 498 elected members, 10 appointed, for a total of 508 seats According to the Anti-Defamation League, several former Brotherhood officials from the organization’s 15-member Guidance Council assumed key roles within the new party, and used their positions in the FJP to reiterate the Brotherhood’s long-standing hostility toward Zionism and support for other organizations that oppose Zionism The Muslim Brotherhood’s candidate for Egypt’s 2012 presidential election was Mohamed Morsi. The Egyptian cleric Safwat Higazi spoke at the announcement rally for the Muslim Brotherhood’s candidate Morsi and expressed his hope and belief that Morsi would liberate Gaza, restore the Caliphate of the “United States of the Arabs” with Jerusalem as its capital, and that “our cry shall be: ‘Millions of martyrs march towards Jerusalem.’ Morsi himself did not echo these statements, and later promised to stand for peaceful relations with Israel. In the First Egyptian elections after Mubarak, the candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood, Mohamed Morsi, won the election with 51.73% of the vote – over his competitor Ahmed Shafiq, the last prime minister under Mubarak’s rule. On the verdict that was announced for the former president Hosni Mubarak on 2 June 2012, a life sentence for complicity in the killings of protesters, the party made outspoken comments about it being too light, and actively engaged in action as a response. The sentences announced that Mubarak and his interior minister, as well as the latter’s six assistants would be acquitted of similar charges. In a separate corruption case, however, the former president and his two sons, as well as Egypt’s tycoon for business Hussein Selem were all found free of charges-non guilty. With the announcement followed mass scale of protests in Cairo’s Tahrir Square, questioning the integrity of the Judge Ahmed Refaat, to the trial that seemed crucial and meaningful to the history of people of Egypt. The demonstrations also denounced the presence of one presidential elections runoff Ahmed Shafiq. Shafiq was one of the high-profile governmental member during the period of President Mubarak, positioning himself as counter force to the spirit of the revolution that operates as a driving force in current Egyptian society. The result of trials and roaring response from the public have motivated actions from the party as well. Muslim Brotherhood’s presidential finalist Mohamed Morsi met Hamdeen Sabbahi, Abdel-Money Abul-Fotouh and Khaled Ali-who are the former presidential candidates- on Monday to discuss the verdict and the upcoming presidential election runoff. As the event is regarded as a major event for Egypt, one of the initiating countries of the Arab Revolution in the region, the party finds itself deeply involved and set to be ready. A spokesperson for the Muslim Brotherhood’s presidential candidate Muhammad Morsi expressed concern by saying that “The punishment is mild considering the crimes he committed against his homeland for over 30 years”. Such announcement is made, also to note the affect of the verdict on the elections. Also he mentioned that “The Egyptians will insist on electing a president that would renew the trial and avenge the blood of the martyrs,” warning that another revolution can happen in Egypt following the sentence. In late November 2012, offices of the Muslim Brotherhood were burned in response to Mohamed Morsi’s move to outlaw challenges to his presidential authority. General leaders Mohammed Badie, the current leader (المرشد العام لجماعة الإخوان المسلمون) ·         Founder & First G. leader: (1928–1949) Hassan al Banna ·         2nd G.L. : (1949–1972) Hassan al-Hudaybi ·         3rd G.L. : (1972–1986) Umar al-Tilmisani ·         4th G.L. : (1986–1996) Muhammad Hamid Abu al-Nasr ·         5th G.L. : (1996–2002) Mustafa Mashhur ·         6th G.L. : (2002–2004) Ma’mun al-Hudaybi ·         7th G.L. : (2004–2010) Mohammed Mahdi Akef ·         8th G.L. : (16 January 2010 – present) Mohammed Badie[citation needed] In West Asia Bahrain In Bahrain, the Muslim Brotherhood is represented by the Al Eslah Society and its political wing, the Al-Menbar Islamic Society. Following parliamentary elections in 2002, Al Menbar became the largest joint party with eight seats in the forty seat Chamber of Deputies. Prominent members of Al Menbar include Dr Salah Abdulrahman, Dr. Salah Al Jowder, and outspoken MP Mohammed Khalid. The party has generally backed government sponsored legislation on economic issues, but has sought a clampdown on pop concerts, sorcery and soothsayers. It has strongly opposed the government’s accession to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on the grounds that this would give Muslim citizens the right to change religion, when in the party’s view they should be “beheaded”. In March 2009, the Shi’a group The Islamic Enlightenment Society held its annual conference with the announced aim of diffusing tension between Muslim branches. The society invited national Sunni and Shi’a scholars to participate. Bahraini independent Salafi religious scholars Sheikh Salah Al Jowder and Sheikh Rashid Al Muraikhi, and Shi’a clerics Sheikh Isa Qasim and Abdulla Al Ghoraifi spoke about the importance of sectarian cooperation. Additional seminars were held throughout the year. In 2010, the U.S. government sponsored the visit of Al-Jowder, described as a prominent Sunni cleric, to the United States for a three-week interfaith dialogue program in several cities. Syria Main article: Muslim Brotherhood of Syria The Muslim Brotherhood in Syria was founded in the 1930s (according to lexicorient.com) or in 1945, a year before independence from France, (according to journalist Robin Wright). In the first decade or so of independence it was part of the legal opposition, and in the 1961 parliamentary elections it won ten seats (5.8% of the house). But after the 1963 coup that brought the Baath Party to power it was banned. It played a major role in the mainly Sunni-based movement that opposed the secularistpan-Arabist Baath party. This conflict developed into an armed struggle that continued until culminating in the Hama uprising of 1982, when the rebellion was crushed by the military. Membership in the Syrian Brotherhood became a capital offence in Syria in 1980 (under Emergency Law 49, which was revoked in 2011), but the headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood-linked Palestinian group, Hamas, was located in the Syria’s capital Damascus, where it was given Syrian government support. This has been cited as an example of the lack of international centralization or even coordination of the Muslim Brotherhood. The Brotherhood is said to have “resurrected itself” and become “dominant group” in the opposition during the Syrian civil war against the Assad regime according to the Washington newspaper. Jordan The Jordanian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood was formed in 1942, and is a strong factor in Jordanian politics. While most political parties and movements were banned for a long time in Jordan such as Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Brotherhood was exempted and allowed to operate by the Jordanian monarchy. The Jordanian Brotherhood has formed its own political party, the Islamic Action Front, which has the largest number of seats of any party in the Jordanian parliament. The Muslim Brotherhood is playing an active role in the unrest in several Arab countries in January 2011. For example, at a rally held outside the Egyptian Embassy in Amman on Saturday, 29 January 2011 with some 100 participants, Hammam Saeed, head of the Muslim Brotherhood of Jordan and a close ally of the Hamas’s Damascus-based leader, Khaled Meshaal, said: “Egypt’s unrest will spread across the Mideast and Arabs will topple leaders allied with the United States.” However, he did not specifically name Jordanian King Abdullah II.The Muslim brotherhood is rightfully or wrongfully feared by several commentators in the west, however it is not known how many seats in a democratic government the brotherhood will gain in any of the aforementioned countries. Iran Although Iran is a predominately Shia Muslim country and the Muslim Brotherhood is Sunni in doctrine, Olga Davidson and Mohammad Mahallati claim the Brotherhood has had influence among Shia in Iran. Navab Safavi, who founded Fada’iyan-e Islam, (also Fedayeen of Islam, or Fadayan-e Islam), an Iranian Islamic organization active in Iran in the 1940s and 1950s, “was highly impressed by the Muslim Brotherhood. From 1945 to 1951 the Fadain assassinated several high level Iranian personalities and officials who they believed to be un-Islamic. They included anti-clerical writer Ahmad Kasravi, Premier Haj Ali Razmara, former Premier Abdolhossein Hazhir, and Education and Culture Minister Ahmad Zangeneh. At that time Navab Safavi now based in the UK where associates and allies of Ayatollah Khomeini who went on to become a figure in the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Khomeini and other religious figures in Iran worked to establish Islamic unity and downplay Shia-Sunni differences. Iraq The Iraqi Islamic Party was formed in 1960 as the Iraqi branch of the Brotherhood, but was banned from 1961 during the nationalist rule of Abd al-Karim Qasim. As government repression hardened under the Baath Party from February 1963, the group was forced to continue underground. After the fall of the Saddam Hussein regime in 2003, the Islamic Party has reemerged as one of the main advocates of the country’s Sunni community. The Islamic Party has been sharply critical of the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq, but participates in the political process. Its leader is Iraqi Vice-President Tariq Al-Hashimi. Also, in the north of Iraq there are several Islamic movements inspired by or part of the Muslim Brotherhood network. The Kurdistan Islamic Union (KIU) holds seats in the Kurdish parliament, and is the main political force outside the dominance of the two main secularist parties, the PUK and KDP. Israel and Palestinian Territories ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Banna, the brother of the Muslim Brotherhood founder Hasan al-Banna, went to the British Mandate for Palestine and established the Muslim Brotherhood there in 1935. Al-Hajj Amin al-Husseini, eventually appointed by the British as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in hopes of accommodating him, was the leader of the group in Palestine. Another important leader associated with the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine was ‘Izz al-Din al-Qassam, an inspiration to Islamists because he had been the first to lead an armed resistance in the name of Palestine against the British in 1935. In 1945, the group established a branch in Jerusalem, and by 1947 twenty-five more branches had sprung up, in towns such as JaffaLodHaifaNablus, and Tulkarm, which total membership between 12,000 to 20,000. Brotherhood members fought alongside the Arab armies during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, and, after Israel’s creation, the ensuing Palestinian refugee crisis encouraged more Palestinian Muslims to join the group. After the war, in the West Bank, the group’s activity was mainly social and religious, not political, so it had relatively good relations with Jordan, which was in control of the West Bank after 1950. In contrast, the group frequently clashed with the Egyptian regime that controlled the Gaza Strip until 1967. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Brotherhood’s goal was “the upbringing of an Islamic generation” through the restructuring of society and religious education, rather than opposition to Israel, and so it lost popularity to insurgent movements and the presence of Hizb ut-Tahrir\ Eventually, however, the Brotherhood was strengthened by several factors: 1.    The creation of al-Mujamma’ al-Islami, the Islamic Center in 1973 by Shaykh Ahmad Yasin had a centralizing effect that encapsulated all religious organizations. 2.    The Muslim Brotherhood Society in Jordan and Palestine was created from a merger of the branches in the West Bank and Gaza and Jordan. 3.    Palestinian disillusion with the Palestinian militant groups caused them to become more open to alternatives. 4.    The Islamic Revolution in Iran offered inspiration to Palestinians. The Brotherhood was able to increase its efforts in Palestine and avoid being dismantled like militant groups because it did not focus on the occupation. While millitant groups were being dismantled, the Brotherhood filled the void. After the 1967 Six Day War, Israel may have looked to cultivate political Islam as a counterweight to Fatah, the main secular Palestinian nationalist political organization.Between 1967 and 1987, the year Hamas was founded, the number of mosques in Gaza tripled from 200 to 600, and the Muslim Brotherhood named the period between 1975 and 1987 a phase of ‘social institution building.’ During that time, the Brotherhood established associations, used zakat (alms giving) for aid to poor Palestinians, promoted schools, provided students with loans, used waqf (religious endowments) to lease property and employ people, and established mosques. Likewise, antagonistic and sometimes violent opposition to Fatah, the Palestine Liberation Organization and other secular nationalist groups increased dramatically in the streets and on university campuses. After the Intifada, Hamas was established. The Islamic Resistance Movement, or Hamas, founded in 1987 in Gaza, is a wing of the Brotherhood, formed out of Brotherhood-affiliated charities and social institutions that had gained a strong foothold among the local population. During the First Intifada (1987–93), Hamas militarized and transformed into one of the strongest Palestinian militant groups. The Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip in 2007 was the first time since the Sudanese coup of 1989 that brought Omar al-Bashir to power, that a Muslim Brotherhood group ruled a significant geographic territory. Saudi Arabia The Muslim Brotherhood’s brand of Islam and Islamic politics differs from the strict Salafi creed, Wahhabiyya, officially held by the state of Saudi Arabia. Despite this, the Brotherhood has been tolerated by the Saudi government, and maintains a presence in the country. Aside from tolerating the Brotherhood organization, and according to Washington Post report, the then Saudi Interior Minister Prince Nayef denounced the Brotherhood, saying it was guilty of “betrayal of pledges and ingratitude” and was “the source of all problems in the Islamic world”. Kuwait The Muslim Brotherhood in Kuwait is represented in the Kuwaiti parliament by Hadas. Yemen The Muslim Brotherhood is the political arm of the Yemeni Congregation for Reform, commonly known as Islah. President Ali Abdullah Saleh accused them of being in league with Al Qaida and stirring up the 2011 Yemen protests against his rule. Oman Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said of Oman claimed that the Muslim Brotherhood obtained support from the uneducated people. Elsewhere] in Africa See also: Muslim brotherhoods of Senegal Algeria The Muslim Brotherhood reached Algeria during the later years of the French colonial presence in the country (1830–1962). Sheikh Ahmad Sahnoun led the organization in Algeria between 1953 and 1954 during the French colonialism. Brotherhood members and sympathizers took part in the uprising against France in 1954–1962, but the movement was marginalized during the largely secular FLN one-party rule which was installed at independence in 1962. It remained unofficially active, sometimes protesting the government and calling for increased Islamization and Arabization of the country’s politics. When a multi-party system was introduced in Algeria in the early 1990s, the Muslim Brotherhood formed the Movement for the Society of Peace (MSP, previously known as Hamas), led by Mahfoud Nahnah until his death in 2003 (he was succeeded by present party leader Boudjerra Soltani). The Muslim Brotherhood in Algeria did not join the Front islamique du salut (FIS), which emerged as the leading Islamist group, winning the 1991 elections and which was banned in 1992 following a military coup d’état, although some Brotherhood sympathizers did. The Brotherhood subsequently also refused to join the violent post-coup uprising by FIS sympathizers and the Armed Islamic Groups (GIA) against the Algerian state and military which followed, and urged a peaceful resolution to the conflict and a return to democracy. It has thus remained a legal political organization and enjoyed parliamentary and government representation. In 1995, Sheikh Nahnah ran for President of Algeria finishing second with 25.38% of the popular vote. During the 2000s (decade), the party—led by Nahnah’s successor Boudjerra Soltani—has been a member of a three-party coalition backing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. Sudan Until the election of Hamas in GazaSudan was the one country were the Brotherhood was most successful in gaining power, its members making up a large part of the government officialdom following the 1989 coup d’état by General Omar Hassan al-Bashir. Always close to Egyptian politics, Sudan has had a Muslim Brotherhood presence since 1949. In 1945, a delegation from the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt visited Sudan and held various meetings inside the country advocating and explaining their ideology. Sudan has a long and deep history with the Muslim Brotherhood compared to many other countries. By April 1949, the first branch of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood organization emerged. However, simultaneously, many Sudanese students studying in Egypt were introduced to the ideology of the Brotherhood. The Muslim student groups also began organizing in the universities during the 1940s, and the Brotherhood’s main support base has remained to be college educated. In order to unite them, in 1954, a conference was held, attended by various representatives from different groups that appeared to have the same ideology. The conference voted to establish a Unified Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood Organization based on the teachings of Imam Hassan Al-banna. An offshoot of the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamic Charter Front grew during the 1960, with Islamic scholar Hasan al-Turabi becoming its Secretary general in 1964. The Islamic Charter Front (ICM) was renamed several times most recently being called the National Islamic Front (NIF). Turabi has been the prime architect of the NIF as a modern Islamist party. He worked within the Institutions of the government, which led to a prominent position of his organization in the country. NIF supported women’s right to vote and ran women candidates. The Muslim Brotherhood/NIF’s main objective in Sudan was to Islamize the society “from above” and to institutionalize the Islamic law throughout the country where they succeeded. The Brotherhood penetrated into the ruling political organizations, the state army and security personal, the national and regional assemblies of Sudan. They also launched their own mass organizations among the youth and women such as the shabab al-binna, and raidat al-nahda, and launched educational campaigns to Islamize the communities throughout the country. At the same time, they gained control of several newly founded Islamic missionary and relief organizations to spread their ideology. The Brotherhood members took control of the newly established Islamic Banks as directors, administrators, employees and legal advisors, which became a source of power for the Brotherhood. The Sudanese government has come under considerable criticism for its human rights policies, links to terrorist groups, and war in southern Sudan and Darfur. See also: Darfur conflictSecond Sudanese Civil War, and Human rights in Sudan The conservatism of at least some elements of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood was highlighted in an 3 August 2007 Al-Jazeera television interview of Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood leader Sheikh Sadeq Abdallah bin Al-Majed. As translated by the Israeli-based MEMRI, Bin Al-Majed told his interviewer that “the West, and the Americans in particular … are behind all the tragedies that are taking place in Darfur“, as they “realized that it Darfur is full of treasures”; that “Islam does not permit a non-Muslim to rule over Muslims;” and that he had issued a fatwa prohibiting the vaccination of children, on the grounds that the vaccinations were “a conspiracy of the Jews and Freemasons“. Somalia Somalia’s wing of the Muslim Brotherhood is known by the name Harakat Al-Islah or “Reform Movement”. Nonetheless, the Brotherhood, as mentioned earlier, has inspired many Islamist organizations in Somalia. Muslim Brotherhood ideology reached Somalia in the early 1960s, but Al-Islam movement was formed in 1978 and slowly grew in the 1980s. Al-Islam has been described as “a generally nonviolent and modernizing Islamic movement that emphasizes the reformation and revival of Islam to meet the challenges of the modern world”, whose “goal is the establishment of an Islamic state” and which “operates primarily in Mogadishu”. The founders of the Islam Movement are: Sh. Mohamed Ahmed Nur, Dr. Ali Sheikh Ahmed, Dr. Mohamed Yusuf Abdi, Sh. Ahmed Rashid Hanafi, and Sh. Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah. The organization structured itself loosely and was not openly visible on the political scene of Somali society. They chose to remain a secret movement fearing the repressive regime of Siad Barre but are considered the first ever opposition to the dictatorship. However, they emerged from secrecy when the regime collapsed in 1991 and started working openly thereafter. Most Somalis were surprised to see the new group they had never heard of, which was in the country since the 1970s in secrecy. According to the Islam by-law, every five years the organization has to elect its Consultative (Shura) Council which elects the Chairman and the two Vice-chairman. During the last 30 years, four chairmen were elected. These are Sheikh Mohamed Geryare (1978–1990), Dr. Mohamed Ali Ibrahim (1990–1999), Dr. Ali Sheikh Ahmed (1999–2008) and Dr. Ali Bashi Omar Roraye (2008–2013). Dr. Ali Bashi is a medical doctor, a former university professor and a member of the transitional parliament (2000–2008). During the 1990s, Al-Islam devoted much effort to humanitarian efforts and providing free basic social services. The leaders of Al-Islam played a key role in the educational network and establishing Mogadishu University. Through their network, they educate more than 120,000 students in the city of Mogadishu. Many other secondary schools such as the University Of East Africa in Bosasso, Puntland, are externally funded and administered through organizations affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Islamic organization Al-Islam in Somalia, they are known to be a peaceful organization that does not participate in any factional fighting and rejects the use of violence. Today the group’s membership includes urban professionals and students. According to a Crisis Group Report, Somalia’s Islamists, “Al-Islam organization is dominated by a highly educated urban elite whose professional, middle class status and extensive expatriate experiences are alien to most Somalis.” Although Al-Islam have been criticized by some hardcore Islamists who considered them to be influenced by imperialist western values, Al-Islam speaks of democratic peaceful Somalia. They promote women’s rights, human rights, and other ideas, which they argue that these concepts originate from Islamic concepts. Al-Islam is gaining momentum in the Somali societies for their humanitarian work and moderate view of Islam, which is compatible to modernization and respect of human rights. Currently, Islam initiated to establish political party under the name of Justice and Unity Party which is open for all citizens of Somalia. Tunisia Like their counterparts elsewhere in the Islamic world in general, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has influenced the Tunisia’s Islamists. One of the notable organization that was influenced and inspired by the Brotherhood is Nemaha (The Revival or Renaissance Party), which is Tunisia’s major Islamist political grouping. An Islamist founded the organization in 1981. While studying in Damascus and Paris, Rashid Ghannouchi embraced the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, which he disseminated on his return to Tunisia. Libya The Libyan branch of the Muslim Brotherhood was founded in 1949, but it was not able to operate openly until after the 2011 Libyan civil war. It held its first public press conference on 17 November 2011, and on 24 December the Brotherhood announced that it would form the Justice and Construction Party (JCP) and contest the General National Congress elections the following year. Despite predictions based on fellow post-Arab Spring nations Tunisia and Egypt that the Brotherhood’s party would easily win the elections, it instead came a distant second to theNational Forces Alliance, receiving just 10% of the vote and 17 out of 80 party-list seats.[93] Their candidate for Prime Minister, Awad al-Baraasi was also defeated in the first round of voting in September, although he was later made a Deputy Prime Minister under Ali Zeidan. A JCP Congressman, Saleh Essaleh is also the vice speaker of the General National Congress. Other states Russian Federation The Muslim Brotherhood is banned in Russia as a terrorist organization. As affirmed on 14 February 2003 by the decision of the Supreme Court of Russia, the Muslim Brotherhood coordinated the creation of an Islamic organization called The Supreme Military Majlis ul-Shura of the United Forces of Caucasian Mujahedeen (RussianВысший военный маджлисуль шура объединённых сил моджахедов Кавказа), led by Ibn Al-Khattab and Basaev; an organization that committed multiple terror-attack acts in Russia and was allegedly financed by drug trafficking, counterfeiting of coins and racketeering. According to the above-mention decision of the Supreme Court: Muslim Brotherhood is an organization, basing its activities on the ideas of its theorists and leaders Hassan al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb with an aim of destruction of non-Islamic governments and the establishment of the worldwide Islamic government by the reconstruction of the “Great Islamic Caliphate”; firstly, in regions with majority of Muslim population, including those in Russia and CIS countries. The organization is illegal in some Middle East countries (Syria, Jordan). The main forms of activities are warlike Islamism propaganda with intolerance to other religions, recruitment in mosques, armed Jihad without territorial boundaries. The Supreme Court of Russia United States Main article: Muslim Brotherhood conspiracy theories See Also Civilization Jihad According to the Washington Post, U.S. Muslim Brotherhood supporters “make up the U.S. Islamic community’s most organized force” by running hundreds of mosques, businesses ventures, promoting civic activities and setting up American Islamic organizations to defend and promote Islam. In 1963, the U.S. chapter of Muslim Brotherhood was started by activists involved with the Muslim Students Association (MSA). U.S. supporters of the Brotherhood also started other organizations including: North American Islamic Trust in 1971, the Islamic Society of North America in 1981, the American Muslim Council in 1990, the Muslim American Society in 1992 and the International Institute of Islamic Thought in the 1980s United Kingdom In 1996, the first representative of the Muslim Brotherhood in Britain, Kamal el-Halaby, an Egyptian, was able to say that “there are not many members here, but many Muslims in Britain intellectually support the aims of the Muslim Brotherhood.” He added that at that time, the object of the MB in Britain was only to disseminate information on Islam, Islamic issues and movements, and to rectify the distortions and misunderstandings created by “different forces against Islam”. In September 1999, the Muslim Brotherhood opened a “global information Centre” in London. A press notice published in Muslim News stated that it would “specialize in promoting the perspectives and stances of the Muslim Brotherhood, and [communicate] between Islamic movements and the global mass media.” Indonesia Several Party and organizations in Indonesia are linked or at least inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood, although none has a formal relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood. One of the Muslim Brotherhood linked Parties is PKS (Prosperous Justice Party) with 10% seats in the parliament based on the Indonesian legislative election, 2009. The PKS relationship with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood was confirmed by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, a prominent Muslim Brotherhood leader. PKS is a member of current government coalition under President SBY with 3 ministers in the cabinet. Indian subcontinent Main article: Jamaat-e-Islami The Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu: جماعتِ اسلامی;, lit. “Islamic Party” abbreviation, JI) is a political party founded on 26 August 1941 in Lahore by Muslim theologian Abul Ala Maududi. Jamaat-e-Islami is said to be the Muslim Brotherhood in the Indian subcontinent and Muslim Brotherhood is called the Jamaat-e-Islami of the Arab world. Jamaat-e-Islami has independent organizations in Pakistan, IndiaBangladesh and Sri Lanka. Criticisms The Brotherhood was criticised by Ayman al-Zawahiri in 2007 for its refusal to advocate the violent overthrow of the Mubarak regime. Issam al-Aryan, a top Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood figure, denounced the al-Qaeda leader: “Zawahiri’s policy and preaching bore dangerous fruit and had a negative impact on Islam and Islamic movements across the world.” Dubai police chief, Dhahi Khalfan, accused Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood of an alleged plot to overthrow the UAE government. He referred to the Muslim Brotherhood as “dictators” who want “Islamist rule in all the Motives Numerous officials and reporters question the sincerity of the Muslim Brotherhood’s pronouncements. These critics include, but are not limited to: ·         According to FrontPage Magazine, a conservative publication, former U.S. White House counterterrorism chief Juan Zarate said: “The Muslim Brotherhood is a group that worries us not because it deals with philosophical or ideological ideas but because it defends the use of violence against civilians.”[106][107]

  • Miles Axe Copeland, Jr. -a prominent U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operative who was one of the founding members of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) underWilliam Donovan– divulges the confessions of numerous members of the Muslim brotherhood that resulted from the harsh interrogations done against them by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, for their alleged involvement in the assassination attempt made against Nasser (an assassination attempt that many believe was staged by Nasser himself[108]), which revealed that the Muslim Brotherhood was merely a “guild” that fulfilled the goals of western interests: “Nor was that all. Sound beatings of the Moslem Brotherhood organizers who had been arrested revealed that the organization had been thoroughly penetrated, at the top, by the British, American, French and Soviet intelligence services, any one of which could either make active use of it or blow it up, whichever best suited its purposes. Important lesson: fanaticism is no insurance against corruption; indeed, the two are highly compatible.

·         Former U.S. Middle East peace envoy Dennis Ross, who told Asharq Alawsat newspaper that the Muslim Brotherhood is a global, not a local organization, governed by a Shura (Consultative) Council, which rejects cessation of violence in Israel, and supports violence to achieve its political objectives elsewhere too.[110] ·         The Interior Minister of Saudi Arabia, Prince Naif Ibn Abdul Aziz has stated that the Muslim Brotherhood organization was the cause of most problems in the Arab world. ‘The Brotherhood has done great damage to Saudi Arabia,’ he said. Prince Naif accused the foremost Islamist group in the Arab world of harming the interests of Muslims. ‘All our problems come from the Muslim Brotherhood. We have given too much support to this group…” “The Muslim Brotherhood has destroyed the Arab world,’ he said. ‘Whenever they got into difficulty or found their freedom restricted in their own countries, Brotherhood activists found refuge in the Kingdom which protected their lives… But they later turned against the Kingdom…’ The Muslim Brotherhood has links to groups across the Arab world, including Jordan’s main parliamentary opposition, the ‘Islamic Action Front,’ and the ‘Palestinian resistance movement, ‘Hamas.” The Interior Minister’s outburst against the Brotherhood came amid mounting criticism in the United States of Saudi Arabia’s longstanding support for Islamist groups around the world…” Status of non-Muslims ·         In 1997 Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Mustafa Mashhur told journalist Khalid Daoud that he thought Egypt’s Coptic Christians and Orthodox Jews should pay the long-abandoned jizya poll tax, levied on non-Muslims in exchange for protection from the state, rationalized by the fact that non-Muslims are exempt from military service while it is compulsory for Muslims. He went on to say, “we do not mind having Christian members in the People’s Assembly… [T]he top officials, especially in the army, should be Muslims since we are a Muslim country… This is necessary because when a Christian country attacks the Muslim country and the army has Christian elements, they can facilitate our defeat by the enemy. According to The Guardian newspaper, the proposal caused an “uproar” among Egypt’s six million Coptic Christians and “the movement later backtracked. Response to criticisms According to authors writing in the Council on Foreign Relations magazine Foreign Affairs: “At various times in its history, the group has used or supported violence and has been repeatedly banned in Egypt for attempting to overthrow Cairo’s secular government. Since the 1970s, however, the Egyptian Brotherhood has disavowed violence and sought to participate in Egyptian politics.” Jeremy Bowen, BBC Middle East editor, calls it “conservative and non-violent”;The Brotherhood has condemned terrorism and the 9/11 attacks. The Brotherhood itself denounces the “catchy and effective terms and phrases” like “fundamentalist” and “political Islam” which it claims are used by “Western Media” to pigeonhole the group, and points to its “15 Principles” for an Egyptian National Charter, including “freedom of personal conviction… opinion… forming political parties… public gatherings… free and fair elections…” Similarly, some analysts maintain that whatever the source of modern Jihadi terrorism and the actions and words of some rogue members, the Brotherhood now has little in common with radical Islamists and modern jihadists who often condemn the Brotherhood as too moderate. They also deny the existence of any centralized and secretive global Muslim Brotherhood leadership. Some claim that the origins of modern Muslim terrorism are found in Wahhabi ideology, not that of the Muslim Brotherhood. According to anthropologist Scott Atran, the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood even in Egypt has been overstated by Western commentators. He estimates that it can count on only 100,000 militants (out of some 600,000 dues paying members) in a population of more than 80 million, and that such support as it does have among Egyptians—an often cited figure is 20 percent to 30 percent—is less a matter of true attachment than an accident of circumstance: secular opposition groups that might have countered it were suppressed for many decades, but in driving the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, a more youthful constellation of secular movements has emerged to threaten the Muslim Brotherhood’s dominance of the political opposition. This has not yet been the case, however, as evidenced by the Brotherhood’s strong showing in national elections. Poll also indicate that majority of Egyptian and other Arab nation endorse law base on “Sharia”. Foreign Relations On 29 June 2011, as the Brotherhood’s political power became more apparent and solidified following the 2011 Egyptian revolution, the United States announced that it would reopen formal diplomatic channels with the group, with whom it had suspended communication as a result of suspected terrorist activity. The next day, the Brotherhood’s leadership announced that they welcomed the diplomatic overture.

 

 

[8][ Genesis of Menar ]

It very difficult to put the pic on my blog from my desktop  so if u want  to see the full thing check my fb group  https://www.facebook.com/groups/456812817737525/ so u can see the full thing

Arab Spring

 

Arab Spring
Clockwise from top left: Protesters in Tahrir Square in Cairo; Demonstrators marching through Habib Bourguiba Avenue in Tunis; Political dissidents in Sana’a; Protesters gathering in Pearl Roundabout in Manama; Mass Demonstration in Douma; Demonstrators in Bayda.
Date 18 December 2010 – present
Location Arab world
Causes
Goals
Methods
Status Ongoing

  • Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali ousted, and government overthrown.
  • Egyptian Presidents Hosni Mubarak and Mohammed Morsi ousted, and governments overthrown. Ongoing post-coup political violence.
  • Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi killed after a civil war with foreign military intervention, and government overthrown.
  • Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh ousted, power handed to a national unity government.
  • Syria experiences a full-scale civil war between the government and opposition forces.
  • Civil uprising against the government of Bahrain despite unsatisfying government changes.
  • Kuwait, Lebanon and Oman implementing government changes in response to protests.
  • Morocco, Jordan implementing constitutional reforms in response to protests.
  • Ongoing protests in Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Mauritania and some other countries.
Casualties
Death(s) 122,418–127,431+ (International estimate, ongoing;

The Arab Spring when the lyeing one lye no more and when she take up her place in the heaven the arab spring will start and that what happen in December 18 th 2010 in tunisa tunisa the one who lye down or tunis is the sky goddest who rule over the star  moon and planet it is also the goddest of  fertility .tunisa was bait that got the arab spring going  and the beast moving  looking at the majiour protest wheret the ruler have been force  from power in Tunisia,[1] Egypt (twice),[2] Libya,[3] and Yemen;[4] civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrain[5]and Syria;[6] major protests have broken out you can see a wave going farward activating  these country as it pass throught . in Algeria,[7] Iraq,[8] Jordan,[9] Kuwait,[10] Morocco,[11] and Sudan;[12] and minor protests have occurred in Mauritania,[13] Oman,[14] Saudi Arabia,[15] Djibouti,[16] Western Sahara,[17] and the Palestinian Authority.

Related events outside of the Arab World included protests in Iranian Khuzestan by the Arab minority in April 2011[18] and border clashes in Israel in May 2011.[19] Weapons and Tuareg fighters returning from the Libyan civil war stoked a simmering conflict in Mali which has been described as “fallout” from the Arab Spring in North Africa.[20] The sectarian clashes in Lebanon were described as a spillover violence of the Syrian uprising and hence the regional Arab Spring.

The protests have shared some techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations, marches, and rallies, as well as the effective use of social media to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face of state attempts at repression and Internet censorship.

Many Arab Spring demonstrations have been met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks have been answered with violence from protestors in some cases. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been Ash-sha`b yurid isqat an-nizam (“the people want to bring down the regime”).

Some observers have drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the Revolutions of 1989 (also known as the “Autumn of Nations”) that swept through Eastern Europe and the Second World, in terms of their scale and significance. Others, however, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes and the organizational role of internet technology in the Arab revolutions.

Etymology

The term “Arab Spring” is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which is sometimes referred to as “Springtime of the People”, and the Prague Spring in 1968. In the aftermath of the Iraq War it was used by various commentators who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization.[39] The first specific use of the term Arab Spring as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign PolicyMarc Lynch, referring to his article in Foreign Policy,[41] writes “Arab Spring—a term I may have unintentionally coined in a January 6, 2011 article”.[42] Joseph Massad on Al Jazeera said the term was “part of a US strategy of controlling [the movement’s] aims and goals” and directing it towards American-style liberal democracy.[40] Due to the electoral success of Islamist parties following the protests in many Arab countries, the events have also come to be known as “Islamist Spring” or “Islamist Winter”.

Background

Causes

The Arab spring is widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels may have had a hand as well.[45] Numerous factors have led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchyhuman rights violations, political corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables),[46] economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors,[47] such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population.[48] Also, some – like Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek – name the2009–2010 Iranian election protests as an additional reason behind the Arab Spring.[49] The Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010 might also have been a factor influencing its beginning.[50] Catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have included the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo.[51] Increasing food prices and global famine rates have also been a significant factor,[52][53] as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 2007–2008 world food price crisis.[54]

In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education, have resulted in an improved Human Development Index in the affected countries.[citation needed] The tension between rising aspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests.Many of the Internet-savvy youth of these countries have, increasingly over the years, been viewing autocrats and absolute monarchies as anachronisms. An Oman university professor, Al-Najma Zidjaly, referred to this upheaval as youthquake.

Tunisia and Egypt, the first to witness major uprisings, differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nations such as Algeria andLibya in that they lack significant oil revenue, and were thus unable to make concessions to calm the masses.

The relative success of the democratic Republic of Turkey, with its substantially free and vigorously contested but peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but Islamist government, created a model (the Turkish model) if not a motivation for protestors in neighbouring states.[57] This view, however, has been contested and put into perspective by recent waves of anti-government protests in Turkey.

