Oddfellows

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the Oddfellows in the United Kingdom. For other countries, see Odd Fellows (disambiguation).

The name Oddfellows refers to several friendly societies and fraternal organisations operating in the United Kingdom.[a] It also refers to some Lodges with histories dating back to the 18th century.[1][2][3][4][5][6][b] These various organisations were set up to protect and care for their members and communities at a time when there was no welfare state,trade unions or National Health Service. The aim was (and still is) to provide help to members and communities when they need it. The friendly societies are non-profit mutualorganisations owned by their members. All income is passed back to the members in the form of services and benefits.

The Oddfellows are also fundraisers for local and national charities; branches (lodges) raise money for local causes, and the Societies as a whole raise significant amounts for charities.

§History[edit]

§Fraternal societies and Guilds[edit]

The Oddfellows are one of the earliest and oldest Friendly Societies, but their early history is obscure and largely undocumented.

There have been legends tracing their origins back to Moses and Aaron,[c][4] to the exile of the Israelites in Babylon in the sixth century BC,[5][6][d][e] and claims that the order was brought to Europe by Jewish prisoners after the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem by the Roman Emperor Titus in AD 70.[1][7][f] Another draws on the concept of mutual support amongst soldiers of the Roman Empire, and the spread of the concept throughout Europe in the 11th century.[g] Another states that “Although no formal records exist … an Order of Odd Fellows was established in 1452 by knights who were said to have met at the pub named ‘Boulogne-sur-Mer’ in London and formed a fraternity”.[3][h]

Although some of these legends are at best, dubious, the evolution from the Guilds is more reliably documented.[i] By the 13th century, the tradesmen’s Guilds had become established and prosperous. During the 14th century, with the growth of trade, the guild “Masters” moved to protect their power (and wealth) by restricting access to the Guilds. In response, the less experienced (and less wealthy) “Fellows” set up their own rival Guilds.[j][5][6]

§Odd Fellows[edit]

Main article: Odd Fellows § Name

One recurring theme is that the name “Odd Fellows” arose because, in smaller towns and villages, there were too few Guild “Fellows” in the same trade to form a local Guild. The Fellows from a number of trades therefore joined together to form a local Guild of Fellows from an assortment of different trades, the Odd Fellows.[5] A second recurring theme explains the name as adopted “at a time when the severance into sects and classes was so wide that persons aiming at social union and mutual help were a marked exception to the general rule”.[1]

During the following centuries, the idea of common people working together to improve their situation met a mixed reaction from the upper classes, who saw them possibly as a source of revenue (taxes) but also as a possible threat to their power. For example, when the English King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church, the Guilds were viewed by him as supporting the Pope, and in 1545 he confiscated all material property of the Guilds. Queen Elizabeth I took from the Guilds the responsibility for training apprentices, and by the end of her reign, most Guilds had been suppressed.[5][8]

§Oddfellows Lodge[edit]

The elimination of the Trade Guilds removed an important form of social and financial support from ordinary working people. In major cities like London, some Guilds (e.g. the “Free Masons” and the “Odd Fellows”) survived by adapting their roles to a social support function. Both of these had their base in London, but had established branches (called ‘Lodges’) across the country.[5]

The earliest surviving records of an Oddfellows Lodge is the manuscript of the rules, dated 1748, of the Loyal Aristarcus Lodge No.9 which met in inns in the Southwark, Hatton Garden and Smithfield areas of London.[1][7] Many pubs in Britain are named ‘The Oddfellows’ or ‘Oddfellows Arms’, probably because they were once meeting places of Lodges.[5]

The French Revolution also caused the radicals who seized control to view organisations such as the Oddfellows and Freemasons with fear. Membership became a criminal offence in France, and such organisations were driven underground and forced to use codes, passwords, special handshakes and similar mechanisms.[5][6] Fear of revolution was not the sole reason for persecution; Friendly Societies like the Oddfellows were the predecessors of modern-day trade unions and could facilitate effective local strike action by levying all of their members for additional contributions for their benevolent funds, out of which payments could be made to the families of members who were on strike.[5][6][9]

The Oddfellows subsequently introduced a number of novel benefits for members. These included the Travel Warrant, which allowed members seeking work to stay overnight in an Oddfellows Hall, anywhere in the country, free of charge. The Oddfellows also introduced standard protection policies, sometimes called “tables” because each type of policy had its own numbered table of premium rates.[k] People could subscribe to protect themselves financially. In the United Kingdom at that time, until 1948, payment was required to see a doctor or to go into hospital. Many people therefore joined friendly societies like the Oddfellows to obtain financial protection to meet these costs.[5][6][10]

