Lafayettes, Movie Massacres, Predictions, Anniversaries, and the Shelby Name Gam

By: twilight Language

On July 20, 2015, I made a prediction of a potential movie shooting on August 5, 2016.

Yes, that’s a year away. I based those thoughts on future forecasting informed by historical patterning, such as the July 22, 2011, Utøya, Norway massacre occurring the day Captain America was released, and the Aurora, Colorado shootings happening at the premiere showing of The Dark Knight Rises on July 20, 2013. Copycats followed in the wake of those events, in all sorts of variations. It is called the copycat effect, after all.

In 2012, I compiled a comprehensive list of movie shootings and mayhem; see “Blood Red Movie Massacres.”
Suicide Squad is to be first screened in wide release on August 5, 2016.

But then, a mere three days after I wrote that overview on the exact anniversary of the Aurora shooting, a gunman shot up a theater on Wednesday, July 23, 2015. In what even Wikipedia now calls the “2015 Lafayette Shooting,” America was surprised again, and I and others discussed some of its sync links; see, “Fayette Factor Hits Movie Theater.”

The Lafayette killings took place during the film Trainwreck.

Sam: “You really think you’ll be ready for opening tomorrow?”Riggan: “Yeah, yeah. Yeah, well, I mean, previews are pretty much a trainwreck. We can’t seem to get through a performance without a raging fire or a raging hard-on. ~ Birdman: Or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance) – Best Picture of 2014, Academy Awards

BTW, if you missed it, the gunman in the Lafayette horror, John Russell “Rusty” Houser, was born on November 22, 1955. His boyhood 8th birthday was dominated, not by any attention to his youthful entertainment in Columbus, Georgia, but, no doubt, by the news of the day, the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

It appears November 22, 1963, did spawn many monsters.

It is more than a footnote, perhaps, that in the Texas Theatre, a Dallas movie theater, in the Oak Cliff neighborhood, Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the JFK assassination and DPD officer J. D. Tippit, on November 22, 1963.
Meanwhile, back to the future, in 2015, it’s business as usual down the street from the Grand 16, where Trainwreck is showing again, and guns are for sale at Lafayette Shooters.
Time moves along on many fronts.
We are coming up to the two-week anniversary for the Trainwreck/Lafayette shooting, always a dangerous window. The date for that anniversary – Wednesday, August 5, 2015.
People should watch out.

Update – Shelby Name Game:

In The Rebirth of Pan: Hidden Faces of the American Earth Spirit, Jim Brandon writes, regarding the overall “name game”:

I’m not talking here of such spooky tongue-twisters as H.P. Lovecraft’s Yog-Sothoth or Arthur Machen’s Ishakshar, but of quite ordinary names like Bell, Beall and variants, Crowley, Francis, Grafton, Grubb, Magee/McGee, Mason, McKinney, Montpelier, Parsons, Pike, Shelby, Vernon, Watson/Watt, Williams/Williamson. I have others on file, but these are the ones which I have accumulated the most instances.

You will see buried in that list, “Shelby.”

Of late, the Shelby name game appears to be “hot.”

Shelby, North Carolina

The alleged Charleston, South Carolina killer of nine on June 17, 2015, at the Mother Emanuel Church, Dylann Storm Roof was apprehended on June 18, 2015, after a motorist spotted his black Hyundai Elantra, which displayed a “Confederate States of America” license plate on the front bumper, while driving near Shelby, North Carolina. See more, here.

It was noted at the time of the Charleston killer suspect’s capture the irony in the location of his apprehension with the name of James Shelby Downard, Synchromysticism’s Godfather.

Shelby County, Tennessee

Shelby County, Tennessee was the site of a police officer being killed on Saturday, August 1, 2015.
Then on Monday, August 3, 2015, authorities arrested a convicted bank robber suspected of the killing of the Memphis, Tennessee, police officer Sean Bolton during a weekend traffic stop, theShelby County sheriff said.
Tremaine Wilbourn, 29, had been wanted for first-degree murder since Bolton was shot dead Saturday after Bolton apparently interrupted a drug deal.
Police director Toney Armstrong said Sunday that a passenger shot the 33-year-old Bolton several times after “some type of physical altercation.”
Wilbourn had been free on supervised release by the U.S. Western District Court for a 122-month sentence for bank robbery, Armstrong said.

Camp Shelby, Mississippi

The Mississippi National Guard says soldiers reported shots fired during a training exercise at Camp Shelby, but no service members were hurt.
The Guard said in a news release Tuesday, August 4, 2015, that the Camp Shelby Joint Forces Training Center is secure and all personnel accounted for. The news release says the shots were fired from a road near Camp Shelby, but not on the military post’s property. Officials say they’re searching for two white males traveling in a two-door, red Ford Ranger. The words “Broken Arrow” are on the front of that vehicle. The shooting happened just before noon Tuesday on Paret Tower Road near Camp Shelby.


The name “Shelby” means “willow grove,” “a place where willows grow,” and “willow farm.”

Locations in North America named “Shelby,” are most frequently named after Isaac Shelby(December 11, 1750 – July 18, 1826), who was the first and fifth Governor of the U.S. state of Kentucky and a state legislator of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also a soldier in Lord Dunmore’s War, the Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812.

The links and syncs in Shelby’s life to names frequently encountered nowadays are phenomenal.

Let me point to a few examples.

Shelby’s military service began when he served as second-in-command to his father at the Battle of Point Pleasant (October 10, 1774), the only major battle of Lord Dunmore’s War, and what is regarded by most historians as the actual first battle of the Revolutionary War. The site of the battle was Point Pleasant, Mason County, West Virginia, and involved the defeat of Chief Cornstalk. The area is known for the modern Mothman reports, and the location of the alleged “Curse of Cornstalk,” which is tied to disasters and the Mothman trouble in the area.

At the Battle of Point Pleasant, among those killed was Pucksinwah, the father of Tecumseh. Colonel John Field, an ancestor of United States Presidents George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush, was killed in the battle. The monument to the battle in Point Pleasant is a Masonic obelisk.

Shelby was surveying lands in Kentucky in 1780 when he heard of the colonists’ defeat atCharleston. On the morning of July 31, 1780, he surrounded the British stronghold at Thickety Fort on the Pacolet River with 600 men. The British commander lost his nerve and capitulated; without firing a shot, Shelby’s men captured 94 prisoners.

Following the surrender of Thickety Fort, Shelby joined a band of partisans under Lieutenant Elijah Clarke. This unit was pursued by British Major Patrick Ferguson. On the morning of August 8, 1780, some of Shelby’s men were gathering peaches from an orchard when they were surprised by some of Ferguson’s men on a reconnaissance mission. Shelby’s men quickly readied their arms and drove back the British patrol. Soon, however, the British were reinforced and the colonists fell back. The pattern continued, with one side being reinforced and gaining an advantage, followed by the other. Shelby’s men were winning the battle when Ferguson’s main force of 1,000 men arrived. Outmanned, they retreated to a nearby hill where British musket fire could not reach them. Now safe, they taunted the British, and Ferguson’s force withdrew from the area. Thus ended the Battle of Cedar Springs.

Shelby’s further involvement with Charleston and Ferguson is documented here, and the name game seems beyond coincidential.

Isaac Shelby, as Kentucky’s Governor, began the tradition of Kentucky Colonels in 1813, which evolved into the Honorable Order of Kentucky Colonels born in May of 1931, and organization with ties and overlaps with Freemasonry.