Recent history

The current wave of protests is not an entirely new phenomenon, resulting in part from the activities of dissident activists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations that have been active for years in Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and other countries in the area, as well as in the territory of Western Sahara.[58]

Revolts have been occurring in the Arab area since the 1800s, but only recently have these revolts been redirected from foreign rulers to the Arab states themselves. The revolution in the summer of 2011 marked the end of the old phase national liberation from colonial rule; now revolutions are inwardly directed at the problems of Arab society.[59]

Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests. The Egyptian labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004.[61] One important demonstration was an attempted workers’ strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students.[61] A Facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers. The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the “6 April Committee” of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.[61]

In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is ‘unhappy’ with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile.[62] Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as ‘9,700 riots and unrests’ throughout the country.[63] Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.[64]

In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south-east of El Aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[65] The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring.[66]

The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi. Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, on 17 December 2010, a municipal inspector confiscated his wares. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 4 January 2011[67] brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian revolution.[58]

Overview

Main article: Timeline of the Arab Spring

The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa that commenced in 2010 has become known as the “Arab Spring”,[68][69][70] and sometimes as the “Arab Spring and Winter”,[71] “Arab Awakening”[72][73][74] or “Arab Uprisings” even though not all the participants in the protests are Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred inTunisia on 18 December 2010 in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi‘s self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, awave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian “Burning Man” struck AlgeriaJordanEgypt, and Yemen,[79] then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations have often occurred on a “day of rage”, usually Friday afternoon prayers. The protests have also triggered similar unrest outside the region.

As of September 2012, governments have been overthrown in four countries. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council (NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTC took control of the city. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh signed the GCC power-transfer deal in which a presidential election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi formally replacing him as the president of Yemen on 27 February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution.

During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015,[83] as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014,[84] although there have been increasingly violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation.[85] Protests in Jordan have also caused the sacking of four successive governments[86][87] by King Abdullah.[88] The popular unrest in Kuwait has also resulted in resignation of Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah cabinet.[89]

The geopolitical implications of the protests have drawn global attention,[90] including the suggestion that some protesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize.[91] Tawakel Karman from Yemen was one of the three laureates of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize as a prominent leader in the Arab Spring. In December 2011, Time magazine named “The Protester” its “Person of the Year“.[92] Another award was noted when the Spanish photographer Samuel Aranda won the 2011 World Press Photo award for his image of a Yemeni woman holding an injured family member, taken during the civil uprising in Yemen on 15 October 2011.[93]

 

Summary of conflicts by country

Country Date started Status of protests Outcome Death toll Situation
 Tunisia 18 December 2010 Government overthrown on 14 January 2011 Overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia

  • Resignation of Prime Minister Ghannouchi[94]
  • Dissolution of the political police[95]
  • Dissolution of the RCD, the former ruling party of Tunisia and liquidation of its assets[96]
  • Release of political prisoners[97]
  • Elections to a Constituent Assembly on 23 October 2011[98]
338[99] Government overthrown
 Algeria 29 December 2010 Ended in January 2012
  • Lifting of the 19-year-old state of emergency[100][101]
8[102] Major protests
 Jordan 14 January 2011
  • On February 2011, King Abdullah II dismisses Prime Minister Rifai and his cabinet[103]
  • On October 2011, Abdullah dismisses Prime Minister Bakhit and his cabinet after complaints of slow progress on promised reforms[104]
  • On April 2012, as the protests continues, Al-Khasawneh resigned, and the King appoints Fayez al-Tarawneh as the new Prime Minister of Jordan[105]
  • On October 2012, King Abdullah dissolves the parliament for new earlyelections, and appoints Abdullah Ensour as the new Prime Minister of Jordan[106]
3[107] Protests and governmental changes
 Oman 17 January 2011 Ended in May 2011 2–6[113][114][115] Protests and governmental changes
 Egypt 25 January 2011 Government overthrown on 11 February 2011. The replacement Islamist government was ousted by military. Ongoing violence in response to the coup. Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak; Mubarak sentenced to life in prison for ordering the killing of protesters. Protests over the imposition of an Islamist-backed constitution by the Muslim Brotherhood and Mohamed Morsi precipitate acoup d’état by the military.Timeline of events

1,700[61] Government overthrown;Replacement government overthrown
 Yemen 27 January 2011 Government overthrown on 27 February 2012 Overthrow of Ali Abdullah Saleh; Saleh granted immunity from prosecution

2,000[129] Government overthrown
 Djibouti 28 January 2011 Ended in March 2011 2[130] Minor protests
 Somalia 28 January 2011 Ended in June 2012 2[130] Minor protests
 Sudan 30 January 2011 Ongoing
  • President Bashir announces he will not seek another term in 2015[131]
14[132][133][134] Minor protests
 Iraq 23 December 2012 Ongoing
  • Prime Minister Maliki announces that he will not run for a 3rd term;[135]
  • Resignation of provincial governors and local authorities[136]
11[137] Major protests
 Bahrain 14 February 2011 Ongoing
  • Economic concessions by King Hamad[138]
  • Release of political prisoners[139]
  • Negotiations with Shia representatives[140]
  • GCC intervention at the request of the Government of Bahrain
  • Head of the National Security Apparatus removed from post[141]
  • Formation of a committee to implement BICI report recommendations[142]
120[143] Sustained civil disorder and government changes
 Libya 17 February 2011 Government overthrown on 23 August 2011 Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by rebel forces

25,000-30,000+[146] Government overthrown
 Kuwait 19 February 2011 0[149] Protests and governmental changes
 Morocco 20 February 2011 Ended in March–April 2012 6[152] Protests and governmental changes
 Mauritania 25 February 2011 Ongoing 3[153] Minor protests
 Lebanon 27 February 2011 Ended in December 2011 0 Protests and governmental changes
 Saudi Arabia 11 March 2011 Ongoing 24[159] Minor protests
 Syria 15 March 2011 Ongoing
  • Release of some political prisoners[160][161]
  • Dismissal of Provincial Governors[162][163]
  • Resignation of the Government[164]
  • End of Emergency Law
  • Resignations from Parliament[165]
  • Large defections from the Syrian army and clashes between soldiers and defectors[166]
  • Formation of the Free Syrian Army
  • The Free Syrian Army takes controls of large swathes of land across Syria.
  • Battles between the Syrian government’s army and the Free Syrian Army in many governorates.
  • Formation of the Syrian National Council[167]
  • Syria suspended from the Arab League
  • Several countries recognize Syrian government in exile
  • Kurdish fighters enter the war by mid-2013
106,000+[168] Ongoing civil war
 Iran 15 April 2011 Ended on 18 April 2011 12 Major protests
 Israel 15 May 2011 Ended on 5 June 2011 12–40[169][170] Major protests
 Palestine 4 September 2012 finished
  • Salam Fayyad states that he is “‘willing to resign”[171]
  • Fayyad ultimately resigns on 13 April 2013.[172]
0 Protests and governmental changes
Total death toll  134,239+
  • 5 Governments overthrown (Egypt twice)
  • 6 Protests & governmental changes
  • 5 Minor protests
  • 4 Major protests
  • 1 Civil disorder and governmental changes
  • 2 Civil wars

 

 

Casualties of the Syrian Civil War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Doctors and medical staff treating injured rebel fighters and civilians in Aleppo

Estimates of deaths in the Syrian Civil War, per opposition activist groups, vary between 95,850[1][2] and 130,435.[3] On 24 July 2013, the United Nations put out an estimate of over 100,000 that had died in the war.[4]

UNICEF reported that over 500 children had been killed by early February 2012.[5][6] Another 400 children have been reportedly arrested and tortured in Syrian prisons.[7][8] Both claims have been contested by the Syrian government.[9] Additionally, over 600 detainees and political prisoners have died under torture.[10] By late December 2013, the opposition activist group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported the number of children killed in the conflict had risen to 7,014, while at the same time 4,695 women were also killed.[3] According to the UN, 6,561 children were killed by mid-June 2013.[11] The Oxford Research Group said that a total of 11,420 children had been killed in the conflict by late November 2013.[12]

 

 

Overall deaths[edit]

 

Total deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria (18 March 2011 – 18 October 2013)

 

Weekly deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria (18 March 2011 – 18 October 2013)

The number of fatalities in the conflict, according to the Syrian opposition website Syrian Martyrs, is 92,120, updated to 31 December 2013.[13] The number includes 18,538 rebels, including 289 foreign fighters, but does not include members of the government security forces or pro-government foreign combatants who have died.[14] 736 foreign civilians who have died in the conflict are also included in the toll, most of them, 589, being Palestinians.[15] The Syrian Martyrs number is significantly higher than the ones presented by other organisations, including the UN, one reason being they record deaths even when no name is given for the reportedly killed individual.[16]

Governorate Number of deaths
Latakia 1,008
Rif Dimashq 22,709
Homs 13,345
Hama 6,299
Al-Hasakah 771
Daraa 7,893
Aleppo 15,493
Deir ez-Zor 5,117
Damascus 7,051
Tartus 516
Quneitra 551
Idlib 9,934
As-Suwayda 65
Ar-Raqqah 1,368
Total 92,120

Other estimates range from 95,850 to 130,435. Except for the SNHR figure, which excludes pro-government fighters, all of the following totals include civilians, rebels and security forces:

Source Casualties Time period
France 120,000 killed 15 March 2011 – 23 September 2013
Next Century Foundation 92,497 killed 4 June 2012 – 30 November 2013
Syrian Network for Human Rights 109,736 killed 15 March 2011 – 30 November 2013
Center for Documentation of Violations 95,852 killed 15 March 2011 – 7 January 2014
Syrian Observatory for Human Rights 130,433 killed 15 March 2011 – 30 December 2013

Al Jazeera journalist Nir Rosen reported that many of the deaths reported daily by activists are in fact armed insurgents falsely presented as civilian deaths, but confirmed that real civilian deaths do occur on a regular basis.[25] A number of Middle East political analysts, including those from the Lebanese Al Akhbar newspaper, have also urged caution.

This was later confirmed when in late May 2012, Rami Abdulrahman of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, which is one of the opposition-affiliated groups counting the number of those killed in the uprising, stated that civilians who had taken up arms during the conflict were being counted under the category of “civilians”.

In May 2013, SOHR stated that at least 41,000 of those killed during the conflict were Alawites.[32]

The Next Century Foundation offer an alternative analysis of casualty figures. Their calculations are made by using figures from the Center for Documentation of Violations in Syria (VDC), Syrian Shuhada (Syrian Martyrs), Syrian Observatory for Human RightsLocal Coordination Committees of Syria (LCC) and Damascus Centre for Human Rights from June 2012 to the present. Figures for civilian, rebel and government casualties are calculated separately and added together for an overall total.[33]

Combatant deaths[edit]

Government forces[edit]

Pro-government combatants Casualties
Syrian military and police 30,000[34]–32,013[3] killed
Shabiha and National Defense Force 19,729 killed[3]
Lebanese Hezbollah 262 killed[3]
Other non-Syrian Shiite militiamen 286 killed[3]

The Syrian Army fatalities figure also includes at least 37 members of the Palestinian PLA.[35]

The Shabiha and NDF fatalities figure also includes at least 20 Palestinian PFLP–GC members.

The non-Syrian Shiite militiamen fatalities figure includes: 96–160 Iraqi Shia militiamen,[41] 16 Iranian IRGC soldiers, 3 Iranian volunteer fighters[47] and one member of the Lebanese Amal Movement.[48]

Except one death (August 2011),[49] all of the Hezbollah fatalities have occurred since September 2012.[50]

In addition, 1,000 civilian government officials have also been killed.[51] In early December 2013, rebels claimed that a pro-government Russian fighter was killed in fighting in Aleppo.[52]

Opposition forces[edit]

Due to the opposition’s policy of counting rebel fighters that were not defectors as civilians a comprehensive number of rebels killed in the conflict, thus far, has not been ascertained. In late November 2012, the opposition activist group SOHR estimated that at least 10,000 rebels had been killed, but noted the possibility of the figure being higher because the rebels, like the government, were lying about how many of their forces had died to make it look like they were winning.[54] In March 2013, SOHR stated that the actual number of killed rebels and government forces could be double the number they were already able to document.[55]

The following tables provide examples of news reports which identify rebel casualties. The first table shows reports of rebel deaths for the period up to 30 December 2013, and those not included in SOHR’s daily death tolls before and after 30 December 2013. The second table shows day-by-day reports of rebel deaths by SOHR after 30 December 2013.

Date Casualties Detail
15 March 2011 – 30 December 2013 29,083[3]–52,290[56] killed Number also includes Kurdish YPG militiamen and foreign jihadists.[57]
14 April 2013 28 killed 50 were killed during fighting at the Wadi Deif military base,[58] 22 were included in the above total.[59]
16–21 April 2013 123 killed 150 were killed during the battle for Jdeidat al-Fadl,[60] 27 were included in the above total.[61][62]
2 June 2013 14–17 killed Killed after they were ambushed by Hezbollah while trying to launch rockets into Shi’ite areas of the Beqaa Valley.[63]
19 May – 5 June 2013 172–241 killed 431–500 rebels were killed during the Battle of al-Qusayr, 259 were included in the above total.
early June 2013 13 killed A jihadist suicide bomber blew himself up at a rebel command post killing 12 FSA fighters.[64]
4–5 August 2013 47 killed 60 rebels were killed at the start of the Latakia offensive,[65] 13 were included in the above total.
5 August 2013 11 killed 21 rebels were killed during the final assault on Menagh Air Base,[66] 10 were included in the above total.
20 November 2013 26 killed 35 rebels were killed during the final assault on the Kindi hospital in Aleppo,[67] 9 were included in the above total.[68]
21 December 2013 32 killed Killed after they were ambushed by Hezbollah in Wadi al-Jamala while infiltrating Lebanon from Syria.[69]

 

It should be noted that at least 90 rebel suicide bombers[82] and 86 rebel child soldiers[83] have been killed in the conflict.

Foreigners killed[edit]

Foreign civilians killed[edit]

Country Number of deaths
Palestinians 589[15]–1,597[84]
Iraq 47
Lebanon 41
Jordan 22[15][95]
Turkey 17
Saudi Arabia 14[15]
Somalia 15[95]
Egypt 11[15]
Libya 9[15]
Tunisia 9[15]
France 4[95]
Sudan 4[15]
United Kingdom 4
Afghanistan 3[103]
Australia 2[15]
Kuwait 2[15]
Azerbaijan 1[15]
Belgium 1[15]
Greece 1[15]
Italy 1[104]
Japan 1[15]
Russia 1[15]
Israel 1[15]
United States 1[15]
Yemen 1[15]
Unknown 2[15]

Note: The higher figure of 1,600 Palestinians killed in the conflict includes several dozens of Palestinian combatants from both sides and not just civilians. 700 of the killed Palestinians were residents of the Yarmouk Camp.

Foreign opposition fighters killed[edit]

6,913 foreign opposition fighters have been killed, according to the SOHR. The nationalities of some are as follows: 232 Saudis 145 Libyans, 131-204 Tunisians, 100 Azerbaijanis, 88 Turks, 85-210 Jordanians, 75 Palestinians, 46 Kuwaitis,43 Chechens, 39 Egyptians, 37 Lebanese,24 Moroccans,20 Belgians, 17 Iraqis,16 Dagestanis, 15 Albanians, 13 Afghans, 13 Bosniaks, 12 Algerians, 11 Frenchmen,11 Germans, 9 Danes, 8 Russians, 8 Qataris, 7-22 Britons, 6 Dutch, 6 Australians, 6 Emiratis, 6 Swedes, 5 Bahrainis, 5 Yemenis, 3 Americans, 3 Canadians,3 Irishmen, 3 Pakistanis, 3 Tajiks, 2 Chinese, 2 Italians, 2 Eritreans, 2 Kyrgyz, 2 Mauritanians, 2 Omanis, 2 Somalis, 2 Sudanese, 1 Armenian, 1 Bulgarian, 1 Chadian, 1 Finn, 1 Indonesian, 1 Iranian,1 Israeli-Arab, 1 Romanian, 1 Spaniard and 1 Uzbek.

In another estimate, 9,944 foreign opposition fighters have been killed, according to the Jihadist Salafist Movement in Jordan, with the nationalities being as follows: 1,902 Tunisians, 1,807 Libyans, 1,432 Iraqis, 828 Lebanese, 821 Egyptians, 800 Palestinians, 714 Saudis, 571 Yemenis, 412 Moroccans, 274 Algerians, 210 Jordanians, 91 Omanis, 71 from Kuwaitis, 42 Somalis, 30 Albanians and Caucasians, 21 Bahrainis, 9 Emiratis, 8 Qataris, 3 Sudanese and 1 Mauritanian.

Foreign soldiers killed

25 foreign soldiers have been killed during the conflict.

On 2 March 2013, one Iraqi soldier was killed during clashes between Syrian rebels and government forces at a Syrian-Iraqi border crossing. On 4 March 2013, 13 Iraqi soldiers were killed by unknown gunmen near the border with Syria while they were transporting 65 Syrian soldiers and government officials back to their country after they had retreated to Iraq a few days earlier. 48 of the Syrians were also killed in the attack.[164] On 9 June 2013, Syrian rebels attacked a southern Iraqi border post, killing one Iraqi guard and wounding two. On 14 July 2013, another attack by fighters from the Syrian side of the border left one Iraqi policeman dead and five others wounded.

[9][Mena Egypt]


The SECOND ANGEL said Harvest time has come in Israel and all the way to Iran.

Then I saw that the second angel had a sickle in his hand, and he said,"
Harvest time has come in Israel and the countries all the way to Iran." I saw Turkey
and those countries that have refused Me and refused My message of love shall hate
each other and kill one another."
I saw the angel raise the sickle and come down on all the Middle East countries.

Blood and Fire
I saw Iran, Persia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, all of Georgia, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan,
Israel, all of Asia Minor full of blood.  I saw blood and fire all over these countries.
Nuclear weapons used in many of those countries. Smoke rising from everywhere.
Sudden destruction, men destroying one another.

"Israel, Oh Israel, the great judgment has come.  The chosen, the church, the remnant,
shall be purified. The Spirit of God shall prepare the children of God." I saw fires rising
to heaven. This is the final judgment. My church shall be purified, protected and ready
for the final day. Men will die from thirst. Water shall be scarce all over the Middle East.
Rivers shall dry up, and men will fight for water in those countries. The angel showed
me that the United Nations shall be broken in pieces because of the crisis in the MidEast.
There shall be no more United Nations. The angel with the sickle shall reap the harvest.

 The FOURTH ANGEL said Innocent blood has been shed.

I saw the fourth angel with wings fly over Africa, and I could see from Capetown in
the south all the way to the north of Cairo, Egypt. The angel of Africa had a tremendous,
sharp sword in his hand.  I heard him say, "Innocent blood has been shed. Divisions
amongst the people generations far from the Lord, they have killed one another,
thousands of people. I have seen my faithful children in Africa, and I shall reward
all the faithful in the continent of Africa. I shall bless them abundantly."

"I shall control the weather - scorching and burning of the sun in some parts.
Great rivers shall dry up, and millions will die from starvation. In other parts, flooding.
Foundations shall be shaken. My sword shall judge the unrighteous and the bloodthirsty.
So many earthquakes shall happen that rivers shall flow different directions in the
continent, flooding many villages."

I saw great pieces falling from the sky over different parts of Africa.
"There shall be trembling of the earth like has not been seen since the creation.
None shall escape the sword of the Lord." I saw the River Nile drying up. It is the god of
Egypt. Fishes dead and stinking all over Egypt. A great part of the middle of Africa will be
covered with water, millions dying. 

I said, "Lord, it is all bad news. All destruction. Any good news?"
The Lord said, "

Egypt time line

Antichrist like Warning!!!!!

Jamie Foxx praises President Obama as “our Lord and saviour” – Nov 27

Obama wears a Mason ring Daily. They denounce their faith in Jesus at the 32 degree level and pledge allegiance to Lucifer proves they are antichrist and clearly Obama is a 33 degree or he would not be ruling in America today. He is the He Goat of Daniel 8 called the Baphomet as he will be the ruling Western Leader when Damascus gets destroyed tells us it’s him and the pictures I showed of him being portrayed as Jesus are not misleading they are exactly what God warned us about .

 

The DNC Will Showcase Obama As Their “Messiah” On Stained Glass Platform

it even covers president to spell Jesident of the UN.

He is portraying himself as Jesus on a Donkey.

 

Risen in Egypt
Galactic Underworld & Pentachronometry

 by Goro (goroadachi.com)
February 13, 2011

In this article I want to quickly and conclusively show that there was an unmistakable esoteric undercurrent flowing through the Egyptian Revolution January 25-February 11, 2011… revealed through “pentachronometry” or a pentagrammic temporal rhythm underlying key world events…

Pre-highlighted…

Pentachronometric Progression
Earth-penta-Chile-William-seq-ud3.gif (105285 bytes) Earth-penta-MorningStar_Seq-Feb.gif (59473 bytes)
Related posts: Nov 16, 2010, Jan 20, 2011 Related posts: Dec 2, ’10,Jan 5, ’11, Jan 8, Feb 7

[From Feb 7 post]

Two back-to-back Egyptian bulls-eyes – impressive and surreal… except unlike before it didn’t necessarily have that “in your face” clarity in terms of continuing the predominant multicontextual theme of the season, Lucifer-Venus-Phoenix rising out of the Underworldaka “Morning Star“. It was all there, of course. You had to know where, when and how to focus your attention and start digging for the treasure… the Hall of Records.


Mayan Galactic Underworld

Why Egypt and why now? It was “written in the stars.” In particular… Venus aka the “Morning Star” aka “Lucifer” (original meaning) all about being pentagrammic

Nothing says “Out of the Underworld” like the Morning Star rising over the horizon, evoking Lucifer escaping chthonic prison – a narrative amplified during the Egyptian Revolution (Jan 25-Feb 11, 2011)…


[Above graphic first posted on February 1st, full 10 daysbefore Egyptian Revolution ended on Feb 11.]

…as Venus made its way across the Milky Way near the Galactic Center immersed in what is called the “Dark Rift,” a series of overlapping black “clouds” running through a significant portion of the Milky Way. The Maya considered it the “road to Xibalba,” their underworld (popularly thought integral to the Mayan calendar ominously counting down to “2012”). 

Venus in the Dark Rift = Lucifer in/rising from
the Underworld

Ophiuchus was also there accompanying Venus in the abyss, adding an extra layer of “prophetic” meaning…


The Serpent Holder

The obscure constellation few knew how to pronounce – Ophiuchus – went viral out of nowhere mid-January 2011, becoming an overnight sensation…


[Video]
Jan 14 ‘New’ zodiac signs cause instant identity crises
Jan 14 New Zodiac Leaves Many Seeing Stars
Jan 15 Ophiuchus: suggestion of 13th sign becomes internet sensation

Many sensed “something” being signaled. Something wonderful, something “dark”. It was for all intents and purposes an “omen” prefiguring the Underworld opening its mouth in the “Black Land” (Egypt originally kemet meaning “black land”). Venus was the timing aspect of the “prophecy”; Ophiuchus was there to provide spatial information through an orbital “mirror”…

…through Orion, exactly on the opposite side from Ophiuchus, signifying a hidden path to the Egyptian Underworld.

The Duat

In ancient Egypt they called their underworld the “Duat“. It was ruled by Osiris the god of the dead identified withOrion whose “Belt Stars” are memorialized in the arrangement of the Giza pyramids (“Orion Correlation Theory”) standing right next to Cairo or Revolution ground zero…

  • Pyramids are “tombs” analogous to the underworld
  • Giza once called “Rostau“, originally referring to the deepest section of the Duat
  • The Duat traditionally denoted by a circumscribed 5-pointed star i.e. a “pentagram” or “pentacle”

It all came together in Egypt. The country’s “pentagrammic rebirth” was perfectly timed to mirror Venus-Lucifer making its way out of the galactic “womb” aka the Dark Rift(Xibalba).

Behold, Osiris has risen through fire…


Phoenix

The phoenix represents the essence of Osiris – all about resurrection. Osiris = Orion = Giza pyramidswhich are in essence extensions of the “Benben Stone,” the archetypal/original capstone, closely linked to the “Bennu” bird (bennu and benben stemming from the same root) which is simply the Egyptian phoenix.


Fiery Planet

NASA’s “Phoenix” (successfully landing on Mars in 2008)…

      

…was built and operated (scientific portions) by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory based in Tucson, Arizona, the same city where Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords – a NASA “astronaut’s wife” – was shot, and for a short time thought killed, by a disturbed young man Jared Lee Loughner. She is now making a miraculous “beast”-like recovery – or “resurrection” – from her “beast”-like head injury (Revelation 13). That was back on January 8th, 2011, making it the event that pentachronometrically paved the way for Egypt’s Rebirth.

Earth-penta-MorningStar_Seq-Feb.gif (59473 bytes)        01-08-2011-Tucson_shooting.jpg (142292 bytes)

Mars was in the mix to put the icing on the multicontextual cake or the capstone on the pyramid. Because…

The Egyptian capital Cairo derives its name from al Qahir, (“the victorious”) referring to Mars – a fiery planet we saw “burning”; intensely with the Sun during the Revolution in the “Martian city” Cairo… also burning.

Then out of the Martian ashes rose…

…a New Dawn.

Which is so bright, it just might wake up Atlantis…

So what does all this have to do with Bible prophecy?

Daniel 11:42-43 (NASB)42“Then he will stretch out his hand against other countries, and the land of Egypt will not escape. But he will gain control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt; and Libyans and Ethiopians will follow at his heels.

The prophecy is that the land of Egypt will “not escape.” That is — Egypt will fall. The Egyptian military is Egypt’s protector regardless of the political leanings of the current president.  If the country falls, then the military has fallen. In addition, the Egyptian military is the protector of the “hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt.” Here is one article describing what is happening to the hidden treasures of Egypt during the chaos of Arab Spring and even more so the chaos ensuing at present. .

Yet, despite the value of the “hidden treasures” of Egypt, one cannot help but wonder if there is not another item far more valuable than ancient artifacts? Consider the Suez Canal, the producer of approximately $2.5billion annually, 10% of annual revenues for Egypt, which simply put is “worth it” to whomever controls the canal:

The Suez Canal (Arabic:‎ Qanāt al-Sūwais) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows transportation by water between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa. The northern terminus is Port Said and the southern terminus is Port Tawfiq at the city of Suez. Ismailia lies on its west bank, 3 km (1.9 mi) from the half-way point.

Recently, political unrest in Egypt led to chaos even along the bordering towns of the Suez Canal. General al-Sisi made this statement nearly six months before Muhammad Morsi was unseated. Read the statement in light of Daniel 11:42 just quoted:

CAIRO — As three Egyptian cities [the three critical cities bordering the Suez Canal, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez] defied President Mohamed Morsi’s attempt to quell the anarchy spreading through their streets, the nation’s top general warned Tuesday that the state itself was in danger of collapse if the feuding civilian leaders could not agree on a solution to restore order. … With the stakes rising and no solution in sight, Gen. Abdul Fattah el-Sisi, the defense minister, warned Egypt’s new Islamist leaders and their opponents that “their disagreement on running the affairs of the country may lead to the collapse of the state and threatens the future of the coming generations.”  (Emphasis supplied)

It appears that the General took things into his own hands when he “unseated” President Morsi on July 3, 2013. His actions placed him in the “driver’s seat” so to speak; for what purpose? To save his country from self-destruction.

How might we assess modern day events in light of prophetic Scripture?

  1. The spirit of antichrist is working in the hearts of Egyptians to bring about a total collapse of Egyptian society (2 Thessalonians 2:11 NASB; 1 John 2:18 NASB). The spirit of antichrist is working in the “sons of disobedience” (unbelieving humanity) to bring in the wrath of God (Ephesians 5:6 NASB and Colossians 3:6 NASB).  Death, violence, destruction, disunity, anger, and unrest are the odor of his breath; such is the case for Egypt today; and such has been the case for the Muslim world in general: “To date, rulers have been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt (twice), Libya, and Yemen; civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrain and Syria; major protests have broken out in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and Sudan; and minor protests have occurred in Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, and Western Sahara.”
  2. Egypt will fall.
    1. The military will be unable to bring reconciliation between the Islamists and secularists (which includes both Muslim and non-Muslims). The prophecy tells us of this event.
    2. The military will likely continue its assault against Islamists to the point that the United States will be forced to withhold $1.3billion in aid to Egypt for no other reason than the political pressures applied upon it by Americans in general, and by the United Nations and the European Union in particular.  No matter how you look at it, democratic free elections brought in Muhammad Mursi; the people who elected him are now being targeted by the security forces of Egypt for no other reason than they support him. If Syria’s Assad and his military murdered people to keep him in office, and the United States condemned such actions, how can we not do the same in Egypt? And how else do we evidence that condemnation than by the withholding of aid?
    3. The economy of Egypt will fail. It is already on the precipice, and the withholding of United States aid will be the “straw that breaks the camel’s back.”  The continuing unrest socially between supporters of Morsi and supporters of the military will escalate resulting in the closing of businesses and an eventual impact upon all revenues, including oil and gas revenues impacted by the inability to export same.
      • The Suez Canal will be closed because of the inability of the military to provide safe passage for shipping vessels. The chaos and lack of leadership in Egyptian society will either close the canal or result in the captains of sea vessels opting for the long way around the continent of Africa to insure delivery of their cargoes. Already questions are being asked about the impact on Suez traffic of rebellion along the bordering cities, particularly Port Said.
    4. The 1979 Egypt-Israeli treaty will be terminated. With the Egyptian military no longer at the wheel to maintain the treaty, and with United States aid withheld, whomever is in control will have no financial incentive to maintain the treaty. Daniel 9:27 NASB will be fulfilled in this event.  The tribulation of Ezekiel 38/39 against Israel will be brought in through the doors of Egypt.
  3. The Antichrist will fill the void in the Middle East, perhaps beginning with Iran and Shia Islam, as Iran pulls the trigger upon Israel.  Other bible prophecies warn that he will conquer the world in the process. Revelation 13:7-8 NASB.

Stretching it you think? Perhaps, but not from where I sit. Look at the events in the Muslim world over the last two years. Look at the events of the last week – the military (and/or police) killing its own by the hundreds? Who would ever have imagined that the leader of the Egyptian military would warn his own people that unless they reconciled with one another the collapse of the nation was at stake? This has an uncanny resemblance to the prophesied event of Daniel 9:42.

of four U.S.-made F-16 fighters.”

Perhaps a quick review of some key historical developments might be helpful:

  1. Egypt-Israeli peace accord signed in 1979 at Camp David, a consequence of which was the beginning of significant United States military aid to Egypt (and Israel). According to the Congressional Research Study (author Jeremy Sharp) #RL33003, p. 9, United States aid to Egypt and Israel in 1979 totaled $7.3billion, each. According to the same report, “Since 1979, Egypt has been the second-largest recipient, after Israel, of U.S. bilateral foreign assistance.”
  2. The United States aid to Egypt since 1987 has been $1.3 billion, annually.1  In addition to the aid of $1.3 billion, Egypt receives a significant portion of financing for its defense budget. According to CRS #33003, it is estimated that U.S. military aid covers as much as 80% of the  Egyptian Defense Ministry’s weapons procurement costs.2
  3. On February 11, 2011, former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (1981 – 2011) “waived” his presidential powers over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.3  Mubarak’s departure was in response to the developments in the Muslim world popularly known as Arab Spring. (Read more)

On June 30, 2012, Muslim Brotherhood candidate Muhammad Morsi was elected president of Egypt in what has been described as the first democratic election in the history of Egypt. In November, 2012, Morsi granted himself unlimited powers to

25 January – Day of Anger

From left to right: Protesters marching to Tahrir Square, in Downtown Cairo, where the main protests were being held; and Paramilitary riot police of the Central Security Forces; 20000 to 30000 police were deployed in central Cairo.[1]

Tahrir Square at night during the “Day of Revolt”

On 25 January 2011, known as the “Day of Anger” (Arabic: ‎ yawm al-ġaḍab, Egyptian Arabic: [ˈjoːm elˈɣɑdɑb])[2] or the“Day of Revolt”,[3] protests took place in different cities across Egypt, including CairoAlexandriaSuez and Ismaïlia.[3] The day was selected by many opposition groups such as the 6 April Youth MovementWe Are All Khaled Said MovementNational Association for Change25 January Movement and Kefaya to coincide with National Police Day. The purpose was to protest against abuses by the police in front of the Ministry of Interior.[6] These demands expanded to include the resignation of the Minister of Interior, the restoration of a fair minimum wage, the end of Egyptian emergency law, and term limits for the president.

Protests took place in different location in Egypt. 20,000 protested in various locations across Alexandria,[7] 200 demonstrators in the southern city of Aswan, 2,000 in the eastern city of Ismaïlia, and about 3,000 in the northern city of El-Mahalla El-Kubra.[8]Deadly clashes broke out during the protests leading to the death of two protesters in Suez.

Cairo protesters had gathered in the morning in front of the High Court in the centre of Cairo. The demonstration was larger than expected. It broke through the security cordon and moved to Tahrir Square.[10] Thousands protested in Cairo, with 15,000 occupying Tahrir Square[2] (Liberation Square). Police used tear gas and water cannons against the protesters, who in turn threw stones at police, eventually forcing them to retreat.[3]

Hossam el-Hamalawy stated to Al-Jazeera during the evening of the protest that the demonstrations were “necessary to send a message to the Egyptian regime that Mubarak is no different than Ben Ali and we want him to leave too.” He also told Al-Jazeera, “People are fed up of Mubarak and of his dictatorship and of his torture chambers and of his failed economic policies. If Mubarak is not overthrown tomorrow then it will be the day after. If its not the day after its going to be next week.”[11]

26 January

On 26 January, riots continued with protesters’ numbers continuing to rise. Violence by both protesters and police increased. One protester and one police official were killed in Cairo.[12] Suez experienced an unexpected uprising; many protesters faced live rounds, and both protesters and police were beaten. Suez protesters set fire to several government buildings, including the police station.

27 January

A demonstration in Cairo. The sign has an open source caricature by Carlos Latuffwhich features shoeing.

Protests were not as large on 27 January while preparations were made for planned large-scale events on the following day (Friday). The Muslim Brotherhood declared its full support of the protests, and members planned to take part during Friday’s demonstrations.[15] Leader of the National Association for Change and former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency Mohamed ElBaradei returned that day.[16]

Later in the day a protester of Bedouin descent was shot dead by police in the town of Sheikh Zoweid in the North Sinai region, raising the death toll to seven. In Suez, the uprising continued and violence increased as more buildings were set ablaze, including police posts. Some Suez and Sinai region protesters armed themselves with guns leading to violent conflicts.[13]

“The people have broken the barrier of fear. There is no going back.”

Mohamed ElBaradei

Hundreds were arrested at the various protests. About 600 were arrested in Cairo, including 8 Egyptian journalists protesting against the government’s reported restrictions on domestic and Middle Eastern affairs. More than 120 people were arrested in Asyut, mostly members of the Muslim Brotherhood.

