ONE MILLION or more illegal alien Muslim invaders set to flood into Italy and the rest of Europe from Libya

Upwards of one million Muslim illegals could reach Europe from Libya amid collapsing security in the northern African country, the European Union’s border agency chief has warned. This comes close on the heels of another report which stated that ISIS had elaborate plans to send across hardliners disguised as refugees from Libya.


IB Times  Frontex executive director Fabrice Leggeri said he expects asylum seekers’ crossings to skyrocket in 2015 and urged EU governments to ready themselves to “face a way more difficult situation than last year”. (Sink the damn boats or turn them back)

“We are told there are between 500,000 and one million migrants ready to leave from Libya,” Leggeri told Italian news agency Ansa. “We have to be aware of the risks”.


In 2014, more than 173,000 asylum-seekers were rescued in the Mediterranean after they set off from African shores on overcrowded, run-down boats in a bit to reach the Italian coast. At least 3,500 others died at sea.

Numbers have increased with human smugglers exploiting the power vacuum caused by the prolonged conflict that has engulfed Libya since the overthrow of late dictator Muammar Gaddafi in 2011.


With the country now locked in a three-way power-struggle pitting government troops against different Islamist groups including Islamic State (Isis) affiliates, fears have been raised that extremists could mingle with the hundreds of migrants crossing by boat every week or drastically increase the number of crossings to strain EU border forces.


“We have evidence that migrants have been forcibly boarded on vessels at gunpoint,” Leggeri said. “I do not have elements to say they were terrorists but there are worries among states.”


Leggeri called for the EU to provide more funds and resources to address the migration crisis. The call came as a large Italian search and rescue operation – Mare Nostrum – was wound down in December due to high costs and internal political opposition. It was replaced by an EU operation run by Frontex and named Triton, the scope and size of which however are considerably smaller.


Earlier this week, EU officials aired the idea of launching an EU border guard operation. “We have to think much more about a common system of European border guards,” Matthias Ruete, head of the EU’s migration and home affairs office, said.

The Union migration chief Dimitris Avramopoulos added: “Frontex is not a European border guard system. If we want one, we would have to create one.”

How Many Different Ways Can You Spell ‘Gaddafi’?

Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi has been in the headlines a lot this week — he’s visiting the U.S. for the first time since he took power 40 years ago, and his arrival is not without controversy.

But politics aside, we’ve come across a list of the many different English spellings of Gaddafi’s name.  Because of the difficulty translating Arabic to English, there are several different translations — the Library of Congress lists 72 alternate spellings, and the New York times, Associated Press and Xinhua news sources used 40 additional spellings between 1998 and 2008.