In 1820, Shelby was stricken with paralysis in his right arm and leg. He died of a stroke on July 18, 1826, at his home in Lincoln (another power name) County. He was buried on the grounds of his estate, Traveller’s Rest. The state erected a monument over his grave in 1827.

Places named for Isaac Shelby

Nine states have a county named after Shelby, as do numerous cities and military installations.
* Shelby County, Alabama ,
* Shelby County, Illinois ,
* Shelby County, Indiana ,
* Shelby County, Iowa ,
* Shelby County, Kentucky,
* Shelby County, Missouri,
* Shelby County, Ohio,
* Shelby County, Tennessee,
* Shelby County, Texas,

Military installations
* Camp Shelby, Mississippi,
* Fort Shelby, Michigan,
* Fort Shelby, Wisconsin,

Cities and towns
* Shelby, Oceana County, Michigan,
* Shelby, New York,
* Shelby, North Carolina,
* Shelby, Ohio,
* Shelby Township, Michigan,
* Shelbyville, Illinois,
* Shelbyville, Indiana,
* Shelbyville, Kentucky,
* Shelbyville, Missouri,
* Shelbyville, Tennessee ,
* Shelbyville, Texas,

10 Weird American Laws

Gateway Arch to Hell: Ferguson in Trident Times

by: Twilight Language

Ferguson is a Scottish-Irish surname and given name. The surname is a patronymic form of the personal name Fergus. The name Fergus is derived from the Gaelic elements fear (“man“) and gus(“vigor,” “force,” or “choice“). Thus the name “Ferguson” literally means the “son of a man of force/vigor” (the “male offspring of a strong powerful father“).

I wrote the above, regarding another matter, on May 11, 2013. 

In 2014, the word “Ferguson” now symbolizes deeper meanings. It may soon mean a time of hellish behaviors, across the USA. Yes, I am not the only one predicting that “all hell may break loose,” asThe Economist considered the coming days.

On Sunday night, November 23, 2014, protesters wrote The Hunger Games-inspired graffiti on a local St. Louis landmark, which read: “If we burn, you burn with us.”

It was scrawled on an arch in the Shaw neighborhood of the Missouri city. The slogan is from Hunger Games Mockingjay Part 1. The arch that was vandalized is known as the Flora Place Gates and was built in 1897, helping sparking the development of Shaw, Missouri. Nearly a century later the neighbourhood was identified as a historic district because of its period architecture. Source.
FTP means “F*ck The Pigs.”

Michael Brown, an unarmed 18-year-old black adolescent, was shot (reportedly six times) and killed on Saturday, August 9, 2014, by Darren Wilson, a police officer, in Ferguson, Missouri, a suburb of St. Louis. The St. Louis County grand jury made a decision and announced on Monday, November 24, 2014, that there is no indictment of Officer Wilson. The predicted outcome of this decision is nationwide demonstrations, with some rioting and civil unrest.

Ferguson had its start in 1855 when William B. Ferguson deeded 10 acres (4.0 ha) of land to the Wabash Railroad in exchange for a new depot and naming rights. The settlement that sprang up around the depot was called Ferguson Station. Ferguson was the first outside station connected to St. Louis, Missouri. Ferguson was incorporated as a city in 1894.Others have seen synchromystic links to Ferguson.

Ferguson, Missouri (northeast St. Louis), sits precisely midway between Cairo, Illinois (“Little Egypt”) and Hannibal, Missouri (the Hannibal name is related to Baal as well as the archetypal enemy of ancient Rome). Ferguson is also precisely in the middle of two alignments of Route 66, the I-270 frontage road to the north, and I-70 to the south.Source.

Little Egypt is an area steeped in mysticism.

Little Egypt is a regional name for southern Illinois. The most populated city is Belleville.

The nickname “Egypt” may have arisen in the 1830s, when poor harvests in the north of the state drove people to Southern Illinois to buy grain. Others say it was because the land of the great Mississippi and Ohio River valleys were like that of Egypt’s Nile delta. The nickname may date back to 1818, when a huge tract of land was purchased at the confluence of the rivers and its developers named it Cairo. Today, the town of Cairo still stands on THE PENINSULA where the Ohio River joins the Mississippi. Other settlements in the area were also given names with Egyptian, Greek or Middle Eastern origins: The Southern Illinois University Salukis sports teams and towns such as Metropolis, Thebes, Dongola, Palestine, Lebanon, New Athens, Sparta, and Karnak show the influence of classical culture….Egyptian names were concentrated in towns of Little Egypt but also appeared in towns further south. For instance, about 100 miles (200 km) south of Cairo, along the Mississippi, lies Memphis, Tennessee, named after the Egyptian city on the Nile. Source.

The skyward symbol of the Ferguson area is the Gateway Arch.

St. Louis Gateway Arch was covertly blown up in the science fiction film, Sucker Punch (2011), and it served overtly as a 2046 landmark in Syfy’s Defiance (2013-2014).

Eero Saarinen working with a model of the arch in 1957.

St. Louis’s Gateway Arch is very relevant too (via Ferguson, of course). Note that the City is known as “Gateway to the West.” So, you know where that goes. The west = Osiris = Underworld portal = Gate of Hell. ~  Source.

Eero Saarinen’s futuristic designs are significant and iconic. His TWA JFK Flight Center opened in 1962 and has been somewhat preserved in the redesigned JetBlue JFK T5, which retains parts of the Saarinen terminal (head house).

In discussing the significance of all the tridents being seen in 2014, via various news stories, this is intriguing:

I’d [Goro would] say, [this] is at the core of what the trident motif alludes to…The opening of the Gates of Hell. Source.

Some ideas about the Gateway Arch are far from the mainstream, of course. Take, for example, the Remove The Veil insight that…

The St Louis Arch is a Solar Oriented Masonic Death Memorial for a land (West = Amurru = America) destined to become “Wilderness,” i.e. Desert. The Fleur de Lys (Louisiana Purchase) symbolizes Father, Mother Son, the Occult “Trinity.” Source.

[More about fleur-de-lis (“flowers of the lilies”) here.]

Then, there’s the link to Freemasonry too:

The Gateway Arch is said to be an inverted catenary, because its curve arches up instead of hangs down. As Robert Hooke (essentially) wrote in 1675 about the relationship between a perfect arch and a hanging chain: “As hangs the chain, so stands the arch.”
Perhaps coincidentally, from a purely symbolic perspective, in Freemasonry one finds the astrologically-based Royal Arch of Heaven. Alfred E. Waite, in his New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, specifically mentions the Catenarian Arch:
“There are two points from which this form of arch can be approached; the first is that of architecture, and it is proverbial in this respect that there is no curve in Masonry which approaches the catenary in strength; as regards the second, it is summarized in the simple statement that in its due and proper arrangement every Royal Arch Chapter approaches as nearly as possible the form of a catenarian arch. Of all that arises herefrom and belongs hereto it is not possible to speak: the motto is: Come and See.”Source.

The Freemasonic Royal Arch.

Update: By pure coincidence, after I posted this, Theo Paijmans tweeted the above image, showing that this royal arch was used on the “Masonic Apron presented to Gen. Washington by Madame LaFayette.”

This brings forth another view:

The trident – at once a symbol of disintegrating fire/lightning and of gnashing teeth – is a liminal (threshold) symbol. To put it differently, the teeth are the gatekeepers of the mouth – one of the sacred “nine bodily gates” in Tantric sex-magic. The teeth/mouth are a gateway into the digestive system, which facilitates the breakdown of matter for use by the body. Source.