28 January—Friday of Anger

 

An Al Jazeera report on the protests (in English)

The main headquarters of the rulingNational Democratic Party aflame duringFriday of Anger in Cairo

Tens of thousands filled the streets across Egypt on Friday, 28 January,[20] called by some the “Friday of Anger” (Arabic: جمعة الغضب‎ ǧumʿat al-ġaḍab Egyptian Arabic: [ˈɡomʕet elˈɣɑdɑb]) and by others as the “Day of Rage. Shortly before 1:00 am, hours ahead of the protests, the Egyptian government shut down Internet services, although some people communicated using a text-to-speech telephone service set up by Google andTwitterText messaging and mobile phone services also appeared to be blocked. According to Vodafone, all mobile operators in Egypt were instructed to suspend services in selected areas. The authorities had prior legislative approval to issue such an order.[29]

Shortly after Jumu’ah (Friday prayers), tens of thousands of Egyptians assembled to protest; within hours the number rose to hundreds of thousands. ElBaradei arrived from Giza, where he had been leading protests, to Cairo. Ynetnews and CNN stated that ElBaradei was placed under arrest, while Al Jazeera English said that ElBaradei was unaware of his would-be house arrest.[34] ElBaradei’s detention prompted the U.S. to review its $1.5 billion aid package for Egypt; he was later released.[35] Meanwhile, the Muslim Brotherhood said that twenty members of the banned group had been detained overnight, including Essam el-Erian, its main spokesman, and Mohamed Morsy, one of its leaders.[24]

Throughout the day, police fired tear gasrubber bullets, and water cannons into crowds during violent clashes between authorities and protesters throughout Egypt.[36] In Port Said tens of thousands gathered and multiple government buildings were set ablaze.[37] In Suez, police shot and killed at least one protestor.[38] Protestors in Suez took control of a police station, freed arrested protesters and then burned down a nearby smaller local police post.[13][37] The government issued a 18:00 to 7:00 curfew, but protesters ignored it and were met by police.[38] In the evening, one of the National Democratic Party (NDP) headquarters buildings in Cairo[39][40] was set on fire by an unidentified culprit. While protesters paused for evening prayers, police continued firing tear gas.[41] The day’s defiance was summed up by the plethora of Tunisian national flags and anti-Mubarak graffiti that the protesters had created in the Greater Cairo region, Alexandria, Beni Suef, Mansoura and Manufiya.[35]

Amid reports of looting, concerns were raised about the safety of the antiquities of the famous Egyptian Museum, near the epicenter of the Cairo protests. Egyptian state television announced in the evening that army commandos had secured the museum.[42] Protesters joined soldiers in protecting the museum, situated beside the burning ruling party headquarters.[43] Looters managed to enter during the night from the roof to damage a number of small artifacts, and it was initially reported that they had ripped the heads off two mummies, but subsequent reports claimed that Egypt’s top archaeologist had mistaken skulls from other skeletons, and that the mummies were intact.

The arson and looting that took place throughout the day has been compared to the disorder that befell Cairo during the 1952 fire, also known as Black Saturday.[46]

Deployment of the army

Police vehicle that was burned during the night of 28 January

A delegation led by the chief of staff of Egypt’s armed forces, Lt. Gen. Sami Hafez Enan, was in Washington, D.C., although the visit was truncated due to the protests. The sessions, an annual country-to-country military coordination, were being led for the U.S. by Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs Alexander Vershbow. A meeting with Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, and other talks had been planned to extend to 2 February. However, in light of events in Egypt, the delegation left Washington to return home.[47] Before their Friday night departure, Vershbow urged the two dozen representatives of the largely American-funded Egyptian military “to exercise ‘restraint'”.[48]

Al Jazeera reported an Associated Press claim that an elite counter-terrorism force had been deployed at strategic points around Cairo, and that Egypt’s interior ministry was warning of “decisive measures”. The secretary-general of the ruling National Democratic Party, Safwat Sherif, held a press conference stating, “We hope that tomorrow’s Friday prayers and its rituals happen in a quiet way that upholds the value of such rituals … and that no one jeopardises the safety of citizens or subjects them to something they do not want.”[24]

The Egyptian government deployed military in CairoAlexandria, and Suez to assist the police. Al Jazeera reported that in Suez and in Alexandria the military wanted to avoid an open armed confrontation with protesters.[51] In Giza, Protestors gathered in front of the l-Istiqama Mosque.[35] where protesters and riot police fought in parts of Giza, including at the mosque.

29 January

From left to right: Protesters in Cairo carrying a coffin; and Demonstrators standing on an army vehicle in Tahrir Square, Cairo. The sign reads: “Leave, you tyrant. Down with Mubarak.”

The night of 28/29 January was quieter in Cairo with fewer reports of looting than in previous days.[52]

Widespread protests continued, with many protesters chanting, “Down with Mubarak”. Chants of “the people and the army are one” were also heard, as the position of the army in the course of events continued to be critical but ambiguous.[43] By 2:00 pm local time, approximately 50,000 had gathered in Tahrir Square, 10,000 gathered in Kafr-al-Sheikh, and additional protests took place in other cities.[53] A curfew was announced by the army for Cairo, Alexandria and Suez from 4–6 pm. The 6:00 pm police curfew the previous day had had “almost no effect whatsoever”, according toAl Jazeera English, and protesters continued to descend on Tahrir Square.[43] Protesters gathered at the Ministry of Interior, and three were killed by police when they tried to storm the building.[54]

Protesters were described by reporters as more confident and even celebratory as they felt they were nearing their objective—the end of Mubarak’s regime—although they had no tangible evidence of this.[43] An eyewitness told Al Jazeera that people of all ages and both genders were present. Demonstrators violated the curfew and no one attempted to stop them. Looting was also reported, while no police were visible.[55]

In Beni Suef, south of Cairo, 17 protesters were killed by police as the protesters attempted to attack two police stations. In Abu Zabaal prison in Cairo, eight people were killed as police clashed with inmates trying to escape. According to a Reuters tally, these unconfirmed deaths brought the death toll to at least 100.[56] Several Islamist terrorists and others escaped.[57] Prison overcrowding and police brutality were voiced by many of the protesters.[56] Emad Gad, an analyst with the Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, said that he had obtained information from a trustworthy source that “there have been orders from the very top to free known felons from the prisons, to arm them and to let them mingle with protesters.”[58] Two Egyptian policemen jailed following the death of anti-corruption activist Khaled Said were among the hundreds of prisoners that escaped in Cairo that day.[59]

Tanks were reported on the streets of Suez. A police station was torched after protesters seized weapons stored inside before telling officers to get out. At first there was a presence of the Central Security Force, then army troops who were ordered into major cities to quell street fighting.[60] In the Sinai town of Rafah a lynch mob killed three police officers.

Many tourists sites were disrupted and the access to the Pyramids was suspended.[62] The resort town of Sharm-el Shaikh, however, remained calm.[63] Chaos was reported at Cairo International Airport, where thousands of stranded and frightened foreigners attempted to evacuate.[64]

30 January

Protesters in Tahrir Square. Translation reads “Go away Mubarak”

troop carrier defaced with protester graffiti, the larger of which reads Down with MubarakNo to Mubarak”,“Mubarak the dictator has fallen”30 years of theft and injustice … enough is enough … get out now!”“Leave, you thief!”‘.

One of two Egyptian Air Force F-16sthat flew over Cairo during the military’s show of strength on 30 January

Overnight, thousands of protesters continued to defy the curfew and, as the night progressed, troops and armoured vehicles deployed across Cairo to guard key places such as train stations, major government buildings and banks. The army had insufficient capacity to patrol neighbourhoods, so residents set up armed vigilante groups to drive off looters and robbers.[65] A heavy army presence (though no police) was reported in Suez. Chaos was rampant in Suez during the night, but as day broke the streets remained relatively quiet. As in Cairo, many residents formed vigilante groups to protect their homes and businesses in the absence of police. The military set up numerous checkpoints throughout the city.[66] An estimation of about 30 bodies including the bodies of two children were taken to El Demerdash Hospital in central Cairo.[67] By 6:00 am local time, Tahrir Square was quiet, with only a few hundred people.[52] Later in the morning, 3–5,000 protesters were reported as gathering there, including hundreds of state judges protesting for the first time.[52][68][69]

The National Association for Change, along with the April 6 Youth Movement, “We are all Khaled Said”, the Jan 25 Movement and Kefaya (the main organizers of the protests) gave their support to ElBaradei to negotiate the formation of a temporary national unity government. They called for a newconstitution and a transitional government.[70][71][72] The Muslim Brotherhood (MB), reiterated demands for Mubarak’s resignation. The MB also said, after protests turned violent, that it was time for the military to intervene.[73] Al Jazeera reported that 34 members of the Muslim Brotherhood were released from custody as their guards abandoned their posts.[74]

Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Egypt’s Minister of Defence and Commander in Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, was seen with the protesters in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo.[75] As of 18:30, ElBaradei had arrived in Tahrir Square and announced that “what we have begun cannot go back”.[66] He also said “You are the owners of this revolution. You are the future. Our key demand is the departure of the regime and the beginning of a new Egypt in which each Egyptian lives in virtue, freedom and dignity.”[76] Egyptian opposition leaders said that talks would be held only with the army.[77] Mubarak was holding a meeting with his military commanders at the time.[78]

Soldiers were then ordered to use live ammunition, but the army refused the order since it was present to “protect the people”. The army chief told protesters they would not be fired upon. Helicopters monitored the protests, and fighter jets repeatedly flew low over Tahrir Square.[74] After the first pass of the two Egyptian Air Force F-16s, the crowd cheered and subsequent passes triggered louder chants, laughing, and waving. The crowd did not disperse.[79] Protesters were also reported picking up garbage in Tahrir Square, as essential services were not working and that they wanted to “keep our country clean”. Food and water were offered at the scene by Egyptian people to the Egyptian protesters in sign of solidarity with the protesters.[80]

Mubarak asked the current aviation minister and former chief of Air Staff Ahmed Shafiq, to form a new government. Shafiq, a Mubarak loyalist, had often been mentioned as a potential successor to Mubarak due to his politically reliable nature.[65]

The Egyptian Central Bank said all banks and the stock market would remain closed on 30 January.[81] Police returned to the streets at about 10:30 pm except at Tahrir Square.[52] By 10:55 local time, Al Jazeera’s offices in Cairo were ordered to close. At the same time, all correspondents for the network had their credentials revoked.[52]

On the night of 30 January Mubarak’s Sharm el-Sheikh holiday villa was guarded by a small force of armed and loyal police who turned away all approaching vehicles.[82] Sharm el-Sheikh had seen no deaths and minimal trouble.[82] Military aircraft were visible from the local airport’s perimeter fence, although the airport was frequently used by the armed forces for operations.[82] It was also one of the hubs for private air travel in and around Egypt, but most light aircraft had departed earlier that day.[82]

31 January

An Egyptian Air Force Mi-17 circling over Tahrir Square

The night of 30 to 31 January was quieter in Cairo, with fewer reports of looting.[52] For the fourth day in a row the curfew was violated without repercussions. Security officials had announced that the curfew would start at 3:00 pm and threatened to shoot anyone who ignored it, although eventually little or no action was taken[83][84] as security and army personnel left Tahrir Square.

Hundreds of thousands continued to protest in Egyptian cities, including 250,000 protesters in Cairo alone.[85][86] A protester was shot dead in Abu Simbel and extra troops were moved to guard the Suez Canal.[85] For the first time during protests, there were pro-Mubarak protests of at least 1,000 people. Mohamed ElBaradei again joined thousands of protesters in Tahrir Square. The National Association for Change, an umbrella group that contains several opposition movements including the Muslim Brotherhood and pro-democracy groups, chose ElBaradei to negotiate with Mubarak. Luis Ayala, the secretary-general of the Socialist International said that the NDP was expelled because:

The use of violence, with scores dead and injured, is totally incompatible with the policies and principles of any social democratic party anywhere in the world. Consequently, we consider that a party in government that does not listen, that does not move and that does not immediately initiate a process of meaningful change in these circumstances, cannot be a member of the Socialist International. We are, as of today, ceasing the membership of the NDP, however we remain determined to cooperate with all the democrats in Egypt striving to achieve an open, democratic, inclusive and secular state.[87]

Industrial strikes were also called in many cities, including Cairo.[88] Nissan had suspended production at its plant in Egypt to ensure employees’ safety after anti-government protests, but Hyundai‘s plant chose to continue working.[89]

Reports emerged of several major prisons across the country being attacked, and law and order rapidly deteriorated across most of Egypt.[64] Criminal violence continued in Cairo as looters burnt out the Arkadia shopping mall. Egypt Air cancelled all internal and outbound flights;[85][90] an inbound Egypt Air flight from London to Cairo was diverted to Athens because of an alleged bomb threat.[91] Once policing became more problematic due to police disappearing from Cairo, the military took over, creating an overall more rigid system and making the military position more critical.[92][93][94] Senior Egyptian generals led by Tantawi released a statement saying:

“The armed forces will not resort to use of force against our great people. Your armed forces, who are aware of the legitimacy of your demands and are keen to assume their responsibility in protecting the nation and the citizens, affirms that freedom of expression through peaceful means is guaranteed to everybody.”[95]

Zahi Hawass, an internationally known archeologist, was appointed by Mubarak to the newly created cabinet post of Minister of Antiquities during the cabinet shakeup on 31 January. Hawass said in a statement published on his personal blog that “the broken objects can all be restored, and we will begin the restoration process this week”.[96] In a New York Times interview he rejected comparisons with Iraq and Afghanistan and said that antiquities were being safeguarded.[97]

February 2011

1 February – March of the Millions

From left to right: Demonstrators in Tahrir Square during prayer; Demonstrators inSidi GaberAlexandria

Young protesters in Cairo. The middle sign reads: “Mubarak leave us and go look for someone else to gross out other than us.”[98]

Opposition leaders called for a “March of the Millions“, from the Arabic مسيرة مليونية[99] masīrat milyōna)[100] from Cairo’s Tahrir Square to the Presidential Palace in Heliopolis on 1 February.[64][101] Egyptian security forces fortified Mubarak’s presidential palace with coils of barbed wire to ensure no demonstrators could break into the palace.[102]

According to the Egyptian government media, the number of protesters in Cairo was reported to be thousands. The BBC reported the number of protesters in Tahrir Square ranged from “more than 100,000 to some 250,000—the square’s maximum capacity.”[103] Egyptian security forces stated that 500,000 people participated in the protests in Cairo alone.[104] According to Al Jazeera, over one million protesters gathered in central Cairo by the afternoon, a number growing to around 2 million later in the day.[105]

Similar protests occurred across Egypt with hundreds of thousands in Alexandria, and an estimated 250,000 in Sinai[106][107] and Suez[108] marking the largest mobilisation in the then eight day old protest. Meanwhile, a virtual “March of Millions” was launched on Facebook with the goal of reaching one million voices in support of the march.[109]

Vice President Suleiman held a meeting with some of the Muslim Brotherhood figures, including Mohamed Morsy and Saad El-Katatny. In the meeting Suleiman asked them to withdrawn the MB youth from Tahrir so the situation would cool down and in return the Muslim Brotherhood would gain legitimacy by obtaining an actual license for a political party plus releasing some of its member including Khairat El-Shater.

In the late evening (11:00 PM local Egyptian time) President Mubarak proclaimed that he did not intend to run in the next election.[112] Mubarak said he would stay in office to ensure a peaceful transition to the next election, set for September 2011, and promised to make political reforms. He also said that he would demand that Egyptian authorities pursue “outlaws” and “investigate those who caused the security disarray.” Mubarak said that peaceful protests were transformed into “unfortunate clashes, mobilised and controlled by political forces that wanted to escalate and worsen the situation”. He called upon the Egyptian parliament to change the term limits of the presidency and to change the requirements to run for president. He also admitted that there were voting violations by key members of the parliament, which would have led to removing those who were in rigged positions through the legal process.[113]

In his speech on 1 February 2011 he said:”This dear nation … is where I lived, I fought for it and defended its soil, sovereignty and interests. On its soil I will die. History will judge me like it did others.”.[114] Crowds continued protesting in Tahrir Square, demanding that the president step down.There were reports that Mubarak’s proclamation came after President Barack Obama’s special envoy, Frank G. Wisner, told Mubarak the U.S. saw his presidency at an end and urged him to prepare for an orderly transition to real democracy.[117] In the past, Mubarak had said he would continue to serve Egypt until his last breath.[118]

The United Nations human rights chief Navi Pillay announced that there were reports that more than 300 people had died in the violence with up to 3,000 injured, although stressed that these reports remain unconfirmed.[119] Meanwhile banks remained closed, making it difficult for people to obtain money to buy food; for those that have money, prices skyrocketed as consumers flood the few open stores.[120] Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey’s Prime Minister, urged Mubarak to meet his people’s “desire for change”.[121]

2 February – Camel Battle

Protesters in Cairo next to Tahrir Square

During the night of 1–2 February, Mubarak supporters and protesters clashed in Alexandria, where shots were reportedly fired into the air.[122] Government forces and the police also fired into the crowd in an attempt to disperse the protesters.[123] In Cairo, many protesters from the previous day had remained in Tahrir Square overnight.[124]

In the morning, Internet access had been partially restored and the night-time curfew was eased, running from 5:00 pm to 7:00 am instead of 3:00 PM to 8:00 AM.[122] [125][126] By midday, the army was asking protesters to go home in order to stabilise the situation.[127] State television then announced: “You have to evacuate Tahrir Square immediately. We’ve got confirmed information that violent groups are heading toward Tahrir Square carrying firebombs and seeking to burn the Square.”[122]

The NDP sent many people to show support for Mubarak.[128] Provocateurs on horses and camels armed with swords, whips, clubs, stones, rocks, and pocket knives, attacked anti-government protesters in central Cairo, including Tahrir Square[132] in what was later known as the (Battle of Jamal or Battle of the Camel)[133] (Arabic: موقعة الجمل‎).[134] Security officials were witnessed bribing ordinary citizens into attacking protesters.[122] Some pro-Mubarak supporters were reportedly off-duty and undercover police,[135] carrying police IDs. Gunfire was reported to be heard in Tahrir Square.[122]

Molotov cocktails were also used on protesters,[136] some landing on the grounds of the Egyptian Museum.[137] Pro-Mubarak supporters were filmed dropping stones and firebombs from buildings onto demonstrators. Five were reported killed and 836 were taken to hospitals according the Health Minister.[138] There were also clashes in Alexandria[139] and unrest in Port Said.[122] Shadi Hamid, a Brookings Institution analyst based in Qatar, suggested a strategy of “hired muscle” had repeatedly been employed in the past by the Mubarak government, suggesting the same approach was possible. The Interior Ministry denied that this was being done.[140] Some journalists were attacked by the pro-Mubarak supporters.

ElBaradei called on the army to intervene.[122] He also said Mubarak should be given a “safe exit” for Friday’s “Departure Day.”[143] and that “Today’s violence is again an indication of a criminal regime that has lost any common sense. When the regime tries to counter a peaceful demonstration by using thugs … there are few words that do justice to this villainy and I think it can only hasten that regime’s departure.”[144] A coalition of opposition parties agreed to hold talks with the newly formed government. However, ElBaradei and the Muslim Brotherhood stressed they would not talk to any government representative, including Vice President Omar Suleiman, until Mubarak’s resignation.[145]

From left to right: Camels in Tahrir Square; and Battle of Tahrir Square during the evening of 2 February 2011

Ali Gomaa, the Grand Mufti of Egypt, said: “I greet President Mubarak who offered dialogue and responded to the demands of the people. Going against legitimacy is Haram (forbidden). This is an invitation for chaos. We support stability. What we have now is a blind chaos leading to a civil war. I call on all parents to ask their children to stay home.” A former general who was a part of the intelligence services said that Mubarak would have no qualms about “setting the whole country on fire.”[122] Western media suggested the possibility of civil war as violence between the two sides escalated, leaving over a thousand injured.

Foreign response

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon condemned the violence and reiterated calls for reform,[151] while EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton said that the violence must stop and that Mubarak needed to explicitly describe proposed changes.[122]

UK Prime Minister David Cameron and the White House condemned the violence, and the US State Department called for restraint.[122] US President Obama also said that the transition “must be meaningful, it must be peaceful and it must begin now”.[152] German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle and French President Nicolas Sarkozy asserted the right to march peacefully, while Erdogan called for democratisation. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu expressed concern over a new government saying: “I am convinced that the forces that want to bring change and democratization in Egypt will also enhance peace between Israel and the Arab world. But we are not there yet. The struggle has not been decided … We need to do everything to make sure that peace endures.”[153]

Mubarak rejected international calls to step aside. Finance Minister Samir Radwan said the government would be “open to discussion with all shades of political opinions”. The army had earlier broadcast a message on television: … You began by going out to express your demands and you are the ones capable of restoring normal life.[154]

3 February

From left to right: A baby waving the flag of Egypt in Tahrir Square and A popular slogan directed at President Mubarak and his government was “Irhal”, meaning “Leave!”.

On 2–3 February, 13 people were killed and 1,200 injured, according to the Egyptian health ministry.[155]

In Cairo, a standoff took place in front of the Egyptian Museum in the early morning hours with rocks and petrol bombs reportedly flying. Large-caliber shots were reportedly fired in the air by the army to keep opposing factions at bay. There was a heavy police presence at the museum following the standoff. Anti-government protesters banged on metal railings while rocks were thrown at them.[156]

Protests continued in Alexandria and Mansoura, where Al Jazeera suggested up to a million people marched.[156] In Cairo, Egyptian army tanks cleared a highway overpass from which pro-Mubarak protesters had been hurling rocks and Molotov cocktails onto the anti-Mubarak protesters. On the streets below, hundreds of armed soldiers lined up between the two factions, pushing the pro-Mubarak protesters back and blocking the main hotspots in front of the Egyptian Museum and at other entrances to the square.[157] Violence was reported to have been perpetrated by police.[158]

The Prosecutor General decided to prevent former ministers and government officials Ahmed Abdel Aziz Ahmed Ezz, Mohamed Zuhair Mohamed Waheed Garana, Ahmed Alaa El Din Maghraby, Habib Ibrahim El Adly and others from traveling outside the country. He also froze their bank accounts, and established investigative authorities and procedures to identify and investigate criminal and administrative responsibilities in all of these cases.[159]

With banks not due to reopen for three more days,[160] cash-starved Egyptians reportedly were offered food and money to side against the anti-Mubarak protesters in Tahrir Square.[161]Bloomberg reported that Vodafone had been forced by the Egyptian government to send SMS text messages to its customers. The pro-Mubarak messages characterized protesters as disloyal and called upon recipients to “confront” them. Vodafone CEO Vittorio Colao reported that the general public was still blocked from sending text messages.[162]

Shahira Amin resigned from her position as deputy head of Nile TV, citing its coverage of the protests, saying, “I walked out yesterday. I can’t be part of the propaganda machine; I am not going to feed the public lies.”[163] Many international journalists in Egypt covering the protests were detained, beaten, shouted at or threatened by pro-Mubarak protesters, as were numerous Egyptian bloggers and activists including Wael Abbas.[166] Two Al Jazeera reporters were attacked as they arrived from the airport[167] while three others were arrested[168] and later released.[169]

“I was very unhappy about yesterday. I do not want to see Egyptians fighting each other … I don’t care what people say about me. Right now I care about my country, I care about Egypt … I would never run away. I will die on this soil.”

Hosni Mubarak[170]

In an interview, Mubarak said that he was “fed up” with being in power but would not resign because he did not want Egypt to descend into a chaos in which the Muslim Brotherhood would be the beneficiaries.[171] Suleiman said, in the same interview, that the Egyptian people do not have a culture of democracy and that an Islamic current is pushing young people to protest.[172] In an interview broadcast on state television, Suleiman reasserted that “The president will not go for another term nor any member of his family including his son. The January 25 youth was not a destructive movement, however it was a demand movement … Constitution articles 76 and 77 will be modified, other articles are subjected to change.” Regarding the clashes in Tahrir Square he commented, “Everyone responsible for these clashes will be questioned … The clashes had negatively impacted what the president speech had achieved.” Regarding economic effects, he commented, “A million tourists had left Egypt in 9 days, imagine the lost revenue.” He declared that anyone who had been arrested during the demonstrations would be released unless they had committed a crime. He asked the protesters to go home as all their demands had been heard. He thanked them for their efforts to move political life in Egypt forward.[173]

4 February – Friday of Departure

Tahrir Square during the “Friday of Departure”

A tank at the entrance to Tahrir Square

During the night of 3–4 February, there were tanks on the street in Cairo as many of the protesters again spent the night in Tahrir Square. Pro-government protesters were active and small-scale clashes happened in the early hours.[174] Ahmad Mohamed Mahmoud of Al-Ta’awun became the first journalist to die covering the protests,[175] from gunshot wounds sustained on 28 January.[176]

The organizers of the “Day of Revolt” and “Friday of Anger” called for a protest which was dubbed the “Friday of Departure“. In Cairo, they planned to march to Heliopolis Palace.[177] (Arabic: جمعة الرحيل‎ gumʿat ar-raḥīl)[178] They demanded Mubarak step down immediately, with 4 February as their deadline.[179] Protest marches were also held in Giza and El-Mahalla El-Kubra,[180] Suez, Port SaidRafahIsmailiyaZagazigal-Mahalla al-Kubra,Aswan and Asyut.

Two million Egyptians flooded Tahrir Square to participate in Friday prayer in Tahrir Square.[182] Egyptian Christians and others not performing Friday prayers formed a “human chain” around those praying to protect them from potential disruptions.[183] The day’s planned events began after prayers. Al Jazeera estimated the crowd size to be over one million in Tahrir Square.[184] Protesters held portraits of former presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser andAnwar Sadat.[185] However, protesters did not get to the presidential palace. In Alexandria, over a million protesters turned out, making it the biggest-ever protest there. They warned that if the government used violence against protesters in Cairo, they would march to Cairo to join the protesters.[174]

The New York Times and Bloomberg reported that the US administration was in talks with Egyptian officials over a proposal for Mubarak to resign immediately, turning over power to a transitional government headed by the Vice-President,[186] because the longer Mubarak held on to power the more “strident” protesters would become.[187] Saad El-Katatny appeared on Mehwar TV Channel and stated that the Muslim brotherhood and Omar Suleiman reached an agreement in their previous meeting.[188]

The General Prosecutor followed up travel bans and frozen bank accounts on former ministers and government officials including former Minister of Trade and Industry Rachid Mohamed Rachid. He told Al Arabiya that “I returned from Davos to Egypt because of the current situation in Egypt. The new Prime Minister had contacted me for the same position in the new cabinet, I refused because I want fresh blood.” Regarding the travel ban, he commented, “I had no idea about the accusations, I served for six and half years and I am completely ready to face any accusation. No one had informed me of this decision and I heard it from the news.” He was considered a possible candidate for Prime Minister before the protests.[189]

5 February

An Egyptian protester holding the Egyptian flag with one hand while showing the V sign with the other

The so-called Etha’et al-thawra(broadcast of the revolution), set upon an elevated stage and used by the demonstrators in Tahrir Square to address the crowds. In the background is theAmerican University in Cairo.

During the night of 4–5 February, a few protesters continued to camp out in Tahrir Square. Early in the morning shots were fired as protesters said pro-Mubarak activists tried to assault the square. Troops then fired into the air to disperse them. Demonstrators later formed a human chain to prevent tanks from passing through the barricades into the square; a witness said scuffles broke out when an army general asked demonstrators to take down their makeshift barricades of corrugated steel and debris.[190] As the army tightened access to Tahrir Square, the head of the army met protesters[191] and asked them to return home. Protesters responded that “he (Mubarak) will go” and they would not. The army was also more organized and present than on any other day of the protest.[192] A heavy military presence continued in central Cairo. An Interior Ministry spokesman said that “the army remains neutral and is not taking sides because if we protect one side we will be perceived as biased….our role is to prevent clashes and chaos as we separate the opposing groups.”[190] Scuffles were reported during the day in Tahrir Square and one protester was said to have died. A group of foreigners including an English protester on the 5th and a Swede on the 6th[193] joined the protesters in Tahrir Square, handing out flowers in a sign of solidarity and holding up a banner in English. Five hundred protesters arrived in Tahrir Square from Suez. There were reports of over 10,000 people continuing to stay in Alexandria through the night.[192]

State television announced the appointment of Hossam Badrawi (seen as a member of the liberal wing of the party)[192] as Head of the Shura Council after Safwat El-Sherif‘s resignation from his position within the party. Mubarak’s son Gamal also resigned as Assistant Secretary and Secretary of the Policy Committee.[194] Minister of State for Legal Affairs Mufid Shehab and Presidential Chief-of-Staff Zakaria Azmy were dismissed from the party.[195] Initial reports indicated that Mubarak had resigned as head of the ruling NDP party,[196] however this was later denied by state television and the Information Minister.[197][198] Former Interior Minister Habib el-Adli and three of his leadership were put under house arrest. There had been reports about the arrest of other security leaders who were being held in a military prison.[199] However, the opposition leaders continued to seek ways to remove Mubarak from power. They called on the protesters to continue at Tahrir Square every Tuesday and Friday until Mubarak “resigns and makes true the demands of the people.”[190]

Trouble hit the border city of Rafa as a grenade was tossed into an empty church and the public library was set on fire on February 5.[200]

6 February – Sunday of Martyrs

From left to right: Copts leading the crowd in prayer in Tahrir Square andMuslims and Christians United for Egypt, by Carlos Latuff.

During the night of 5–6 February, protesters continued to camp out in Tahrir Square and Alexandria. However, gunfirewas heard in the early hours of the day in Cairo.[201] Banks temporarily reopened throughout the country amidst long queues,[202] and people rushed to buy US dollars.[203]

The organizers of the “Day of Revolt”, “Friday of Anger”, “March of the Millions” and “Friday of Departure” called for a protest that was dubbed the “Sunday of Martyrs[204] (Arabic: أحد الشهداء‎).[205]

Egyptian Christians held their Sunday Mass in Cairo’s Tahrir Square as Muslim protesters formed a ring around them to protect them during the service.;[206] They did it to counter claims by state television that most of the anti-Mubarak protesters were members of the Muslim Brotherhood. Copts wanted to show that they were a part of Egypt’s popular uprising and shared the grievances. Crowds in Tahrir Square chanted “We are one, we are one” ahead of prayers held at noon for those killed during the protests.[201] Muslims later participated in Salat al-Janazah (Arabicصلاة الجنازة‎) (literally: funeral prayer).[207] Protesters in Cairo numbered in the vicinity of one million.[208] Demonstrations continued in Alexandria focused around the train station of El Ramel. Several thousand anti-government protesters continued calling for Mubarak’s resignation in Mansoura.[201] Ayman Mohyeldin, an Al Jazeera English journalist, was arrested by soldiers in Tahrir Square, and held for 9 hours.[209]

Vice President Suleiman negotiated with the opposition, including Mohamed Morsy and El-Sayyid el-Badawi. The Muslim Brotherhood said it was talking with the government.[210] Suleiman agreed to set up a committee of judiciary and political figures to study constitutional reforms. The committee was due to meet by early March.[211] Naguib Sawiris, who was involved in the talks, said that “big progress” had been made.[212]

7 February

From left to right: An imam of Al-Azhar University, who was wounded in his eye during the protests and An anti-government protester in Tahrir Square. The placard reads “Leave leave and rest assured, the chaos will leave with you, leave leave.“.

Hundreds of thousands of protesters camped out in Tahrir Square where a symbolic funeral procession was held for Ahmad Mohamed Mahmoud of Al-Ta’awun. Protesters demanded that an investigation be carried out into the cause of his death.[213]State-owned Al-Ahram, declared its support for the protesters and stopped supporting the government.[214]

At least 70 people were wounded when hundreds of residents attacked the police station in Khargah to demand the ouster of a police official who had a reputation for heavy-handedness. Police then opened fire on the protesters.[215] Authorities said that 11 people had been killed.[216] The United Nations estimated deaths at more than 300.[217]

Former minister of the interior Habib El-Adli faced prosecution in a military court for ordering police to fire at protesters and for[218]his role in the 31 December 2010 bombing of al-Qiddissin Church in Alexandria.[219] Minister of Antiquities Zahi Hawass announced that artifacts damaged by looters would be restored over the next five days. He said that steps were being taken to reopen Egypt’s famed archaeological sites, which had been closed since pro-democracy protests started. Among the damaged objects was a statue of King Tutankhamun standing on a panther and a wooden sarcophagus from the New Kingdom period, dating to roughly 3,500 years ago. The museum, which is adjacent to the anti-government protests in downtown Cairo, was being guarded by the army.[216] Finance Minister Samir Radwan announced a 15 per cent raise in pensions and salaries for government employees at a cost of 6.5 billion Egyptian pounds (US$960 million). This decision was made at the first Cabinet meeting since the protests began. One protester said that protests would not end soon despite the government’s increasing concessions.[220]While banks had reopened, schools and the stock exchange remained closed. The Egyptian Stock Exchange said it would resume operation on 13 February.[216]

Wael GhonimGoogle‘s head of Marketing for the Middle East and North Africa and the founder of the Facebook page that was said to have been influential in fomenting the protests, who had been in custody since 25 January, was reported to have been released.[216][221] At 20:00, he posted on Twitter that “Freedom is a blessing that deserves fighting for it.” (sic)[222] His release from custody and an emotional interview with Mona El-Shazly on DreamTV[223] “inject[ed] new vigor into [the] protest movement”.[224] Thousands of supporters joined a Facebook page created in his honour, “We authorise Wael Ghoneim to speak on behalf of the Egyptian revolution.”[225] He issued a statement reading:

First of all my sincere condolences for all the Egyptians that lost their lives. I am really sorry for their loss, none of us wanted this. We were not destroying things. We all wanted peaceful protests, and our slogan was no to vandalism. Please don’t turn me into a hero. I am not a hero, I am someone that was asleep for 12 days. The real heroes are the ones that took to the streets, please focus your cameras on the right people. I am ok. (sic) God willing we will change our country, and all the filth that was taking place in the country has to stop. Together we will clean this country. – Wael Ghonim[226]

8 February – Day of Egypt’s Love

Tahrir Square during the “Day of Egypt’s Love”

The earlier organizers called for a new protest in what was dubbed the “Day of Egypt’s Love“. (Arabic: يوم حب مصر‎).[227]

Over a million people gathered in and around Tahrir Square to demonstrate.[225] At least 1,000 went to the parliament to demand Mubarak’s resignation while others went to the Shura Council and the Council of Ministers. They later slept in front of those buildings, besides the usual camp in Tahrir Square. Hundreds of journalists gathered in the lobby of the state-owned newspaper Al-Ahram‘s headquarters to protest corruption and to call for greater freedom of the press.[228] A substantial protest took place in Alexandria,[225] while workers at the Suez Canal went on strike.[229] BBC correspondents reported that by the afternoon the protests had the highest turnout to date.[230]

Ibrahim Yosri, a lawyer and former deputy foreign minister, drafted a petition, along with 20 other lawyers, asking the Prosecutor General Abdel Meguid Mahmoud to try Mubarak and his family for stealing state wealth.[231] According to the state-owned Middle East News Agency, The newly appointed Mubarak’s Interior Minister, Mahmoud Wagdy, issued an order releasing 34 political detainees, mostly members of the Muslim Brotherhood.[232]

In a statement on Egyptian state television, Suleiman announced the formation of two independent committees for political and constitutional reforms, both starting work immediately. One committee would carry out constitutional and legislative amendments to enable a shift of power. The other would monitor the implementation of all proposed reforms. Suleiman also stressed that demonstrators would not be prosecuted and that a separate independent fact-finding committee would be established to probe the violence of 2 February. He said that wider press freedoms were under consideration and that he would produce a list of what was needed to hold free elections.[234] He also said that plans were underway to organize a peaceful transfer of power.[225] Suleiman reiterated his view that Egypt was not ready for democracy, while warning of a possible coup d’état unless demonstrators agreed to enter negotiations.[235]

9 February

From left to right: Tahrir Square during the evening of 9 February and a sign on the Parliament building in Cairo on 9 February, reading “Closed until the fall of the regime”.