We’ve posted all 112 of them below…

    • Qaddafi, Muammar
    • Al-Gathafi, Muammar
    • al-Qadhafi, Muammar
    • Al Qathafi, Mu’ammar
    • Al Qathafi, Muammar
    • El Gaddafi, Moamar
    • El Kadhafi, Moammar
    • El Kazzafi, Moamer
    • El Qathafi, Mu’Ammar
    • Gadafi, Muammar
    • Gaddafi, Moamar
    • Gadhafi, Mo’ammar
    • Gathafi, Muammar
    • Ghadafi, Muammar
    • Ghaddafi, Muammar
    • Ghaddafy, Muammar
    • Gheddafi, Muammar
    • Gheddafi, Muhammar
    • Kadaffi, Momar
    • Kad’afi, Mu`amar al- 20
    • Kaddafi, Muamar
    • Kaddafi, Muammar
    • Kadhafi, Moammar
    • Kadhafi, Mouammar
    • Kazzafi, Moammar
    • Khadafy, Moammar
    • Khaddafi, Muammar
    • Moamar al-Gaddafi
    • Moamar el Gaddafi
    • Moamar El Kadhafi
    • Moamar Gaddafi
    • Moamer El Kazzafi
    • Mo’ammar el-Gadhafi
    • Moammar El Kadhafi
    • Mo’ammar Gadhafi
    • Moammar Kadhafi
    • Moammar Khadafy
    • Moammar Qudhafi
    • Mu`amar al-Kad’afi
    • Mu’amar al-Kadafi
    • Muamar Al-Kaddafi
    • Muamar Kaddafi
    • Muamer Gadafi
    • Muammar Al-Gathafi
    • Muammar al-Khaddafi
    • Mu’ammar al-Qadafi
    • Mu’ammar al-Qaddafi
    • Muammar al-Qadhafi
    • Mu’ammar al-Qadhdhafi
    • Mu`ammar al-Qadhdhāfī 50
    • Mu’ammar Al Qathafi
    • Muammar Al Qathafi
    • Muammar Gadafi
    • Muammar Gaddafi
    • Muammar Ghadafi
    • Muammar Ghaddafi
    • Muammar Ghaddafy
    • Muammar Gheddafi
    • Muammar Kaddafi
    • Muammar Khaddafi
    • Mu’ammar Qadafi
    • Muammar Qaddafi
    • Muammar Qadhafi
    • Mu’ammar Qadhdhafi
    • Muammar Quathafi
    • Mulazim Awwal Mu’ammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Qadhafi
    • Qadafi, Mu’ammar
    • Qadhafi, Muammar
    • Qadhdhāfī, Mu`ammar
    • Qathafi, Mu’Ammar el 70
    • Quathafi, Muammar
    • Qudhafi, Moammar
    • Moamar AI Kadafi
    • Maummar Gaddafi
    • Moamar Gadhafi
    • Moamer Gaddafi
    • Moamer Kadhafi
    • Moamma Gaddafi
    • Moammar Gaddafi
    • Moammar Gadhafi
    • Moammar Ghadafi
    • Moammar Khadaffy
    • Moammar Khaddafi
    • Moammar el Gadhafi
    • Moammer Gaddafi
    • Mouammer al Gaddafi
    • Muamar Gaddafi
    • Muammar Al Ghaddafi
    • Muammar Al Qaddafi
    • Muammar Al Qaddafi
    • Muammar El Qaddafi
    • Muammar Gadaffi
    • Muammar Gadafy
    • Muammar Gaddhafi
    • Muammar Gadhafi
    • Muammar Ghadaffi
    • Muammar Qadthafi
    • Muammar al Gaddafi
    • Muammar el Gaddafy
    • Muammar el Gaddafi
    • Muammar el Qaddafi
    • Muammer Gadaffi
    • Muammer Gaddafi
    • Mummar Gaddafi
    • Omar Al Qathafi
    • Omar Mouammer Al Gaddafi
    • Omar Muammar Al Ghaddafi
    • Omar Muammar Al Qaddafi
    • Omar Muammar Al Qathafi
    • Omar Muammar Gaddafi
    • Omar Muammar Ghaddafi
    • Omar al Ghaddafi


Town vs. town, faction vs. faction as Libya descends into ‘hurricane’

An armoured vehicle is seen after fighting between Libyan special forces and ex-rebel fighters of the Benghazi Shura Council in the eastern city of Benghazi July 30, 2014.  REUTERS/Stringer

An armoured vehicle is seen after fighting between Libyan special forces and ex-rebel fighters of the Benghazi Shura Council in the eastern city of Benghazi July 30, 2014.



(Reuters) – Booms of outgoing artillery shaking the ground, militia fighters from the remote Libyan mountain town of Zintan hunker down in the passenger terminal to defend Tripoli airport, the biggest prize in the capital.

Across the city a few kilometers away, a commander of a brigade from the port city of Misrata rallies his men to take the airport back.

Three years ago, Zintani and Misratan rebel brigades descended simultaneously on Tripoli from east and west to storm the palaces of Muammar Gaddafi. Now, fighters from the two towns are waging open war in the capital.

“This war is harder than the revolution,” said Mohammed, a fighter in a unit allied to the Zintanis, standing in the debris of the airport terminal, dark smoke billowing from a nearby blast. “They want to take the airport, and when you take the airport you take Tripoli.”

Across the city at his Tripoli base lined with tanks and trucks mounted with cannons, Hassan Shakka, a commander of Misrata’s Central Shield brigade, said his forces were “completing the revolution”.

“We are not fighting the Zintanis: we are fighting the remains of Gaddafi’s army,” he said. “There will be no ceasefire until they leave Tripoli.”

Two weeks of shelling have knocked Tripoli International Airport out of commission. A control center is damaged, nearly 20 jets parked on the tarmac have been hit, burned or destroyed and the passenger terminal sports a gaping hole in its roof.

Grad missiles roar over the city. Fighters have closed off parts of southern Tripoli with blockades and earth barricades. Apartment blocks on the airport road bear bullet and blast marks. Zintan fighters have set up checkpoints on the empty highway where blackened grassland marks recent shelling. More are dug in by the airport with anti-aircraft canons.

“It can still be contained. There is room to negotiate. But it is a very delicate situation,” said one Libyan government official. “We are trying to negotiate to slow things down. If it spins too much, you can’t stop it and it becomes a hurricane.”

The war for Tripoli’s airport is not even the only war being fought in Libya. A day’s drive away in Benghazi, Libya’s second biggest city, followers of a renegade former Gaddafi general are waging street battles against an alliance of militia groups, including Islamist fighters that Washington blames for killing the U.S. ambassador two years ago.