Thoughts have been shared about how close to home this is:

One synchronicity, though: the trident is the symbol of the university where I [Kenn Thomas] work. I live near the university, home and office near the rioting, although not quite in Ferguson. Source.

How about all with the name Ferguson popping up?

Marienne Ferguson, Jewish woman who spoke with Prince Charles in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, provoking his slander of Putin, comparing him to Adolf Hitler.
Asia Leeshawn Ferguson, decapitated by Batman the Ride.
Daniel Ferguson, a victim of the Ford Hood shooting by Ivan Lopez…. Source.

On Saturday, June 28, 2008, at Six Flags Over Georgia, 17-year-old Asia Leeshawn Ferguson of Springfield, South Carolina, scaled two six-foot fences and passed through restricted areas posted as dangerous to visitors. Ferguson jumped the fences and was then decapitated by the Batman roller coaster. Source.

Where is all of this leading?

Look closer to home at Ferguson, Missouri. We all better start paying attention. We all better get hip to the seriousness of these matters. Source.

Is it a bit of a sad irony that the line from Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young’s 1970 hit Ohio– “Tin soldiers and Nixon’s comin’ …” could apply today, as Missouri Gov. Jay Nixon deploys National Guard troops into the fractured St. Louis suburb of Ferguson? Source.

Now the future begins, in earnest..

Hot on the heels of my essay, “Gateway Arch to Hell: Ferguson in Trident Times,” the structure is in the news again. I posted that selection on November 24, 2014, immediately after the non-indictment decision, regarding the shooting of Michael Brown, was made. As widely predicted, demonstrations, fires, and rioting occurred in 130 cities.

On November 26, it was announced the new issue of The New Yorker would have a cover illustration (above) by Bob Staake that shows the Gateway Arch as a broken landmark, white and black, with a missing top section. It symbolizes the racial tension in St. Louis due to the Ferguson situation.

Observation deck location at the Gateway Arch, St. Louis. Photo credit.

Now comes word on November 27 (American Thanksgiving) – via an unsealed indictment – that a plot was sidetracked that would have caused a bomb to go off in exactly the above shown, missing section of the Gateway Arch.

Two St. Louis men ​plotted to bomb the Gateway Arch and murder the Ferguson police chief and prosecutor who handled Michael Brown’s case​. They had obtained one pipe bomb. They had plans to obtain two others.

Brandon Orlando Baldwin (also known as Brandon Muhammad – above) and Olajuwon Ali Davis (also known as Olajuwon Ali and Brother Ali) ​were allegedly ​planning to plant a bomb inside the observation deck of the ​iconic ​Arch, sources told the St. Louis Post-Dispatch.

A November 21st report of their arms-related arrest mentioned their links to the New Black Panther Party. They allegedly acquired two Hi-Point .45 ACP pistols for someone else, at Cabela’s hunting gear store​ in Hazelwood, Missouri.

​After that arrest, the plot to bomb the Gateway Arch was revealed, but whether they were going to use the explosive to kill St. Louis County Prosecuting Attorney Robert McCulloch and Police Chief Tom Jackson is unknown.​

Davis/Ali describes himself as a “Moorish American,” and a member of the Moorish Science Temple of America.

The New Black Panther Party issued a statement calling the allegations regarding bombing and killing “totally unfounded” and were “baseless and have no merit.”

The links to “Little Egypt” and the area are recalled, of course, with these “Moorish” threads and Brandon Muhammad’s fashion choices.

Intriguing that one of the bomb plotter’s first name is Brandon. It is Jim Brandon who notes, in hisThe Rebirth of Pan: Hidden Faces of the American Earth Spirit (Dunlap, IL: Firebird Press, 1983), that the Gateway Arch location is across from the Cahokia Mounds complex. The Cahokia group includes the Monks Mound, the largest pyramid north of Mesoamerica. Its base circumference is larger than the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan.

“Which naturally leads me to ask who, then, built the more than one hundred conical, ridgetop, and platform mounds that once stood here, plus several dozens more in outlying areas and across the Mississippi precisely where the Gateway Arch now stands?” writes Brandon.

Other animals









Birds of prey

Breaking: Special Ops Contractors & Former Navy SEALS Deploying to #Ferguson


Asymmetric Solutions is a Division of Applied Defense Technologies. The St. Louis-based company is staffed by combat experienced SpecOps vets, including: Army Green Berets, Army Delta, Navy SEALs, SEAL 6, and Agency SOF. The company offers a real-world training environment with exceptional instructors on self defense from criminal violence.

On Tuesday Assymetric Solutions tweeted out that they were being deployed to Ferguson, Missouri.
This comes after several dozen North County businesses were looted and destroyedby violent protesters this week in Ferguson.

1776 Channel reported:

Missouri-based private security contractor Asymmetric Solutions, which employs elite former U.S. military special operators, tweeted Tuesday afternoon that the company is deploying a “high threat team in our own city”.

When responding via Twitter to a request for information, a spokesperson said “we cannot professionally hand out that information, regardless of client or location. We put a security team of former SOF personnel into the STL area at the request of a client.”

2014 Ferguson unrest

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2014 Ferguson unrest
Ferguson Day 6, Picture 44.png

Police using tear gas against protests on August 14, 2014
Date August 9, 2014 – present
(3 months, 2 weeks and 2 days)
Location Ferguson, Missouri, United States
Cause Shooting of Michael Brown
method Peaceful protests, vandalism, looting, rioting, arson, and some gunshots fired
Parties to the civil conflict
Arrests, injuries, and casualties
  • Injuries: 4[7]
Shooting of Michael Brown
St. Louis County Missouri Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Ferguson Highlighted.svg

Location of Ferguson, Missouri, within St. Louis County and St. Louis County withinMissouri
Time 12:01 p.m.–12:04 p.m.
Date Saturday, August 9, 2014
Location Ferguson, Missouri, U.S.
Coordinates 38.7383°N 90.2736°WCoordinates: 38.7383°N 90.2736°W
  • Darren Wilson (shooter)
  • Michael Brown (victim)
  • Dorian Johnson (accompanied Brown)
Deaths Michael Brown

The shooting of Michael Brown occurred on August 9, 2014, in Ferguson, Missouri, United States, a suburb of St. Louis. Brown, an 18-year-old male, died after being shot at least six times by Ferguson police officer Darren Wilson, 28 Brown was unarmed and had no criminal record.According to Ferguson police, Brown was a suspect in a robbery allegedly committed minutes before the shooting, although the initial contact between Wilson and Brown was unrelated to the alleged robbery.

Wilson had served four years with the Ferguson Police Department after serving two years with another local police department. He had no disciplinary history.