Some protesters moved from Tahrir Square to the area outside the parliament buildings, while demanding the assembly’s immediate dissolution. The demonstrators put up a sign that said: “Closed until the fall of the regime”. Cabinet offices in Cairo were evacuated after anti-government protesters gathered outside the building. Meanwhile, labour unions across the country, and particularly in Alexandria, Cairo and Suez, staged general strikes, demanding higher wages and better treatment. The strikers were said to number around 20,000 workers.[236]Violent clashes were reported in Wadi al-Jadid, where police stations and the NDP party building were destroyed, and several deaths and hundreds of injuries also occurred.[237] Protesters in Port Said burnt down the governor’s office in response to his reluctance to provide enough housing for the city’s residents.[238] Clashes were said to have killed three people and wounded hundreds more in the past two days.[239]

Egyptians living outside the country returned to join the anti-government demonstrations. An Internet campaign sought to mobilise thousands of expatriates to return home and support the uprising.[240]

The government followed up on a prisoner amnesty from the previous day, releasing 1,000 more prisoners who had served three-quarters of their sentence; 840 more were released from Sinai province.[232] The Muslim Brotherhood continued to demand for Mubarak’s resignation.[237] The offices of state-owned Channel 5 in Alexandria were shut down and evacuated under the order of its chief amid mounting pressure by protesters.[241] The government warned of a military crackdown amid ongoing protests.[242] Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit rejected US calls to repeal the emergency law and also accused the US of trying to impose its will on the Egyptian government.[243] The newly appointed Mubarak’s Culture Minister Gaber Asfour resigned after one week in office, citing health problems.[244]

10 February

Over 2 millions protesting in Tahrir Square on 10 February 2011 after Hosni Mubarak‘s speech saying that they’ll go to his palace the day after.

The protests continued at Tahrir Square and the parliament building. 3,000 lawyers marched from the lawyers’ syndicate in downtown Cairo to Abdeen Palace, one of Mubarak’s official residences. About a thousand physicians, dressed in white coats, also arrived at Tahrir Square to applause.[245]Strikes at national industries, including tourism and transportation, continued and spread to Alexandria, Mahalla and Port Said.[246] Protesters around Egypt, expecting Mubarak’s resignation, were described as euphoric, while singing and waving Egyptian flags.[247] Fighter aircraft were heard above the Tahrir Square at 20:00 amid calls for the “destruction of the regime.” In Alexandria, over 1,000 “diehard” protesters were reported by the train station.[245]

Prior to Mubarak’s speech, contradictory reports from various media sources around the world stated that either Suleiman or Tantawi was expected to take over. The military council also met without Mubarak.[245] The Muslim Brotherhood had feared a coup at one point. The head of the NDP said that Mubarak should go for the good of the country.[245]

Al Hurra TV reported that Mubarak was planning to hand authority to the Egyptian army.[250] General Hassan al-Roueini, the military commander for the Cairo area, told protesters in Tahrir Square, “All your demands will be met today.”[251] State TV added that Mubarak would speak that night from his Cairo palace. This came after Egypt’s military proclaimed on television that they had stepped in to “safeguard the country”. The Associated Presssuggested a military coup might be occurring. State TV showed Defence Minister Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi meeting with two dozen top army officers. Mubarak and Suleiman were not present.[252]

“… I thought I would delegate powers to the vice president, according to the constitution …”

Hosni Mubarak[253]

However, information minister Anas el-Fiqqi, denied that Mubarak would resign.[254] Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq said, “everything is in the hands of President Hosni Mubarak and no decisions have been taken yet.”[255] Al Arabiya television, citing “trusted sources” just minutes before Mubarak was to speak, said he would transfer his powers to his vice president.[256]

In his television statement, Mubarak said that he would penalise those responsible for the violence and had a clear vision on how to end the crisis, but was satisfied with what he had offered. He stated that while remaining president to the end of his term in September he would transfer his powers to the vice-president. As far as transfer of power was concerned, Mubarak said “I have seen that it is required to delegate the powers and authorities of the president to the vice president as dictated in the constitution,”. The constitutional article was used to transfer powers if the president was “temporarily” unable to carry out his duties and did not require his resignation.[258] He also said he would request six constitutional amendments and that he would lift emergency laws when security in the country permitted.[258] Mubarak said he would stay in the country and was “adamant to continue to shoulder my responsibility to protect the constitution and safeguard the interests of the people … until power is handed over to those elected in September by the people in free and fair elections in which all the guarantees of transparencies will be secured.”[258]

Protesters watched in stunned silence or in anger to his speech, some crying or waving their shoes in the air.[258] People in Tahrir Square chanted “Leave! Leave! Leave!” after Mubarak’s speech.[259] Suleiman called on the protesters to go home.[258] Protesters then moved to the state television and radio buildings.[245] Soon after the television announcement, a large number of protesters began to march towards the presidential palace.[260] ElBaradei said, “Egypt will explode” because Mubarak refused to step down and called on the military to intervene.[261]

Mubarak’s top aides, family and son Gamal told him he could ride out the turmoil, which convinced him to cling to power.[262] It was also reported that one son, Alaa, accused his younger brother Gamal of ruining their father’s reputation. Eyewitnesses said that the Egyptian army had pulled out troops from many locations near the presidential palace.[265]

 

Egypt’s “Spare Tire” – time to replace the tire

 

Spare tire?” How does a presidential candidate receive such a nickname? Clearly a slap in the

Egyptian President Muhammad Morsi

face — but I suppose that’s just politics! Sounds like politics in the good-old U.S.A. to me; but in Egypt?  In the days before Muhammad Morsi’s election as Egypt’s fifth president (June 30, 2012), someone (in the press?) gave him the nickname, “spare tire.” Morsi, an academian, rose through the ranks of the Muslim Brotherhood as a man who could be depended upon, who would do what he was told to do, and a loyalist to the ideaology of the 84-years old Muslim Brotherhood – but Morsi was never thought to be a leader. He was backup, second string, to the candidate of favor, Khairat El-Shater, the Brotherhood’s charismatic “deputy supreme guide.” However, El-Shater was disqualified by Egypt’s military election commission (the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces) on 14 April 2012, just a few weeks before the election because of a technicality. Morsi became the Brotherhood candidate only after El-Shater was given the boot – much like a spare tire is mounted when the good tire fails; but just like a spare tire is quickly replaced, so it appears to be the case for Muhammad Morsi.  The military has given Morsi until 11:00am ET, , for his agreement to the demands of the “opposition”  or step-down as president (apparently non-Muslim Brotherhood, but it seems difficult to figure out who the “opposition” really is).

As I write this post, the deadline has passed. Morsi has publicly stated that he will not resign, but will die first. The New York Times quotes Morsi’s midnight hour speech on 7/2:

“The people empowered me, the people chose me, through a free and fair election,” he said.  “Legitimacy is the only way to protect our country and prevent bloodshed, to move to a new phase,” Mr. Morsi said. “Legitimacy is the only thing that guarantees for all of us that there will not be any fighting and conflict, that there will not be bloodshed. . . .  If the price of protecting legitimacy is my blood July 3, 2013, I’m willing to pay it,” he said. “And it would be a cheap price for the sake of protecting this country.”

On July 4th, 2013, the good-old U.S.A. will celebrate Independence Day. I may not agree with the decisions of the present administration but one thing for sure: in the home of the free and the land of the brave, presidents don’t get replaced by the people but every four years, on election day, and only by going to the polls and casting their vote. Perhaps replacing presidents in Egypt is like changing a tire on a car. If you don’t like the decisions of the man you just elected, get rid of him. Throw him in the trunk, under the bus, wherever you want. After all, democracy is government “by the people for the people,” right?  So much for Arab Spring democracy. Morsi appears to be its next victim.

18

The Pope is missing from the chair of adulation. Change is coming for the Catholic Church

Luke 14:10-11 (NASB)10 “But when you are invited, go and recline at the last place, so that when the one who has invited you comes, he may say to you, ‘Friend, move up higher’; then you will have honor in the sight of all who are at the table with you. 11  “For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be
exalted.”

Humility is a good thing to the Lord. The Scripture leaves us little question about that.  1 Peter 5:5 (NASB) “… clothe yourselves with humility toward one another for God is opposed to the proud but gives grace to the humble.” Check the papal-chair in the above picture. Does it look like a chair for the humble or the proud? A chair for someone who “clothes [himself] with humility” or a chair for the exalted and lifted up?  It is the Pope’s chair — and, it is empty!

This past week, Pope Francis was a no-show at a gala event where he was the guest of honor. The event was scheduled prior to his election in March, and was attended by the rich and famous, except in this case, they happened to be cardinals and Italian dignitaries.

“It took us by surprise,” said one Vatican source on Monday.  “We are still in a period of growing pains. He is still learning  how to be pope and we are still learning how he wants to do it.” The article continued, “The prelates, assured that health was not the reason for the no-show, looked disoriented, realising that the message he  wanted to send was that, with the Church in crisis, he – and  perhaps they – had too much pastoral work to do to attend social  events.”

The day before the concert, Francis said bishops should be  “close to the people” and not have “the mentality of a prince.”  Imagine the adjustment that is going on at the Vatican. One source reports, “Since his election on March 13, Francis, the former cardinal  Jorge Bergoglio of Argentina, has not spent a single night in  the opulent and spacious papal apartments. He has preferred to live in a small suite in a busy Vatican guest house, where he takes most meals in a communal dining room  and says Mass every morning in the house chapel rather than the  private papal chapel in the Apostolic Palace.

Does that sound like the Catholic Church that you know? Absent of the pomp and “vestments“ intended to “excite the viewer into good thoughts and to increase devotion in those who see and those who use them”?  Doesnt sound like Pope Francis got the memo on how to “increase devotion” by the outfit he wears or the chair he sits in. Another interesting item was the report that Pope Francis had performed an impromptu exorcism as he exited a bishop’s conference. In the report, a “man who appears to be a priest leans forward and explains something to the pope, at which point Pope Francis places both of his hands on the man’s head. The man soon appears to become agitated, breaths heavily, twitches slightly and sinks a bit lower in his wheelchair.”

And what is my point? When Pope Francis models the humility of our Lord, in direct contrast to that demonstrated by his predecessors, the Church and the world should take notice. It is not the vestments or the papal-chair that we should take notice of — but the absence thereof. In Francis’ refusal to be exalted on the human plane, it seems that the message he is seeking to deliver to his leaders is not only being communicated with his words, but also by his actions. If our Lord entered Jerusalem seated on a donkey, what is it that makes leadership in the church, Catholic or otherwise, think that we should be seated on anything higher or more elevated? Was it not our Lord that said, “And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to myself”? John 12:32 (NASB).

Christ wasn’t talking about a papal chair to lift him up, but His atoning work on the cross. Perhaps the empty chair was Pope Francis’ way to encourage the leadership of the Church to carry their own cross, and thereby speak volumes about what it really means to “increase devotion” among the followers of our Lord.

 

 

 

 

 

11 February

Egyptians in Giza celebrate Mubarak’s resignation.

A soldier joins the protesters in celebration of Mubarak’s downfall.

Shock that Mubarak did not step down resulted in a nationwide escalation of protests on 11 February, named again as the “Friday of Departure” by the opposition movement. Massive protests continued in Cairo, Alexandria, and other cities. The presidential palace and parliament remained surrounded by protestors and thousands of people surrounded the state TV building, keeping anyone from entering or leaving. The army issued acommuniqué supporting Mubarak’s attempt to remain de jure president.[268] Hossam Badrawi, the new secretary of the NDP, resigned from unhappiness with Mubarak’s refusal to leave.[269]

Demonstrators began to gather at new locations in Cairo. The army surrounded the presidential palace and state television and radio buildings[270] as protesters surrounded the Egyptian radio and television union building demanding fair media coverage. State television shifted its attitude towards the protesters and begun referring to them as Jan25 Youth, admitting mistakes had been made in the media coverage of the protests: “We [the state TV] were under an information chaos,” the news anchor stated. “We had strict orders from external sides.”[271] Major protests occurred in Alexandria and Mansoura. In Arish, in north Sinai, the second police station in 24 hours came under heavy arms fire—including RPGs—in which at least one protester was killed and 20 injured, with possibly more police fatalities.[270]

Resignation

In the name of God the merciful, the compassionate. Citizens, during these very difficult circumstances Egypt is going through, President Hosni Mubarak has decided to step down from the office of president of the republic and has charged the high council of the armed forces to administer the affairs of the country. May God help everybody.[272]
Omar Suleiman, Vice President of the Arab Republic of Egypt

 

The people of Egypt have spoken, their voices have been heard, and Egypt will never be the same.[273]
Barack Obama, United States president

As the protesters started marching onto the Presidential Palace in the morning, Mubarak and his family reportedly left the Palace by helicopter which took them to the nearby Almaza Airbase, where they boarded the Presidential jet and headed to Sharm el-Sheikh.[274] Former Finance Minister Youssef Boutros Ghali fled to Beirut.[275]

Vice President Omar Suleiman announced after 18:00 Cairo local time (GMT +2) on 11 February that the presidency had been vacated and the army council would run the country:[270] Mubarak’s resignation was followed by nationwide celebrations.[275]ElBaradei told the Associated Press “This is the greatest day of my life. The country has been liberated after decades of repression,” and he expected a “beautiful” transition of power.[276] Mohammed ElBaradei said that “Egypt is free.”[277] Various media outlets pointed out that this date was also the anniversary of the Iranian Islamic Revolution, which occurred on 11 February 1979.[278]

An exchange-traded fund based on the Egyptian stock market listed at the NYSE Euronext increased by 5% following the announcement. Egyptian five-year credit default swaps fell by 0.25%. Al Arabiya reported that the military council said it would sack the cabinet and dissolve parliament, although they only did the latter.[270] Celebrations and car honking were reported in Alexandria and Cairo.[270] Celebratory gunfire in Gaza.[279]

CBS correspondent Lara Logan was covering the jubilation in Tahrir Square when she suffered a brutal and sustained sexual assault and beating before being saved by a group of women and an estimated 20 Egyptian soldiers.[280]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Timeline of the 2011–13 Egyptian civil unrest under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces)

This article is about the events following the 2011 Egyptian revolution culminating in the resignation of Hosni Mubarak. For the full sequence of events following 2011 revolution, seeAftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

 

2011 Egyptian revolution (Second and Third waves)
Part of Aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution
Down With The Military Rule (Graffiti)
Date 12 February 2011 – 30 June 2012
Location  Egypt
30°2′N 31°13′ECoordinates30°2′N 31°13′E
Methods
Casualties
Death(s)Characteristics 300+ people[1][2]
Wounded More than 3,702 people[2][3]
Arrested 13,000

The following is a chronological summary of the major events that occurred during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, after Hosni Mubarak’s resignation as the fourth President of Egypt, on 11 February 2011. This article documents the second wave of the 2011-2012 Egyptian revolution. The second wave began on 12 February 2011, when the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces assumed control, of the country, and it ended on 30 June 2012, when Mohammed Morsi was sworn in, as the 5th President of Egypt. For a documentation of the third wave of the 2011-2012 Egyptian revolution, which began with Morsi inauguration, see Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Mohamed Morsi.

2011

February

12–15 February

Volunteers use shovels to dispose rubble, debris, and trash.

 

People celebrating on the streets of Cairo

A group of activists issued the “People’s Communiqué No 1”, which imitated the titles of communiqués from the Army. It demanded the dissolution of the cabinet Mubarak appointed on 29 January, the suspension of the parliament elected in late 2010 in a poll that was widely suspected of being rigged, the creation of a transitional presidential council made up of four civilians and one member of the military, the formation of a transitional government to prepare for an election to take place within nine months and a body to draft a new democratic constitution, freedom for the media and syndicates and for the formation of political parties, and the scrapping of military and emergency courts. They also announced the formation of a council to organize mass protests.Curfew was reduced to between midnight and 6:00 Eastern European Time.[6] The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces issued “Communiqué no. 4” in which they “promised to hand power to an elected, civilian government….[and] also pledged that Egypt would remain committed to all international treaties.”[6] Minister of InformationAnas El-Fekky, had been placed under house arrest,[7] and later resigned from his position.[8]

Egypt’s stock market regulator said the trading, which was due to start on 13 February, was delayed until 16 February.[9]

Thousands of people also began to clean up Cairo’s Tahrir Square, which had been disfigured by 18 days of rallies and sporadic street battles.[10]

The army stated that the constitution was suspended and parliament was dissolved and that it would stay in power until the presidential andparliamentary elections could be held.[12] The High Council of Egyptian Armed Forces had selected its chief to represent the council. The caretaker cabinet appointed by Mubarak would remain until a new cabinet was formed after the elections.[13]

Police in the city of Bani Suef were protesting for better pay and more rights by lying down on a bridge.[14] Hundreds of police also marched in Tahrir Square to show solidarity with the protesters.[14] Waving Egyptian flags, the police demonstrators shouted, “We and the people are one”, and said they wanted to “honor the martyrs of the revolution”.[14]

Jean-Claude Juncker, the chairman of the Eurogroup, said he would support a freeze on the assets of Hosni Mubarak.[14]

After an inventory was completed, it was determined that a total of 18 artifacts from the Egyptian Museum were missing.[15] About 70 objects were damaged.

It was reported that the secretary-general of the Arab LeagueAmr Moussa, was to stand down and run in the upcoming elections.[16]

Eight representatives from the demonstrators, including Wael Ghonim and Amr Salama, met with spokespersons of the military and reported that there would be a referendum on changes to the constitution within two months.[17]

Military rulers called for an end to the strikes and protests. Thousands of state employees, including police, transit workers, and ambulance drivers, protested for better pay. In a statement, the ruling military council issued a final warning to the labor unions stating that the armed forces could intervene. They also imposed an outright ban on gatherings and strikes. In addition, the army cleared out most of the remaining demonstrators from Tahrir Square.[18]

Tarek El-Bishry, a retired judge known for his pro-opposition views and his support for a strong independent judiciary, was tasked with setting up the committee to reform the constitution.[19] The changes would be formally announced within ten days.[20] Adly Fayed, the director of public security at the interior ministry, and Ismail El Shaer, Cairo’s security chief, have been fired over their decision to open fire on the demonstrators.[19]

Hillary Clinton has told Al Jazeera that the US is hopeful that Egypt will become a model for democracy in the region.[21]

Amr Moussa announced on 15 February that he would run in the presidential election.[22] The Muslim Brotherhood announced on the same day that it would form the Freedom and Justice Partyto run in the parliamentary elections.[23]

16–28 February

One of the protestors waving the Egyptian Flag during the protests in Tahrir Square, Cairo

On 17 February, the army stated that it would not field a candidate in the upcoming presidential elections.[24] Four important figures of the former regime were detained on that day: former interior minister Habib el-Adly, former minister of housing Ahmed Maghrabi, former tourism minister Zuheir Garana, and steel tycoon Ahmed Ezz.[25]

On 18 February, Muslim cleric Yusuf al-Qaradawi arrived in Egypt after his exile in Qatar and led the “Victory Day” Friday sermon in Tahrir Square, which was attended by hundreds of thousands of people. Men, who appeared to be Qaradawi’s guards, barred Wael Ghonim from joining him on stage. On that same day, Wael Ghonim wrote the following on his Twitter: “I loved Sheikh Qaradawi Khutbah today. Was truly inspired when he said: ‘Today I’m going to address both Muslims and Christians. Respect!'”[29]

On 20 February, the constitutional reform committee stated that its work was almost done,[30] and also announced that the caretaker government would soon be reshuffled.[31] On 21 February, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, became the first world leader to visit Egypt since Mubarak was ousted as the president. A news blackout was lifted as the prime minister landed in Cairo for a brief five-hour stopover, which had been hastily added to the start of a planned tour of the Middle East.[32]

A government reshuffle took place on 22 February, but the defense, interior, foreign, finance, and justice ministries remained unchanged. New ministers included Yehia el-Gamal as deputy prime minister, the New Wafd Party‘s Monir Fakhri Abdel Nour as tourism minister, the Tagammu Party‘s Gowdat Abdel-Khaleq as minister of social solidarity and social justice, and Ismail Ibrahim Fahmy as the new labor minister. The changes were not well-received by the public, because most of Mubarak’s former supporters remained in the cabinet, and there were renewed calls for a demonstration to demand the resignation of the interim government.[33] Protesters were also set to return to Tahrir Square to keep up the pressure on the interim government.[34]

March

Left: An underground cell in State Security Investigations Service. Right: Shredded documents found inside State Security Investigations Service.

Before any large protests against him were planned, Ahmed Shafik stepped down as Prime Minister and was replaced by Essam Sharaf.[35] Sharaf returned to Tahrir Square, which he had also visited during the revolution, to address the Friday mass rally.[36]

The foreign, justice, interior, and oil ministers resigned and three new ministers were named: General and former governor of Minya,Mansour El Essawi, became interior minister; Mohamed Abdel Aziz Al-Guindy became justice minister; and former judge Nabil Elarabywas appointed foreign minister. Secretary General of the New Wafd PartyMonir Fakhri Abdel Nour, remained tourism minister.State television aired footage of the ceremony showing the prime minister and his Cabinet taking the oath before Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi, who heads the ruling military council.[39]

On 5 March, three weeks after Hosni Mubarak was ousted as President, Egyptians turned their anger toward his internal security apparatus by storming the agency’s main headquarters and other offices in order to seize documents that would provide evidence of human rights abuses as well as preventing said documents from being destroyed.[40] Following rumors that officials were destroying evidence, 200 protesters stormed the secret police headquarters in Cairo. The closing of the agency has been a key demand of the protesters but one which had not been heeded. Human rights abuses, including torture, were alleged to have been carried out inside it. The protesters stated that they stormed the building to secure evidence as they feared that it might be destroyed.[41] The SSIS was announced dissolved on 15 March 2011, with a new National Security Force replacing it.[42]

A group of youths who participated in the protests announced the formation of the Party of Youths for Change on 6 March 2011.[43]

Mohamed ElBaradei stated on 9 March 2011 that he would run in the presidential elections.

On 19 March, the constitutional referendum was held, with millions of Egyptians turning up to vote on nine proposed amendments to the constitution.[44] Eager for their first free vote, Egyptians formed long lines outside polling centers to cast their ballots on constitutional amendments that were sponsored by the ruling military.[45] In the lead up to the referendum, there was still dispute amongst the political movements and parties in Egypt about whether they should approve or reject the proposed constitutional amendments. 16 of those political parties and movements, including The Alliance of Women’s Organizations, announced that they would reject the proposed amendments and call for the creation of a new constitution. The movements also renewed their calls for protests against the amendments to be held. Supporters of the amendments include the Muslim Brotherhood, the Wasat Party, and the Labor Party.[46] The proposed amendments were limited to nine articles, which many deemed to be insufficient as they failed to limit the power of the president, whilst others argued that the amendments were only a temporary measure and as such did not need to include all the changes that were requested, as the Constitution was to be completely redrafted after the parliamentary and presidential elections. This point has proven to be the most contentious with those who oppose the amendments. They claim that a redrafted Constitution will not be representative[47] with the Egyptian presidential candidate Mohamed ElBaradei calling on all Egyptians to reject the proposed constitutional amendments, saying that a “Yes” vote will “provide a parliament not representative of the people, composed mainly of members of the National Democratic Party and benefiting businessmen, the opportunity to uphold a Constitution which is also not representative of the people, and this will take us backwards to a great extent.”[48] ElBaradei was assaulted when he showed up at a school in Moqattam to vote.[49]

The final results of the referendum were announced the next day: 77.2% of Egyptians voted “YES” to constitutional amendments, while 22.8% voted “NO”. In total, 18,537,954 Egyptians voted out of around 45 million eligible voters, making the turnout 41%.[50]

April

This section requires expansion(July 2011)

Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 1 April 2011

Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 8 April 2011

Two army vehicles burning in Tahrir Square after the army attack that happened on 9 April 2011 in the Square from 3:00 to 5:30 am; at least two protesters were killed and dozens were wounded.

On 1 April, protesters called for a “Save the Revolution” day in which thousands of demonstrators filled Tahrir Square after Friday prayers demanded that the ruling military council move faster to dismantle lingering aspects of the old regime; it was the largest protest since Mubarak’s resignation.[51]

On 3 April, the Muslim Brotherhood called on its members to participate in the demonstrations in Tahrir Square on 8 April. Having withheld support for demonstrations held on 1 April because they coincided with Orphans’ Day, the Brotherhood called for a large turnout to pressure the government to pursue cases against members of the old regime who remained in positions of influence after the revolution. The Brotherhood also suggested the name “Friday of Purging” for the event.[52] The next day, employees of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Amonsito Textile Company demonstrated outside cabinet offices.

On 5 April, Egyptian authorities arrested Omneya Soliman, the former housing minister.[54]

On 7 April, the National Association for Change seemed to accept the Brotherhood’s proposal, calling for the “Friday of Prosecution and Purging”, a million-man march on Tahrir Square, on 8 April. The NAC also proposed holding a mock “people’s trial” of the regime figures for whom they demand the prosecution and/or removal of. While Friday protests in Tahrir Square had been a weekly event, million-man protests had not been seen for some time.[55] The following day, protesters called for a “Friday of Cleansing” in which hundreds of thousands of demonstrators filled Tahrir Square again. They criticised the ruling SCAF for not following through on the protesters’ previous demands. They called for the resignation of the remaining Mybarak-era figures and the removal of Egypt’s public prosecutor due to the slow pace of investigations of corrupt former officials.[56]

On 9 April, the military used force to break up a camp that protesters had set up in Tahrir Square, as tensions also continued to build between the protesters and the military leadership that were running the country in the interim.[57]

On 12 April, Hosni Mubarak was questioned in hospital by prosecutors.[58] The following day the country’s Prosecutor General ordered the detention of Mubarak and his two children, Alaa Mubarak and Gamal Mubarak, for 15 days. A statement from the Attorney General Egyptian published on itsFacebook page said that the arrest warrant was issued after the prosecution presented the charges against them and in accordance with the development of the criminal investigations around the rioting that led to the fall of the regime.[59][60]

On 15 April, thousands of protesters again marched from Shoubra to Tahrir in support of minority rights for Coptic christians.[61]

On 16 April, the National Democratic Party was dissolved and its assets transferred to the state.[62] Mubarak’s name was also removed from all public places on 21 April 2011.

On 23 April, Egypt ordered the former energy minister to stand trial for the natural gas deal with Israel.[65] Three days later, the pipeline to Israel and Jordan was again attacked.[66]

On 18 April, Iran appointed its first ambassador to Egypt since the Islamic Revolution.[67]

On 29 April, demonstrators in Tahrir Square expressed solidarity with other Arab uprisings.[68]

May

Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 27 May 2011

This section requires expansion(July 2011)

On 24 May, it was announced that Mubarak and his two sons, Gamal and Alaa, would be tried over the deaths of anti-government protesters.[69] On 28 May, Mubarak was fined $34m (£20m) for cutting off communications services during the uprising.[70]

Egypt also eased the blockade at the Rafah border crossing with Gaza. Women, children, and men over 40 were allowed to pass freely while men aged between 18 and 40 would still require a permit. Though trade across the border remained prohibited, the crossing was opened between 9:00 – 21:00 every day except on Fridays and public holidays. The move was strongly opposed by Israel.

June

A protester braving tear gas near theAUC during 28 June.

Treating an injured man in Tahrir due to inhalation of CS gas during 28 June.

Injured protester near Tahrir Square during 28 June.

On 6 June, crowds of Egyptians dressed in black held demonstrations to honour Khaled Said, a young man from Alexandria who was beaten to death in 2010 in a savage attack which was blamed on police. This attack helped inspire the uprising that brought down Egypt’s president.[75][76] Pictures of his body, taken by his family in a morgue, caused public outrage that caused the January 2011 uprising.[76] Hundreds of protesters stood side by side on Stanley Bridge in Alexandria in a silent protest commemorating the death of Said. The protesters neither held pictures or banners of Said; they only carried thEgyptian flag. They then marched to Said’s family’s home in Cleopatra. By the time they arrived there, more people joined, and the number of protesters reached about 1,500. They set a big monitor on the street screening a documentary on Said’s case and its development.[77]

On 12 June, Ilan Grapel, accused for being an Israeli spy, was arrested by Egyptian authorities, who claimed that Grapel was sent to Egypt to build a team that had been “trying to gather information and data and to monitor the events of 25 January revolution.”[78] The authorities also claimed that Grapel tried to incite violence amongst Egyptian protestors, hoping to spark a face-off with the military “and spread chaos in the Egyptian public and harm the state’s political, economic, and social interests.”[78] Grapel appears to be the same man who told Haaretz that he moved to Israel three years before its 2006 war with Lebanon and ended up enlisting in the Israeli Defense Force. Israel, however, has denied the reports, stating that “There is no such thing, no Israeli agent has been arrested in Egypt. These reports are false.” Friends and relatives of Grapel said that he is a law student in Atlanta with an avid interest in the Middle East, and not a Mossad agent out to sabotage Egypt’s revolution, as Egyptian authorities have charged. His mother said he arrived in Cairo in May, countering implications that he was involved in protests as early as February. The arrest of 27-year-old Ilan Grapel has sparked fears in Israel that relations with Egypt will sour now that Hosni Mubarak has been deposed.[79] Later that year, Egyptian officials admitted Ilan Grapel was not a spy, and he was scheduled for release in exchange for 25 Egyptian prisoners held in Israel.[80]

On 19 June, the military prosecution released the editor-in-chief of Al-Fagr, Adel Hammouda, and journalist Rasha Azab without bail pending further investigation. They were both interrogated on charges of publishing false news that disturbed the peace and negligence in the editorial process. Hammouda was released at around 13 pm, while Azab was released at around 16:30 pm after which she immediately led chants of “down with military rule.”[81] Azab had written an article about a meeting between SCAF and prominent members of an advocacy group against military trials for civilians called “No to Military Trials” in which group members provided SCAF with proof and evidence of military violations against civilians. Azab said that Major General Hassan El-Roweiny was astonished when he saw the pictures and testimonies. She added that El-Roweiny apologized to one of the female witnesses for being violated in military prison, adding that individual actions don’t represent the morals or principles of the army.[81]

On 20 June, Mubarak’s lawyer, Farid el-Deeb, said that in 2010 the former president underwent “critical surgery” in Heidelberg, Germany to remove his gallbladder and part of his pancreas which were cancerous. el-Deeb told The Associated Press that “there is evidence suggesting that there is a recurrence of cancer and that it has reached the stomach,”. He called Mubarak’s condition “horrible” and said the former leader “doesn’t eat and he loses consciousness quite often.” Mubarak is hospitalized in Sharm el-Sheikh, the Red Sea resort where he has been living since he was removed from power.[82]

On 21 June, Egypt’s military rulers launched an online poll to test the popularity of potential presidential candidates, a move that could be aimed at judging public opinion for former officials who were trying to run for positions of parliament again. The list includes at least four ex-military officers as well as Islamists, judges, diplomats and others. Most have declared that they will run, including two former officers.[83]

On 22 June, Egypt’s cabinet approved a budget for the 2011–2012 fiscal year, boosting spending in social programs to meet the growing demands from the people after the uprising. The budget totals £490.6 billion ($83 billion), reflecting a spending increase of 14.7% over the current fiscal year, while revenues are forecast at $59 billion.[84] On the same day, leaders of the youth wing of the Muslim Brotherhood have split with their elders to form an independent political party. This has deepened the fractures within the group as some of its prominent members have moved towards a more centrist and liberal version of Islamist politics. The new group, the Egyptian Current Party, is expected to advocate the separation of religion from politics, the protection of individual freedoms and the embrace of Islamic morals and culture without the enforcement of Islamic religious law. Its founders, including Islam Lotfy, Mohamed el-Kasaas and Mohamed Abbas, were amongst the young leaders of the Egyptian revolution and broke with the Brotherhood to help lead the first day of protests that brought down Hosni Mubarak.[85]

On 26 June, John McCain and John Kerry visited Egypt at the head of a U.S. business delegation. Both politicians said that it was in America’s national security interests to see that the uprising succeeded. They said that Washington was not interested in dictating policy to Egypt. Instead, the focus was on finding ways to help the Arab world’s most populous nation boost its economy and address the needs of its people.[86]

On 28 June, Egyptian security forces clashed with around 5,000 protesters in central Cairo. According to witnesses and medical officials, dozens of demonstrators were injured. Clouds of tear gas engulfed Tahrir Square as the security forces battled to regain control of the central plaza from the demonstrators, many of whom had family members who were killed during the revolution. The families were frustrated with what they perceived to be the slow prosecution of security officers who were believed to be responsible for the deaths of some 850 protesters during the 18-day uprising in February. As Tuesday’s clashes moved into early Wednesday morning, rocks and shattered glass littered the streets around Tahrir, as protesters chanted “Down with the military junta”. The demonstrators used motorcycles to ferry the injured to safety.[87] According to the Health Ministry some 1,036 people were injured, among them at least 40 policemen. Early the next day there were still some demonstrators who were hurling stones at police near the ministry as commuters went to work. [88]

July

Hundreds of thousands[89] of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 8 July 2011

Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 15 July 2011

Thousands of people protesting on 23 July 2011

Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 29 July 2011

A Facebook page entitled “The Second Egyptian Revolution of Rage” read: “Seeing that the situation, under the leadership of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, is only going from bad to worse, and since the council has proven from day one that public pressure is the most effective policy for achieving the demands of the legitimate revolution, we have decided to take to the streets and squares [once again] and demonstrate throughout Egypt until our demands are met…”[90] On 1 July, tens of thousands of protesters gathered for what they termed the “Friday of Retribution”[91] in Suez, Alexandria and Tahrir Square in Cairo to voice frustrations with the ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for what they perceived to be the slow pace of change five months after Mubarak’s ousting.[92]

On 4 July, an explosion at the pipeline near Nagah in the Sinai Peninsula halted natural gas supplies to Israel and Jordan. This was the third attack on Egyptian gas pipelines since Mubarak was removed from power.[93] There was also a failed attempt to attack the pipeline in March.[93]

On 8 July, hundreds of thousands of protesters gathered for what they called the “Friday of Determination”[89] or the “March of the Million” in Suez, Alexandria, Cairo and other cities. They demanded immediate reforms and swifter prosecution of former officials from the ousted government. Revolutionaries in Tahrir square also began another sit-in which is still[when?] ongoing.