The Benghazi militia alliance has overrun a special forces base and forced irregular forces and the army to retreat.

The collapse of Gaddafi’s four decades of single man rule has left Libya an armed free-for-all, where cities, regions, charismatic individuals, urban neighbourhoods and rural tribes all field their own armed forces.

Towns fight towns; Islamists oppose nationalists; federalists rise up against central government; ex-Gaddafi units clash with former revolutionaries – and everyone has guns, artillery, tanks and missiles, taken from the vast arsenals the deposed dictator had stashed across the country.

Western countries, which helped blast Gaddafi out of power with a NATO bombing campaign in 2011, are mostly getting out, shutting and evacuating embassies as the OPEC oil exporter teeters toward becoming a failed state.

With the main airport shut, the Americans left by road escorted by Marines; the French sailed out by sea.


For the past three years, the central government has largely failed to build a national army, instead buying off the loyalty of armed groups by putting individual fighters or whole militia units onto the payroll. Despite taking the government’s money, most remain loyal to their commanders, regions or cities.

U.N., U.S. and European special envoys are pushing for a ceasefire and political settlement around a new parliament due to start its work in August. But the negotiations are difficult.

Each brigade claims to be a legitimate armed force authorized by competing factions within ministries or the previous parliament; each claims the entitlement as revolutionary liberators of the capital, and refuses to give up its Gaddafi-era heavy weaponry.

Since the 2011 war, Libya’s factional rivalries have flared before, only to be restrained by a tenuous balance of power that Libyan officials and diplomats say comes from the knowledge that neither side can overcome the other.

For now, the main rivalry in the capital is that between Zintan and Misrata, which both played outsized roles in the 2011 war that unseated Gaddafi and parlayed their victory into status as kingmakers in the capital.

Zintan, a rugged Arab garrison town of barely 50,000 people perched among poor Berber villages in the arid heights of the Western Mountains, led an unlikely campaign against much larger Gaddafi forces, bursting through the front to reach the coast and march on Tripoli in a lightning advance. Its militia later captured Gaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam, still held in its jail.

Misrata, a thriving port of nearly 300,000 with a mercantile tradition, was the biggest city in the west to hold out against Gaddafi’s forces, keeping the revolution’s hopes alive under intense bombardment during a months-long siege, before its forces battled their way to the capital.

When Tripoli fell, Misrata and Zintan brigades both rushed in from opposite sides to lay claim to stakes in the capital. Zintan took the civil airport; Misrata and its allies took a military airbase. Since then they have skirmished in turf wars.

Despite their local origins, the militia of both towns have allied themselves to political factions with national ambitions.

The Zintanis, with allied groups called the Qaaqaa and al-Sawaiq brigades which include some former Gaddafi special forces, have sided with the National Forces Alliance, led by Mahmoud Jibril, an interim prime minister after the war.

Zintanis have long complained of their town’s neglect by Gaddafi, and say they missed out on Libya’s oil wealth. Rivals say they have grown rich from exploiting control of the airport.

Many of the Qaaqaa brigade members are fiercely opposed to what they see as growing Islamist influence in Libya.

On the opposite side, the Misrata brigades, including “Libya Shield” units created by parliament, are allied to Islamist-leaning militias whose allegiance is with the Justice andConstruction party, seen as close to the Muslim Brotherhood.

The depth of Misrata’s suffering under siege by Gaddafi’s forces has become a rallying cry for fighters who accuse the Zintanis of cooperating with ex-Gaddafi figures.

“The revolution didn’t finish. It is about perceptions over the future of the country. They both think they can win, but do they go to the brink?” said one Western diplomat. “The hope is that they realize that no side can win.”


Opponents of the Islamists blame them for starting the latest violence to scuttle the start of the new parliament, elected in June under a system that required candidates to stand without party affiliation, which cost Islamists some clout.

“What is happening is an attempted strike against election results, which handed more power to the Islamists’ enemies,” said Ziad Dgheim, a federalist and member of the new parliament.

Now each blames the other as positions harden. Zintan says it is only defending the airport from attack and urged a ceasefire to stop “Libyan blood being spilled.”

Ahmed Hadia, spokesman for the Misrata Central Shield Brigade, said his group joined the battle only after Zintan’s Qaaqaa and Sawaiq brigades were accused of trying to stage a coup and the government was not strong enough to respond.

The airport struggle is hardly the first time Libya’s armed factions tried to decide Libya’s future. The last parliament and ministries were repeatedly stormed by armed groups to make demands on the fragile state.

The government blames one Islamist militia for the kidnapping of the prime minister from his hotel room in Tripoli last year. Another federalist ex-rebel blockaded Libya’s oil ports for a year to demand more autonomy for the east, halting the exports that form the government’s lifeblood.