§Evolution[edit]

As a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, (when the Protestant William of Orange replaced the Catholic King James II), in the mid-18th century the Oddfellows split into The Order of Patriotic Oddfellows (based in the south of England and supporting William)[l] and The Ancient Order of Oddfellows (based in the north and favouring the Stuarts).[5][6]

§Grand United Order of Oddfellows[edit]

Subsequent to the failure of Bonnie Prince Charlie‘s uprising, in 1798 the two Orders formed a partial amalgamation as the Grand United Order of Oddfellows.[3][5][6] These days they are more commonly known as “The Grand United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society” (GUOOFS).[11][m]

§Independent Order – Manchester Unity[edit]

Manchester Unity Logo.
Note the “Triple-Links” and the “Friendship, Love and Truth” motto – recurring themes in nearly all branches of Oddfellowship.

In 1810, members of the Oddfellows in Manchester area became dissatisfied with the way the Grand United Order was being run and formed an independent Order with the title ‘Manchester Unity’. This organisation is now referred to by a number of names: “The Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity Friendly Society Limited”, “The Independent Order of Oddfellows (Manchester Unity)”, “The Manchester Unity Order of Odd Fellows”, and more simply: “Manchester Unity”.[12][not in citation given] They continue in operation using the trading name “The Oddfellows”.[13]

According to Manchester Unity literature, “With their improved organisation and rules, they encouraged many other lodges across the country to leave the old Grand United Order and join the Independent Order under the ‘Manchester Compliance’.[5]

§Subsequent breakaways[edit]

Subsequent breakaways from the parent Grand United Order and from the new Manchester Unity Order resulted in the formation of further Orders of Odd Fellows. In the case of the parent Order, various lodges seceded in 1832 to found the Ancient & Noble (Bolton Unity), which subsequently dissolved in 1962, and in the case of the new Order, the Nottingham Odd Fellows.[3]

The Grand United Order of Oddfellows (Sheffield Unity) was formed in an early breakaway from the Manchester Unity. The Ancient Noble Order of Oddfellows (Bolton Unity) was formed from the Sheffield Unity in 1832. The Nottingham Ancient Imperial Order of Oddfellows was formed from the Sheffield Unity in 1812. The Improved Independent Order of Oddfellows (London Unity) was formed from the Manchester Unity around 1820. The British United Order of Oddfellows was formed from the Imperial Nottingham Order in 1867.[14]

The Albion Order of Oddfellows was formed from the Manchester Unity in 1831. Several other secessions then occurred to form the Nottingham Independent Order, the Derby Midland Order, the Ilkison Unity[Ilkeston?] and the Norfolk and Norwich Unity. The Kent Unity was formed in 1805; its first Lodge, however, was not formed until 1861.[14]

The Kingston Unity of Oddfellows was formed from the Manchester Unity in 1840, and the National Independent Order was formed from the Manchester Unity in 1846.[14] There was an East Anglia Unity; a few items of their regalia and jewels are in the museum at Freemasons’ Hall in London.[15]

The Wolverhampton Unity of Oddfellows ceased to exist in 1876 when it merged with the Ancient Order of Shepherds.[7]

§American Separation[edit]

The Oddfellows had spread to America in the late 18th century, and several unofficial lodges existed in New York City; but American Odd Fellowship is regarded as being founded in Baltimore in 1819, by Thomas Wildey, and the following year affiliated with the Manchester Unity.[5][6]

In Britain in 1834, the Tolpuddle Martyrs were unexpectedly convicted and transported for “membership of an illegal friendly society”. The Oddfellows “Board of Directors” hastily modified the “constitution” to evade a similar fate.[5][6]

Members of the Oddfellows in the United States were not pleased to see the ancient rituals changed without their agreement, particularly to satisfy a British Government against which they had fought a war of independence. As a result, the Oddfellows in America declared their independence from the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows and became a self-governing Order – the Independent Order of Odd Fellows – which established lodges across the world (and continues to this day).[5][6][16]

§Legitimacy[edit]