Most of Egypt’s political parties and coalitions supported widespread calls for the protest to be staged across Egypt.[94] The protesters hoped to start a “second revolution”.[94] The main demand of these groups is to combine efforts toward achieving the goals of the revolution, including: banning the trial of civilians by military courts; setting a minimum wage; bringing Mubarak, his sons and the senior officials to justice quickly; banning former National Democratic Party (NDP) members from political activity for five years; releasing all political prisoners; purging the police, the legal system, the media, the universities and the banks of members of the former regime; electing new municipal councils; stopping the export of natural gas to Israel;[90]the arrest and trial of those responsible for killing protesters; and restructuring the ministry of interior. An employee of the Suez Canal University said that in Ismailiya, there were also protests for higher wages and stable employment contracts.[89] Protesters also called for the removal of Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, who was said to be emblematic of the old regime.[94]

Several stages have been set up by the Revolution Youth Coalition (a coalition of liberal parties and movements), the Muslim Brotherhood, the Wafd party and leftist parties in order to organise the protests. As the Muslim Brotherhood’s stage was the highest and largest, many protesters complained that they were attempting to gain an unfair advantage over the other political parties. These accusations were also compounded by the Muslim Brotherhood’s opposition to a sit-in called by other political groups to pressure the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) into meeting their demands. Though the Muslim Brotherhood decided to join the protests only two days before the event, it said that it would avoid the sit-in and leave by 17:00. The event was used to rally support for the various groups by organizing their own tents and passing out paraphernalia.[89]

On 9 July, Minister of Interior Mansour Essawy sacked the head of the Suez Security Police Osama El-Taweel and appointed Adel Abd El-Hamid as his replacement following clashes between families of those killed during the revolution and the Suez police. The clashes, in turn, followed accusations that the head of the Suez police had helped the police officers accused of killing protesters to escape trial after a court ruling released the officers on bail.[95] Prime Minister Essam Sharaf also responded to the protests, saying that any member of the security forces who was accused of killing protesters would be sacked: “I have issued new instructions as a matter of urgency for the minister of interior to suspend any officers implicated in the killing of protesters. I have also demanded a swift return to the highest levels of security on the streets of Egypt to make them safe again and give our citizens the dignity they deserve.”[96] On the night of 10 July, gunmen blew up an Egyptian natural gas pipeline to Israel and Jordan in the town of El-Arish in the Sinai Peninsula.[97] This is the fourth time this has occurred this year and the second time in less than a week

On 11 July, Prime Minister Essam Sharaf made a televised statement reassuring protesters that the government would respond to public demands and also included a timeline in which these demands would be met. The changes included a new cabinet to be formed within one week and a change in provincial governors before the end of the month. The protesters responded with calls for a million-man march the following day and continuation of their sit-in in Tahrir Square. The Muslim Brotherhood responded that they will not participate in the sit-in. The next morning the SCAF issued a statement,[98] which was perceived as aggressive.[99]

On 13 July, state television reported that Egypt’s government had met a key demand of protesters by firing nearly 700 top police officers in order to cleanse the discredited and widely unpopular force.[100] It was also reported that 37 of the dismissed officers face charges of killing protesters. Among those dismissed were 505 major-generals, including 10 of the interior minister’s top assistants, 82 colonels and 82 brigadiers.[100]

On 14 July, Mubarak told prosecutors that he did not order security forces to open fire on protesters during the initial uprising in February. Transcripts of prosecutors questioning Mubarak were published in two Egyptian newspapers, and judicial officials confirmed the authenticity of the documents.[101] Mubarak said he issued clear instructions for police not to use force against the protesters. He also denied charges that he ordered or had knowledge of security forces firing on the demonstrators.[101]

On 16 July, Maj. Gen. Tarek el-Mahdi briefly visited a protest camp in Tahrir Square but left after protesters, some holding shoes in anger, booed him off a stage. He had come to persuade a dozen demonstrators to end a hunger strike which had begun several days ago. El-Mahdi later told state television that he was disappointed that a small crowd of protesters managed to drive him out of the square before he could reach the tent housing the hunger strikers.[102] Prime Minister Essam Sharaf also accepted the resignation of Foreign Minister Mohammed el-Orabi. He then appointed two new deputies, one of which was prominent economist and former head of the U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, Hazem el-Biblawi.[102]

On 17 July, Sharaf named 12 new Cabinet members. State television dubbed the new government lineup the “Revolution Cabinet”. Most of the ministers were newcomers as the government sought to placate further criticism by the protesters. Despite the cabinet reshuffle, many of the protesters said that they had no intention of calling off their week-old sit-in.[103] One of the prominent members of the “Revolution Cabinet” is the Chief of Antiquities Zahi Hawass. Hawass is a prominent member of Egypt’s archaeological community, but has been the target of protests himself. These protests were begun by archaeology students who accused him of falsely claiming publicity for himself and corruption. Sharaf also accepted the resignation of Finance Minister Samir Radwan (the reason for his resignation was because his new budget was deemed by many protesters to be too conservative in dealing with the poverty which had been one of the main catalysts of the uprising) and the foreign minister, who was replaced by the former ambassador to Saudi Arabia, Mohammed Kamel Omar. Radwan’s position was taken by economist Hazem el-Biblawi, who had also been appointed deputy prime minister. There were also changes in the ministries of transport, military production, higher education, communication, agriculture, health, religious endowments, local development, trade and industry and civil aviation, with ministers being replaced.[103]

On 21 July, the SCAF announced that it would bar foreign monitors in the upcoming parliamentary election because of what it claimed was the preservation of Egyptian sovereignty.[104]

On 23 July, thousands of protesters tried to march to the Defense Ministry of Egypt in Cairo when they were attacked by groups of men wielding knives, sticks, stones and Molotov cocktails.It was the second time in two days that crowds had tried to march to the headquarters[107] located in Heliopolis. The march started moving from Tahrir Square at 4:00 pm, picking up more and more protesters as the march went onto Ramsis and then to the eastern Abbasiya neighbourhood, where it was stopped by army barricades.[105] The march was a reaction to the SCAF accused 6 April Youth Movement and Kefaya of treason and that their movements are harming “national interests” a day earlier. The violence broke out following a televised speech commemorating the 1952 coup by Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi, head of the ruling military council, who attempted to defuse tensions by praising young people who led the uprising that toppled Mubarak. The clashes broke out after civilians threw rocks from rooftops in adjacent buildings. Many in the crowd were thought by protesters to be thugs but some residents of the Abbassiya district were fearful protests in their neighborhood were obstructing business and normalcy. State media said the civilians fighting with the demonstrators were from “people’s committees” protecting the neighborhood and the army had maintained all self-restraint, blaming the violence on protesters. Some Abbasiya residents appeared to believe protesters were seeking to create rifts between the army and the people.[106] Military police, armed with Tasers and batons, fired in the air to stop the demonstrators from approaching the Defense Ministry. A Reuters witness said tear gas fumes were wafting outside the area as military helicopters circled overhead. The Health Ministry stated a total of 231 people were wounded in the violence.[110]

August

On 1 August, the first day of Ramadan, Egyptian soldiers clashed with protesters in Tahrir Square, tearing down tents the activists had used for the sit-in and where hundreds of protesters had been sleeping in the square since 8 July.[111] Egyptian forces swinging electrified batons and shouting the battle cry “God is greater” swiftly chased off dozens of activists who had refused to end four weeks of renewed protests at Tahrir Square to pressure the country’s transitional military rulers. Hundreds of riot police backed by armored vehicles and soldiers moved in to tear down the camp of dozens of tents after a group of holdout activists — some of them relatives of people killed in the uprising that toppled Hosni Mubarak in February — refused pleas over loudspeakers to go home. Some in the crowd hurled stones at the police.[112] Protesters’ rights groups said that the military police detained 66 people in the process.[113] The removal of the Tahrir sit-in was a calculated political move. Average citizens had been growing weary of the lack of mobility in the central square, so when the military showed up on early Monday afternoon they were met with cheers. Most Egyptians supported the military’s actions.[114]

The trial of Hosni Mubarak and his two sons Ala’a and Gamal, along with former interior minister Habib el-Adly and six former top police officials began on 3 August 2011 at a temporary criminal court at the Police Academy in north Cairo. The charges were corruption and the premediated killing of peaceful protestors during the mass movement to oust him, the latter of which carries the death penalty.[115] The trial was broadcast on Egyptian television, with Mubarak making a surprise first appearance since his resignation, brought in on a hospital bed and held in a cage for the session. Upon reading out the charges to him, Mubarak pleaded not guilty, denying responsibility for the charges against him. Judge Ahmed Refaat adjourned the court, ruling that Mubarak be transferred under continued arrest to the military hospital on the outskirts of Cairo, with the second session scheduled for 15 August.[116]

The trials of Mubarak and el-Adly were separated after the first session, and a second hearing was held for el-Adly’s case on 4 August to release evidence regarding the killings of protesters. After hearing the complaints and requests of the defense lawyers, Judge Refaat proceeded to open numerous boxes of evidence for screening before the lawyers and audience. The evidence included documents of the Central Security Forces, their unit formations and organization, operational police logs and details of orders received and carried out during the protests, a jacket and pants of one of the victims of the protests riddled with bullet holes, guns, spent ammunition casings and grenades used during the protests. At the end of the hearing, Judge Refaat adjourned the trial to 14 August.[117][118]

The conduct of individual defense lawyers in both sessions was widely criticized, being somewhat unruly and disorderly, and Judge Refaat demanded at least once during the second hearing that they assume order.[118] That day, Interior Minister Mansour el-Esawy issued several warnings for police officers not to salute or greet el-Adly and the other accused men, and threatened that he would place the officers under investigation if they did so again.[119]

On Friday, 6 August, protesters gathered in Tahrir once again, this time to hold a funeral prayer for one who died during the Abasseya clashes. Around 200 attended, and were prevented from moving to Tahrir Square. Later during the day, a festive iftar was held in the square by protesters. After finishing, they were attacked by military police and central security forces, who dispersed them using force.[120][121][122]

On 14 August, Asmaa Mahfouz was arrested on charges of defaming the Egyptian military junta for calling them a “council of dogs”. She was referred to a military court, prompting activists, as well as presidential hopefuls such as Mohamed ElBaradei and Ayman Nour, to protest her being charged in a military court.[123] Mahfouz was released on bail in the amount of 20,000 Egyptian Pounds, equivalent to approximately 3,350 US dollars.

September

See also: 2011 Israeli embassy attack

Tens of thousands[126] of people protesting on 9 September 2011

On 9 September, tens of thousands of protesters gathered for what they called the “Friday of Correcting the Path”[126] (or the “Correct the Path”) in Suez, Alexandria, Cairo, and other cities, in the absence of supporters of Islamic political movements.[127]

The major demands of the Friday were relieving the Mansour el-Essawy (The current Minister of the Interior),[127] maintaining independence of the judiciary,[127] closing the Israeli embassy in Cairo, amending the laws of the People’s Assembly and Shura Council,[127] and stopping military trials for civilians that began under the SCAF.

After gathering in Tahrir Square, the protest moved to the MOI, then to the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt, and finally towards the Israeli embassy. The 2011 Israeli embassy attack occurred later in Cairo, when Egyptian protesters entered the Israeli embassy after tearing down the wall surrounding the building that housed it.[128] Police fired tear gas into the crowds.[129] Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Yigal Palmor said that about 3,000 protesters had torn apart the wall,[129] forcing the Israeli ambassador to Egypt to flee.[130] The military restored a state of emergency; Egyptian activists denounced the political manipulation of doing so.

October

See also: Maspero demonstrations

Victims of the 9 October riots.

Late into the evening of 9 October, during a protest that was held in Maspiro,[131] peaceful Egyptian protesters, calling for the dissolution the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the resignation of its chairman, Field Marshal Mohamed Tantawi, and the dismissal of the governor of Aswan province, were attacked by military police. At least 25 people[132] were killed and more than 200 wounded. The protest began due to an attack on a Coptic Christian church in Merinab village in Aswan on 30 September.[133] Aswan governor Mustafa al-Seyyed said that Copts had built the church without having the proper permits.[133] The 9 October attack was committed by both the Egyptian police force and military police[134] using live ammunition,[135] vehicles to run over protesters[136] and extensive rounds of tear gas were fired.[134]

The Army also stormed Al-Hurra TV station and 25 January TV stations, and took them off air.[137] The State Media, which has become biased to military junta, asked on “honorable” Egyptians to protect the army against attacks by “Coptic protesters”[138] even though the protesters were not only Copts.[134]

November

 

Man injured in clashes between Egyptian police and protesters angry at army’s continuing political influence in Cairo, 20 November 2011

See also: Egyptian parliamentary election, 2011–2012

In November 2011, dissatisfied with the progress of the reforms, almost all civilian political parties called for an accelerated end to the military rule before drafting a constitution — either an immediate handover to a civilian-led government, or a turnover to the lower house of Parliament when it is seated in April, or after a presidential election, which would be scheduled as soon as possible. A major difference between Egyptian revolutionaries is that secular groups want the election to be postponed since they believe that the election would favor religious parties and well established groups like the Muslim Brotherhood while those parties want the parliamentary elections to be held on time. On the other hand they are united in their demand that the military should get out of politics and stop imposing restrictions on the future constitution and allow democratically elected representatives of Egyptians to freely write the new constitution.[139][140][141]

The protesters are demanding the SCAF to step down from governing and politics, and hand over the authority to civilians. Other demands include banning former members of Hosni Mubarak‘s regime from running in the next election, and rejection of the military’s super-constitution (which restricts the power of the future elected representative in writing the new constitution, gives the military the power to select up to 80 percent of the membership committee that writes the new constitution, and removes the possibility of civilian control of the military and Egypt’s foreign policy which will allow the military to act as a state within a state in Egypt, a system similar to Turkey’s Deep State before democratic reforms). The protesters state that the situation has not improved during the last 10 months under military government. Media and freedom of expression has become even more restricted, civilian political activists are being tried in military courts for insulting military, human rights situation has not improved, the emergency law (which gives government extra-ordinary powers and the right to ignore laws) continues, and the military junta continues to use the same methods that Mubarak was using. They are also angry at Field Marshal Tantavi’s statement announced on TV which implies that military wants to remain involved in politics and will not return to barracks even after presidential elections.

On 19 November, two people were killed and 600 wounded in violent clashes after mass protests in Tahrir Square against the military junta regime. The protests started in reaction to the military unilaterally announcing a super-constitution that representatives elected for writing the constitution will not be able to change.

Egyptian medics say a police and army assault on anti-government protesters in Cairo has killed at least three people, raising the death toll in Egypt to at least five killed in two days of unrest. Police in Cairo lobbed teargas into crowds of protesters angry at the military government’s continued role in political life. Demonstrators kept control of Tahrir Square Sunday morning, and vowed to keep their revolution alive.[145]

Protesters demanding faster reforms and establishment of civilian government took to the Tahrir square in Cairo, and also in other cities, and clashed with the security forces. On 21 November 2011, after several days of violent demonstrations in which more than 33 protesters lost their lives[146] and over 1,500 were wounded, the provisional government offered its resignation to the supreme military council in reaction to the use of force against the protesters.[139]

At a crisis meeting on 22 November 2011 between the political and the military leaders, the parties agreed for a new interim government to be formed, and to proceed with the scheduled parliamentary election on 28 November, with a goal of holding a presidential election before the end of June 2012.[147] Also on the same day, the US State Department condemned the excessive use of force against the demonstrators by the Egyptian security forces.[148]

December

Since Kamal Ganzouri was appointed prime minister, there has been a three-week protest sit-in, outside a government building near Tahrir square.[149]In the morning of 16 December 2011, the army attempted to forcefully disperse the protesters. In the following days, 7 people were killed and violence has escalated.

On 19 December, Hillary Clinton US Secretary of State in a speech at Georgetown University in Washington, denounced the stripping and beating of a female protester and said that ‘recent events in Egypt have been particularly shocking’ and “women are being beaten and humiliated in the same streets where they risked their lives for the revolution only a few short months ago.”[152]

On 20 December, thousands of Egyptian women demonstrated against abuses by military police.[153]

2012

January

On 5 January 2012, a prosecutor in the trial of Hosni Mubarak demanded that Mubarak be hanged, for the killing of protesters, during the 2011 uprising, that toppled his regime. On 11 January, the parliamentary elections were officially over. On 24 January, the leader of Egypt, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, announced that the decades-old State of Emergency would be partially lifted, the following day.

February

On 1 February, 73 people were killed at a football game, in a stadium in Port Said. The riots began when fans of the team El Masry invaded the stadium, some of them carrying knives, and attacked fans of the rival team, Al Ahly. Initial media reports stated that more than 70 people were killed, with the death toll rising.

Numerous protests then took place, following this event. On Thursday, 2 February, protesters took to the streets of Cairo, enraged by the fact that the lax security had failed in preventing this tragedy from happening. Some of the protesters were heard chanting that Tantawi should be executed. The police then deployed tear gas, on the protesters.

March

On 17 March, Pope Shenouda III died, at the age of 88. His passing greatly affected the entire nation of Egypt, and especially the Coptic Christian community.

On 24 March, numerous protesters took to the streets, angry that the football team El-Masry was banned for two more seasons, following the riots last month. The army then attacked the protesters. At least one person was killed, and at least 18 others were injured.

April

On 20 April, hundreds, possibly even thousands, of protesters once again gathered in Cairo’s Tahrir Square, demanding that the country’s military rulers transfer power to a civilian government, sooner. They also wanted the Field Marshal, and leader of Egypt’s military, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, to step down.

On 14 April, several candidates in the upcoming presidential election were disqualified, for various reasons.

May

On 23–24 May, the first round of voting in the presidential elections took place. Many people went to the polls, to vote. The two candidates with the highest amount of votes were the Muslim Brotherhood’s replacement candidate, Mohammed Morsi, and Hosni Mubarak’s last Prime MinisterAhmed Shafik.

On 31 May, the decades-old State of Emergency was finally completely lifted, in Egypt.

June

On 2 June, former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was sentenced to life in prison, for complicity in the killings of protesters by police, during the revolution that eventually toppled him, in 2011. However, the judge also found him not guilty, on corruption charges. This, and the fact that he had not received the death penalty, led numerous protesters to immediately take to the streets, directly after the verdict was announced. On 14 June, Egypt’s Constitutional Court ruled that a law preventing members of Hosni Mubarak’s former government from running for President was unconstitutional, therefore letting Ahmed Shafik remain in the presidential race. The court also ruled that the mainly Islamist-led Parliament, should be dissolved. Both of these verdicts also led to protests, as well.

On 16–17 June, the second round of voting in the presidential elections took place. Both candidates claimed that they had won the election, and each accused the other of cheating. The results of the presidential election were initially going to be officially announced, on Thursday, 21 June. However, this date was later postponed.

On 18 June, the Muslim Brotherhood announced that its candidate, Mohammed Morsi, had won the election. On the same day, the ruling military junta, (which is scheduled to transfer power to the newly-elected President on 30 June), made a statement, in which they severely restricted the powers, of the Presidency. This led to huge protests in Tahrir Square, the biggest since those that eventually ousted Mubarak, more than a year earlier. Many of the protesters were members of the Muslim Brotherhood. On 19 June, the protests continued. Protesters rallied in Tahrir Square in Cairo, accusing the SCAF of planning a coup, and demanding that it back down.[154]

The results of the presidential election were officially announced, on Sunday, 24 June. It was announced that Morsi had narrowly beat Shafik, gaining 52% of the votes, while Shafik got 48% of them. Right after this announcement, the Morsi supporters in Tahrir Square celebrated their victory. It has also been noted, that this is the first time since Hosni Mubarak’s resignation, on 11 February 2011, that celebrations of this magnitude have occurred, in Egypt. However, even after the results of the presidential election were announced, numerous protesters still remained, in Tahrir Square. They were protesting the apparent power grab, by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.

On 30 June 2012, Mohammed Morsi was sworn in, as the 5th President of Egypt. This marks the first time in Egypt’s history that a civilian President has been elected, by the people. In the past, all of the other Presidents were either from the military, or had a military background.

For a documentation of the third wave of the 2011-2012 Egyptian revolution, which began with Morsi inauguration, see Timeline of the 2011–2012 Egyptian revolution under the Muslim Brotherhood.

 

Timeline of the 2011–13 Egyptian civil unrest under Mohamed Morsi (July–October 2012)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Mohamed Morsi (July–October 2012))

This article is about the events following the 2011 Egyptian revolution culminating in the election of Mohamed Morsi. For the full sequence of events following 2011 revolution, see Aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

2011 Egyptian revolution (Third wave)
Part of Aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution
Date 30 June 2012 – 22 November 2012
Location  Egypt
30°2′N 31°13′ECoordinates30°2′N 31°13′E
Causes Mohamed Morsi‘s decree that immunised his actions from any legal challenge
Goals
  • Withdrawal of Morsi’s decree[1]
  • Cancellation of referendum on draft constitution[1]
  • Overhaul of the Islamist-dominated constitutional assembly[1]
Methods
Parties to the civil conflict
 Egyptian opposition  Government of Egypt

Muslim Brotherhood

Lead figuresMohammed Morsi
(President of Egypt)
Mohammed Badie
(Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood)
Hesham Qandil
(Prime Minister of Egypt)
Mohamed al-Guindi
(Minister of Justice)Casualties34 killed[2]

The following is a chronological summary of the major events that occurred during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, after Mohamed Morsi’s election as the fifth President of Egypt, on 30 June 2012. This article documents the third wave of the 2011-2012 Egyptian revolution.

Pre-Morsi’s election

Under Mubarak

Further information: Timeline of the 2011–2012 Egyptian revolution under Hosni Mubarak’s rule

Under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces

Further information: Timeline of the 2011–2012 Egyptian revolution under Supreme Council of the Armed Forces

See also: Egyptian parliamentary election, 2011–2012

See also: Egyptian Shura Council election, 2012

See also: Egyptian presidential election, 2012

Post-Morsi’s election

2012

July

On 8 July, Mohamed Morsi issued a decree calling back into session the dissolved parliament for July 10, 2012. Morsi’s decree also called for new parliamentary elections to be held within 60 days of the adoption of a new constitution for the country, which is tentatively expected for late 2012. A constitutional assembly selected by the erstwhile parliament has been formed and has begun the work of drafting the constitution. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces hold an emergency meeting in response to the decree, but adjourn the meeting without making an announcement.

On 9 July, Egyptian President Mohammed Mursi’s order to reconvene parliament was rejected by Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court which said after meeting on July 9, 2012 said that all its rulings and decisions, including its judgement that part of the election for parliament was unconstitutional and which led in return to the assembly’s dissolution by the SCAF, are final, not subject to appeal and binding for all state institutions. With its ruling the court asserted that Morsi had no right to reconvene parliament after the court ordered it dissolved in June 2012.[8][9][10] Though the constituent assembly tasked with drawing up Egypt’s new constitution is currently functioning, after being selected by the dissolved parliament, the SCAF also gave itself the power to choose a new assembly if the current one runs into any problems according to Al Jazeera.[9] In its 2012-07-09 statement the military council said its constitutional declaration which gave it broad powers “came as a result of the political, legal and constitutional circumstances that the country was facing” and added that the declaration “ensures the continuity of state institutions and the [military council] until a news constitution is drafted”. The military said it was “confident” that all state institutions will respect constitutional declarations.[9]

On 10 July, Egypt’s parliament convened despite dissolution, but the session was adjourned by Speaker Saad al-Katatni after the members of parliament approved Katatni’s proposal that the parliament seek legal advice from the Court of Cassation on how to implement the supreme court’s ruling. Thousands gathered in Cairo in protest of a ruling by Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court to freeze the decree issued by President Mohamed Morsi to reinstate the Islamist-led parliament.[11][12][13][14][15][16] While the Supreme Constitutional Court ruled that Morsi did not have the right to reconstitute the body,[16] it also threatened the new president with the equivalent of contempt of court if he continued to reject its decisions.[17] Parliament asked Egypt’s Court of Cassation to essentially overrule the aspect of the Supreme Constitutional Court’s decision holding that the whole Parliament must be immediately dissolved because of flaws in the electoral system used to fill a third of the seats. The Administrative Court (whose function is the review of executive actions), besides the Supreme Constitutional Court (whose function is the review of statutes) and Court of Cassation (whose function is the handling of appeals of lower court rulings) one of the three highest Courts in Egypt, is also weighing that question and has said it will issue its own ruling on July 17.[17]

On 11 July, Egypt’s President Mohamed Morsi declared he will seek dialogue with political forces and judicial authorities to resolve the row over the dissolved parliament. He also said that he will respect Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court ruling that blocked his decision to call the nation’s parliament back into session.

On 14 July, the parliament’s request to examine Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court ruling that dissolved the Islamist-led assembly was rebuffed by the Court of Cassation. Egypt’s highest appeals court unanimously ruled on July 14, 2012 it has no jurisdiction over the implementation of the June 14, 2012 constitutional court ruling.[20][21][22][23]

On 16 July, more than 20000 workers at Egypt’s largest textiles manufacturing company, which saw major strikes in 2006 and 2008, began their first day of strikes demanding an increase in wages and more government investment in their sector.[24]

On 19 July, the Administrative Judiciary Court of the State Council put on hold all appeals against the formulation of the Constituent Assembly, tasked with drafting a new constitution, until the court decides on July 30, 2012 on suits calling for a change of the judge presiding over the case. The court was also looking at a case filed against the supplementary constitutional decree released by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces days before President Mohamed Morsi’s inauguration, and another against the president’s decision to bring back the People’s Assembly, parliament’s lower house that SCAF dissolved after the Supreme Constitutional Court ruled the parliamentary elections law unconstitutional. The court ruled lack of jurisdiction on both cases and referred the latter back to the Supreme Constitutional Court.Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi ordered to release 572 people detained by the Egyptian military in the 2011 protests, and reduced the sentence of 16 others from life sentence to seven years in jail.

On 30 July, the Administrative Judiciary Court of the State Council ruled on 30 July to postpone the case calling for the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly to 24 Septembe, giving the assembly enough time to complete the drafting of Egypt’s new constitution.

August

On 2 August, the first Cabinet under President Mohamed MorsI headed by Prime Minister Hesham Kandil was sworn in.

On 5 August, 2012 Egyptian–Israeli border attack. Following this event Egypt’s President Morsi fired his intelligence chief, the head of the military police, several Interior Ministry officials, the head of the presidential guard and the governor of North Sinai,[40] while the President during a trip to the border region vowed with respect to the victims of the attack. “We will never, ever rest until we take revenge and bring back justice to those killed.”[41]

On 8 August, following the 2012 Egyptian–Israeli border attack Egyptian forces launched aerial strikes on militants in response to a series of attacks by masked gunmen on military checkpoints as part of a broader operation against Islamist militant organizations in the Sinai Peninsula.[40][42][43][44][45]

On 12 August, Morsi asked Mohamad Hussein Tantawi, head of the country’s armed forces, and Sami Anan, the Army chief of staff, to resign[46] and Morsi assumed legislative powers Morsi’s spokesman, Yasser Ali, announced that both Tantawi and Anan would remain advisers to the president. Tantawi and Anan were kept on as “special counsels to the president” with undisclosed roles and were given Egypt’s highest state honour, the Grand Collar of the Nile. Morsi named Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, currently serving as chief of military intelligence, as Egypt’s new defense minister. He also replaced Egypt Chief of Staff Lieutenant General Sami Hafez Anan with General Sedki Sobhi.[58] GeneralMohamed al-Assar, a member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, was named an assistant defense minister.Morsi also pushed out the chiefs of the navy, the air force and the air defense branch of Egypt armed forces.[47][52] More specifically Vice Admiral Mohab Mamish, Commander of the Egyptian Navy; Lieutenant General Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeen, Commander of the Egyptian Air Defense Forces; and Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez, Commander of the Egyptian Air Force were relieved from duty and moved on to civilian roles.[53] Morsi said his decisions had not been intended to humiliate military.[60] “I never meant to antagonize anyone,” Morsi said. “We go on to new horizons, with new generations, with new blood that has long been awaited.”[47] “I want the armed forces to devote themselves to a mission that is holy to all of us, which is protecting the nation,” he said in a televised address.[49] “The decisions I took today were not meant ever to target certain persons, nor did I intend to embarrass institutions, nor was my aim to narrow freedoms,” he said. “I did not mean to send a negative message about anyone, but my aim was the benefit of this nation and its people.”[52][61] Morsi also announced that the constitutional amendments passed by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) that had gutted the authority of his office, and replaced it with his own declaration, one that gave him broad legislative and executive powers and a decisive role in the drafting of Egypt’s still unfinished new constitution.[47][62] In addition Morsi appointed a senior judge and Muslim Brotherhood favorite, Mahmoud Mekki, as his vice president.[58] The new constitutional decree Morsy released is made up of just four articles.[53][63] Among the powers Morsi assumed are the power to select a new panel to write Egypt’s constitution, if the current panel could finish its work, and the full power to author, approve, and promulgate legislation. This marked the “completion of Egyptian revolution,” said an unidentified spokesman according to the Jerualem Post.[58] The New York Times described the move as an “upheaval” and a “stunning purge”, given the power that SCAF had taken after the fall of Mubarak.[59] Morsi’s moves triggered support for and protest against his August 12 decisions,[65][66] while legal experts questioned legitimacy of Morsi’s constitutional changes[64][67] and conflicting reports emerged from military officials over whether Morsi consulted with the armed forces regarding his decision to retire Tantawi and Anan.[68] Al Jazeera described it as “escalating the power struggle” between the president and military.[62]

On 14 August 2012, Mohamed Salem, an Egyptian lawyer, filed a legal challenge over Morsi’s removal of Tantawi and Anan, arguing that Morsi planned to bring back the totalitarian regime.[69]

On 23 August, Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi issued a new law cancelling the Mubarak-era practice of temporarily detaining journalists for so-called “publication offences,” including the charge of “offending the president of the republic.” With this law Morsi outlawed the pretrial detention of people accused of press crimes.[73] A Constitutional Declaration issued by Morsi earlier in August 2012 gave the president full legislative powers, which he will command until the election of a new parliament.

September

See also: Reactions to Innocence of Muslims

On 8 September, The Administrative Court of the State Council postponed its decision on the constitutionality of Egypt’s Constituent Assembly until 2 October 2012.

On 11 September, a protest was organized by Wesam Abdel-Wareth, a Salafist leader and president of Egypt’s Hekma television channel, who called for a gathering at 5 pm in front of the United States Embassy, to protest against a film that he thought was named Muhammad’s Trial.[78][79] After the trailer for the film began circulating, Nader Bakkar, the Egyptian Salafist Nour Party‘s spokesman, and Muhammad al-Zawahiri, the brother of al-Qaeda leader Ayman al Zawihiri, called for Egyptians to assemble outside of the American embassy.[80] About 3,000 demonstrators, many of them from the ultraconservative Salafist movement, responded to his call. A dozen men were then reported to have scaled the embassy walls, after which one of them tore down the flag of the United States of America and replaced it with a black Islamist flag with the inscription of the shahada: “There is no god but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God”. Some of the protesters also wrote “There is no God but Allah” on the compound walls. According to Sherine Tadros of Al Jazeera, the protestors demanded that the film be taken “out of circulation” and that some of the protestors would stay at the site until that happens. Thousands of Egyptian riot police were at the embassy following the breach of the walls; they eventually persuaded the trespassers to leave the compound without the use of force. After that, only a few hundred protesters remained outside the compound.[81] During the entry into the embassy grounds United States Marines were not allowed to carry live ammunition by the State Department.[82] Egypt’s prime minister Hesham Kandil said “a number” of protesters later confessed to getting paid to participate.[83]

On September 14, in the town of Sheikh Zuwayed in the Sinai Peninsula, protesters stormed a compound of the Multinational Force and Observers, designed to monitor the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. The peacekeeping force opened fire on the protesters. Two members of the peacekeeping force were wounded.Ahmad Fouad Ashoush, a Salafist Muslim cleric, issued a fatwa saying: “I issue a fatwa and call on the Muslim youth in America and Europe to do this duty, which is to kill the director, the producer and the actors and everyone who helped and promoted the film.”[86] Another Muslim cleric, Ahmed Abdullah (aka Abu Islam) tore up the Bible and threw the torn pages on the ground during the September 11 embassy attack.

On 22 September, Egypt’s Supreme Administrative Court upheld on 22 September upheld an earlier Supreme Constitutional Court ruling, which had ordered the dissolution of the lower house of Egypt’s parliament (People’s Assembly) based on the unconstitutionality of some of the parliamentary elections law. The administrative court said that since the electoral laws on which the People’s Assembly was elected were found to be unconstitutional, the entire composition of the assembly is invalid.[89][90][91][92]

On 23 September, Egypt’s Supreme Administrative Court issued on 23 September 2012 a verdict supporting the right of former members of the now-defunct National Democratic Party (NDP), which was formally disbanded by an administrative court in April 2011, the NDP to run in parliamentary elections.[93]

October

On 1 October, Egypt’s doctors began on Monday a partial strike that lasted for weeks.

On 2 October, The Administrative Court of the State Council postponed its decision on the constitutionality of Egypt’s Constituent Assembly until 9 October 2012.

On 8 October, Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi has ordered pardon for all persons who already have convictions and those who are still under investigation or are on trial for deeds “committed with the aim of supporting the revolution and bringing about its objectives.” The decree included felonies, misdemeanors committed to support the uprising to achieve its goals from January 25, 2011 until June 30, 2012 except crimes of first degree murder and abides the general prosecutor and the military attorney general, each one in his field to publish a list for those given amnesty in the official newspaper. The persons missed can submit a complaint in a month from the date of publication, and one or more committees will be formed to consider the complaints under the presidency of the head of court of cessation within thirty days of the date of the complaints.

On 9 October, The Administrative Court of the State Council postponed its decision on the constitutionality of Egypt’s Constituent Assembly until 16 October 2012 in order to review more documents.[107]

On 10 October, Egypt’s prosecutor general Abdel-Maguid Mahmoud failed to win a conviction of two dozen Mubarak allies charged with orchestrating an attack by thugs on the protesters who ousted Mubarak. Some of the thugs were mounted, and the resulting melee became known as the 2 February 2011 Battle of the Camels where men riding horses and camels charged into crowds on Cairo’s Tahrir Square, setting off two days of clashes that ended with killing of nearly a dozen people.Activist groups and political parties called for a nationwide protest on 12 October 2011 after a court acquitted all 24 people charged with involvement in the Battle of Camels.[110]

On 11 October, Despite the fact that Egyptian law protects the prosecutor general from being ousted by the president, president Morsi ordered Egypt’s prosecutor general Abdel-Maguid Mahmoud to leave his position as prosecutor general to defuse public anger over acquittals in the Battle of the Camels case. Mahmoud however refused to step down and become Egypt’s ambassador to the Vatican, as the law gave immunity to the prosecutor general from being ousted by the president.[108][109][110][111]

On 12 October, Critics and supporters of Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi clashed in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on 12 October 2012 in a small but potent rally, as liberal and secular activists erupted with anger accusing the Muslim Brotherhood of trying to take over the country. The rally sharpened the nation’s tensions over its political direction and the failure to bring loyalists of the former government to justice for their actions during Battle of the CamelsThe clashes erupted between two competing rallies in Tahrir.One was by liberal and secular activists to criticize Morsi’s failure to achieve promises he had made for first 100 days in power and to demand greater diversity on the panel tasked with writing Egypt’s new constitution, the other had been called by Morsi’s Muslim Brotherhood to call for judicial reforms and to support the move by Morsi on 11 October 2012 to remove the prosecutor-general. The secular camp accused the Brotherhood of holding the gathering to “hijack” the square from their anti-Morsi protest. The violence erupted when Morsi supporters stormed a stage set up by the rival camp, angered by chants they perceived as insults to the president.[111]

On 13 October, Egypt’s president Morsi backed down on 13 October 2012 from his decision to remove the country’s top prosecutor Abdel-Maguid Mahmoud, keeping him in his post and sidestepping a potential clash with the country’s powerful judiciary. The two-day standoff between President Mohammed Morsi and Prosecutor General Abdel-Meguid Mahmoud escalated with a backlash from a powerful group of judges who said Morsi’s move had infringed upon their authority and on the judiciary’s independence.Egypt’s Vice President Mahmoud Mekki told reporters after meeting the prosecutor that the president agreed to suspend the decision to make Mahmoud Egypt’s ambassador to the Vatican following a request from the country’s Supreme Judicial Council. Mekki said the presidency had announced the decision to make Mahmoud Egypt’s ambassador to the Vatican after initially understanding that Mahmoud had agreed to step down as Prosecutor General. After meeting Morsi and his advisers, Mahmoud told The Associated Press that “a misunderstanding” had been resolved.[118]

On 16 October, The Administrative Court of the State Council postponed its decision on the constitutionality of Egypt’s Constituent Assembly until 23 October 2012.[119][120]

On 23 October, Egypt’s Supreme Administrative Court in Cairo referred the law regulating the Constituent Assembly to the Supreme Constitutional Court and hence suspended the hearing of lawsuits that sought the dissolution of the assembly charged with drafting the country’s new constitution.Plaintiffs from 48 lawsuits demanded the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly claiming the assembly failed to proportionately represent various social sectors, and violated Egypt’s interim constitution by including MPs as members.[125] More specifically, the Administrative Court referred Law 79/2012, which granted the assembly immunity from dissolution, to the Supreme Constitutional Court, which will rule on the law based on the Constitutional Declaration that has governed the country since the fall of former President Hosni Mubarak. Egypt’s parliament had approved the law on the same day of its formation two days before Parliament was dissolved. However, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces refused to pass the law. After decreeing the return of the People’s Assembly, President Mohamed Morsy approved the stalled law to prevent the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly.[125] Judge Nazih Tangho of the High Administrative Court referred the case to the Constitutional Court to look into the law that gave the constitutional panel legal immunity, a clause he said needed vetting because no one should be above legal supervision. “The law was meant to prevent the High Administrative Court from looking into appeals … against the panel,” he said.[126] Muslim Brotherhood lawyer Abdel Moneim Abdel Maqsoud stated that the Supreme Constitutional Court needed at least two months to rule on the case, citing the law that obliged it to consider the cases 45 days after its referral.[125]

 

 

This article is about the events following the 2011 Egyptian revolution after Mohamed Morsi’s decree. For the preceding events, see Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Mohamed Morsi (July–October 2012). For the full timeline, see Timeline of the 2011–13 Egyptian civil unrest.