But Professor Dirk Vandewalle, a Libya expert at Dartmouth College in the United States, said militias had now crossed a threshold by openly attacking institutions like Tripoli airport that before would have been viewed as out of bounds.

“What the militias are saying is we are willing to do whatever it takes to solve this,” he said. “This is much more visceral, and it is about the spoils of the state and who will control them. A much larger battle is starting to evolve.”

(Additional reporting by Ahmed Elumami and Feras Bosalum in Benghazi; Editing by Peter Graff)


[8][ Genesis of Menar ]

It very difficult to put the pic on my blog from my desktop  so if u want  to see the full thing check my fb group so u can see the full thing

Arab Spring


Arab Spring
Clockwise from top left: Protesters in Tahrir Square in Cairo; Demonstrators marching through Habib Bourguiba Avenue in Tunis; Political dissidents in Sana’a; Protesters gathering in Pearl Roundabout in Manama; Mass Demonstration in Douma; Demonstrators in Bayda.
Date 18 December 2010 – present
Location Arab world
Status Ongoing

  • Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali ousted, and government overthrown.
  • Egyptian Presidents Hosni Mubarak and Mohammed Morsi ousted, and governments overthrown. Ongoing post-coup political violence.
  • Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi killed after a civil war with foreign military intervention, and government overthrown.
  • Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh ousted, power handed to a national unity government.
  • Syria experiences a full-scale civil war between the government and opposition forces.
  • Civil uprising against the government of Bahrain despite unsatisfying government changes.
  • Kuwait, Lebanon and Oman implementing government changes in response to protests.
  • Morocco, Jordan implementing constitutional reforms in response to protests.
  • Ongoing protests in Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Mauritania and some other countries.
Death(s) 122,418–127,431+ (International estimate, ongoing;

The Arab Spring when the lyeing one lye no more and when she take up her place in the heaven the arab spring will start and that what happen in December 18 th 2010 in tunisa tunisa the one who lye down or tunis is the sky goddest who rule over the star  moon and planet it is also the goddest of  fertility .tunisa was bait that got the arab spring going  and the beast moving  looking at the majiour protest wheret the ruler have been force  from power in Tunisia,[1] Egypt (twice),[2] Libya,[3] and Yemen;[4] civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrain[5]and Syria;[6] major protests have broken out you can see a wave going farward activating  these country as it pass throught . in Algeria,[7] Iraq,[8] Jordan,[9] Kuwait,[10] Morocco,[11] and Sudan;[12] and minor protests have occurred in Mauritania,[13] Oman,[14] Saudi Arabia,[15] Djibouti,[16] Western Sahara,[17] and the Palestinian Authority.

Related events outside of the Arab World included protests in Iranian Khuzestan by the Arab minority in April 2011[18] and border clashes in Israel in May 2011.[19] Weapons and Tuareg fighters returning from the Libyan civil war stoked a simmering conflict in Mali which has been described as “fallout” from the Arab Spring in North Africa.[20] The sectarian clashes in Lebanon were described as a spillover violence of the Syrian uprising and hence the regional Arab Spring.

The protests have shared some techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations, marches, and rallies, as well as the effective use of social media to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face of state attempts at repression and Internet censorship.

Many Arab Spring demonstrations have been met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks have been answered with violence from protestors in some cases. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been Ash-sha`b yurid isqat an-nizam (“the people want to bring down the regime”).

Some observers have drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the Revolutions of 1989 (also known as the “Autumn of Nations”) that swept through Eastern Europe and the Second World, in terms of their scale and significance. Others, however, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes and the organizational role of internet technology in the Arab revolutions.


The term “Arab Spring” is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which is sometimes referred to as “Springtime of the People”, and the Prague Spring in 1968. In the aftermath of the Iraq War it was used by various commentators who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization.[39] The first specific use of the term Arab Spring as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign PolicyMarc Lynch, referring to his article in Foreign Policy,[41] writes “Arab Spring—a term I may have unintentionally coined in a January 6, 2011 article”.[42] Joseph Massad on Al Jazeera said the term was “part of a US strategy of controlling [the movement’s] aims and goals” and directing it towards American-style liberal democracy.[40] Due to the electoral success of Islamist parties following the protests in many Arab countries, the events have also come to be known as “Islamist Spring” or “Islamist Winter”.