According to The Washington Post, the shooting of a black male by a white police officer sparked the ongoing unrest in Ferguson due to longstanding racial tensions in a region that is “among the most segregated metropolitan areas in the nation.”[10] Peaceful protests,[11] vandalism, and other forms of social unrest have continued[12] for more than a week, with night curfew being imposed and escalated violence. Widespread media coverage examined the trend of local police departments arming themselves with “military-grade weapons” and responding in a military fashion when dealing with protesting civilians and journalists covering volatile current events.[15]

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) opened a civil rights investigation of the shooting.[16] U.S. President Barack Obama issued a statement expressing condolences to Brown’s family and committed the U.S. Department of Justice to conduct an investigation.[17]

On August 16, following looting and violence, Missouri Governor Jay Nixon declared a state of emergency and imposedcurfews.[18] Two days later, the curfews having failed to control the violence, Nixon lifted the curfews and activated theMissouri National Guard to support police operations.[19][20]

Original shooting incident

Michael Brown, an 18-year-old male, died after being shot at least six times by Darren Wilson, a 28-year-old Fergusonpolice officer.[13][14][15] Brown was walking in the middle of the street along with his friend Dorian Johnson when Wilson stopped them and told them to use the sidewalk. From there, a conflict between the two erupted at the vehicle, as Brown allegedly assaulted the officer through his window. The officer allegedly reached for his weapon inside his vehicle shooting Brown in the thumb then shooting when Brown charged the officer, ending with Brown’s death from multiple gunshot wounds.[citation needed] The exact circumstances and actions of Brown and Wilson are disputed.

Brown was a suspect in an alleged strong-arm robbery committed minutes before the shooting, however there is debate as to whether Wilson knew of Brown’s involvement in the robbery.[16][17][18]

Numerous contradictory eyewitness reports emerged in the aftermath of the incident. The police response to the shooting was heavily criticized, as was the slow rate of information making its way out to the public. Many of the documents from the grand jury were released when the grand jury declined to indict Officer Wilson. [19]

Timeline of protests

On the evening of the shooting, residents had created a makeshift memorial of flowers and candles in the spot where Brown died. An unidentified officer reportedly allowed the dog under his control to urinate on the memorial. Police vehicles later crushed the memorial. These incidents inflamed tensions among bystanders, according to Missouri state Rep. Sharon Pace, who told Mother Jones, “That made people in the crowd mad and it made me mad.”[20]

August 2014

The looted, burned-out QuikTrip gas station in Ferguson.

On August 10, a day of memorials began peacefully, but some crowd members became unruly after an evening candlelight vigil.[21] Local police stations assembled approximately 150 officers in riot gear.[22] Some people began looting businesses, vandalizing vehicles, and confronting police officers who sought to block off access to several areas of the city.[21] At least 12 businesses were looted or vandalized and a QuikTrip convenience store and gas station was set on fire, leading to over 30 arrests. Many windows were broken and several nearby businesses closed on Monday.[23] The people arrested face charges of assault, burglary, and theft. Police used a variety of equipment, including riot gear and helicopters, to disperse the crowd by 2:00 a.m.[24] Two police officers suffered minor injuries during the events.[25]

On August 11, police fired tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse a crowd at the burnt shell of the QuikTrip[24] convenience store, set on fire by looters the night before. According to reports, gunshots were fired in Ferguson and five people were arrested.[26][27] Some protesters threw rocks at police officers. The police responded by firing tear gas and bean bag rounds upon those protesting, which included state Senator Maria Chappelle-Nadal.[28]

On August 12, several hundred protesters gathered in Clayton, the county seat, seeking criminal prosecution of the officer involved in the shooting.[29] Protesters in Ferguson carried signs and many held their hands in the air while shouting “don’t shoot!” According to police, some protesters threw bottles at the officers, prompting the use of tear gas to disperse the crowd.[30] The following day, a SWAT team of around 70 officers arrived at a protest demanding that protesters disperse.[31]That night, police used smoke bombs, flash grenades, rubber bullets, and tear gas to disperse the crowd. Video footage of the events recorded by KARG Argus Radio shows Ferguson Police firing tear gas into a residential neighborhood and ordering the journalist to cease recording.[32][33][34]

Between August 12 and 13, police officers fired tear gas and rubber bullets at lines of protesters and reporters. At least seven protesters were arrested on the evening of August 12 and 13, after police told protesters to “‘go home’ or face arrest.”[35] CNN cameras filmed an officer addressing a group of protesters by saying “Bring it, you fucking animals, bring it.”[36] On the night of August 12, a peaceful protester was shot in the head non-fatally by an unknown party. The gunshot survivor, Mya Aaten-White, has criticized the police for not investigating her case in a timely manner.[37]

Protests at Ferguson on August 14

As night fell on August 13, protesters threw projectiles, including Molotov cocktails, and police launched tear gas and smoke bombs.[38] While police were clearing a McDonald’s restaurant, The Washington Post reporter Wesley Lowery and The Huffington Post reporter Ryan Reilley were arrested.[39]Officers reportedly asked them to leave first, gave them a 45-second countdown when they were not moving fast enough, and ultimately resorted to more forceful measures to remove people from the McDonald’s.[39] “Officers slammed me into a fountain soda machine because I was confused about which door they were asking me to walk out of,” Lowery said.[40][41] Martin Baron, executive editor of The Washington Post, issued a statement, saying “there was absolutely no justification for Wesley Lowery’s arrest,” and that the police behavior “was wholly unwarranted and an assault on the freedom of the press to cover the news”.[42]

Al Jazeera America journalists including correspondent Ash-har Quraishi covering the protests in Ferguson on Wednesday night were also tear-gassed and shot at with rubber bullets by a police SWAT team. An officer was captured on video turning the reporters’ video camera toward the ground and dismantling their equipment.[43][44][45][46] Al Jazeera America issued a statement, calling the incident an “egregious assault on the freedom of the press that was clearly intended to have a chilling effect on our ability to cover this important story”.[47] On Thursday, August 14, the St. Charles County Regional SWAT Team put out a press release stating that “… the SWAT Team has not been any part of attempting to prevent media coverage” and that the SWAT team had helped journalists move their equipment at their request.[44] A raw video captured a vehicle marked clearly as “St. Charles County SWAT” rolling up to the Al Jazeera lights and camera and taking them down.[48]

Police sharpshooter with weapon trained in the direction of the camera at protests in Ferguson

Tom Jackson, the Ferguson police chief denied any suppression of the media. U.S. President Barack Obama addressed the First Amendment violations, saying, “There’s also no excuse for police to use excessive force against peaceful protests, or to throw protesters in jail for lawfully exercising their First Amendment rights. And here, in the United States of America, police should not be bullying or arresting journalists who are just trying to do their jobs and report to the American people on what they see on the ground.”[49]

St. Louis alderman Antonio French, who was documenting the protests for social media, was also arrested by police in Ferguson on Wednesday night.[50] French said that he went into his car to escape tear gas and smoke bombs being thrown by police. While he was in his car, police approached him, dragging him out of the car. French was arrested for unlawful assembly.[51] Speaking to reporters after his release from jail on Thursday, French described the dozen or so other people arrested as “peacekeepers”. “Inside that jail is nothing but peacekeepers,” he said. “They rounded up the wrong people … reverends, young people organizing the peace effort.”[52][53][54]

The Reporters Committee for Freedom of Press, a large coalition of media and press freedom groups, wrote to police forces in Ferguson, Missouri to protest the harassment of journalists covering the protests.[55][56]

Senator Claire McCaskill talking to protesters in Ferguson

Missouri Highway Patrol Captain Ronald S. Johnson was asked to take over policing of Ferguson