The Oddfellows continued to be viewed with suspicion by “the establishment”. At various times, right up to 1850, some aspects of the Orders’ practices were declared illegal. However, by 1850, the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity Friendly Society had become the largest and richest friendly society in Britain. This growth was spurred by the growth caused by the Industrial Revolution, the lack of Trade Unions, and the lack of personal or public insurance; only by joining mutual friendly societies like the Oddfellows could ordinary people protect themselves and their families against illness, injury or death.[5]

In 1911, when Asquith’s Liberal government was setting up the National Insurance Act in Britain, the Oddfellows protected so many people that the government used the Oddfellows’ actuarial tables to work out the level of contribution and payment required. At that time the Oddfellows was the largest friendly society in the world.[5][6][17]

§Welfare State and modern Oddfellows[edit]

The Welfare State and the National Health Service took over the major part of the role of Friendly Societies, and since 1948 the role of the Oddfellows has evolved in other directions, with a continuing focus on social involvement, care & support, and financial benefits.[5][6]

In the second half of the 20th century, the Oddfellows moved into financial products.[5][6][17][18]

§International spread of Oddfellowship[edit]

The concept of the Oddfellows was taken abroad as members emigrated to the far-flung corners of the Commonwealth and to the New World. Today, the Oddfellows can be found in many countries across the world, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the West Indies.

The American Order – the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) – has set up lodges in Canada, Germany, Iceland, Denmark, Belgium, Finland, Holland and many other European countries,[5][6][19] and in Asia.[20]

A revival of the procedures followed by the oldest ascertained Oddfellows’ unit, the “Loyal Aristarcus Lodge” in London (1730–40), was started in 2010 by a group of Italian Oddfellows, led by Masonic author Michele Moramarco.[21]

§Notable members of the Oddfellows[edit]

§See also

Independent Order of Odd Fellows

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the North American organization and its international off-shoots. For other world-wide Orders, see Odd Fellows. For the Australian financial services company, see IOOF (company) . For other uses, see IOOF (disambiguation).
Independent Order of Odd Fellows
IOOF
Founded April 26, 1819; 195 years ago
Baltimore, Maryland, US
Type Service Fraternity
Scope International
Motto True friends love forever
Colors      White      Blue and      Red
Symbol Three Link Chain
(The Triple Links)
Headquarters 422 Trade Street,
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, US
Homepage http://www.ioof.org/

“Past Grand Sires of the Grand Lodge of the United States IOOF” including founder Thomas Wildey.

The IOOF Hall at the corner ofYonge and College streets in Toronto,Ontario.

The IOOF building at 47 Gawler Place, Adelaide.

The IOOF Building in San Diego, California.

Odd Fellow-gården, Stortingsgata 28, Oslo.

Lodge buildings bearing the IOOF emblem stand in many small American towns. (Rockfield, Indiana shown.)

Dr.John Morse, District Deputy Grand Sire of Europe Medallion.

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) is a global altruistic and benevolent fraternal organization derived from the BritishOddfellows service organizations of the 18th century.[1] There are a number of explanations of the origin of the name – for example:

In 18th century England, it was odd to find people organized for the purpose of giving aid to those in need and of pursuing projects for the benefit of all mankind. Those who belonged to such an organization were called “Odd Fellows”.[1]

The Order is also known as “The Three Link Fraternity”, referring to the Order’s “Triple Links” logo – three links contain the letters F, L and T, (Friendship, Love and Truth).[1]

The word “Independent” in the organization’s name was given by the English parent organization as part of the chartered title of the new North American chapter:

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded on the North American Continent in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 26, 1819 when Thomas Wildey and four members of the Order from England instituted Washington Lodge No. 1. This lodge received its charter from Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows in England.[1]

Odd Fellowship became the first fraternity in the US to include both men and women when it adopted the “Beautiful Rebekah Degree” on September 20, 1851. This degree is based on teachings found in the Holy Bible, and was written by the Honorable Schuyler Colfax who was Vice President of the United States during the period 1868–73. Odd Fellows and Rebekahs were also the first US fraternal organizations to establish homes for senior members and for orphaned children.[1]