The Arab spring is widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels may have had a hand as well.[45] Numerous factors have led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchyhuman rights violations, political corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables),[46] economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors,[47] such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population.[48] Also, some – like Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek – name the2009–2010 Iranian election protests as an additional reason behind the Arab Spring.[49] The Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010 might also have been a factor influencing its beginning.[50] Catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have included the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo.[51] Increasing food prices and global famine rates have also been a significant factor,[52][53] as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 2007–2008 world food price crisis.[54]

In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education, have resulted in an improved Human Development Index in the affected countries.[citation needed] The tension between rising aspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests.Many of the Internet-savvy youth of these countries have, increasingly over the years, been viewing autocrats and absolute monarchies as anachronisms. An Oman university professor, Al-Najma Zidjaly, referred to this upheaval as youthquake.

Tunisia and Egypt, the first to witness major uprisings, differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nations such as Algeria andLibya in that they lack significant oil revenue, and were thus unable to make concessions to calm the masses.

The relative success of the democratic Republic of Turkey, with its substantially free and vigorously contested but peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but Islamist government, created a model (the Turkish model) if not a motivation for protestors in neighbouring states.[57] This view, however, has been contested and put into perspective by recent waves of anti-government protests in Turkey.

Recent history

The current wave of protests is not an entirely new phenomenon, resulting in part from the activities of dissident activists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations that have been active for years in Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and other countries in the area, as well as in the territory of Western Sahara.[58]

Revolts have been occurring in the Arab area since the 1800s, but only recently have these revolts been redirected from foreign rulers to the Arab states themselves. The revolution in the summer of 2011 marked the end of the old phase national liberation from colonial rule; now revolutions are inwardly directed at the problems of Arab society.[59]

Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests. The Egyptian labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004.[61] One important demonstration was an attempted workers’ strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students.[61] A Facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers. The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the “6 April Committee” of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.[61]

In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is ‘unhappy’ with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile.[62] Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as ‘9,700 riots and unrests’ throughout the country.[63] Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.[64]

In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south-east of El Aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[65] The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring.[66]

The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi. Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, on 17 December 2010, a municipal inspector confiscated his wares. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 4 January 2011[67] brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian revolution.[58]


Main article: Timeline of the Arab Spring

The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa that commenced in 2010 has become known as the “Arab Spring”,[68][69][70] and sometimes as the “Arab Spring and Winter”,[71] “Arab Awakening”[72][73][74] or “Arab Uprisings” even though not all the participants in the protests are Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred inTunisia on 18 December 2010 in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi‘s self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, awave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian “Burning Man” struck AlgeriaJordanEgypt, and Yemen,[79] then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations have often occurred on a “day of rage”, usually Friday afternoon prayers. The protests have also triggered similar unrest outside the region.

As of September 2012, governments have been overthrown in four countries. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council (NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTC took control of the city. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh signed the GCC power-transfer deal in which a presidential election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi formally replacing him as the president of Yemen on 27 February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution.

During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015,[83] as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014,[84] although there have been increasingly violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation.[85] Protests in Jordan have also caused the sacking of four successive governments[86][87] by King Abdullah.[88] The popular unrest in Kuwait has also resulted in resignation of Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah cabinet.[89]

The geopolitical implications of the protests have drawn global attention,[90] including the suggestion that some protesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize.[91] Tawakel Karman from Yemen was one of the three laureates of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize as a prominent leader in the Arab Spring. In December 2011, Time magazine named “The Protester” its “Person of the Year“.[92] Another award was noted when the Spanish photographer Samuel Aranda won the 2011 World Press Photo award for his image of a Yemeni woman holding an injured family member, taken during the civil uprising in Yemen on 15 October 2011.[93]


Summary of conflicts by country

Country Date started Status of protests Outcome Death toll Situation
 Tunisia 18 December 2010 Government overthrown on 14 January 2011 Overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia

  • Resignation of Prime Minister Ghannouchi[94]
  • Dissolution of the political police[95]
  • Dissolution of the RCD, the former ruling party of Tunisia and liquidation of its assets[96]
  • Release of political prisoners[97]
  • Elections to a Constituent Assembly on 23 October 2011[98]
338[99] Government overthrown
 Algeria 29 December 2010 Ended in January 2012
  • Lifting of the 19-year-old state of emergency[100][101]
8[102] Major protests
 Jordan 14 January 2011
  • On February 2011, King Abdullah II dismisses Prime Minister Rifai and his cabinet[103]
  • On October 2011, Abdullah dismisses Prime Minister Bakhit and his cabinet after complaints of slow progress on promised reforms[104]
  • On April 2012, as the protests continues, Al-Khasawneh resigned, and the King appoints Fayez al-Tarawneh as the new Prime Minister of Jordan[105]
  • On October 2012, King Abdullah dissolves the parliament for new earlyelections, and appoints Abdullah Ensour as the new Prime Minister of Jordan[106]
3[107] Protests and governmental changes
 Oman 17 January 2011 Ended in May 2011 2–6[113][114][115] Protests and governmental changes
 Egypt 25 January 2011 Government overthrown on 11 February 2011. The replacement Islamist government was ousted by military. Ongoing violence in response to the coup. Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak; Mubarak sentenced to life in prison for ordering the killing of protesters. Protests over the imposition of an Islamist-backed constitution by the Muslim Brotherhood and Mohamed Morsi precipitate acoup d’état by the military.Timeline of events