On August 14, U.S. Senator Claire McCaskill(Missouri) stated that “militarization of the police escalated the protesters’ response.”[57] St. Louis Chief of Police Sam Dotson stated he would not have employed military-style policing such as that which transpired. According to Chief Dotson, “My gut told me what I was seeing were not tactics that I would use in the city and I would never put officers in situations that I would not do myself.” Another reason Dotson did not want the city and county police to collaborate was because of the history of racial profiling by county police. In an email to a St. Louis alderman who brought up concerns of racial profiling, he wrote: “I agree and removed our tactical assistance. We did not send tactical resources to Ferguson on Tuesday or Wednesday. Our only assistance was that of four traffic officers to help divert traffic and keep both pedestrians and motorists safe. On Thursday we will have no officers assisting Ferguson.”[58]

Missouri Governor Jay Nixon said at a press conference that the Missouri State Highway Patrol would take over policing Ferguson from the St. Louis County police, whose tactics were widely criticized, referring to the change as “an operational shift”, and that police will use force “only when necessary”, and will generally “step back a little bit”.[50] Nixon said that Ferguson security will be overseen by Captain Ron Johnson of the Highway Patrol. Johnson, an African-American, said he grew up in the community and “it means a lot to me personally that we break this cycle of violence.”[59] Nixon said, “The people of Ferguson want their streets to be free of intimidation and fear” he said, but during the past few days, “it looked a little bit more like a war zone and that’s not acceptable.”[50] St. Louis county prosecutor Robert P. McCulloch criticized the governor’s decision, saying “It’s shameful what he did today; he had no legal authority to do that. To denigrate the men and women of the county police department is shameful.”[60]

In the evening hours of August 14, Captain Johnson walked with and led a large, peaceful march in Ferguson.[61]

Ferguson Police Chief Tom Jackson at the news conference

Ferguson Police Chief Tom Jackson announced the name of the officer involved in the shooting in a news conference the morning of Friday, August 15, nearly a week after the officer shot Brown on Saturday afternoon. Jackson prefaced the name announcement by describing a “strong-arm” robbery that had occurred a few minutes before the shooting at a nearby convenience store called Ferguson Market & Liquor. A police report released to members of the media at the news conference described Brown as the suspect involved in the robbery.[62] Hours later, Jackson held another news conference in which he said Wilson wasn’t aware of the robbery when he stopped Brown.[63]

On Friday night, protests continued in “an almost celebratory manner” near theQuikTrip[64][65] until police arrived at around 11:00 p.m.[66][67] At around 1:30 a.m. Saturday morning, rioters broke into and looted the Ferguson Market & Liquor store that Brown allegedly robbed prior to his shooting, as well as other nearby businesses; after the initial break-in, a group of protesters and observers gathered near the storefronts of the looted businesses in an attempt to prevent further looting.[68]

Police responds to civil unrest, August 17

As a result of looting and disruption the night before, on August 16, Nixon declared in a press conference a state of emergency and implemented nightlycurfews in Ferguson from midnight to 5:00 a.m. Some residents at the press conference said that law enforcement officers had instigated the violence with their military-like tactics.[69] Johnson said that police would not enforce the curfew with armored trucks and tear gas, and that police will communicate with protesters and give them time and opportunity to leave before curfew.[70]

In the early hours of August 17, tear gas and tactical units were used, despite prior assurances. One of the protesters was shot and critically wounded; police have claimed that they did not fire any shots.[71] Seven other individuals were arrested.[72][73] Later that morning, a Missouri Highway Patrol spokesman announced that the curfew would be extended for a second day.[74]

On August 18, after violent clashes during the imposed curfew, Nixon issued an executive order calling in the National Guard to “help restore peace and order and to protect the citizens of Ferguson.”[75] Nixon also announced that there would be no curfew on the night of August 18.[76] Amnesty International sent a 13-person contingent of human rights activists to seek meetings with officials as well as to train local activists in non-violent protest methods.[77] Police were recorded threatening the media with mace.[78][79] A photojournalist, Scott Olson, was also arrested by officers.[80] After being briefed by Attorney General Eric Holder on the events, President Obama dispatched Holder to Ferguson to monitor the unrest there.[81]

On the night of August 18, after several hundred protesters, some of whom were seen throwing bottles, charged toward a wall of police 60 wide and five deep, members of the crowd pushed them back including clergymen and community leaders locking arms, averting a more serious confrontation.[82] 78 individuals were arrested, including The Intercepts Ryan Devereaux.[83] German journalists Ansgar Graw and Frank Hermann reported being placed under arrest by an unidentified officer who would only identify himself as “Donald Duck”.[84]

Michael Brown’s mother Lesley McSpadden at funeral.

On August 20, Attorney General Eric Holder traveled to Ferguson, where he met with residents as well as Brown’s family.[85] Only six individuals were arrested, compared to 47 arrests the prior night.[86] Nixon then withdrew the National Guard from Ferguson on August 21 after witnessing improvements among the social unrest.[87] On August 23, protests continued to be peaceful, although three more arrests were made.[88] During the same day, a rally of 50 to 70 people was held in Ferguson in support of Wilson under the banner “I am Darren Wilson”,[89] and as of August 25, nearly US$400,000 were raised by supporters in an online crowdfunding campaign. The online campaign drew a number of racist comments, which forced the website to shut down the comment section.[90][91]

Brown’s family asked that supporters suspend their protests for one day out of respect for the funeral proceedings, planned for August 25. “All I want tomorrow is peace while we lay our son to rest. Please, that’s all I ask,” Brown’s father said.[92] The service was attended by thousands of people, including 2,500 filling the sanctuary, and others in an overflow auditorium which was also full. An estimated 2,000 additional people were on church property for the funeral. Eric Davis, one of Brown’s cousins, said at the funeral, “[s]how up at the voting booths. Let your voices be heard, and let everyone know that we have had enough of all of this.”[93]

September 2014

Early on September 23, a memorial to Michael Brown on Canfield Drive burned to the ground. Protesters gathered at the site.[94]

Later on the same day, Ferguson police chief Thomas Jackson released a video apology to the Brown family.[95]

That evening, several hundreds of protesters gathered, asking for Jackson’s resignation, in front of the police headquarters, protected by 50 police officers[95] Jackson joined the protest and started to explain that changes were underway after Brown’s killing, creating some agitation in the crowd. Within minutes, police officers intervened to protect their chief.[95]Several protesters were arrested and later the protest was declared unlawful.[95]

On September 26, the Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division asked Jackson to prohibit police officers from wearing “I am Darren Wilson” bracelets when on duty. In a previous letter earlier that week, it had asked that police officers wear nametags.[96]

On the evening of September 28, a large crowd protested. Bottles and rocks were thrown at officers. Support from other police forces was requested. Eight protesters were arrested on failure to disperse and resisting arrest charges. As most are first-time offenders, they will be released without bond.[97]

On September 29, protesters gathered in front of the police building, including a dozen clergy members who prayed in the police parking. They were told that they would be arrested if they did not clear the street. A clergyman was then arrested. Protesters were also told that they would be arrested if the chants went on after 11:00 p.m. About that time, police moved slowly forward, but protesters refused to move backwards. As they were almost in contact, gunshots were heard, and both sides backed up. Later, Capt. Ron Johnson of the Missouri Highway Patrol told that the “five-second rule” would not be implemented and there would be no arrest as long as the protest remained peaceful.[98]

October 2014

On October 2, St. Louis County Police and Missouri State Highway Patrol arrested more than a dozen people,[99] including Mary Moore, a freelance journalist who has worked for CNN.[100] Protesters were charged with offenses that included failure to comply with police, noise ordinance violations and resisting arrest. They had to wear orange jumpsuits and bonds were up to $2,700, then reduced to $1,000.[99] Police dismantled an encampment that lasted a few weeks on West Florissant. Police and protesters are adapting constantly to the other side’s moves (“It’s a legal clinic on these streets.”). The city recently raised bonds from $100 to $1,000.[101]