Philosophy and purpose

As an organization, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows aims to provide a framework that promotes personal and social development. Lodge degrees and activities aim to improve and elevate every person to a higher, nobler plane; to extend sympathy and aid to those in need, making their burdens lighter, relieving the darkness of despair; to war against vice in every form, and to be a great moral power and influence for the good of humanity. Teachings in the Order are conducted through the exemplification of the Degrees of membership. The Degrees are conferred on the candidate by their Lodge, and are teachings of principles and truths by ceremonies and symbols. The Degrees are presented largely by means of allegory and drama.[2] For Odd Fellows, the degrees in Odd Fellowship emphasizes a leaving of the old life and the start of a better one, of welcoming travelers, and of helping those in need.[3] Lodges also provide an international social network of brothers and sisters that extends to more than 26 countries worldwide. If traveling is an interest, membership can provide a valuable network that will very much welcome an international visitor, and assist in their enterprises, and certainly their travels wherever possible.[4] The command of the IOOF is to “visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead and educate the orphan.” Specifically, IOOF are dedicated to the following purposes:

  • To improve and elevate the character of mankind by promoting the principles of friendship, love, truth, faith, hope, charity and universal justice.[4][5]
  • To help make the world a better place to live by aiding each other in times of need and by organizing charitable projects and activities that would benefit the less fortunate, the youth, the elderly, the environment and the community in every way possible.
  • To promote good will and harmony amongst peoples and nations through the principle of universal fraternity, holding the belief that all men and women regardless of race, nationality, religion, social status, gender, rank and station are brothers and sisters
  • To promote a wholesome fraternal experience without violence, vices and discrimination of every form.

Around the world, the Odd Fellows undertake various community and charitable projects. According to an IOOF Sovereign Grand Lodge brochure, the organization’s works include:[6][7]

  • The Odd Fellows and Rebekahs spend over US$775 million in relief projects annually
  • The Educational Foundation provides substantial loans and grants to students
  • SOS Children’s Village provides a caring home for orphaned children in 132 countries around the world
  • Odd Fellow and Rebekah Homes provide a caring environment for the elderly
  • Living Legacy focuses on planting trees and enhancing the environment
  • The Arthritis Foundation
  • Visual Research Foundation supports vision care and research through the Wilmer Eye Institute
  • United Nations Pilgrimage for Youth sponsors a group of students for an educational trip to the United Nations
  • Annual pilgrimages to the “Tomb of the Unknowns” (Arlington National Cemetery, USA), Canadian War Memorial, Ottawa, ON, and other Tombs of the Unknown Soldier.[8]
  • Odd Fellow and Rebekah Homes provides a caring environment for the elderly and orphans
  • Odd Fellow and Rebekah camps and parks provide recreation for the youth and for families

The stated goals of Oddfellowship include:[9]

  • One of the strongest fraternal societies in the world.[10]
  • A great worldwide united brotherhood.
  • A fraternity founded on the basis of universal brotherhood.
  • Founded on the North American continent in 1819.
  • Based upon the purest principles of equality.
  • Non-political and non-sectarian.
  • A source of comfort in times of trouble and adversity.
  • A world-wide force that stands for all that is noblest and highest.
  • An everyday guide for conduct, a mantle that should be worn always.
  • An organization that favors no person for their wealth and frowns on none for their poverty.
  • An ideal that exists in the heart and mind of every genuine Odd Fellow or Rebekah.
  • Fulfilling a mission in the world which no other institution has successfully attempted.
  • A vitalizing, sympathetic, and actuating influence in the lives of all its real members.
  • A ministering spirit succoring the needy, cheering the despondent and protecting the helpless.
  • The handmaid of virtue and religion.
  • Founded on the inspired word of God as revealed to man in the Holy scriptures.

Name[edit]

Several theories aim to explain the meaning of the name “Odd Fellows”.

One says that they were called “odd” because in the beginning of Odd Fellowship in the 18th century, at the time of industrialization, it was rather odd to find people who followed noble values such as benevolence, charity and fraternalism.[11]

A variation on that theory states: “The Odd Fellows, at least according to one story, got its curious name from the fact that it was a lodge that opened its doors to the working class who at that time did not ordinarily belong to fraternal orders—and were thus ‘odd’. This may or may not be true as the Odd Fellows have been around for a long time and a good many things get lost in the fog of history.”[12]

Another theory states that Odd Fellows were people who engaged in miscellaneous or “odd” trades. In the 18th century, major trades were organized in guilds or other forms of syndicate, but smaller trades did not have any social or financial security. For that reason, people who exercised unusual trades joined together to form a larger group of “odd” fellows.[11]