1,700[61] Government overthrown;Replacement government overthrown
 Yemen 27 January 2011 Government overthrown on 27 February 2012 Overthrow of Ali Abdullah Saleh; Saleh granted immunity from prosecution

2,000[129] Government overthrown
 Djibouti 28 January 2011 Ended in March 2011 2[130] Minor protests
 Somalia 28 January 2011 Ended in June 2012 2[130] Minor protests
 Sudan 30 January 2011 Ongoing
  • President Bashir announces he will not seek another term in 2015[131]
14[132][133][134] Minor protests
 Iraq 23 December 2012 Ongoing
  • Prime Minister Maliki announces that he will not run for a 3rd term;[135]
  • Resignation of provincial governors and local authorities[136]
11[137] Major protests
 Bahrain 14 February 2011 Ongoing
  • Economic concessions by King Hamad[138]
  • Release of political prisoners[139]
  • Negotiations with Shia representatives[140]
  • GCC intervention at the request of the Government of Bahrain
  • Head of the National Security Apparatus removed from post[141]
  • Formation of a committee to implement BICI report recommendations[142]
120[143] Sustained civil disorder and government changes
 Libya 17 February 2011 Government overthrown on 23 August 2011 Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by rebel forces

25,000-30,000+[146] Government overthrown
 Kuwait 19 February 2011 0[149] Protests and governmental changes
 Morocco 20 February 2011 Ended in March–April 2012 6[152] Protests and governmental changes
 Mauritania 25 February 2011 Ongoing 3[153] Minor protests
 Lebanon 27 February 2011 Ended in December 2011 0 Protests and governmental changes
 Saudi Arabia 11 March 2011 Ongoing 24[159] Minor protests
 Syria 15 March 2011 Ongoing
  • Release of some political prisoners[160][161]
  • Dismissal of Provincial Governors[162][163]
  • Resignation of the Government[164]
  • End of Emergency Law
  • Resignations from Parliament[165]
  • Large defections from the Syrian army and clashes between soldiers and defectors[166]
  • Formation of the Free Syrian Army
  • The Free Syrian Army takes controls of large swathes of land across Syria.
  • Battles between the Syrian government’s army and the Free Syrian Army in many governorates.
  • Formation of the Syrian National Council[167]
  • Syria suspended from the Arab League
  • Several countries recognize Syrian government in exile
  • Kurdish fighters enter the war by mid-2013
106,000+[168] Ongoing civil war
 Iran 15 April 2011 Ended on 18 April 2011 12 Major protests
 Israel 15 May 2011 Ended on 5 June 2011 12–40[169][170] Major protests
 Palestine 4 September 2012 finished
  • Salam Fayyad states that he is “‘willing to resign”[171]
  • Fayyad ultimately resigns on 13 April 2013.[172]
0 Protests and governmental changes
Total death toll  134,239+
  • 5 Governments overthrown (Egypt twice)
  • 6 Protests & governmental changes
  • 5 Minor protests
  • 4 Major protests
  • 1 Civil disorder and governmental changes
  • 2 Civil wars



Casualties of the Syrian Civil War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Doctors and medical staff treating injured rebel fighters and civilians in Aleppo

Estimates of deaths in the Syrian Civil War, per opposition activist groups, vary between 95,850[1][2] and 130,435.[3] On 24 July 2013, the United Nations put out an estimate of over 100,000 that had died in the war.[4]

UNICEF reported that over 500 children had been killed by early February 2012.[5][6] Another 400 children have been reportedly arrested and tortured in Syrian prisons.[7][8] Both claims have been contested by the Syrian government.[9] Additionally, over 600 detainees and political prisoners have died under torture.[10] By late December 2013, the opposition activist group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported the number of children killed in the conflict had risen to 7,014, while at the same time 4,695 women were also killed.[3] According to the UN, 6,561 children were killed by mid-June 2013.[11] The Oxford Research Group said that a total of 11,420 children had been killed in the conflict by late November 2013.[12]



Overall deaths[edit]


Total deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria (18 March 2011 – 18 October 2013)


Weekly deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria (18 March 2011 – 18 October 2013)