The burned memorial has been set up again.[101]

On October 3, Ferguson police chief Thomas Jackson ceded responsibility for managing protests in the city to the St. Louis County police department. The limited resources of Ferguson police made it difficult to handle daily protests after their resumption the previous week.[102]

On October 4, about 50 protesters briefly delayed a concert of the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra. Just before the performance resumed after intermission, they started singing an old civil rights tune, unfurled three hand-painted banners and scattered paper hearts that read: “Requiem for Mike Brown”. After that, they left the building peacefully.[103]

On Monday evening, October 6, after a game between the St. Louis Cardinals and the Los Angeles Dodgers, baseball supporters and protesters had a chanting battle outside the stadium.[104]

A website, Ferguson October, as well as other organizations, planned a massive week of resistance throughout the St. Louis metropolitan area. The event, Ferguson October, began on Friday afternoon when protesters peacefully marched to county prosecutor’s, Bob McCulloch, office in Clayton, Missouri.[105] Later until around 2:30 a.m., mostly peaceful protests took place in Ferguson and the Shaw neighborhood. As many as 400 people took to the streets on Friday night.[citation needed]

On October 9, 2014, Ferguson October sparked the activation of the St. Louis County Emergency Center in anticipation.[106] Police are also working longer shifts and the Missouri National Guard can be activated if needed.[105]

On October 12, 2014, a Ferguson October rally and service was held at Chaifetz Arena. Christian, Jewish, and Muslim clergy addressed the crowd. Younger activists criticized older activists for not being radical enough. When the keynote speaker, Cornel West, took the stage, he said, “I didn’t come here to give a speech. I came here to go to jail!”[107]

On October 13, 2014, protesters attempted to cross police lines to meet with officers at the Ferguson Police Department. Dozens of protesters (over 50) were arrested, during a staged and peaceful act of disobedience, including clergy and Cornel West.[108]

On October 20, state Senator Jamilah Nasheed was arrested in front of the Ferguson Police Department building for blocking traffic in the street and not respecting police orders. She was taken into custody, along with a man who was accompanying her, and refused bond.[109][110][111]

November 2014

The governor of Missouri declared a state of emergency in anticipation of protests in Ferguson after it is announced whether Darren Wilson will face charges.[112]

On November 21, two alleged members of the New Black Panther Party are arrested for buying explosives they planned to detonate during protests. The same pair is also indicted for purchasing two pistols under false pretenses.[113]

On November 24, a grand jury decided that it would not indict Wilson in the shooting death of Brown.[114]

Following the announcement of the grand jury’s decision, there were peaceful protests as well as rioting. Violence included gunfire, looting, vandalism, destruction of two Ferguson County Police patrol cars, and the burning of at least a dozen buildings. The Ferguson Police Department responded by deploying tear gas and ordering protesters to disperse. 61 people were arrested in Ferguson on charges including burglary and trespassing. Firefighters left the scene of one fire and could not respond to others due to gunshots being heard.[115] [116]

Other related incidents

Ray Albers

St. Ann policeman Ray Albers, who was suspended for pointing his rifle at peaceful protesters.[117]

On August 20, Lieutenant Ray Albers of the St. Ann Police Department was suspended indefinitely from his duties after an incident the night before at a protest in Ferguson that was captured on video. According to St. Louis County police, he pointed a semi-automatic service rifle at peaceful protesters while using profanity and threatening to kill them.[118][118][119][120][121]

Albers was recorded on video saying , “I will fucking kill you.”[122][123] When asked to identify himself, Ray Albers replied, “Go fuck yourself.”[122] This led to the ACLU to write to law enforcement demanding immediate release of his identity and disciplinary action.[122][123] A repercussion of his actions was that while his identification was pending, Albers was widely referred to on Social Media as Officer Go Fuck Yourself.[122][124][125]

Albers resigned eight days later on August 28.[126][127][128]

Dan Page

On August 22, St. Louis County Police officer Dan Page, who was filmed pushing CNN’s Don Lemon, was relieved of duty after a video emerged of an inflammatory speech Page had given to the St. Louis and St. Charles chapter of the Oath Keepers.[129] He retired three days later.[128][130]

Matthew Pappert

Glendale police officer Matthew Pappert, who had patrolled in Ferguson during the protests, was suspended for controversial postings to Facebook, such as “[t]hese protesters should have been put down like a rabid dog the first night” and “[w]here is a Muslim with a backpack when you need him?” (referring to the Boston Marathon bombing).[131][132][133]Journalists in Ferguson claimed Pappert had threatened them.[132] Pappert was ultimately fired from the department after the conclusion on an internal investigation.[126][128]

Kajieme Powell

On August 19, Kajieme Powell, a 25-year-old African American man, was shot and killed by two St. Louis police officers several miles from Ferguson, in what police officials said a witness described as “suicide by cop“.[134] The police initially issued a statement, based on witness reports, saying that Powell came within three or four feet of the officers, holding a knife in an overhand grip. Subsequently, the police released a cell phone video filmed by bystanders showing that Powell was not as close to the officers as first reported and he had his hands at his sides. Powell was advancing toward the officers with the knife, shouting “Shoot me, shoot me now” when he was shot multiple times, as documented in the video.[135]

Lawsuit against police and local governments

A $40 million federal lawsuit was filed on August 28 by five protesters who were arrested between August 11–13. It alleges that police officers used unnecessary force and made unjustified arrests.[136] Four more protesters were added as plaintiffs in October.[137] The lawsuit lists various police officials, officers, the Ferguson city government and the St. Louis county government as defendants.[136]

Vonderrit Myers Jr.

On October 8, 2014, Vonderrit Myers Jr. was shot and killed by an off-duty police officer in St. Louis. Police said he had a gun and shot at them, while family members and others said Meyers was only holding a sandwich.[138] Following the shooting, there were multiple nights of protests.[139][140] Forensic evidence later confirmed that Myers had gunshot residue on his right hand, shirt, and pants, indicating that he had fired a gun. Three bullets found at the scene are currently being tested to see if they matched Myers’s gun.[141][142][143] The family’s attorney noticed that police versions differ about the weapon Myers allegedly used: first, police mentioned a 9mm Ruger, and later a 9mm Smith & Wesson.[144] An independent autopsy by Dr. Cyril H. Wecht found that six of the eight wounds were at the back of the body.[145] Police investigators served Wecht with a subpoena for his results. The funeral was held on October 26.[146]

Related issues

Town hall meetings

In order to develop dialogue between authorities and residents, a series of five town meetings in October and November have been set up by City leaders. The DOJ’s Community Relations Service is involved and the meetings will be closed to the media and non-residents.[147]

Voter registration

It was (incorrectly) reported that 3,200 inhabitants (out of 21,000) had registered to vote in Ferguson since Michael Brown’s death.[148] Later, the election board stated that the released numbers were inaccurate and only 128 new voter registrations occurred. The larger number was the total number of interactions with Ferguson voters, including address changes or other alterations.[149][150]

Ferguson PR sub-contractor fired

Devin James, a minority PR person, was fired by the St. Louis Economic Development Partnership. James worked directly with the Ferguson Police Chief and seems to be the one who suggested the video apology, among other things.[151] The Partnership was informed that James served a 90 day work farm sentence in 2009 for reckless homicide. During an armed robbery in 2004, he shot 8 times and killed one of his two assailants. Earlier on 2004, he was shot in the shoulder during another armed robbery. After a troubled youth, James managed to attend university, but the two robberies prevented him from obtaining a degree.[152] James kept his position on a pro bono basis.