2012–13 Egyptian protests
Part of the Arab Spring and the aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution
Demonstrators in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on the morning of 27 November 2012
Date 22 November 2012 – 3 July 2013
(7 months, 1 week and 4 days)
Location  Egypt
30°2′N 31°13′ECoordinates30°2′N 31°13′E
Goals
  • Withdrawal of Morsi’s decree[1]
  • Cancellation of referendum on draft constitution[1]
  • Overhaul of the Islamist-dominated constitutional assembly[1]
  • Resignation of President Mohamed Morsi
  • Overthrow of the Qandil Cabinet
Methods
Result
  • 2013 Egyptian coup d’état
  • Mohamed Morsi overthrown and placed under house arrest.
  • Arrest of senior Muslim Brotherhood and Salafist figures.
  • Crackdown on pro-Muslim Brotherhood media.[2]
  • Constitution suspended.
  • Adly Mansour becomes acting president.
  • Call for a new election to be determined by the interim government.
  • Continued protests, mainly pro-Morsi.
Parties to the civil conflict
 Egyptian Armed Forces
Supported by:

 Muslim Brotherhood

Supported by:
al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya(Party)[20]
Other Islamists

Lead figures
Casualties
28 killed (17–22 November 2012);[21]
59[22]–60+[23] killed (25 January–3 February 2013);
40 killed[24] (23 June–3 July 2013)

On November 22, 2012, tens of thousands of protesters started to demonstrate against president Mohamed Morsi,[25] after Morsi’s government issued a temporary constitutional declaration that in effect granted the president unlimited powers.[26] Morsi deemed the decree necessary to protect the elected constituent assembly from a planned dissolution by judges appointed during the Mubarak-era.[27]

The demonstrations were organized by Egyptian opposition organizations and individuals, mainly liberals, leftists, secularists andChristians.[28][29] The demonstrations have resulted in violent clashes between Morsi-supporters and the anti-Morsi protesters, with dozens of deaths and hundreds of injuries.[30] Demonstrators gathered outside the presidential palace, which in turn was surrounded by tanks and armored vehicles of the Republican Guard.[1] The anti-Morsi protesters in Cairo were estimated at 200,000, while over 100.000 supporters of Morsi gathered in Cairo to show support.[31] A number of Morsi’s advisers resigned in protest, and many judges spoke out against his actions as well.[1] Resignations were tendered by the director of state broadcasting, Rafik Habib (Christian vice president of the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party), and Zaghloul el-Balshi (general secretary of the commission overseeing the planned constitutional referendum).[32] Seven members of Morsi’s 17-member advisory panel resigned in December 2012.[33]

On 8 December 2012, Morsi annulled his temporary decree which had expanded his presidential authority and removed judicial review of his decrees, an Islamist official said, but added that the results of the temporary declaration would still stand.[34] George Isaac of the Constitution Party said that Morsi’s declaration did not offer anything new, the National Salvation Front rejected it as an attempt to save face, and the April 6 Movement and Gamal Fahmi of the Egyptian Journalists Syndicate said the new declaration failed to address the “fundamental” problem of the nature of the assembly that the opposition boycotted.[34]

On December 22, the Constitution supported by Morsi was approved by 64% of the voters in a national referendum with the opposition claiming fraud in the process and calling for an inquiry.

By 30 June, on the first anniversary of the election of Morsi, tens of thousands of Morsi opponents massed in Tahrir Square and outside the main presidential palace in the Heliopolis suburb demanding Morsi’s resignation.[39] Demonstrations were also reported to be in progress in 18 locations across Cairo[40] and in other different locations across the country including Alexandria, El-Mahalla and cities of the Suez Canal.[41][42] The demonstrations are described as being backed by multiple entities, including the Tamarod movement formed by members of the Egyptian Movement for Change in April 2013 that claims to have collected 22 million signatures calling for President Morsi’s resignation.[43][44]

On the night of 3 July, after a warning 48 hours earlier to intervene, the Egyptian Armed Forces came out with a statement announcing the end of Mohammed Morsi’s presidency. In the same statement, the military announced that the constitution was suspended, that a presidential election would be held soon, the chief justice of the constitutional court, Adly Mansour, is now head of the government and that a transitional technocratic government would be formed until the election.[45]

In protest of the partially popular coup,[47] supporters of the ousted President Morsi staged large demonstrations in the Nasr City district of Cairo, and in Alexandria, Luxor, Damanhour and Suez.[48]

After the military coup of 30 June 2013, the Egyptian army cracked down on public media and shut down several news outlets that it deemed pro-morsi, including al-Jazeera.[49]

In what many have deemed a massacre,[50][51] hundreds of pro-Morsi demonstrators have since been killed in army crackdowns and attacks on pro-Morsi demonstrations.In many cases the army has denied shooting at demonstrators with live ammunition, contrary to eyewitnesses and first hand accounts of western news outlets and local residents.

Background

On 22 November 2012, Morsi issued a constitutional declaration purporting to protect the Constituent Assembly of Egypt from judicial interference. The declaration stated that it only applies until a new constitution is ratified.[59] The declaration also requires new trials for people acquitted of Mubarak-era killings of protesters, and extends the mandate of the constituent assembly by two months. Additionally, the declaration authorizes Morsi to take all measures necessary to these ends.[60]

In effect, the declaration makes all constitutional declarations, laws and decrees made since Morsi assumed power immune to appeal by any individual, political or governmental body. Demonstrations both in support of and opposing Morsi broke out around Egypt after the declaration was made.

Timeline

November 2012

See also: Manfalut railway accident and Mohamed Morsi#November_2012_declaration

Sometime between 18 November and 21 November 2012, secular groups walked out of the constitutional constituent assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while members of the Muslim Brotherhood supported Morsi and denied such allegations. Protesters battled the police in Cairo’s Mohamed Mahmoud Street[68] over the slow pace of change in Egypt,[67]after thousands of protesters had returned to the streets around Tahrir Square demanding political reforms and the prosecution of officials blamed for killing demonstrators as well as to protest against Morsi and the growing influence of the Muslim Brotherhood.The protests held to commemorate four days of street fighting between protesters and security forces in November 2011 had already turned violent on 19 November 2012.[68][71]

On 22 November, Morsi issued a constitutional declaration and dismissed with it Egypt’s prosecutor general Abdel Maguid Mahmoud who was replaced by Talaat Ibrahim Abdullah. This caused a disagreement amongst Egyptian judges and condemnation from various organizations. His decree was called “an unprecedented attack on judicial independence” by the Supreme Council of the Judiciary. Morsi said that the decree was made to prevent the courts from dissolving the Constitutional Assembly. Three protests were held outside the court building. Mohamed ElBaradei, a former UN diplomat, called for withdrawal of the decree.[76] While the declaration was immediately criticized by Morsi opponents, his supporters defended Morsi’s move.Morsi’s declaration contained the following contents:[61]

All investigations into the killing of protesters or the use of violence against them will be re-conducted; trials of those accused will be re-held. With the declaration a new “protection of the revolution” judicial body was also created to swiftly carry out the prosecutions, but the decree would not lead to retrials of the dozens of lower-level police officers who have been acquitted or received suspended sentences in trials for killing protesters — verdicts that have outraged many Egyptians. That exclusion will guarantee Morsi the loyalty of the powerful but hated police force.[66]

All constitutional declarations, laws and decrees made since Mr Morsi assumed power cannot be appealed or cancelled by any individual, or political or governmental body

The public prosecutor will be appointed by the president for a fixed term of four years, and must be aged at least 40

The constituent assembly’s timeline for drafting the new constitution has been extended by two months.

No judicial authority can dissolve the constituent assembly or the upper house of parliament (Shura Council)

The president is authorised to take any measures he sees fit in order to preserve the revolution, to preserve national unity or to safeguard national security

On 23 November, protests erupted in Cairo, the port city of Alexandria and elsewhere around Egypt, as opponents of President Mohamed Morsi clashed with his supporters over his 22 November 2012 declaration. Protesters torched the offices of Egypt’s ruling Islamist party, the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party, in Suez, Alexandria and other cities. Essam el-Erian, a leading figure of Morsi’s FJP, condemned attacks on party property.[83] Media organizations noted that the events showed Egypt was a divided country Morsi defended amid the protests before his supporters his declaration stating that he was working to secure a strong and stable nation and leading Egypt on a path to “freedom and democracy”.[64][65][84][87]

On 24 November, the Supreme Judicial Council, the highest judicial body in Egypt, joined protesters in lambasting the president’s constitutional declaration and called it an “unprecedented attack on the independence of the judicial branch”. The leadership of the Egypt Judges Club, an association of judges from across the country, called for a nationwide strike in all courts and prosecution offices to protest the president’s declaration. State news media reported that judges and prosecutors had already declared a strike in Alexandria. MENA news agency reported that Egyptian human rights agencies filed a lawsuit at the Court of Administrative Justice calling for the declaration to be annulled. There were also clashes in Cairo between protesters and security forces, between opponents and supporters of the government.

On 25 November, shares on Egypt’s stock market plunged almost 10%. Trading was suspended for 30 minutes as shares slumped in the first session since the president’s November 22 constitutional declaration. The Muslim Brotherhood had called for nationwide protests on November 25 in support of Morsi’s declaration. Judges in two of the country’s 27 provinces, including Alexandria, heeded the call to strike while those elsewhere in the country were meeting to decide their response. After a meeting with Egypt’s justice minister Ahmed Mekki, the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, the highest council overseeing the Egyptian courts, urged judges not to disrupt their work by joining in a proposed strike over the decree. But the council also urged the president to scale back his writ, to limit the immunity from judicial review he decreed for “laws and decisions issued by the president as sovereignty acts”, a reference to Egyptian legal precedents that could justify such executive action in certain circumstances.[94] The Muslim Brotherhood’s party offices in Damanhour, Alexandria, Mansoura, Suez and Cairo were ransacked and damaged in the wake of the November 22 constitutional declaration.[92][94] Five hundred people were injured in clashes with the Egyptian police, and 15-year-old Islam Fathi Masoud died after being hit on the head with a club wielded by one of dozens of men who attacked the MB’s offices in the northern city of Damanhour.[95] The Al-Ahram state newspaper said that three women were victims of sexual assault during an anti-Morsi demonstration.[96] Egypt state news media reported that Morsi advisers who had resigned over the decree included Samir Morqos, one of the few Christians in the administration; Sekina Fouad, one of the few women, and Farouk Guweida, a poet and intellectual.[94]

On 26 November, The Court of Administrative Justice in Cairo said it would hold a first hearing on 4 December in a case brought by lawyers and activists against the declaration. Morsi met with representatives of the supreme judicial council in an effort to settle the mounting crisis over the extent of his powers following his November 22 constitutional declaration.[97] He agreed to limit his decree on his decisions related to “sovereign matters” only.[98] Morsy “did not give himself judicial power” but did provide “immunity for his presidential decisions,” said Jihad Haddad, a senior adviser in the Freedom and Justice Party. Haddad added that “the president himself (is) not immune from judicial oversight,” though it wasn’t clear in what circumstances that might apply, or if there was anything preventing Morsi from issuing a new decree to forestall that.[99] According to Al-Jazeera “sovereign matters” were widely interpreted to cover the declaration of war, imposition of martial law, breaking diplomatic relations with a foreign nation, or dismissing the cabinet.[100] Activists on Monday camped in Cairo’s Tahrir Square for a fourth day, blocking traffic with makeshift barricades to protest against what they said was a power-grab by Morsi. Nearby, riot police and protesters clashed intermittently. In addition to popular outbursts on the street, Egypt’s judges reacted. All but seven of Egypt’s 34 courts and 90% of its prosecutors went on strike Monday in protest, according to Judge Mohamed al-Zind of the Egyptian Judge’s Club.[99] Muslim Brotherhood supporters staged a counter-demonstration, while they were relocated from central Cairo to a location in front of Cairo University in Giza. Egypt’s stock market, which had seen a fall of almost 10% on November 25, 2012, recovered some ground on Monday morning.[101][102] Islam Fathy Massoud member of the Muslim Brotherhood was killed during protests in Damanhour.[103] Gaber Salah, a member of the April 6 Youth Movement, was officially pronounced dead, after being brain dead for a week in the hospital. He had received a rubber bullet shot at close range during clashes with riot police in downtown Cairo.[104] The funeral of Islam Fathy Massoud, who died in the Nile Delta town of Damanhour in a clash between the president’s supporters and opponents, was held on Monday, while in Cairo thousands of people marched through Tahrir Square for the funeral of Gaber Salah.

Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on the evening of 27 November 2012

On 27 November, tens of thousands of people held protests in Cairo against Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi demanding that their first freely elected leader respect their wishes either to roll back his November 22 constitutional declaration or to resign. At least one demonstrator died in early clashes with authorities before Tuesday night’s massive rally. The opposition Popular Alliance Party said the protester died after inhaling excessive amounts of tear gas, which police used in numerous scuffles with rock-throwing protesters on the side streets leading to the square. And in the Nile Delta city of Mahalla, police reported dozens of injuries when demonstrators stormed and destroyed the headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood. Protests were also held in Alexandria and other cities. FJP offices in Alexandria and Mansoura were stormed, with the latter set ablaze.[105] The Muslim Brotherhood scrapped its own demonstration to show support for Morsi—also scheduled for 27 November 2012 — “to avoid any problems due to tension in the political arena,” according to spokesman Mahmoud Ghozlan.

On 28 November, In an interview with TIME magazine President Morsi said of his November 22 constitutional declaration: “If we had a constitution, then all of what I have said or done last week, will stop. … when we have a constitution, what I have issued will stop immediately. … “[108][109] TheConstituent Assembly of Egypt rushed to finish its work amid widespread protests against President Mohamed Morsi and his declaration. The rush toward a new constitution spurred a walkout among its drafters i.e. liberals, human rights activists, and others who were unsatisfied with a range of provisions dealing with the role of religion in the state, the status of women, and the privileges accorded to the country’s powerful army.[110][111][112] According to the BBC’s Jon Leybe the move was designed to preempt a ruling by Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court on December 2, 2012, which might once again dissolve the assembly. The Brotherhood hoped that the decree replaced by a completely new constitution would be approved on a referendum and put an end to the unrest. The demonstrations nevertheless continued. Low-level rallies continued in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on Wednesday. Dozens of police officers, backed by trucks firing tear gas, arrested numerous protesters, some of whom were beaten by officers as others continued to throw stones at police. The Brotherhood organized counter-demonstrations, including one in Egypt’s second city, Alexandria, which attracted several thousand participants.[110][113] As protests mounted over Morsi’s decision to grant himself sweeping powers until the text of the constitution was ratified in a referendum, the panel tasked with writing the constitution wrapped up its deliberations on Wednesday and readied for a vote on Thursday.[112] By 28 November two more people were killed and hundreds more injured.[114] Egypt Independent reported that one of the dead peoples was Fathy Ghareeb, one of the founders of the Socialist Popular Alliance Party, who died by suffocation caused by the tear gas fired by the Central Security Forces (CSF) in Tahrir Square.[115] Egypt’s Court of Cassation, the country’s highest appeals court, the Cairo Appeals Court, and other appeals courts suspended their work until Morsi’s decree is rescinded.[110][111][113]

On 29 November, The voting on Egypt’s new constitution by the Constituent Assembly of Egypt began on November 28, 2012, and continued through Thursday night. There were protests against Morsi outside the presidential palace and a small protest supporting Morsi in Giza on the outskirts of Cairo.[116] The new Egyptian constitution adopted the first part of the draft that includes theSharia as the main source of legislation and making Islam a state religion. Egyptian State TV reported that Christianity and Judaism would be the main source for legislation for Christians and Jews. The liberals, left-wing, and Christians boycotted the assembly and accused the Islamists of trying to impose their vision; they also accused them of trying to limit freedom of speech as well as not including articles establishing equality between men and women.[117]

Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 30 November 2012

On 30 November, Racing against the threat of dissolution by Supreme Constitutional Court judges appointed by ousted President Hosni Mubarak, quickly defusing anger about Morsi’s November 22 declaration granting himself expanded presidential powers and ignoring howls of protest from secular opponents, the Islamists drafting Egypt’s new constitution voted on November 29, 2012 to approve the 2012 Draft Constitution of Egypt that human rights groups and international experts said was full of holes and ambiguities and that was criticed by secular, liberal and Coptic Egypts. Thousands of Egyptians took to the streets in various governorates to denounce the constitutional declaration issued on 22 November, as well as the final draft of the constitution approved by the Islamist-dominated Constituent AssemblyIn Alexandria, anti-Morsi protesters clashed with Morsi’s supporters, but no injuries were reported.[135]

December 2012

See also: Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2012

On 1 December, Morsi announced that a constitutional referendum on the 2012 Draft Constitution of Egypt will be held in Egypt on 15 December 2012. Islamist backers of Egypt’s President Mohammed Morsi have held mass rallies at Cairo University in Cairo and other cities of Egypt to support his sweeping new powers and the drafting of a constitution, while several thousand of Mr. Morsi’s opponents rallied in Tahrir Square to oppose the draft constitution and what they describe as Morsi’s power grab. Also on the 1st, the director of the Nadeem Centre for Human Rights said that the Egyptian government paid people to beat protesters and sexually assault women; this accusation has also been made against the Muslim Brotherhood.[142]

On 2 December, Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court put off its much-awaited ruling on the legitimacy of the constituent assembly that passed the draft constitution, and on a separate but related decision about whether to dissolve the Shura Council, Egypt’s upper house of parliament. It has said it is halting all work indefinitely in protest at the “psychological pressure” it has faced, after Islamist protesters earlier prevented the judges from meeting in Cairo. Anti-Morsi protesters continued to occupy Cairo’s Tahrir Square. Leaders of the Judges Club, a powerful but unofficial body which represents judges across the country, announced that its members would refuse to perform their customary roles as election supervisors and would thus try to block a referendum on the new constitution scheduled for December 15, 2012.

On 3 December, Egypt’s top judicial administrative authority, the Supreme Judicial Council, has said that judges and prosecutors would supervise the constitutional referendum to be held on December 15 despite the Judges Club strike announcement from December 2, 2012. In addition seven cases against Morsi’s call for the referendum were filed in an administrative court

Anti-Morsi graffiti

On 4 December, police fought the demonstrators in front of the Presidential Palace in Cairo. Demonstrators proclaimed a march to the Presidential Palace, calling it “the last warning.” The demonstrators cut through a barbed-wire barrier near the Presidential Palace, after which police fired tear gas at them as Morsi fled. More violence broke out at the headquarters of the Freedom and Justice Party in Menia, south of Cairo, where the front of the party headquarters was damaged. Egypt Independent, the English-language sister publication of the country’s largest independent daily, Al Masry Al Youm, and 10 others did not publish to protest limits on the draft constitution’s protections for freedom of expression and freedom of the press.[154][157] Prosecutor General Talaat Ibrahim Abdallah filed a complaint charging former presidential candidates Moussa and Sabbahi, as well as El-Baradei, Wafd Party president El-Sayyid el-Badawi, and Judges Club head Ahmed al-Zend with espionage and inciting to overthrow the government. The lawyer who filed the report, Hamed Sadeq, claimed that Moussa met with former Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni and agreed with her to fabricate a crisis. It was further alleged that all of politicians named in the complaint met at the Wafd Party headquarters to execute the “Zionist plot.”[158]

On 5 December, at least 100,000 people were estimated to have protested at the Presidential Palace and at Tahrir Square against Morsi’s constitution, asserting it represented an effort to seize control of the judiciary. Many began demanding the “fall of the regime” as they fought running battles with police who deployed tear gas before retreating from the area, outnumbered by protesters.[159][160] Supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood attacked 300 of Morsi’s opponents during a sit-in.[159] Members of the Egyptian Popular Current Mohamed Essam and Karam Gergis were killed in the clashes surrounding Heliopolis Palace between protestors against the new Constitution and Muslim Brotherhood members, which attacked the demonstrators with molotov cocktails.[161] The Health Ministry reported four were killed and 271 were injured. Masked men set fire to Muslim Brotherhood offices in Suez, Ismailia and Zagazig.

Pro-Morsi rally

On 6 December, Supporters of Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood held counter protests the next day at the Presidential Palace, and clashed with anti-Morsi protesters in violent street battles that saw seven people killed and more than 650 injured.[28][165] Morsi met with Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, chief of the Egyptian Army, and with his cabinet ministers, to discuss a “means to deal with the situation on different political, security, and legal levels to stabilize Egypt and protect the gains of the revolution.”[166][167] Soldiers backed by tanks moved in to restore order as the death toll began to rise.[168][169]While addressing the nation, Morsi criticized the opposition “for trying to incite violence” against his legitimacy.[168][170] During his speech he invited his opponents to a common dialogue, but they rejected it because Morsi remained determined to press forward with the referendum on the Islamist-backed draft constitution that has plunged Egypt into a political crisis.[167][171] Meanwhile, the Egyptian government imposed a curfew after the military sent tanks and armored vehicles into Cairo. Morsi’s family was forced to evacuate their home in Zagazig, 47 miles (76 km) northeast of Cairo.[172] Four of Morsi’s advisers resigned their posts in protest against the violence, which they claimed was orchestrated by the Muslim Brotherhood supporters.[168][171][173]

On 7 December, Morsi supporters and anti-Morsi demonstrators continued their protests in different cities including Cairo, Alexandria, and Assiut. Demonstrators in Assiut chanted “No Brotherhood, no Salafis, Egypt is a civic state.”[174] Dozens of protesters threw rocks and glass bottles at Morsi’s home in Sharkia province and tried to push aside a police barrier.[175] Advisers and Brotherhood leaders acknowledged that outside his core base of Islamist supporters President Morsi feels increasingly isolated in the political arena and even within his own government.[176] Opposition leaders said in a statement that Morsi’s December 6 dialogue offer failed to meet “the principles of real and serious negotiations” and displayed “the complete disregard” for the opposition’s demands. They said they would not negotiate with Morsi until he cancels his Nov. 22 decree and calls off the Dec. 15 referendum on the draft constitution.[177][178][179] Opposition protesters marched on the presidential palace and breached a security perimeter built by the military’s elite Republican Guard — charged with protecting the palace — which withdrew behind the palace walls.[177][178][179] The Egyptian newspaper Al-Masry Al-Youm also reported that individuals suspected of protesting against the Muslim Brotherhood were being tortured and beaten in a facility run by the Brotherhood in Heliopolis, a Cairo suburb.[180]

Tanks sent near the presidential palace

On 8 December, The Egyptian Army issued its first statement since the protests erupted, stating that it would protect public institutions and innocent people and not allow the events to become more serious.[181] The Qandil Cabinet also authorized the army to help Egypt’s police maintain security.[182] Egypt state news media reported that Morsi was moving toward imposing a form of martial law to secure the streets and allow the vote on the draft charter constitutional referendum. Morsi annulled his decree which had expanded his presidential authority and removed judicial review of his decrees, an Islamist official said, but added that the effects of that declaration would stand. In addition the mostly annulled November 2012 constitutional declaration should be replaced by a modificated one.[188] The new decree Morsi issued Saturday night said he retained the limited authority to issue “constitutional declarations” protecting the draft charter constitution that judges could not overturn.[183] George Isaac of the Constitution Party said that Mursi’s declaration did not offer anything new, the National Salvation Front rejected it as an attempt save face, and the April 6 Movement and Gamal Fahmi of the Egyptian Journalists Syndicate said the new declaration failed to address the “fundamental” problem of the nature of the assembly that was tasked with drafting the constitution.[34]

On 9 December, Confusion and disarray pervaded the ranks of Egypt’s opposition after Morsi rescinded his November 22 constitutional declaration a day earlier. Despite the declaration’s annulment the general prosecutor, who was dismissed, will not be reinstated, and the retrial of the former regime officials will go ahead.[190] Opposition leaders also called for more protests after Morsi refused to cancel the constitutional referendum in the wake of the declaration’s annulment.[189][191][192] In response, the Alliance of Islamist Forces, an umbrella group that includes Morsi’s Muslim Brotherhood, said it would hold rival demonstrations. The group said its rallies would support of the referendum and the president under the slogan “Yes to legitimacy”.[190]

On 10 December, the opposition group, the National Salvation Front, announced that it would organize a rally on 11 December.[193]

January 2013

See also: Badrashin railway accident

Shubra March to Tahrir on January 25

On the second anniversary of the beginning of the 2011 revolution, protests again erupted in cities across the country, following occasional skirmishes between protesters and police in Cairo the day before.[194] Tens of thousands of people gathered in Cairo’s Tahrir Square during the day, with clashes between police forces and protesters occurring around the city at the Interior Ministry headquarters, state media offices and the presidential palace.[194] Security forces fired tear gas at protesters trying to force their way into the presidential palace and state television offices.[195] In the city of Suez, five people were killed by gunfire—four protesters and one security trooper.[195] Protests also took place in Alexandria, IsmailiaDamanhur, andPort Said, many of which were focused on local government buildings.[195] Tear gas use by police was reported in Alexandria, while protesters in that city and Suez burned tires.[195][196] By the end of 25 January, about 280 protesters and 55 security personnel had been injured across the country.[195]

On 26 January, the sentencing to death of 21 people for their roles in the Port Said Stadium disaster sparked further unrest in Port Said that resulted in 16 fatalities.[197] The number of people killed in the city was 33.[198] Many of them were killed by police snipers.

Tahrir Square on January 25

On 27 January, Egypt’s government was reported to have lost control of Port Said as a result of the protests and attacks.[199] The same day seven more people died from gun shots in the clashes during the funerals for 33 people who had been killed on 26 January in the city.[200] There were also deadly clashes in Suez and Ismailia. As a result, Morsi announced a state of emergency in Suez Canal cities (namely IsmailiaPort Said and Suez) for 30 days, with a curfew from 9:00 p.m to 6:00 a.m, effective Monday 28 January 2013.[201] Morsi also invited eleven political parties, as well as four major political leaders, to talks concerning the unrest,[202] but the leading opposition party, the National Salvation Front, refused to begin discussions until a new government was put in place and the country’s constitution modified.[203]

On 28 January, Further demonstrations and clashes took in place in eleven cities, including those in the Suez Canal, Alexandria, Monufia and Cairo.[204] The clashes resulted in six deaths.[204] Thousands of people gathered in the Tahrir Square in Cairo to show their solidarity with those killed over the weekend early in the day.[204] Police fired tear gas at protesters near the Qasr al-Nil Bridge, while further violence spread along the Nile.[205]Protesters also set fire to security vehicles and detained a police officer.[206] The Shura Council approved the President state of emergency decision as per the Constitution requirement. And to aid the police, it approved a law granting judicial seizure powers to the Army. A funeral procession Port Said devolved into a street battle between mourners and police, with security troops firing tear gas and live ammunition at crowds from police buildings across the city; protesters threw rocks, explosives and gas canisters back at police, and by the end of the day civilians across the city were seen[by whom?] carrying guns.[205] A Ministry of the Interior spokesman, however, denied that police had fired on protesters, and said that tear gas had been used only briefly.[205] By the end of the day, a total of 50 people were estimated to have died since the January protests began.[205]

On 29 January, Egypt’s defense minister Abdul Fatah al-Sisi warned both pro- and anti-Morsi groups, arguing “their disagreement on running the affairs of the country may lead to the collapse of the state and threatens the future of the coming generations.”[207]

On 30 January, two protesters were shot dead by unknown assailants in Cairo, near Tahrir square.[208]

February 2013[edit source | editbeta]

On 1 February, protesters gathered in front of the presidential residence in Cairo and clashed with riot police officers.[209] President Morsi blamed police officers due to clashes.[209] One protestor was shot and killed next to Ettehadiya Palace, and ninety one were injured around the country according to the official sources.[210] One of the wounded protestors who had been hit by birdshotdied on 3 February.[211]

Anti Sexual Harassment March to Tahrir Square, 6 February 2013.

The Egypt Independent reported that police forces dragged a protester, stripped him naked, beat him up with batons, and took him to a security truck. The incident sparked criticism against the administration of President Morsi for tolerating the security force’s excessive use of force.[212] The presidency said it “was pained by the shocking footage of some policemen treating a protester in a manner that does not accord with human dignity and human rights.”[213] State television reported that the 48-year-old beaten man,[214] from a police hospital and without a lawyer present, said that the police had in fact saved him from thieving protesters. The man’s daughter, who says she was present at the scene of the attack, said that her father is simply “afraid to talk”,[215] while his nephew said “he is lying because there is a lot of pressure on him.”[216] In new twist, Hamada Saber finally retracted his earlier testimony: “I told [prosecutors] today that [police] shot me in the leg, beat me and dragged me,” he said. “When I resisted, they tore off my shirt. After I resisted some more, they tore off my pants and underpants. They kept telling me to stand up and I kept telling them I was injured”. “Now my family has disowned me; my wife and kids won’t talk to me. The whole country is angry at me for [giving false testimony],” Saber added.[217]

Egypt’s interior minister, Mohamed Ibrahim, said he would leave if it was in the wishes of the people.[218] Minister of Culture Mohamed Arab resigned from his post in protest of the police assault on protestors, being the third Culture Minister to resign from office since the beginning of the 2011 Egyptian uprising.[219]

On 4 February, Mohamed el-Gendy, a member of the Popular Current tortured by the police following his arrest at Tahrir Square on 27 January, died in the Helal hospital due to his grave injuries.[22][220]

On 11 February, the second anniversary of the former president Mobarak’s ouster, people gathered outside the presidential palace, protesting Morsi.[221]

March 2013

On 3 March, clashes erupted in Port Said when police fired teargas at demonstrators opposed to the Interior Ministry decision to transfer 39 detainees from Port Said to the Wadi Natroun Prison, in the Beheira governorate. The clashes took the lives of five peoples, including two policemen and three civilians. News outlets reported that police forces and army troops exchange fire, what was denied by the Egyptian armed forces official spokesperson. Over 500 persons were injured only in Port Said that day, with 39 with bullet wounds.[222][223]

On 5 March, protestor Mohamed Hamed Farouk died from head wounds caused by gas canisters fired by police during protests in Port Said.[224]

On 9 March, three protesters died (one of them an eight-year-old boy) in clashes between demonstrators and police at Qasr al-Nil Bridge, near Tahrir Square.[225] In addition, the headquarters of the Ittihad El-Shorta (the Egyptian National Police football club) and the Egyptian Football Association were torched.[226]

On 30 March, an arrest warrant was issued for Bassem Youssef, host of the satirical news program El Bernameg, for allegedly insulting Islam and Morsi. The move was seen by opponents as part of an effort to silence dissent against Morsi’s government. Youssef confirmed the arrest warrant on his Twitter account and said he would hand himself in to the prosecutor’s office, jokingly adding, “Unless they kindly send a police van today and save me the transportation hassle.”[227] The following day, he was questioned by authorities before being released on bail of 15,000 Egyptian pounds. The event sparked international media attention[230] as well as a segment on Jon Stewart’s The Daily Show in which he declared his support for Youssef, calling him a “friend” and “brother” and saying to Morsi: “What are you worried about? You’re the President of Egypt! You have an army! Youssef’s got puns and a show; you’ve got tanks and planes.”[231]

April 2013[edit source | editbeta]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it(April 2013)

May 2013

During Mubarak’s last days and after the ouster of his regime, the Sinai Peninsula witnessed an ongoing insurgency with several attacks perpetrated by Islamist militants mainly in the North Sinai governorate. Hamas, the Muslim Brotherhood’s biggest ally outside of Egypt, is being widely blamed by Egyptians for the attacks in the region although no solid evidence proves it. The reason for Hamas being blamed was the increasing activity in the smuggling tunnels from the Gaza Strip.[234][235] A case that received wide controversy was the possible involvement of Hamas in the orchestrated attacks on prisons throughout the country on the night of 28 January during the 2011 uprising against Mubarak.[236] In the prison breaks, more than 30 leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood who were imprisoned by Mubarak in the outbreak of revolution, escaped including Mohamed Morsi himself.[237]

On 16 May, seven Egyptian soldiers were kidnapped by unknown militants in the Sinai demanding the release of members of an Islamist group detained for almost two years. One week later, they were reportedly released and handed over to the army in an area south of Rafah after talks mediated by tribal chiefs in the region with president Morsi greeting them upon their arrival at Cairo’s airport.[238] The real issue though is Morsi’s way of dealing with the crisis with most actions taken by the government to solve the problem receiving wide criticism. Such reactions include Morsi’s call for a national dialogue instead of either fighting or negotiating with the kidnappers and for also appearing as being concerned for the safety of the kidnapped soldiers and their kidnappers equally.[239]

Mohamed Sayed Abu-Shaqra, a security officer, was assassinated more than a week later by suspected jihadists near El-Arish while investigating the identity of the kidnappers and their location. During his funeral, relatives and colleagues started chanting against the president forcing the Interior minister to leave the military ceremony.[240][241]

June 2013

On 17 June, Morsi appoints Adel el-Khayat, an Islamist possibly linked to the Luxor massacre where at least 58 tourists were brutally killed by al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya gunmen, as governor of Luxor with 17 other provincial governors. The move sparked protests by tourism workers and activists in Luxor outside el-Khayat’s office forcing him to finally resign a week later in order to prevent bloodshed.[242][243]

On 23 June, four Shia Muslims were attacked by an angry mob led by Salafist preachers. The attackers numbering at least several hundred surrounded the house and demanded Hassan Shehata, a local Shia leader, and his followers who were attending a worshiping ceremony to leave the house before storming it with molotov cocktails. Images showed the attackers beating them to death, lynching and later dragging them through the streets.[244] The tragedy came only a few days after a conference in support of the Syrian uprising that was attended by Morsi and leading Islamist figures. During the conference, Sheikh Mohamed Hassan and al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya’s Mohamed Abdel-Maqsoud used sectarian speech against the Shias. Morsy was present during the event so he was heavily criticized by the media for not reacting against the hate and sectarianism used by both clerics.[245]

On 26 June, Morsi delivered a two-hour-and-forty-minute speech to the whole nation. It was supposed to be a re-conciliatory speech but was widely viewed as provocative and full of threats and accusations targeted against his opponents including media presenters and Ahmed Shafik, his former rival in the 2012 Egyptian presidential elections. He used questionable statistics to describe accomplishments made by his administration in tourism and unemployment.[246] After the speech the opposition stated that it is even more determined to take to the streets on the planned June 30 uprising against the president.[247]

On 28 June, three individuals were killed during clashes between pro- and anti-Morsi protesters in the city of Alexandria, including 21-year-old Andrew Pochter, an American student who was reportedly stabbed to death as he observed the demonstrations.[248] On 29 June 2013, thousands of Egyptians converged on Tahrir Square in Cairo to demonstrate against the Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, demanding his resignation from office.[249][250] The demonstrators used the slogan “the people demand the ouster of the regime“, used in the protests that led to the ouster of Mubarak in the 2011 revolution.[43]

By 30 June, tens of thousands of protestors surrounding the presidential palace in the Heliopolis suburb.[39] Demonstrations were reported to be in progress in 18 locations across Cairo [40] and in other different locations across the country including Alexandria, El-Mahalla and cities of the Suez Canal.[41][42] The demonstrations are described as being backed by multiple entities, including the Tamarod movement formed by members of theEgyptian Movement for Change in April 2013 that claims to have collected 22 million signatures calling for President Morsi’s resignation.[43][44]Opponents of Morsy claimed Google Earth had published figures suggesting 33 million demonstrators were on the streets. Responding to the claims that it recorded 33 million protesters in Tahrir Square, Google confirmed that its engines do not have the ability to estimate numbers of rallies or protests on the ground. Furthermore, it insisted that it does not publish live imaging of protests or any other events on planet earth.[251] Later, Aljazeera News Channel also broadcasted a documentary suggesting through calculations and experts analysis that the number of those who protested against Morsi in Cairo couldn’t have exceeded 800,000 in Cairo and 4 Millions across Egypt.[252]

Concurrently with these anti-Morsi demonstrations, supporters of President Morsi held demonstrations elsewhere in Cairo.[40]

Aftermath

July 2013 (ousting of Morsi)

Main article: 2013 Egyptian coup

General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi announced on the night of 3 July in a televised address that President Mohammed Morsi had been deposed and the constitution suspended.