The number of fatalities in the conflict, according to the Syrian opposition website Syrian Martyrs, is 92,120, updated to 31 December 2013.[13] The number includes 18,538 rebels, including 289 foreign fighters, but does not include members of the government security forces or pro-government foreign combatants who have died.[14] 736 foreign civilians who have died in the conflict are also included in the toll, most of them, 589, being Palestinians.[15] The Syrian Martyrs number is significantly higher than the ones presented by other organisations, including the UN, one reason being they record deaths even when no name is given for the reportedly killed individual.[16]

Governorate Number of deaths
Latakia 1,008
Rif Dimashq 22,709
Homs 13,345
Hama 6,299
Al-Hasakah 771
Daraa 7,893
Aleppo 15,493
Deir ez-Zor 5,117
Damascus 7,051
Tartus 516
Quneitra 551
Idlib 9,934
As-Suwayda 65
Ar-Raqqah 1,368
Total 92,120

Other estimates range from 95,850 to 130,435. Except for the SNHR figure, which excludes pro-government fighters, all of the following totals include civilians, rebels and security forces:

Source Casualties Time period
France 120,000 killed 15 March 2011 – 23 September 2013
Next Century Foundation 92,497 killed 4 June 2012 – 30 November 2013
Syrian Network for Human Rights 109,736 killed 15 March 2011 – 30 November 2013
Center for Documentation of Violations 95,852 killed 15 March 2011 – 7 January 2014
Syrian Observatory for Human Rights 130,433 killed 15 March 2011 – 30 December 2013

Al Jazeera journalist Nir Rosen reported that many of the deaths reported daily by activists are in fact armed insurgents falsely presented as civilian deaths, but confirmed that real civilian deaths do occur on a regular basis.[25] A number of Middle East political analysts, including those from the Lebanese Al Akhbar newspaper, have also urged caution.

This was later confirmed when in late May 2012, Rami Abdulrahman of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, which is one of the opposition-affiliated groups counting the number of those killed in the uprising, stated that civilians who had taken up arms during the conflict were being counted under the category of “civilians”.

In May 2013, SOHR stated that at least 41,000 of those killed during the conflict were Alawites.[32]

The Next Century Foundation offer an alternative analysis of casualty figures. Their calculations are made by using figures from the Center for Documentation of Violations in Syria (VDC), Syrian Shuhada (Syrian Martyrs), Syrian Observatory for Human RightsLocal Coordination Committees of Syria (LCC) and Damascus Centre for Human Rights from June 2012 to the present. Figures for civilian, rebel and government casualties are calculated separately and added together for an overall total.[33]

Combatant deaths[edit]

Government forces[edit]

Pro-government combatants Casualties
Syrian military and police 30,000[34]–32,013[3] killed
Shabiha and National Defense Force 19,729 killed[3]
Lebanese Hezbollah 262 killed[3]
Other non-Syrian Shiite militiamen 286 killed[3]

The Syrian Army fatalities figure also includes at least 37 members of the Palestinian PLA.[35]

The Shabiha and NDF fatalities figure also includes at least 20 Palestinian PFLP–GC members.

The non-Syrian Shiite militiamen fatalities figure includes: 96–160 Iraqi Shia militiamen,[41] 16 Iranian IRGC soldiers, 3 Iranian volunteer fighters[47] and one member of the Lebanese Amal Movement.[48]

Except one death (August 2011),[49] all of the Hezbollah fatalities have occurred since September 2012.[50]

In addition, 1,000 civilian government officials have also been killed.[51] In early December 2013, rebels claimed that a pro-government Russian fighter was killed in fighting in Aleppo.[52]

Opposition forces[edit]

Due to the opposition’s policy of counting rebel fighters that were not defectors as civilians a comprehensive number of rebels killed in the conflict, thus far, has not been ascertained. In late November 2012, the opposition activist group SOHR estimated that at least 10,000 rebels had been killed, but noted the possibility of the figure being higher because the rebels, like the government, were lying about how many of their forces had died to make it look like they were winning.[54] In March 2013, SOHR stated that the actual number of killed rebels and government forces could be double the number they were already able to document.[55]

The following tables provide examples of news reports which identify rebel casualties. The first table shows reports of rebel deaths for the period up to 30 December 2013, and those not included in SOHR’s daily death tolls before and after 30 December 2013. The second table shows day-by-day reports of rebel deaths by SOHR after 30 December 2013.