Injunction against “keep moving” rule at peaceful protests

On September 29, the ACLU asked a federal court to order police to stop using the “keep moving” rule during protests in Ferguson, which prevented people from standing still under threat of arrest. St. Louis County Police Chief Jon Belmar testified that the rule was meant to be used for the most volatile night protests during curfew and was mistakenly used by some officers at calm protests during the day.[153] On October 6, Chief Judge Catherine D. Perry, of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri, ruled that “The practice of requiring peaceful demonstrators and others to walk, rather than stand still, violates the constitution,” and issued an injunction against the practice for peaceful, law-abiding protesters in Ferguson.[154]

Overall racial context

According to The Washington Post, the incident sparked unrest in Ferguson largely due to questions of racism as a factor in the shooting.[155] Protests,[156] vandalism, and other forms of social unrest continued for more than a week,[157] with night curfew being imposed and escalated violence.[158][159] Several of the stores looted during the unrest are Asian Americanowned, with The Daily Beast writing that Asian Americans tend to be “left out” of the race relations discussion.[160]

Also according to The Washington Post, the Ferguson Police Department “bears little demographic resemblance” to the mostly African-American community, which already harbored “suspicions of the law enforcement agency” preceding Brown’s shooting, with 48 of the police force’s 53 officers being white,[161] while the population is only one-third white and about two-thirds black.[155][162] An annual report last year by the office of Missouri’s attorney general concluded that Ferguson police were “twice as likely to arrest African Americans during traffic stops as they were whites”.[155] The officer who shot Brown, Darren Wilson, lives in Crestwood, Missouri, 18 miles away from Ferguson.[163]

The Los Angeles Times argues that the situation that exploded in Ferguson “has been building for decades”, and that protesters initially came from the town and neighboring towns that have pockets of poverty, the poorest of St. Louis, and lists “the growing challenge of the suburbanization of poverty” as the catalyst.[164]

Another aspect of this situation might stem from a system that burdens the poor and black in Ferguson. Minor traffic offenses are the starting point, and the costs spiral up rapidly if the offenders do not pay the fines on time or do not appear in court. The income from court fines represented the second largest source of revenue for Ferguson in 2013. On October 1, 2014, the city of St. Louis cancelled 220,000 arrest warrants – and gave a three month delay to the offenders to get a new court date before the warrants would be re-issued.[165]

Introduction of body cameras

On September 1, it was reported that, after receiving a large amount of criticism regarding their practices, the police force in Ferguson had begun to wear body cameras. The cameras had been donated to the police by two private security firms.[166]

On September 22, protesters receive support from a California-based group called We Copwatch to improve the way they record their interactions with the police.[167]

Reactions to the protests and civil unrest

In the United States

Federal government

  • FAA—On August 12, citing an incident where a Ferguson Police Department helicopter was fired on from the ground, the FAA implemented a no-fly zone over Ferguson.[168][169] Recordings of telephone conversations between FAA employees later revealed that the true reason the flight restrictions were requested was to keep news helicopters out of the area during the protest violence. The tapes were obtained by the Associated Press in a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request.[170]
  • In an August 14 op-ed in Time Magazine, U.S. Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky said that police forces need to be demilitarized and that “[t]he shooting of 18-year-old Michael Brown is an awful tragedy” and that “Anyone who thinks race does not skew the application of criminal justice in this country is just not paying close enough attention.”[171]
  • Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts and Representative Justin Amash of Michigan tweeted similar descriptions of Ferguson as a “war zone” in the aftermath of the police actions of August 12, with Amash calling the situation “frightening” on August 13 and Warren demanding answers on August 14.[172]
  • U.S. Representative from Missouri Lacy Clay, who represents Ferguson, stated on August 16 that he had “absolutely no confidence in the Ferguson police, the county prosecutor” to conduct a fair investigation into Brown’s death.[173] Clay suggested that the police had released the information about the robbery in order to “negatively influence a jury pool in St. Louis County” and to “assassinate Michael Brown’s character”. On August 17, Clay called for “a national conversation about how police forces should interact with the African-American community”.
  • On August 23, U.S. President Barack Obama ordered a review of the distribution of military hardware to state and local police, questioning the use of such equipment during the racial unrest in Ferguson. The review will be led by White House staff and includes the Domestic Policy Council, the National Security Council, the Office of Management and Budget, as well as other agencies including the Department of Defense, Homeland Security, the Justice Department, and the Treasury Department, in coordination with Congress.[174] Attorney General Eric Holder said in a statement toThe New York Times that “it makes sense to take a look at whether military-style equipment is being acquired for the right purposes and whether there is proper training on when and how to deploy it” and that “[d]isplays of force in response to mostly peaceful demonstrations can be counterproductive”.[175]
  • On September 4, Eric Holder announced that the Justice Department will investigate Ferguson police force for possible misconduct or discrimination, saying that, “[w]e have determined that there is cause for the Justice Department to open an investigation to determine whether Ferguson police officials have engaged in a pattern or practice of violations of the U.S. constitution or federal law.”[11] Attorney General Holder indicated that an overhaul similar to a recent agreement with the Albuquerque police department over use of excessive force could be called for in Ferguson. “It’s pretty clear that the need for wholesale change in that department is appropriate,” Holder said.[12]
  • On September 24 at the United Nations General Assembly, President Obama described the racial tensions at Ferguson as a failure to live up to America’s ideals, and said that, “[i]n a summer marked by instability in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, I know the world also took notice of the small American city of Ferguson, Missouri – where a young man was killed, and a community was divided. So yes, we have our own racial and ethnic tensions.”[176]

Supreme Court Justices

Missouri government

  • On August 14, Missouri Governor Jay Nixon stated that the Ferguson riots were “deeply challenging” and “promised ‘operational shifts’ to ease the situation,[178] using the Missouri State Highway Patrol to direct security.[47]
  • Maria Chappelle-Nadal, a Missouri Senator who represented parts of Ferguson and was tear-gassed during the demonstrations, said in an interview that “It doesn’t matter if Michael Brown committed theft or not. That’s not the issue. The issue is what happened when Darren Wilson encountered Michael Brown, and when he died — when he was killed. Those are the only facts that are necessary.”[179]
  • James Knowles III, the Mayor of Ferguson, was slow to seek support and coordination from state and county authorities as violence and civil unrest developed in his municipality. Mayor Knowles did not receive a phone call from either the Governor or others as riots developed and even as others came on the scene, no one appeared to take charge.[180]

Local authorities

  • Jennings, Missouri: On August 11, in response to safety concerns, the school district in nearby Jennings cancelled the first day of classes.[181][182]
  • Ferguson-Florissant School District, Missouri: On August 13, in response to the continuing unrest in the community, Ferguson-Flourissant schools that were to open Thursday were closed and scheduled to reopen on Monday.[183] On Sunday Aug 17, the school district again cancelled the first day of classes due to ongoing unrest. On Monday, administrators for the district announced that school would continue to be closed through the end of the school week.[184]
  • On August 12, St. Louis Police Department chief Sam Dotson decided against providing any more manpower to Ferguson owing to concerns about the welfare of the protesters and the handling of the situation by local police.[185]