General al-Sisi announced on the night of July 3 in a televised address that President Morsi had been deposed.[46] An Egyptian opposition movement that has led nationwide protests in the country have given the president Mohammed Morsi an ultimatum to resign as president of Egypt on 2 July. On the other hand, there was a small group of counter-protests (only in Cairo) by supporters of the ruling Islamist alliance.

On the morning of 1 July, anti-Morsi protesters ransacked the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood in Cairo. Protesters threw objects at windows and looted the building, making off with office equipment and documents. The health ministry confirmed the deaths of eight people who had been killed in clashes around the headquarters in Mokattam.[253]

Hours later, the Egyptian Armed Forces issued a 48-hour ultimatum which gave the country’s political parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the Egyptian people. The Egyptian military also threatened to intervene if the dispute is not resolved by then.[254] Four Ministers also resigned on the same day: Tourism Minister Hisham Zazou (who previously offered to resign a few months ago after Morsi appointed an Islamist linked to the group that attacked tourists as governor of Luxor), Communication and IT Minister Atef Helmi, State Minister for Legal and Parliamentary Affairs Hatem Bagato and State Minister for Environmental Affairs Khaled Abdel Aal,[255] leaving the government with members of the Freedom and Justice Party.

On 2 July Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr resigned as well in support of the anti-government protesters.[256] The presidency rejected the Egyptian Army‘s 48 hour ultimatum vowing that the president is sticking with his own plans for national reconciliation to resolve the political crisis.[257] Defense MinisterGeneral Abdul Fatah al-Sisi was also said to have told Morsi that he would impose a military solution if a political one could not be found by the next day.[258]

Incidentally the Court of Cassation ordered the reinstatement of former general prosecutor Abdel Maguid Mahmoud who was replaced with Talaat Abdallahfollowing the constitutional declaration on November 22, 2012.[259] The Presidency spokesman and the spokesman for the cabinet resigned as well.[260]

The newspaper Al-Ahram reported that if there was no resolution the military would suspend the constitution of Egypt and appoint a new council of experts to draft a new one, institute a three-person executive council and appoint a prime minister from the military.[261] Morsi’s military advisor, Sami Hafez Anan, also resigned and said that the army would not “abandon the will of the people.”[262]

Morsi declared, in a late-night television address, that he would “defend the legitimacy of his elected office with his life”.[263] He added that “there is no substitute for legitimacy” as he vowed not to resign.[264] Morsi accused supporters of Hosni Mubarak of exploiting the wave of protests to topple the government and fight democracy.[265] SCAF leaders also issued a statement entitled “The Final Hours” in which they said that the military is willing to shed its blood “to protect the people against terrorists and fools” following Morsi’s refusal to step down from his elected office.[266]

On 3 July, unknown gunmen opened fire on a pro-Morsi rally in Cairo, killing 16 and wounding 200.[267] As the 16:35 deadline set by the army approached, military leaders met for emergency talks with the army expected to issue a statement when the deadline passes. Mohamed El-Baradei, who was chosen to represent the National Salvation Front, was also said to have met army chief General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi.[268] On 3 July, just before the deadline approached, Morsi offered to form a consensus government. An army statement read: “The General Command of the Armed Forces is currently meeting with a number of religious, national, political and youth icons…There will be a statement issued from the General Command as soon as they are done.” At the same time the Freedom and Justice Party’s senior leader, Waleed al-Haddad, said: “We do not go to invitations (meetings) with anyone. We have a president and that’s it.”[268]

The head of the Egyptian Armed Forces and Defense Minister Abdul Fatah al-Sisi spoke at night from Cairo and said that the army was standing apart from the political process but was using its vision as the Egyptian people were calling for help and discharged its responsibility. Morsi was removed from power, the draft constitution was suspended and Chief Justice Adli Mansour was named interim president. Mohammed el-Baradei says the Revolution was to rectify the issues of the revolution. The Grand Sheikh of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, the Coptic Pope Tawadros II as well as opposition leader Mohamed El Baradei and a youth member of the Tamarod movement, who were present during the statement, spoke in support of the Revolution of 30 June 2013, while the al-Nour party also commented in saying that the events occurred as they were not heard in their call for dialogue. A travel ban was put on Morsi, the head of his Muslim BrotherhoodMohammed Badie, Badie’s deputy Khairat el-Shater, the Muslim Brotherhood’s former leader Mahdi Akef, another Muslim Brotherhood figure, Mohammed el-Beltagi, a Salafi preacher close to the Muslim Brotherhood, Safwat Hegazy and the leader of the Al-Wasat Party Abou Ela Madi and his deputy Essam Sultan.[269]

Television channels allegedly Morsi have been taken off the air by police forces after the military statement.[270] Misr 25, a channel owned by the Muslim Brotherhood, was shut down and officials said that journalists working for the channel were arrested.[271] Ultra-extremist salafist channels like Al Hafez and Al Nas, that were accused by secular movements for their fueling of the sectarian strife between the different religious factions in the country, were shut down as well.A few hours later, Al Jazeera Egypt, which had been criticised for its alleged “pro-Morsi slant”, was also taken off the air and its employees detained.[270] Several media watchdogs have since condemned the army’s crackdown on free media.[276]

On 4 July, violence continued with over 100 people wounded and at least two deaths, believed to be that of children.[277] The Muslim Brotherhood’s spokesman called for “strictly peaceful” protests to defy the military response The Armed Forces said that it would guarantee the right to peacefully protest. Other Islamist groups threatened armed retaliation, while the police arrested four armed men on 5 July over claims that they had planned a reprisal attack, according to state-run Al-Ahram. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces added that it would protect all groups from revenge attacks and that Egyptian values “do not allow for gloating.”[277]

Surge in Sinai incidents

See also: Sinai insurgency

The next day, Islamist gunmen staged multiple attacks on security forces in the Sinai and Suez. One soldier was killed and two others were wounded at a police station near the local headquarters of military intelligence in Rafah as it was attacked by rocket fire. Attackers also fired rocket-propelled grenades at army checkpoints guarding El Arish airport.[278] A protest by hundreds of people occurred in Al-Arish the day after the ouster with calls to form a war council to combat the army. Ten areas in north Sinai were witness to clashes, including the Central Security Force camp and a number of checkpoints along the ring road. The airport was also closed after being targeted by unidentified armed men.[279]

Political violence

Main article: 

Protests after Friday prayers were called by Morsi supporters, now in opposition, and termed “Rejection Friday.” During the protests, troops opened fire on Islamists as they tried to march towards the military barracks headquarters of the Republican Guard, in which Morsi is believed to be held.[280] Several deaths have been reported.[281] At least three Morsi supporters were killed and 69 were injured. Though the Egyptian Army denied firing at the protesters, BBC News reporter Jeremy Bowen said he saw soldiers firing on protesters.[282] In Qena, security forces opened fire on protesters trying to storm a security building, injuring two of them. Shots were also fired in Alexandria.[282] This occurred as tens of thousands of Egyptians took to the street to condemn 30 June Revolution and support Morsi.[283] Despite claiming to respect all sides, the military also issued a statement warning Islamists who planned on protesting.[283] Tamarod, which had organised anti-Morsi protests, called for protests to “protect the revolution.”[282] During the night pro and anti-Morsi demonstrators clashed over the 6th October Bridge; at least two people were killed and more than 70 people were injured, according to state television, who quoted medical personnel at a makeshift hospital in the square. At least three deaths were that of Morsi supporters during the march towards the military barracks after the Friday prayer in Cairo.[284] In all, through the night of rioting, throughout the country 30 people were killed. Pro-Morsi demonstrators continued to call for protests.[285]

On 8 July 2013, in what many have deemed a massacre,[286] 51 pro-Morsi demonstrators were killed and 435 injured, when security forces at the headquarters of the Republican Guard fired at a pro-Morsi sit-in.[287] The military said “a terrorist group” had tried to storm the building. The pro-Morsi demonstrators said the army opened fire at dawn while they were in the midst of prayer.[288]Testimony of local residents in the surrounding buildings backed the pro-Morsi version of the episode.[57]

On 27 July 2013, another massacre took place as at least 120–136 pro-Morsi demonstrators were killed and 4,500 injured, when security forces opened fire at a pro-Morsi demonstration.The incident took place in the Nasr City district of Cairo, the center of the pro-Morsi demonstrations.

According to the Human Rights Watch who have visited the hospitals that took in the injured and killed demonstrators, many of the killed demonstrators were killed execution-style as they were either shot in the head or chest.[291]

International reactions

Supranational bodies

  •  United Nations – UN spokesman Eduardo del Buey stated that while most of the protests appear to be peaceful, “the reports of a number of deaths and injuries, of sexual assault against women demonstrators, as well as acts of destruction of property are to be strongly condemned.”[292]

States

  •  Syria — Information Minister Omran al-Zoubi said that the political crisis in Egypt could only be overcome if Morsi realizes that an overwhelming majority of his Egyptian people reject his presence and want him removed. On 3 July, he called the Muslim Brotherhood a “terrorist” organisation and a “U.S. tool.”[293]
  •  United Kingdom — Prime Minister David Cameron stated in the House of Commons on 3 July that: “We should appeal to all sides to stay calm and stop the levels of violence, and particularly sexual assaults”, and that it is not for the United Kingdom “to support any single group or party. What we should support is proper democratic processes and proper government by consent.”[294]
  •  United States – President Barack Obama remarked on 1 July in a Press conference in Tanzania that “our number-one priority has been making sure that our embassies and consulates are protected. Number two, what we’ve consistently insisted on is that all parties involved – whether it’s members of Mr. Morsi’s party or the opposition – that they remain peaceful. And although we have not seen the kind of violence that many had feared so far, the potential remains there, and everybody has to show restraint”.[295] On August 6, two U.S. senators traveled to Egypt and threatened that if the military government didn’t move rapidly toward democracy, US sanctions could be cut.[296]

Others

  • Human Rights Watch has alleged there that have been sexual assaults during the protests. In the first three days of the month, women’s activists have reported 43 alleged sexual assaults of both foreign and domestic women.[299]

 

2013 Egyptian coup d’état

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2013 Egyptian coup d’état
Part of 2012–13 Egyptian protests and the aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution
General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi announcing the removal ofPresident Mohamed Morsi
Date 3 July 2013
(protests beginning 30 June 2013 areongoing)
Location Tahrir Square and Heliopolis Palace in Cairo and other Egyptian cities includingAlexandriaPort SaidSuez.
Result
  • President Mohamed Morsi
    deposed by the military
  • Constitution suspended
  • Adly Mansour becomes acting president
  • A new election to be determined by the interim government
  • Arrests and detainment of Muslim Brotherhood members
  • Closure of perceived pro-Muslim Brotherhood media outlets
  • Dissolution of Shura Council[1]
  • Suspension of Egypt from the African Union
Belligerents
 Government of Egypt
Muslim Brotherhood

 Military of Egypt
Tamarod
National Salvation Front
Commanders and leaders
President Mohamed Morsi
Mohammed Badie
Saad El-Katatni
Khairat el-Shater
General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi
Mahmoud Badr (Tamarod)
Mohamed ElBaradei (NSF)
Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb
Pope Tawadros II

 

On the horns of a dilemma – How will Obama not have to decide?

It was General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi that removed President Morsi — every major news organization is in agreement on the facts of what happened (since when does that occur?). Consider just a few:

CAIRO (AFP) FOX News –  Egypt’s army ousted and  detained Islamist president Mohamed Morsi on Wednesday after a week of deadly  clashes and mass protests calling for him to go after a year in office. His defence minister, armed forces chief General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi,  announced Morsi’s overthrow on state television, even as police began rounding  up key Morsi aides and leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood. Warrants have been issued for the arrest of a total of 300 Brotherhood  officials, state media reported.

(CAIRO) (CBS News) The armed forces ousted Egypt’s first democratically elected president Wednesday after just a year in power, installing a temporary civilian government, suspending the constitution and calling for new elections. Islamist President Mohammed Morsi denounced it as a “full coup” by the military.

(Reuters) Mursi was sequestered in a Republican Guard barracks after denouncing a “military coup” that stripped him of power after just a year. As tanks and troops secured the area, tens of thousands of supporters of his Muslim Brotherhood rallied nearby to protest against his removal.

The facts we can agree on; but what do the facts mean? That is  quite a different question. Was it a military coup? And why does it matter? At least $1.5 billion (annually) is riding on the meaning of what happened.  U. S. law bars “any assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by military coup d’etat or decree.” Reuters describes the dilemma for Obama and his aides:

(Reuters) – The Egyptian military’s overthrow of elected President Mohamed Mursi left President Barack Obama grappling with a difficult question of diplomacy and language in dealing with the Arab world’s most populous nation: was it a coup? At stake as Obama and his aides wrestle with that question in the coming days is the $1.5 billion in aid the United States sends to Cairo each year – almost all of it for the military – as well as the president’s views on how best to promote Arab democracy.

It seems Obama is caught between a rock and a hard-place. Muhammad Morsi is an Islamist1 who, upon his election in a free democratic election by Egypt’s masses, led the Islamist controlled Egyptian legislature (also elected in free elections) to replace Egypt’s secular constitution with a constitution based upon the Qur’an. The sharia-based constitution was voted on by the Egyptian people, and 10 million votes were cast in favor of the new constitution, nearly 2/3 of the votes cast.  President Morsi signed the law into affect just six months later, December 26, 2012.  On July 3, 2013, the armed forces chief, General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, announced that the constitution had been “suspended provisionally.” Here is a transcript, in part, of the General’s statement (courtesy of AlJazeera.com translation):

As a result, it was necessary for the EAF [Egyptian Armed Forces] to act on its patriotic and historic responsibility without sidelining, marginalising any party, where during the meeting a road map was agreed upon which includes the following (bullet points supplied):

  • Suspending the constitution provisionally;
  • The chief justice of the constitutional court will declare the early presidential elections;
  • Interim period until president elected. Chief Justice will have presidential powers; …
  • The Supreme Constitutional Law will address the draft law and prepare for parliamentary elections;
  • Securing and guaranteeing freedom of expression, freedom of media. All necessary measures will be taken to empower youth so they can take part in decision making processes.
  • The EAF appeal to the Egyptian people with all its spectrum to steer away from violence and remain peaceful. The Armed Forced warn it will stand up firmly and strictly to any act deviating from peacefulness based on its patriotic and historic responsibility.

Morsi had taken office just one year prior, June 30, 2012, by action of the Supreme Council of Armed Forces, a 21 member council composed of senior military officials established to lead the country when Hosni Mubarak was forced from office as president of Egypt on February 21, 2011. Apparently, the same group of military officials that forced Mubarak from office in 2011 also forced Morsi out in 2013. Hmmm. Does that sound like a democracy to you?

President Obama is on the horns of a dilemma. If he supports the recent military action, he stands against the rules of democracy Arab Spring supposedly brought in. Morsi was elected by the people. The constitution was voted in by the people. The billion dollar question is U.S. aid. If it ends (because a coup has taken place), then so does the relationship between America and Egypt, our strong Middle East ally (money will buy you anything if you have enough of it).  On the other hand, if Obama stands for the principles of democracy in Egypt and supports Muhammad Morsi, including his return to office, Obama supports an Islamist, and he stands with the Muslim Brotherhood and the Salafis (a strict “puritan” sect of Sunni Islam, the roots of which created Al Qaeda and related Sunni splinter groups of Islam), and apparently, he stands against the majority of Egyptian people. Since Morsi took office a year ago, Christian Copts have been persecuted and killed by Islamist groups. Copt churches have been destroyed and renovations halted (Christians are “dhimmis” in Egypt). In some cases, improvements to churches have been denied outright or put on hold indefinitely. Recently, Shias were attacked in a small village outside Giza, Egypt, killing four Shias, including a prominent Shia leader, Hassan Shehata.  Lastly, if Obama stands with Morsi and the Brotherhood, he stands against the powerful Egyptian Armed Forces, the true power in Egypt.

Obama’s response is also complicated by his administration’s public actions in support of the Islamist backed Egyptian government and the Muslim Brotherhood that has recently led it:

  • Raymond Ibrahamreports of the United States Ambassador to Egypt, Anne Patterson, recently urging Egyptians not to protest against the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt (in protests prior to Morsi’s removal from office). In her efforts, the Obama Administration is seen supporting the democratically elected administration in spite of its opposition to Western values;
  • CNN reports of the views of Egyptians blaming Obama and Ambassador Patterson for propping up the Muslim Brotherhood, Morsi, and their Islamist agenda, to the expense of the Egyptian people.
  • New York Times reporting  (September 28, 2012) of embattled Congressional leadership, Kay Granger of Texas, attempting to withhold aid to Islamist controlled Egypt while the Obama administration fights to continue it.

What will Obama do now? I suspect he will change the meaning of words. Obama will not want to stop aid to Egypt. He will use a different word (not “coup”) to describe what really happened. Reuters has already taken note of the words he used in his first public announcement of the events in Egypt: Reuter’s explained:

But he [Obama] did not use the word “coup” and stopped well short of advocating for Mursi’s reinstatement, suggesting Washington might be willing to accept the military’s move as a way to end a political crisis in a nation of 83 million people struggling with severe economic difficulties.

 

From Jihadwatch.com

The Washington Post carried an article entitled, “Is what happened in Egypt a coup or a revolution? It’s both.”  My point? The meaning of words are changing. If Egypt’s crisis is a revolution (not a coup), then Obama can have his cake and eat it too. That is, he can support the Egyptian people and their “revolution” against Islamists (led by Morsi and the Brotherhood) which, politically, can be explained as Obama supporting the democratic efforts of the Egyptian people.  Obama can continue aid to Egypt, and thereby, maintain a relationship with the Egyptian Armed Forces (who rule the country), as well as maintain a U.S. ally in the Middle East. All he has to do is change the words that describe what really happened from coup (what it was) to revolution (what it was not). In the process, Obama does not have to decide whether it was a coup or not. What do you think he will do?

But what does this have to do with Bible prophecy the only subject that I am somewhat qualified to opine on? Two passages that we need to remember:

Isaiah 19:1-2 (NASB) The oracle concerning Egypt. Behold, the LORD is riding on a swift cloud and is about to come to Egypt; The idols of Egypt will tremble at His presence, And the heart of the Egyptians will melt within them. 2  “So I will incite Egyptians against Egyptians; And they will each fight against his brother and each against his neighbor, city against city and kingdom against kingdom.

Daniel 11:42-43 (NASB)  “Then he will stretch out his hand against other countries, and the land of Egypt will not escape. 43  “But he will gain control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt; and Libyans and Ethiopians will follow at his
heels.

If we interpret the Isaiah passage to apply to the end-times (it does not specify the time of its application), it could easily be interpreted to apply to the recent events in Egypt. The Daniel prophecy is specifically an end-time prophecy (Daniel 11:40 NASB). This prophecy warns that the Antichrist will stretch out his hand against the land of Egypt; and, “he will gain control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt…” In other words, the treasures of Egypt, its precious, ancient artifacts of inestimable value will no longer be subject to the control of the authorities in Egypt. Control will be lost to the invader. That could mean they are stolen — or destroyed.

The Egyptian army is responsible for protecting the artifacts of Egypt. In the end-time, the army will no longer be able to protect the “precious” things of Egypt. Who might be the invading force? If we combine the two prophecies, the Isaiah passage tells us that the invader will be from within. This interpreter believes the prophecy is referring to Islam — the Islamists will ultimately recover from their loss of control to the military; and, the “revolution” will eventually be turned against the military and be decided in favor of Islam.

 

On 3 July 2013, General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi removed President Mohamed Morsi and suspended the Egyptian constitution in a bloodless coup after ongoing public protests. The move came after large-scale ongoing public protests in Egypt for and against Morsi, and a warning from the army to respond to the demands of the protesters or it would impose its own roadmap. Al-Sisi declared Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour as the interim president of Egypt. Morsi was put under house arrest and several Muslim Brotherhood leaders were arrested. The announcement was followed by demonstrations and clashes between supporters and opponents of the move throughout Egypt.[2]

The protests against Morsi on 30 June marked the one-year anniversary of Morsi’s inauguration as president. Millions of protesters across Egypt took to the streets and demanded the immediate resignation of the president.[3] Reasons for demanding Morsi’s resignation include accusations that he was increasingly authoritarian and pushing through an Islamist agenda without regard to secular opponents or the rule of law. The demonstrations, which had been largely peaceful, turned violent when five anti-Morsi protesters were killed in separate clashes and shootings. At the same time, supporters of Morsi staged a rally in Nasr City, a district of Cairo.[7]

On the morning of 1 July, anti-Morsi protesters ransacked the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood in Cairo. Protesters threw objects at windows and looted the building, making off with office equipment and documents. The Health and Population Ministryconfirmed the deaths of eight people killed in clashes around the headquarters in Mokattam.[8] On 3 July, gunmen opened fire on a pro-Morsi rally, killing 16-18 people and wounding 200 others. During the same time as the anti-government protests were ongoing, there were also other smaller pro-Morsi protests.

The situation escalated to a full-blown national political and constitutional crisis, with Morsi refusing the military’s demands for him to leave power and the army threatening to take over if the civilian politicians did not resolve the situation. Morsi gave a defiant speech in which he reiterated his “legitimacy” as a democratically elected president and criticised the military for taking sides in the crisis. On 3 July, the Egyptian military announced the end of Mohammed Morsi’s presidency,[13][14] the suspension of the constitution, and that a new presidential election will be held soon. The military appointed Chief Justice Adly Mansour as the interim president, and charged him with forming a transitional technocratic government.[13] Morsi was put under house arrest and Muslim Brotherhood leaders were arrested.[2] The announcement was followed by demonstrations and clashes[2] between supporters and opponents of the coup throughout Egypt. The announcement was followed by a statement made by the Grand Sheikh of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, the Coptic PopeTawadros II as well as opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei.[15]

There were mixed international reactions to the events.[16] Most of the Arab world was generally supportive or neutral, with the notable exception of the founding state of the Arab SpringTunisia. Other states either condemned or expressed concern over the coup; there was also a perceived measured response from the United States. Due to the regulations of the African Union regarding the interruption of constitutional rule by a member state, Egypt was suspended from that union. There has also been debate in the media regarding the labeling of these events. It has been variously described as a coup d’état or as a revolution. Ongoing protests in favour of Morsi were violently suppressed with the August 2013 Egyptian raids.[27]

Background

Further information: 2011 Egyptian revolutionAftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution, and 2012–13 Egyptian protests

Then President Mohamed Morsi (right) and General al-Sisi (left) listen to visiting U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel (center), during a meeting with U.S. officials on April 24, 2013. Al-Sisi, chosen by Morsi to be the first post-Mubarak era Defense Minister,[28]would later sanction the removal of Morsi.

In February 2011, Hosni Mubarak was ousted after 18 days of mass demonstrations that ended his 29-year rule of Egypt. In June 2012, Mohamed Morsi won the presidential election to become the first democratically elected president of Egypt.[2][29][30] His rule has been subject to ongoingprotests. In the lead up to the protests, a Gallup poll indicated that about a third of Egyptians said they were “suffering” and viewed their lives poorly.[31]

In November 2012, following the protests against the controversial Constitutional Declaration by Morsi, opposition politicians – including Mohamed ElBaradeiAmr Moussa and Hamdeen Sabahi, according to the Wall Street Journal – started holding confidential meetings with army leaders, in order to discuss ways of removing President Morsi.[32]

On 28 April 2013, Tamarod was started as a grassroots movement to collect 15 million signatures to remove Morsi by 30 June. They called for peaceful demonstrations across Egypt especially in front of the Presidential Palace in Cairo.[33] The movement was supported by the National Salvation Front,April 6 Youth Movement and Strong Egypt Party.[34][35]

At a conference on 15 June, Morsi called for foreign intervention in Syria.[36] According to Yasser El-Shimy, an analyst with the International Crisis Group, this statement crossed “a national security red line.” The army rebuked this statement the next day by stating that its only role was to guard Egypt’s borders. Although the Egyptian constitution ostensibly declares the president as the supreme commander of the armed forces, the Egyptian military is independent of civilian control.[37]

As the first anniversary of Morsi’s presidential inauguration approached in 2013, his supporters such as the National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy started demonstrations at multiple places including El-Hossari MosqueEl-Nahda Square, outside Cairo University, outside Al-Rayan Mosque in the posh suburb of Maadi, and in Ain Shams district. They had started open-ended rallies[38] The largest protest was planned for 30 June.[39]

Protests

Anti-Morsi demonstrators marching in Cairo on June 28

On Friday 28 June, protests against Morsi started to build throughout Egypt including in such cities as CairoAlexandriaDakahliaGharbiya andAswan as a “warm up” for the massive protests expected on 30 June that were planned by Tamarod. Pro-Morsi and democracy supporters from the National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy started counter demonstrations at the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque in Nasr City.[40]

Prior to the protests, Christians, particularly in Upper Egypt, received threats pressuring them not to take part in the protests. Sheikh Essam Abdulamek, a member of parliament’s Shura Council, said in an interview on television that Christians should not participate in the protests and warned them “do not sacrifice your children [since the] general Muslim opinion will not be silent about the ousting of the president.”[39]

According to information that came out after the coup, officials said that Morsi stopped working at Egyptian Presidential Palace on 26 June in anticipation to the protests and moved with his family to El-Quba Palace.[41]

On 29 June, Tamarod claimed that it collected more than 22 million signatures from a petition calling for Morsi to step down as president.[42][43]

Causes

The ouster of Morsi was a result of massive protests that took the streets on the 30th of June. Reason why people took the streets was the frustration with Morsi’s management for only one year in which Egypt faced economical issues, energy shortage, lack of security and diplomatic crises. Although Egypt was, indeed, in a very bad state before Morsi came in power, most of those issues, causing frustrations, were direct, inevitable, results to Morsi’s and his government’s actions.[44]
Issues that caused the protests and, consequently, the ouster of Morsi by the Army include:

  • Power, gas and economical crises (main issues fueling the protests).
  • Before elections, President Morsi promised to stabilize the post-revolution state of the country through a 100-day plan, from which he achieved less than 16%.[48][49]
  • Plans to cutting subsidies in exchange for a $4.8 billion IMF loan which would cause increase in prices of gas, electricity, food and taxes.[50]
  • On the 22nd of November 2012, Morsi issued a constitutional declaration that grants him appointing the public prosecutor and makes all his [Morsi’s] decisions final and binding and cannot be appealed by any way or to any entity.[51] It was later abrogated due to multiple protests and public’s anger.
  • Morsi granted presidential pardon for 17 Islamist convicts. They include members of al-Gama’a al-Islamiya, jailed during the group’s armed insurrection against the state in the 1990s, and Islamic Jihad, the movement behind the 1981 assassination of President Anwar Sadat.[54]
  • Torture and violence activities held by Muslim Brotherhood members against people opposing Morsi’s policies
  • Despite their promises of a consensual constitution, Muslim Brotherhood and Freedom and Justice party, ruling party, used the majority of their members and allies in the constitutional committee to pass a flawed non-consensual constitution which caused non-Islamist parties members and Church representative to withdraw from the committee.
  • Several diplomatic problems including construction of Ethiopian dam along the Nile river, affecting Egypt’s share of water.
  • According to an Egyptian court, Muslim brotherhood partnered with foreign millitants, Hamas and Hezbollah, and launched a prison break in 2011; one of the prisons had Morsi as a prisoner, arrested by police forces along with several other Muslim Brotherhood members, during the revolution. [63]
  • Security state worsened severely; two of the most prominent stories related to security under Morsi were: the murder of 16 border guards in Sinai in an attack and the abduction of 7 Egyptian security personnel who were later released. [64][65]

30 June: Anti-Morsi demonstrations

On 30 June, millions of protesters demonstrated across Egypt both against and in support of Morsi. The Egyptian Armed Forces estimated the number to be at 14 million and reportedly one of the biggest protests in Egyptian history.[66] In Damietta, 250 fishing boat sailors demonstrated against Morsi by sailing through the Nile and chanting against him.[67] The President moved that day from the Quba Palace to the Republican Guard head quarter, while protesters thought he was at Ittihadeya Palace.[41]

1 July: Army ultimatum

On 1 July, tens of thousands of demonstrators against Morsi gathered in Tahrir Square and outside the presidential palace, while other demonstrations were held in the cities of Alexandria, Port Said and Suez.[7] Some police officers wearing their uniforms joined the anti-Morsi protests and chanted: “The police and the people are one.”[68] In clashes around the Muslim Brotherhood headquarters in Mokatam, eight people died. Their headquarter was ransacked and burned while protesters threw objects at windows and looted the building, making off with office equipment and documents.[8] Tamarod gave President Mohammed Morsi until 2 July at 17:00 to resign or face a civil disobedience campaign.[69]

That was followed by the Egyptian Armed Forces issuing a 48-hour ultimatum that gave the country’s political parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the Egyptian people. The Egyptian military also threatened to intervene if the dispute was not resolved by then.[70] Four ministers also resigned on the same day: Tourism Minister Hisham Zazou (who previously offered to resign a few months ago after Morsi appointed an Islamist member of al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya, the group responsible of the Luxor massacre, as governor of Luxor), Communication and IT Minister Atef Helmi, State Minister for Legal and Parliamentary Affairs Hatem Bagato, and State Minister for Environmental Affairs Khaled Abdel Aal,[71] leaving the government with only members of the Freedom and Justice Party.

2 July: Morsi speech

On 2 July, opponents and supporters of Morsi gathered in the capital, Cairo, as the deadline set by the protest group for him to leave power passed.[69] Helicopters were also present around Cairo with armored vehicles taking up positions.[72] On 3 July, clashes between protestors and local residents erupted around a pro-Morsi rally near Cairo University, leaving 18 people dead.[9]Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr also resigned, in support of the anti-government protesters.[73] The presidency rejected the Egyptian Army‘s 48-hour ultimatum, vowing that the president would pursue his own plans for national reconciliation to resolve the political crisis.[74] Defense Minister General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi was also said to have told Morsi that he would impose a military solution if a political one could not be found by the next day.[72] Incidentally, the Court of Cassation ordered the reinstatement of former general prosecutor Abdel Maguid Mahmoud who was replaced with Talaat Abdallah following the constitutional declaration on 22 November 2012.[75] The Presidency spokesman and the spokesman for the cabinet resigned as well.[76]

The newspaper Al-Ahram reported that if there were no political resolution, the military would suspend the constitution of Egypt and appoint a new council of experts to draft a new one, institute a three-person executive council, and appoint a prime minister from the military.[77] Morsi’s military advisor, Sami Hafez Anan, also resigned and said that the army would not “abandon the will of the people.”[78]

In a late-night television address Morsi declared that he would “defend the legitimacy of his elected office with his life.”[79] He added that “there is no substitute for legitimacy” as he vowed not to resign.[80] Morsi accused supporters of Hosni Mubarak of exploiting the wave of protests to topple the government and fight democracy.[81] Military leaders also issued a statement entitled “The Final Hours”, in which they said that they were willing to shed their blood against “terrorists and fools” supporting Morsi’s refusal to step down from office.[82]

3 July: Ultimatum deadline

As the deadline of the army’s ultimatum approached on 3 July, there was renewed expectation of an increase in violence, according to the media.[83] As in other days, there were both anti-Morsi and pro-Morsi protests, the latter particularly in Nasr City and near Cairo University. Army tanks were reported to surround two smaller pro-Morsi rallies as the demonstrators vowed to defend the government with their lives.[84]

As the 16:35 deadline set by the army approached, military leaders met for emergency talks, with the expectation that the army would issue a statement when the deadline passed. Mohamed El-Baradei, who was chosen to represent the National Salvation Front, was also said to have met army chief General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi.[85] On 3 July, just before the deadline approached, Morsi offered to form a consensus government. An army statement read: “The General Command of the Armed Forces is currently meeting with a number of religious, national, political and youth icons…There will be a statement issued from the General Command as soon as they are done.” At the same time the Freedom and Justice Party’s senior leader, Waleed al-Haddad, said: “We do not go to invitations (meetings) with anyone. We have a president and that is it.”[85]

Coup d’état

General Abdul Fatah al-Sisiannounced on the night of 3 July in a televised address that President Mohammed Morsi had been deposed and the constitution suspended.[14]

On 3 July, General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, announced that he had removed President Mohamed Morsi from power,suspended constitution, and would be calling new presidential and Shura Council elections. The military appointed Chief Justice Adly Mansour as the interim president and charged him with forming a transitional technocratic government.[86] Military vehicles drove throughout Cairo. Morsi was put under house arrest,[86][87] and was believed to be at the Republican Guard barracks.[88] According to other sources he was taken to a military base and his travel was restricted.[89] Army troops and tanks were reported to have surrounded key facilities and installations.[90] At noon, the Republican Guard, who had Morsi in their care, left his side to allow Army commandos to take him to an undisclosed Ministry of Defence building. He offered no resistance.[41]

General al-Sisi said: “The president’s speech last night failed to meet and conform with the demands [of the people, prompting the armed forces to consult] with some of the symbols of the national forces and the youths without excluding anyone. [They agreed on a road map] that includes initial steps that realize the building of a strong and coherent Egyptian society that does not exclude any of its sons and currents and that end the state of conflict and division.”[91] He added the army was standing apart from the political process but was using its vision as the Egyptian people were calling for help and discharged its responsibility.[92] al-Sisi named former Chief Justice Adli Mansour as the interim president and added that he will be sworn in on 4 July. The Shura Council was also dissolved.[93]

Morsi condemned his removal as a “full coup” by the general. He also urged everyone to “adhere to peacefulness and avoid shedding blood of fellow countrymen.”[94] The Office of Assistant to President of Egypt on Foreign Relations called Morsi’s removal a “military coup”,[95][96] and said “there is no democracy without the ballot box”.[97]

The announcement of the coup was met with cheers in Tahrir Square.[98] Anti-Morsi protesters shouted “Allahu akbar” and “Long live Egypt” and launched fireworks[94] as green laser lights held by those in the crowd lit the sky.[99] Mohammed el-Baradei says the coup was to rectify the issues of the revolution. The Coptic Pope Tawadros IIGrand Imam of al-Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb,Mohammed ElBaradei[100] and some of the youth leaders of TamarodMahmoud Badr and Mohamed Abdelaziz, spoke in support of the military intervention. The al-Nour party also commented in saying that the events occurred as they were not heard in their call for dialogue. Party Secretary-General Galal Murra commented that “we took this position (on agreeing to the army political road map) and we took these decisions only so we stop the bloodshed of our people.”[101] Pro-Morsi protesters heard a statement from Morsi, which was published on his Facebook page. He called the move a coup and rejected the Armed Forces’ statement.