Date Casualties Detail
15 March 2011 – 30 December 2013 29,083[3]–52,290[56] killed Number also includes Kurdish YPG militiamen and foreign jihadists.[57]
14 April 2013 28 killed 50 were killed during fighting at the Wadi Deif military base,[58] 22 were included in the above total.[59]
16–21 April 2013 123 killed 150 were killed during the battle for Jdeidat al-Fadl,[60] 27 were included in the above total.[61][62]
2 June 2013 14–17 killed Killed after they were ambushed by Hezbollah while trying to launch rockets into Shi’ite areas of the Beqaa Valley.[63]
19 May – 5 June 2013 172–241 killed 431–500 rebels were killed during the Battle of al-Qusayr, 259 were included in the above total.
early June 2013 13 killed A jihadist suicide bomber blew himself up at a rebel command post killing 12 FSA fighters.[64]
4–5 August 2013 47 killed 60 rebels were killed at the start of the Latakia offensive,[65] 13 were included in the above total.
5 August 2013 11 killed 21 rebels were killed during the final assault on Menagh Air Base,[66] 10 were included in the above total.
20 November 2013 26 killed 35 rebels were killed during the final assault on the Kindi hospital in Aleppo,[67] 9 were included in the above total.[68]
21 December 2013 32 killed Killed after they were ambushed by Hezbollah in Wadi al-Jamala while infiltrating Lebanon from Syria.[69]


It should be noted that at least 90 rebel suicide bombers[82] and 86 rebel child soldiers[83] have been killed in the conflict.

Foreigners killed[edit]

Foreign civilians killed[edit]

Country Number of deaths
Palestinians 589[15]–1,597[84]
Iraq 47
Lebanon 41
Jordan 22[15][95]
Turkey 17
Saudi Arabia 14[15]
Somalia 15[95]
Egypt 11[15]
Libya 9[15]
Tunisia 9[15]
France 4[95]
Sudan 4[15]
United Kingdom 4
Afghanistan 3[103]
Australia 2[15]
Kuwait 2[15]
Azerbaijan 1[15]
Belgium 1[15]
Greece 1[15]
Italy 1[104]
Japan 1[15]
Russia 1[15]
Israel 1[15]
United States 1[15]
Yemen 1[15]
Unknown 2[15]

Note: The higher figure of 1,600 Palestinians killed in the conflict includes several dozens of Palestinian combatants from both sides and not just civilians. 700 of the killed Palestinians were residents of the Yarmouk Camp.

Foreign opposition fighters killed[edit]

6,913 foreign opposition fighters have been killed, according to the SOHR. The nationalities of some are as follows: 232 Saudis 145 Libyans, 131-204 Tunisians, 100 Azerbaijanis, 88 Turks, 85-210 Jordanians, 75 Palestinians, 46 Kuwaitis,43 Chechens, 39 Egyptians, 37 Lebanese,24 Moroccans,20 Belgians, 17 Iraqis,16 Dagestanis, 15 Albanians, 13 Afghans, 13 Bosniaks, 12 Algerians, 11 Frenchmen,11 Germans, 9 Danes, 8 Russians, 8 Qataris, 7-22 Britons, 6 Dutch, 6 Australians, 6 Emiratis, 6 Swedes, 5 Bahrainis, 5 Yemenis, 3 Americans, 3 Canadians,3 Irishmen, 3 Pakistanis, 3 Tajiks, 2 Chinese, 2 Italians, 2 Eritreans, 2 Kyrgyz, 2 Mauritanians, 2 Omanis, 2 Somalis, 2 Sudanese, 1 Armenian, 1 Bulgarian, 1 Chadian, 1 Finn, 1 Indonesian, 1 Iranian,1 Israeli-Arab, 1 Romanian, 1 Spaniard and 1 Uzbek.

In another estimate, 9,944 foreign opposition fighters have been killed, according to the Jihadist Salafist Movement in Jordan, with the nationalities being as follows: 1,902 Tunisians, 1,807 Libyans, 1,432 Iraqis, 828 Lebanese, 821 Egyptians, 800 Palestinians, 714 Saudis, 571 Yemenis, 412 Moroccans, 274 Algerians, 210 Jordanians, 91 Omanis, 71 from Kuwaitis, 42 Somalis, 30 Albanians and Caucasians, 21 Bahrainis, 9 Emiratis, 8 Qataris, 3 Sudanese and 1 Mauritanian.

Foreign soldiers killed

25 foreign soldiers have been killed during the conflict.

On 2 March 2013, one Iraqi soldier was killed during clashes between Syrian rebels and government forces at a Syrian-Iraqi border crossing. On 4 March 2013, 13 Iraqi soldiers were killed by unknown gunmen near the border with Syria while they were transporting 65 Syrian soldiers and government officials back to their country after they had retreated to Iraq a few days earlier. 48 of the Syrians were also killed in the attack.[164] On 9 June 2013, Syrian rebels attacked a southern Iraqi border post, killing one Iraqi guard and wounding two. On 14 July 2013, another attack by fighters from the Syrian side of the border left one Iraqi policeman dead and five others wounded.