Brown family

  • A member of the Brown family released a statement saying that “the stealing and breaking in stores is not what Mike will want, it is very upsetting to me and my family.” The statement also said, “Our family didn’t ask for this but for justice and peace.”[186]


  • A Pew Research poll conducted August 14–17 among 1,000 adults, found stark racial and political divisions in reactions to the shooting. By about four-to-one, African Americans (80% to 18%) said the shooting raised important issues about race, while whites, by 47% to 37%, said the issue of race is getting more attention than it deserves. The divide in public opinion was also observed across partisan lines, with 68% of Democrats (including 62% of white Democrats) thought the incident raises important issues about race that merit discussion, compared with 40% of Independents and 22% of Republicans. Republicans were also more likely than Democrats to view the police response to as appropriate (43%), compared with 21% of Democrats ; 65% of Republicans expressed confidence in the investigations into the incident, compared with 38% of Democrats.[187]

Third parties

Protestors gather at the Ferguson police department

  • On August 10, Al Sharpton and the National Action Network announced their plans to travel to St. Louis.[188][189]
  • Local pastors held a vigil on the morning of Sunday, August 10.[189] Another vigil was planned on the same day, at 8:00 p.m. in the area where Brown was killed.[189]
  • National vigils and marches occurred on the evening of Thursday, August 14, in over 100 cities around the U.S. with thousands in attendance. They were organized by @FeministaJones, using Twitter and the #NMOS14 hashtag.[190][191]
  • Hacktivists claiming an association with Anonymous and operating under the codename “Operation Ferguson” organized cyberprotests by setting up a website and a Twitter account.[192] The group promised that if any protesters were harassed or harmed, they would attack the city’s servers and computers, taking them offline.[192] City officials said that e-mail systems were targeted and phones died, while the Internet crashed at the City Hall.[192][193] Prior to August 15, members of Anonymous corresponding with Mother Jones said that they were working on confirming the identity of the undisclosed police officer who shot Brown and would release his name as soon as they did.[194] On August 14, Anonymous posted on its Twitter feed what it claimed was the name of the officer involved in the shooting.[50][195] However, police said the identity released by Anonymous was incorrect.[196] Twitter subsequently suspended the Anonymous account from its service.[197]
  • A group of Tibetan monks joined the protesters in Ferguson on Sunday, August 17.[198]
  • On August 17, about 150 people protested in downtown St. Louis in support of Darren Wilson. The protesters argued that Wilson had been victimized and that any punishment for him would cause law enforcement officers to be “frightened to do their jobs.”[199]
  • CNN, along with ABC News and others, described the incident as having triggered a national debate on race relations, as well as the use of force and the militarization of the police in the United States.[157]
  • The Green Shadow Cabinet, a group led by 2012 Green Party presidential nominee Dr. Jill Stein, stated on August 14 that “[a] healthy response by the local police and government agencies in Ferguson and St. Louis County would have been to immediately announce a full investigation of the shooting and a review of police policies and practices.”[200]
  • Veterans of the US Armed Forces have also criticized the tactics and procedures used by the police during the 2014 Ferguson Unrest, including the use of militarized tactics, the use of equipment such as armored vehicles, assault rifles and canine units. They also pointed out that if the military were involved in similar situations in a war-zone, they would have encouraged dialogue with the use of social media, and personnel trained in public affairs and civilian engagement.[201] Some veterans also pointed out that the police in Ferguson had access to more body armor than an infantryman during the Iraq War.[202]

International reactions


  • The Chinese state news Xinhua News Agency said hours before the governor ordered National Guard troops into Ferguson, “Obviously, what the United States needs to do is to concentrate on solving its own problems rather than always pointing fingers at others.”[203]
  • Egypt‘s Ministry of Foreign affairs stressed that it agrees calls for “self restraint and respect for the right of assembly and peaceful expression of opinion” in the protests, hoping that the American authorities deal with the protests according to “the international standards”.[204] Egypt’s Foreign Ministry Spokesman said that Egypt is closely following up with the “mounting protests” in Ferguson.[205]
  • Iran’s Islamic Republic News Agency commented, “[V]iolence has become institutionalized in the U.S. in recent years, but since President Obama, the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize winner, came to the White House, the violence has intensified, and now it has erupted against blacks in Ferguson.”[203]
  • The Russian Foreign Ministry stated “our American partners [have] to pay more attention to restoring order in their own country before imposing their dubious experience on other nations” and that the U.S. “has positioned itself as a ‘bastion of human rights’ and is actively engaged in ‘export of democracy’ on a systematic basis”, but that “serious violations of basic human rights and barbaric practices thrive” in the country.[203]
  • The Turkish Foreign Ministry criticized the US police for detaining a correspondent of the state Anadolu news agency while he covered protests in Ferguson, Missouri, calling it unacceptable and against the freedom of press.[206]
  • North Korea called the United States a “human rights graveyard”.[207]


  • From August 14 to 22, Amnesty International USA had a team of human rights observers, trainers and researchers in Ferguson. It included organizers to train activists in the use of non-violent protests.[208][209] This was the first time thatAmnesty International has deployed such a team to the United States.[210][211][212] In a subsequent report of October 24, 2014, they expressed concerns for human rights in Ferguson, related to the use of lethal force in the death of Brown, racial discrimination and excessive use of police force, imposition of restrictions on the rights to protest, intimidation of protesters, the use of tear gas, rubber bullets and long range acoustic devices, restrictions imposed on the media covering the protests, and lack of accountability for law enforcement policing protests.[209][213]
  • Islamic State militants stated that they will use social media to encourage Islamic extremism in Ferguson.[214][215][216]
  • On August 18, Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon called for U.S. authorities to ensure protection of the protesters’ rights to peaceful assembly and freedom of expression. Through a spokesman, Ban called for “all to exercise restraint, for law enforcement officials to abide by U.S. and international standards in dealing with demonstrators”.[217]
  • In an interview with Der Spiegel, Marcel Kuhlmey, professor in the department of security management at the Berlin University of Economics and Law, a security expert, who asserted that what happened in Ferguson could never happen in Germany, stating that “In the U.S., it seems to me, the police are far quicker to resort to guns. Even at the training stage, there is a much heavier emphasis on shooting [than in Germany]”.[203] Zeit Online described the incident as an example of deep-rooted racism in the U.S, concluding that “the situation of African-Americans has barely improved since Martin Luther King.”[218]
  • Protesters in the Middle East have expressed support for protesters in Ferguson, using social media to equate the protests and police response to conflicts in Bahrain, Egypt, Palestine, and Turkey, and offered advice on how to deal with tear gas.[219]
  • Azteca News wrote that Obama’s “words of peace and reconciliation are perceived by many activists as inadequate and almost treason to a situation they see as a direct result of slavery and racial segregation laws that were in force until 1965.”[218]
  • The Daily News (Sri Lanka) opined: “For the U.S. to issue a travel warning for Sri Lanka does seem odd at a time when there are race riots in Missouri.”[203]
  • Abigail Chandler of the newspaper The Metro wrote that “[w]hile the London riots were at their worst, people were calling for rubber bullets, tear gas and water cannons to be used against the rioters, Ferguson is a living example of why we should be immensely grateful that those tactics were never used during the U.K. riots.”