The Freedom and Justice Party’s Gamal Heshmat said: “There is absolutely no direction toward violence. The Brotherhood are not raised on violence. Their cause is a peaceful one, defending their rights, which is stronger than a military coup. [The army had perpetrated a]shameful coup. We are still in the street, we still don’t know if all of the armed forces will accept what Sisi has done.”[102] A party spokesman said that what started as a military coup was “turning into something much more.”[103] The National Salvation Front, an alliance of multiple political parties, stated on 4 July that “what Egypt is witnessing now is not a military coup by any standards. It was a necessary decision that the Armed Forces’ leadership took to protect democracy, maintain the country’s unity and integrity, restore stability and get back on track towards achieving the goals of the January 25 Revolution.” [104]

Arrests

The army arrested the former speaker of parliament and the head of Freedom and Justice Party Saad El-Katatni, along with Rashad al-Bayoumi, a Muslim Brotherhood deputy,[105] as well as other top leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood.[106] Al-Jazeera quoted unnamed security officials saying that “more than a dozen” members of the Muslim Brotherhood had been arrested,[107] while Al-Ahram reported that the Egyptian police had been ordered to arrest more than 300 members of the Muslim Brotherhood.[108] A travel ban was also put on Morsi, the head of his Muslim Brotherhood Mohammed Badie, Badie’s deputy Khairat El-Shater, the Muslim Brotherhood’s former leader Mahdi Akef, another Muslim Brotherhood figure Mohamed Beltagy, Salafi preacher close to the Muslim Brotherhood Safwat Hegazi and the leader of the al-Wasat Party Abou Elela Mady and his deputy Essam Sultan.[2] Badie and Akef were arrested for “incitement to murder.”[103]

Following Morsi’s ouster, pro-Morsi supporters still gathered in Cairo said that they would undo the coup and continued their allegiance to Morsi saying that they would “defend the integrity of the ballot box.” Amidst threats of violence, Al Jazeera English reported the death of four people from a Muslim Brotherhood stronghold near the Libyan border.[citation needed]

Media restrictions and violence against journalists

Four television channels[109] deemed to have been supporting Morsi were taken off the air by police forces after the military statement.[110] Misr 25, a channel owned by the Muslim Brotherhood, was shut down and officials said that journalists working for the channel were arrested.[107] The Al Hafez and Al Nas channels were shut down as well. A few hours later, Al Jazeera‘s Mubasher Misr, which had been criticised for its alleged pro-Morsi slant, was also taken off the air, its offices raided and its employees detained.[110] Five staff were arrested, including managing director Ayman Gaballah, who was still in custody after the others were released. It was also prevented from broadcasting a pro-Morsi rally in northern Cairo. Associated Press Television News was ordered not to provide Al Jazeera with footage of protests in the country or with any filming equipment, while the Cairo News Company was warned against providing broadcasting equipment. Al Jazeera Media Network’s acting Director General Mostafa Souag condemned the move, saying “regardless of political views, the Egyptian people expect media freedoms to be respected and upheld. Media offices should not be subject to raids and intimidation. Journalists should not be detained for doing their jobs.”[109]

The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) reported that two journalists and one student were killed while covering Egyptian unrest in the two weeks leading up to 8 July 2013.[111] According to CPJ research, before those deaths only four journalists had been killed in Egypt since 1992.[111] One of the journalists killed while documenting the 2013 clashes was 26-year-old photographer Ahmed Assem el-Senousy, also known as Ahmed Samir Assem, The photographer was shot by a sniper after he recorded security forces firing on protestors.[112][113] According to media reports, el-Senousy may have captured his own death on film. A video clip posted on his Facebook page shows a sniper firing on crowds before turning toward the camera, at which point the clip abruptly ends.[112][113]

While reporting for the BBC, journalist Jeremy Bowen was hit in the head with birdshot fired by Egyptian security forces on July 5.[111]

Aftermath

Main article: Aftermath of the 2013 Egyptian coup d’état

Supporters of the ousted President Morsi demonstrate in Damietta on July 5

On 4 July, violence continued with over 100 people wounded and at least two deaths, believed to be that of children.[103] The Muslim Brotherhood’s spokesman called for “strictly peaceful” protests to defy the military coup.[114] The Armed Forces said that it would guarantee the right to peacefully protest. Other Islamist groups threatened armed retaliation, while the police arrested four armed men on 5 July over claims that they had planned a reprisal attack, according to state-run Al-Ahram. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces added that it would protect all groups from revenge attacks and that Egyptian values “do not allow for gloating.”[103]

Protests after Friday prayers were called by Morsi supporters, now in opposition, and termed “Rejection Friday.” During the protests, troops opened fire on Islamists as they tried to march towards the military barracks headquarters of the Republican Guard, in which Morsi is believed to be held.[115]Several deaths have been reported.[116] At least three Morsi supporters were killed and 69 were injured. Though the Egyptian Army denied firing at the protesters, BBC News reporter Jeremy Bowen said he saw soldiers firing on protesters.[117] In Qena, security forces opened fire on protesters trying to storm a security building, injuring two of them. Shots were also fired in Alexandria.[117] This occurred as tens of thousands of Egyptians took to the street to condemn the coup and support Morsi.[118] Despite claiming to respect all sides, the military also issued a statement warning Islamists who planned on protesting.[118] Tamarod, which had organised anti-Morsi protests, called for protests to “protect the revolution.”[117] During the night pro and anti-Morsi demonstrators clashed over the 6th October Bridge; at least two people were killed and more than 70 people were injured, according to state television, who quoted medical personnel at a makeshift hospital in the square. At least three deaths were that of Morsi supporters during the march towards the military barracks after the Friday prayer in Cairo.[119] In all, through the night of rioting, throughout the country 30 people were killed. Pro-Morsi demonstrators continued to call for protests.[120] Protesters continued to demand the reinstatement of Morsi throughout the weekend, some of which were violent protests.[121]

Palestinian officials in Gaza also said that the Egyptian Armed Forces had shut the Rafah border crossing and that only certain people, such as patients and students, would be allowed through. Egyptian Intelligence Service official Nader al-Asar telephoned Palestinian Prime Minister in Gaza Ismail Haniyeh on the afternoon of 5 July and Haniyeh briefed him about the humanitarian crisis in Gaza as a result of the restrictions on tunnels and the Rafah crossing. Al-Asar promised to seek remedies on the situation[122]

After dawn prayers on 8 July, clashes erupted between pro-Morsi protesters and the army at the Republican Guard compound. According to the army, “terrorists” tried to storm the compound and one officer and 42 other people were injured.[123] On the other hand, the Muslim Brotherhood said that 42 of its supporters were killed and over 300 were injured after shootings that followed the police storming their peaceful sit-in demading the reinstatement of Morsi. MP Mohamed Beltagy described the incident as a “massacre” during dawn prayers.[124] After the incident, the Freedom and Justice Party, called for “the international community and international groups and all the free people of the world [to] intervene to stop further massacres […] and prevent a new Syria in the Arab world.”[125] The Nour party said it would suspend taking part in the political process as a response to the deadly clashes. And Ahmed el-Hawary, a founding member of the al-Dustour party and a member of June 30 front, said: “We cannot blame the Muslim Brotherhood without blaming the army. They are both held accountable for this catastrophe…The Bortherhood is playing victims to gain international sympathy yet losing whatever is left of the sympathy at home. A speedy formation of the new cabinet is essential at this point, and although consensus is critical. Egypt must not be the hostage of a concurrence based on non-pertinent arguments.”[126] At the same time, Morsi supporters were said by the military of having forced two soldiers, Samir Abdallah Ali and Azzam Hazem Ali, to make pro-Morsi statements on a loudspeaker and that one of them was “severely beaten up” and filmed while making the statements. However, an army official later said that they had “managed to escape their captors.”[127]

On 8 July, following reports that many fighters in Syria were returning in support of the Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt slapped restrictions on Syrians entering the country and required them to obtain visas before entering the country.[128] Mohamed Badie also an arrest warrant out against him as the party refused to join a transitional government.[129] The Investigative Reporting Program at the University of California at Berkeley showed that a State Department programme ostensible to support democracy provided funds to activists and politicians for fomenting unrest in Egypt after the ouster of President Hosni Mubarak in February 2011.[130] The Muslim Brotherhood vowed to continue its resistance to the military’s ouster of Morsi. In a statement it disavowed itself from an assassination attempt against a senior army commander in the Sinai Peninsula on 10 July and said it adheres to peaceful measures. The statement also read: “We will continue our peaceful resistance to the bloody military coup against constitutional legitimacy. We trust that the peaceful and popular will of the people shall triumph over force and oppression.”[131] The public prosecutor[who?] issued a freeze on the assets of the Muslim Brotherhood’s leaders, as well as other supporters pending investigations in ongoing cases related to events in al-Mokatam, al-Nahda square and the Republican Guards Club. This would affect Mohamed Badie, Khairat al-Shater, Mohamed Ezat, Mahi Ekef, Saed ElKatatni, Essam ElErian, Mohamed ElBeltagy and the Muslim Brotherhood’s allies, including Essam Sultan, Assem Abdul Majed, Safwat Hegazy and Hazem Abu Ismail, will also be affected by the freeze.[132]

In addition to continuing daily protests, the Muslim Brotherhood called for more protests after Friday prayers on 19 July.[133] The protests were held in Cairo and Alexandria with two formations of fighter jets flying over both cities after noon prayers ended and some military helicopters flew low over roof tops in Cairo. Amongst the tens of thousands of protesters present, they chanted “Islamic, Islamic” calling for an Islamic state.[134] The protests again turned violent and fatal in Cairo and Qalyoub on 22 July.[135] Morsi’s family also held a press conference in Cairo in which his children accused the military of kidnapping him, as well as announcing local and international legal measures they had initiated against General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi.[136]

In mid-August, the violence between Islamists and the army escalated further, with hundreds killed, and the government declaring a month-long nighttime curfew.[137][138]

Violence against Coptic Christians

Since Morsi’s removal, Egypt’s Christian minority, a reported 10% of the population, have been the target of backlash by Morsi supporters.[139] On July 5, 2013 — two days after Morsi was ousted— mobs rampaged through the Christian village of Nagaa Hassan, burning dozens of homes, ransacking stores and stabbing to death at least four people. This included, anti-Morsi Christian activist Emile Naseem, who was hacked and beaten to death. Witnesses reported seeing “a mob of several hundred men wearing the hallmark long beards of ultraconservative MuslimSalafis as well as more extreme movements.”[139] Dozens of Christian families sought protection in the local Church of St. John The Baptist.[139]

Morsi supporters also attacked Christian homes and shops in Dalaga, a village where Christians constitute 35 percent of the population.[139] In Port Said’s al-Manakh, masked gunmen opened fire at the Mar Mina Church.[140] Since 30 June, mobs carried out attacks on Christians in six out of Egypt’s twenty-seven provinces.[139] Churches across Egypt have cancelled their evening Mass and social activities.[141] Other incidents include Coptic Christian priest Mina Abboud Sharobeen being killed in an outdoor market.[142]

Other incidents

See also: Sinai insurgency

The day after the coup, Islamist gunmen staged multiple attacks on security forces in the Sinai and Suez. One soldier was killed and two others were wounded at a police station near the local headquarters of military intelligence in Rafah as it was attacked by rocket fire. Attackers also fired rocket-propelled grenades at army checkpoints guarding El Arish airport.[143] A protest by hundreds of people occurred in Al-Arish the day after the ouster with calls to form a war council to combat the army. Ten areas in north Sinai were witness to clashes, including the Central Security Force camp and a number of checkpoints along the ring road. The airport was also closed after being targeted by unidentified armed men.[144]

In late July 2013 the Egyptian military reportedly launched “Operation Desert Storm” in an effort to squash the militants. Videos had been released within hours of Morsi’s ousting calling for action against the Egyptian armed forces saying: “Go away from North Sinai, we are the mujahideen.”[145]

International reactions[edit source | editbeta]

Pre-coup[edit source | editbeta]

Supranational bodies

  •  United Nations – UN spokesman Eduardo del Buey stated that while most of the protests appear to be peaceful, “the reports of a number of deaths and injuries, of sexual assault against women demonstrators, as well as acts of destruction of property are to be strongly condemned.”[146]

States

  •  Syria – Information Minister Omran al-Zoubi said that the political crisis in Egypt could only be overcome if Morsi realises that an overwhelming majority of his Egyptian people reject his presence and want him removed. On 3 July, he called the Muslim Brotherhood a “terrorist” organisation and a “U.S. tool.”[147]
  •  United Kingdom – Prime Minister David Cameron stated in the House of Commons on 3 July that: “We should appeal to all sides to stay calm and stop the levels of violence, and particularly sexual assaults”, and that it is not for the United Kingdom “to support any single group or party. What we should support is proper democratic processes and proper government by consent.”[148]
  •  United States – President Barack Obama remarked on 1 July in a press conference in Tanzania that “our number-one priority has been making sure that our embassies and consulates are protected. Number two, what we’ve consistently insisted on is that all parties involved – whether it’s members of Mr. Morsi’s party or the opposition – that they remain peaceful. And although we have not seen the kind of violence that many had feared so far, the potential remains there, and everybody has to show restraint…”[149]

Others

  • Human Rights Watch have alleged there that have been sexual assaults during the protests.[150][151] In the first three days of the month, women’s activists have reported 43 alleged sexual assaults of both foreign and domestic women.[152]

Post-coup

African Union members with Egypt suspended.

Supranational bodies

  • African Union – A statement from the group read that its head, Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, “observes that the removal of…Mursi was in violation of the provisions of the Egyptian Constitution and falls under the AU doctrine on unconstitutional changes of Government. [The Peace and Security Council (PSC)] will deliberate on the situation in Egypt and take the required decisions.”[153] It added of Dlamini-Zuma that “she is particularly concerned about the tension prevailing in the country and the risks that this situation poses to stability and security in Egypt as well as to the consolidation of its democratic process. [The AU’s] principled position on unconstitutional changes of government” underscores the need “to find an appropriate response to the popular aspirations within the framework of legality and Egyptian institutions.”[154] Following debate on 5 July,[153] the PSC made a decision to suspend Egypt over the coup and added that it was sending a team of “high-level personalities” in order work toward restoring constitutional order.[103]
  •  European Union – High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton said: “I urge all sides to rapidly return to the democratic process, including the holding of free and fair presidential and parliamentary elections and the approval of a constitution, to be done in a fully inclusive manner, so as to permit the country to resume and complete its democratic transition. I hope that the new administration will be fully inclusive and reiterate the importance of ensuring full respect for fundamental rights, freedoms, and the rule of law and will hold the authorities to account for this. I strongly condemn all violent acts, offer my condolences to the families of the victims, and urge the security forces to do everything in their power to protect the lives and well-being of Egyptian citizens. I call on all sides to exercise maximum restraint.”[155] During a visit to Cairo, Ashton met the interim president, Adly Mansour, but she also said that she regretted being unable to meet Morsi. She said: “I believe he should be released. I was assured he is well. I would have liked to see him.”[156]
  •  United Nations – Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said: “At this moment of continued high tension and uncertainty in the country, the secretary-general reiterates his appeals for calm, non-violence, dialogue and restraint. An inclusive approach is essential to addressing the needs and concerns of all Egyptians. Preservation of fundamental rights, including freedom of speech and assembly remain of vital importance. In their protests many Egyptians have voiced deep frustrations and legitimate concerns. At the same time, military interference in the affairs of any state is of concern. Therefore, it will be crucial to quickly reinforce civilian rule in accordance with principles of democracy.”[155] He also called for “speedy resumption of civilian rule.”[157] He spoke to Egyptian Foreign Minister Nabil Fahmy and “called for an end to all violence, especially sexual violence against women.”[158] High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay urged all parties to make a concerted effort to restore calm by ensuring that the human rights of all citizens are respected and protected and are subsequently entrenched in sound laws and institutions. She also urged Egypt to stop arbitrary detentions.[159]

States

  •  Argentina – The Foreign Ministry issued a statement that read that “the Argentine government follows with concern the recent events in Egypt that led to the interruption of the democratic process, the destitution of its legitimate authorities, and a complex political and social situation.”[160]
  •  Australia – Prime Minister Kevin Rudd called for a swift return to democracy in Egypt and upgraded the national travel warning for Egypt to its second highest level.[161]
  •  Bahrain – King Hamad Bin Isa Al Khalifa wrote his Egyptian counterpart, Adly Mansour, “With great honor we take this opportunity to congratulate you on taking over the reins of power in Egypt at this important time in history. We are confident that you will take the responsibility to achieve the aspirations of the Egyptian people.”[154]
  •  Canada – Foreign Minister John Baird called for “a transparent democratic system that respects the voices of its citizens.” A spokesperson for the foreign ministry called the removal of president Morsi a “coup”.[162]
  •  China – Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said: “China respects the choice of the Egyptian people. We also hope that all parties concerned in Egypt can avoid using violence and properly solve their disputes through dialogue and consultation and realise reconciliation and social stability.”[157]
  •  Colombia – The Foreign Ministry issued a press release stating that “the National Government is following with major attention the current events that have been taking place in the Arab Republic of Egypt and expresses its confidence on the corresponding political characters and the egyptian society to deploy their best efforts to promptly hold elections, re-stablish democracy and the constitutional order in that country. [Colombia] calls on their friends, the egyptian people, to exercise their rights on a peaceful manner and that the authorities incharged of the political transition to avoid any violent situation that might hamper the reconciliation and the aspirations of the egytian people to stablish a solid and prosperous democracy in the country. The National Government will be kept informed on the evolution of the situation trough its embassador in the Arab Republic of Egypt.”[163]
  •  France – President Francois Hollande talked of Tunisia as an Arab Spring model on the visit there by a French leader since the Tunisian revolution where he said that Islam and democracy were “on the same path.” He compared this to other Arab Spring countries in saying: “You (Tunisia) are heading in the right direction. In Libya the transition has been tainted by violence; in Egypt the transition was stopped after the removal of the elected president; and in Syria, desire for change led to war.[164] Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said: “In a situation that has worsened seriously and with extreme tension in Egypt, new elections have finally been announced, after a transition period. [A timetable should be drawn up respecting] civil peace, pluralism, individual liberties and the achievements of the democratic transition, so that the Egyptian people can freely choose their leaders and their future.”[165]
  •  Germany – Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle said: “This is a major setback for democracy in Egypt. It is urgent that Egypt return as quickly as possible to the constitutional order. There is a real danger that the democratic transition in Egypt will be seriously damaged.”[155]
  •  Iran – Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Salehi asked the military government to hold a new election soon. In a statement published by the Foreign Ministry: “Iran will respect to the Egyptian political requirements and it is hoped that future political developments will happen in the interests of the people.”[166] Foreign Ministry spokesman Abbas Araqchi said that Iran was concerned about the “continuance of clashes between the opposition and Morsy supporters. Unfortunately, the unrest during last few days left several dead and injured, but Egyptians should be united and stop the violence.”[154] He later said: “We do not consider proper the intervention by military forces in politics to replace a democratically elected administration. Islamists and revolutionaries should not be frustrated. We do not see the recent events in Egypt as a defeat for Islamic awakening.”[167]
  •  Iraq – Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki‘s spokesman, Ali al-Moussawi, said that he expressed support for the Egyptian people’s choices, while also congratulating the interim president, Adly Mansour. al-Moussawi said that Iraq is “looking forward to boosting bilateral relations” and is “certain that the new president will move on with the new plan in holding elections and safeguarding national reconciliation.”[168]
  •  Israel – Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu ordered his cabinet ministers “not to release public statements or grant interviews,” according to Haaretz. Yet Transportation Minister Yisrael Katz told Israeli Army Radio: “It is an Egyptian matter; we must worry about our own interests, and I am sure we are doing just that.”[158]
    • Former Ambassador to Egypt Eli Shaked said: “Instability is bad for Israel, period.”[169]
    • As of 18 August, Israeli diplomats were reportedly lobbying western nations to support the post-coup regime despite its violence against protesters.[170]
  •  Jordan — A government statement read that it respected the wishes of the Egyptian people as well as the role of the armed forces.[171]
  •  Kuwait – Kuwait News Agency reported: “In his name and the country’s name, His Highness expressed his congratulations to the president of the Republic of Egypt, for taking the lead during the transitional and historical stage.”[154] The country then also gave US$4 billion in aid following Morsi’s removal.[172]
  •  Lebanon – Prime Minister-designate Tammam Salam cabled Adly Mansour to congratulate him on his appointment as interim leader.[154]
  •  Libya – Speaking from Rome, Prime Minister Ali Zidan said: “We support any political choice by the Egyptian people and we are with it. We support the Egyptian people and we wish to it peace and stability as its stability and security are also Libya’s. Our relationship with Egypt will not be affected by any change. It is strategic and it will always be strong based on mutual respect, neighborhood and brotherhood. Libya does not intervene in the internal affairs of other countries.”[173]
  •  Malaysia – Prime Minister Najib Razak said “Malaysians should learn from the conflict in Egypt when the changes you want to claim is not a guarantee of prosperity and well-being of the people.”[174] Nevertheless, Minister of Youth and Sports Khairy Jamaluddin stated “UMNO Youth Malaysia condemned the coup and the arrest of Dr. Morsi. Incident erupted after prolonged demonstration were not only killed, but also bring the riots and violent clashes between supporters and opponents of the government there.”[174]
    • Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party‘s Murshidul Am Tuan Guru Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat described it as another “dark moment” repeating in Egypt.
    • Meanwhile, PKR de-facto leader Anwar Ibrahim said any military coup must be condemned by democratic countries. “A leader democratically elected through free and fair elections should not be deposed in such a manner. [The coup is a] major setback for the Arab Spring. Whatever the ends, the means are not justified.”[175]
  •  Norway – Foreign Minister Espen Barth Eide said Norway regretted that the political process has not led to a unifying solution for Egypt and instead the army intervened to oust President Morsi. “Norway has always encouraged Morsi and the opposition to find solutions to the country’s challenges through a broad and inclusive process” and added that Norway provides full support for democratic development in Egypt and moreover it was essential to allow for a civilian government with a democratic election quickly.[176]
  •  Netherlands – Spokesman for Consular Affairs Toon van Wijk said that “we are following the situation in Egypt closely. But there’s no reason for us to make reductions to our embassy staff in Cairo or to ask personnel to come home.”[177]
  •  Pakistan – Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif called for the immediate release of Morsi. A statement issued by the Foreign Office read: “Pakistan therefore urges all sides in Egypt to address the legal and constitutional issues in an inclusive and peaceful manner to enable the country to successfully restore the democratic institutions as early as possible. We also call for the immediate release of President Muhamed Morsi.”[178]
  •  Palestine – The internationally recognised head of the PNA and PLO Mahmoud Abbas called on Palestinians “not to interfere in internal issues of Arab countries,” which was read by the media as supportive of the coup.[169] PLO executive committee member Hanan Ashrawi said: “I don’t see this as a coup d’état. We see this as recognising the will of the people there for the armed forces serving and protecting the people as they should.”[177]
  • Hamas Member of Parliament in GazaYahia Moussa said: “The [Hamas] movement does not interfere in Egyptian affairs [and has] no comment on the Egyptian army’s decision to isolate President Morsi.”[155] A senior Hamas figure Ahmad Yousef, said: “We do not fear the fall of President Mohamed Morsy. [sic] We fear the dramatic changes that could cause things to go out of hand and lead to bloodshed. We only care about stability in Egypt regardless of who is in charge. Egypt is a lifeline to us; it’s a major factor in the stability of the internal Palestinian situation — it is our backbone.”[154]

PFLP member of the central committee in Gaza, Jamil Mezher, said that the leftist group supports the Egyptian people’s choice and their chief demands for freedom and social justice. He also refused to call the military’s action a “coup” and added: “Legitimacy doesn’t lie only in the ballot box. Legitimacy lies in the people’s calls and their aspirations; it is the millions who filled Egypt’s streets and squares demanding change and calling for freedom and political inclusion.”[179]

  •  Philippines – President Benigno Aquino III‘s spokesman, Edwin Lacierda, advised Filipinos to avoid areas of conflict. Lacierda also assured that the personnel of the Philippine embassy in Cairo will not be pulled out and that the number one concern of the Department of Foreign Affairs, is to ensure the safety of Filipino nationals in Egypt. However, Lacierda refused to comment if the Philippine government supported the ousting of Morsi.[180]
  •  Poland – Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman, Marcin Bosacki, said: “It is with concern that we received news of the suspension of Egypt’s constitution and the removal of President Mohamed Morsy from power. Such a solution must be treated as at least a temporary freeze of the democratic process initiated by the Egyptian nation over two years ago. What is most important today is that the current Egyptian authorities — staying true to their promises — undertake the fastest possible steps to return full power to democratically elected representatives of society.”[177]
  •  Qatar – Qatar was reported to be unhappy over the move after it spent about US$10 billion in financial aid towards the Morsi government; while they were said to also be unhappy about the closure of Al Jazeera‘s offices in Cairo.[169] Yet the new emir, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, sent “a cable of congratulations” to the new interim President.[181] The Foreign Ministry released a statement that read: “Qatar will continue to respect the will of Egypt and its people across the spectrum.”[168] After a month of protests and international mediation efforts, Foreign Minister Khaled al-Attiya said that he had not been able to meet all those he was promised he could meet and that “my wish for the brothers in Egypt is to release the political prisoners as soon as possible because they are the key to unlocking this crisis. Without a serious dialogue with all the parties, and most importantly with the political prisoners because they are the main element in this crisis, I believe things will be difficult.”[182]
  •  Russia – The Foreign Ministry issued a statement that read: “We consider it important for all political forces in Egypt to exercise restraint…to consider the broad national interests of their actions, and to prove that they strive to solve the brewing political and socio-economic problems in a democratic framework, without violence, and accounting for the interests of all social groups and religious confessions.”[155]
  •  Saudi Arabia — King Abdullah was the first international head of state to send a message of congratulations to Interim President Adly Mansour. “In my own name and on behalf of the people of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, I congratulate you on assuming the leadership of Egypt at this critical point of its history. By doing so, I appeal to Allah Almighty to help you to shoulder the responsibility laid on your shoulder to achieve the hopes of our sisterly people of the Arab Republic of Egypt. At the same time, we strongly shake hands with the men of all the armed forces, represented by General Abdel Fattah al-Sissi, who managed to save Egypt at this critical moment from a dark tunnel God only could apprehend its dimensions and repercussions, but the wisdom and moderation came out of those men to preserve the rights of all parties in the political process. Please accept our greetings to you and deep respect to our brothers in Egypt and its people, wishing Egypt steady stability and security.[171]
  •  Somalia
    • al-Shabaab announced on Twitter: “It’s time to remove those rose-tinted spectacles and see the world as accurately as it is, change comes by the bullet alone; NOT the ballot. [The Muslim Brotherhood] should perhaps learn a little from the lessons of history and those ‘democratically elected’ before them in Algeria or even Hamas. When will the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) wake up from their deep slumber and realize the futility of their efforts at instituting change. After a year of stumbling on the hurdles, the MB horse is finally off to the knacker’s yard, never to see the light of day again.”[183]
  •  Sudan – Foreign Minister Ali Karti called his former Egyptian counterpart, Mohamed Kamel Amr, to ask about the situation in Egypt. He also expressed hope that Egypt will enjoy security, stability and social peace, while saying Sudan respected the people’s will and that the event was an internal matter. Further, he underscored the unique nature of the relationshipbetween their two countries.[184] The government also said that the coup was a “domestic affair” and that “Sudan calls on all parties in Egypt to make as a priority to preserve Egypt’s stability and security, peace and unity of its people,” while saying that it wanted “brotherly ties” with Egypt.
    • Islamist opposition leader, Hassan al-Turabi said: “This is a coup against the constitution, against the legitimacy. He (Morsi) was the first democratically elected leader. He issued a constitution which the people wanted.”[185]
  •  Sweden – Foreign Minister Carl Bildt wrote on Twitter: “I’m horrified by the large number of dead in the demonstrations in Egypt. Security forces can’t avoid responsibility.”[186] The tweetcame after at least 80 protesters were confirmed dead and 411 were injured after security forces had opened fire on pro-Morsi demonstrators on a road near the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque.[187]
  •   Switzerland – The Federal Department of Foreign Affairs issued a statement that read: “Switzerland expects to see a swift return to democracy in which all the social forces in the country are involved and in which fundamental human rights are respected. It expresses the hope that a peaceful solution can be found to the current political polarization in Egypt and it calls on all sides to renounce the use of violence.”[177]
  •  Syria – President Bashar al-Assad told the newspaper Thawra that “whoever brings religion to use in politics or in favour of one group at the expense of another will fall anywhere in the world. The summary of what is happening in Egypt is the fall of what is called political Islam.[188] You can’t fool all the people all the time, let alone the Egyptian people who have a civilisation that is thousands of years old, and who espouse clear, Arab nationalist thought. After a whole year, reality has become clear to the Egyptian people. The Muslim Brotherhood’s performance has helped them see the lies the [movement] used at the start of the popular revolution in Egypt.”[189]
  •  Tunisia – The government of the founding state of the Arab Spring, condemned the “flagrant coup,” with Ennahda party leader Rachid Ghannouchi expressing his astonishment and said that the removal of Morsi would undermine democracy and feed radicalism.[168]
  •  Turkey – Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said: “No matter where they are…coups are bad. Coups are clearly enemies of democracy. Those who rely on the guns in their hands, those who rely on the power of the media cannot build democracy…Democracy can only be built at ballot box.” He also criticised the West for not terming the actions as a coup, while praising the African Union’s decision to suspend Egypt over coup. “The West has failed the sincerity test. No offence, but democracy does not accept double standards.”[190] Foreign MinisterAhmet Davutoglu said in a televised statement that “The toppling of a government that came into office through democratic elections, through methods that are not legal – and what is worse, through a military coup – is unacceptable, no matter what the reasons”.[191] Hüseyin Çelik, a spokesman for the governing Justice and Development Party and former cabinet member in theErdoğan administration, condemned the coup as a sign of “backwardness” and accused unnamed Western countries of supporting Morsi’s overthrow. “Some Western countries have not accepted Muslim Brotherhood’s rise to power. They have mobilized the streets, then issued a memorandum, and are now staging the coup.” He also advised Morsi’s supporters to avoid bloodshed in response.
  •  United Arab Emirates – Foreign Minister Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan said that his government was “satisfied” with the developments in Egypt. Al Nahyan also praised the Egyptian army as a “strong shield” and a “protector,” while expressing confidence that Egypt can overcome the crisis “to reach a safe and prosperous future.”[171]
  •  United Kingdom – Prime Minister David Cameron said that the United Kingdom “never supports intervention by the military. But what now needs to happen…in Egypt is for democracy to flourish and for a genuine democratic transition to take place and all the parties need to be involved in that. And that’s what Britain and our allies will be saying very clearly to the Egyptians.”[154] Foreign Secretary William Hague said the United Kingdom “does not support military intervention as a way to resolve disputes in a democratic system.” He also called the situation “dangerous” and called on all sides to “avoid violence” and resort to “a political process that includes all groups on an equal footing leading to early and fair elections which all parties are able to contest, and civilian-led government.”[194]
  •  United States – President Barack Obama said he was “deeply concerned” by the actions of Egypt’s military and urged a return to democratic governance. He ordered his administration to review United States aid to Egypt.[195] He added: “No transition to democracy comes without difficulty, but in the end it must stay true to the will of the people. An honest, capable and representative government is what ordinary Egyptians seek and what they deserve. The long-standing partnership between the United States and Egypt is based on shared interests and values, and we will continue to work with the Egyptian people to ensure that Egypt’s transition to democracy succeeds.” The State Department also expressed concern over the military intervention and ordered the mandatory evacuation of its embassy in Cairo, while it issued a travel advisory that “the Department of State ordered the departure of non-emergency US government personnel and family members from Egypt due to the ongoing political and social unrest.”[168] On 5 July, State Department Spokeswomen Jennifer Psaki said: “We call on all Egyptian leaders to condemn the use of force and to prevent further violence among their supporters. As President Obama said, we expect the military to ensure that the rights of all Egyptians are protected, including the right to peaceful assembly, and we call on all who are protesting to do so peacefully.”[196]
    In the most senior visit to Egypt since the coup, Deputy Secretary of State William Burns said on 15 July: “Only Egyptians can determine their future. I did not come with American solutions, nor did I come to lecture anyone. We know that Egyptians must forge their own path to democracy. We know that this will not mirror our own and we will not try to impose our model on Egypt. [The U.S. would] stand behind certain basic principles, not any particular personalities or parties.”[197] He also criticised the exclusion of Islamist parties from the political process: “If representatives of some of the largest parties in Egypt are detained or excluded, how are dialogue and participation possible?”[198]

    • On 26 July, the United States[who?] said that it would not make a formal determination of whether the events in Egypt constituted a coup. State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki said: “The law does not require us to make a formal determination…as to whether a coup took place, and it is not in our national interest to make such a determination.”[199]
    • Republican Senator John McCain, who is a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said: “We have to suspend aid to Egyptian military because the military has overturned the vote of the people. We cannot repeat the same mistakes that we made in other times of our history by supporting removal of freely elected governments.” He added that once a timetable was arranged for a new election and a new constitution “we should evaluate whether to continue with aid or not.”[200] He was the first U.S. politician to refer to the events as a coup.[201]
    • Representatives Ed Royce, the chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, and Eliot Engel, members of different parties released a statement that read:[202]

The decision by the Egyptian military to take state authority out of the hands of the ruling Muslim Brotherhood government marks another sharp turning point in Egypt’s incomplete revolution. What the Brotherhood neglected to understand is that democracy means more than simply holding elections. Real democracy requires inclusiveness, compromise, respect for human and minority rights, and a commitment to the rule of law. Morsi and his inner circle did not embrace any of these principles and instead chose to consolidate power and rule by fiat. As a result the Egyptian people and their economy suffered greatly. It is now up to the Egyptian military to demonstrate that the new transitional government can and will govern in a transparent manner and work to return the country to democratic rule. We are encouraged that a broad cross-section of Egyptians will gather to rewrite the constitution. All parties in Egypt must show restraint, prevent violence, and prepare to be productive players in the future democratic Egypt. We encourage the military to exercise extreme caution moving forward and support sound democratic institutions through which the people and future governments can flourish.