A slightly different version of this second theory states: “By the 13th century, the tradesmen’s Guilds had become established and prosperous. During the 14th Century, with the growth of trade, the guild ‘Masters’ moved to protect their power (and wealth) by restricting access to the Guilds. In response, the less experienced (and less wealthy) ‘Fellows’ set up their own rival Guilds. In smaller towns and villages, there weren’t enough Fellows from the same trade to set up a local Guild, so Fellows from a number of trades banded together to form a local Guild of Fellows from an odd assortment of trades. Hence, Guilds of Odd Fellows.”[13]

History[edit]

“In all times and among all nations which have reached a sufficient level of cultural development, there have always been voluntary associations formed for higher purposes. It is admitted that ‘mystery of long-past ages enshrouds the origin of Odd Fellowship'”,[14] and that the exact date of its first founding is ‘lost in the mist of antiquity’.[15] The Manchester Unity Oddfellows (in United Kingdom) state on their website that “Oddfellows can trace its roots back to the Trade Guilds of the 12th and 13th centuries.[16] Some believe that there are records in Scotland which show that the Oddfellows in its original form may have arisen in the 1500s.[17][18] Some historians claim that it existed before 1650.[19]

What is clear is that there were numerous Oddfellow organizations in England in the 1700s.[3] One Edwardian Oddfellow history argued that in 1710 there was a ‘Loyal Lintot of Oddfellows’ in London.[20] The first Oddfellows group in South Yorkshire, England, dates from 1730.[21] The earliest surviving documented evidence of an “Oddfellows” lodge is the minutes of Loyal Aristarchus Oddfellow Lodge no. 9 in England, dated March 12, 1748. By it being lodge number 9, this connotes that there were older Oddfellows lodges that existed before this date.[22] As a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 (when the Protestant William of Orange replaced the Catholic King James II), by the mid-18th century, the Order of Patriotic Oddfellows had formed in the south of England, supporting William,[23] and The Ancient Order of Oddfellows had formed in the north, supporting the Stuarts.[21] Subsequent to the failure of Bonnie Prince Charlie’s uprising, in 1789 these two Orders formed a partial amalgamation as the Grand United Order of Oddfellows. These days they are more commonly known as “The Grand United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society” (GUOOFS),[24] abandoning all political and religious disputes and committing itself to promoting the harmony and welfare of its members. Some books mention that there was a lodge of a ‘Union Order of Oddfellows’ in London in 1750, and one in Derby in 1775.[25] The Oddfellows Magazine of 1888 included a picture of a medal presented to the secretary of a lodge of the Grand Independent Order of Oddfellows in 1796. On a magazine review of a 1798 sermon preached in the Sheffield Parish Church, the “Oddfellows appear to be very numerous with about thirty-nine lodges of them in London and its vicinity, two at Sheffield, and one at each of the following places: Wolverhampton, Birmingham, Shrewsbury, Windsor, Wandsworth, Canterbury, Liverpool, Richmond in Surrey and Lewes”.[26] This suggested that the “Original United Order of Oddfellows” consisted of a total of 50 lodges at that time. In 1810, various lodges of the Union or United Order in the Manchester area declared themselves as an “Independent Order”, and organized the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows which chartered the Odd Fellows in North America in 1819.[27][28]

While several unofficial or self-instituted lodges had existed in New York City sometime in the period 1806 to 1818,[29] because of the charter relationship, the American Odd Fellows is regarded as being founded in Baltimore at the Seven Stars Tavern[30] on April 26, 1819, by Thomas Wildey and some associates[1] who assembled in response to a newspaper advertisement. The following year, the lodge affiliated with the Manchester Unity and was granted the authority to institute new lodges.

In 1842, after an elementary dispute on whether the American lodges were to be involved in decision-making procedures, the American Lodges formed a separate governing system from the English Order, and in 1843 changed their name to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.[27] In the following years, lodges were instituted all over the country, first in the east and later in the west. Also in 1842, the English Oddfellow Grand Lodges issued a warrant to an African American sailor named Peter Ogden from New York City; unlike Wildey and the IOOF, Ogden and the African American Odd Fellows lodges never separated from the English order, and they remain part of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows (GUOOF),[31] still headquartered in Philadelphia.[27]

On September 20, 1851, IOOF became the first national fraternity to accept both men and women when it formed the Daughters of Rebekah. Schuyler Colfax, (Vice President of the United States (1869–1873) under President Ulysses S. Grant), was the force behind the movement.[32][27] Both the Odd Fellows and Rebekahs have higher branches known as Encampments and Patriarchs Militant.[33][34]

The American Civil War (1861–1865) shattered the IOOF in America; membership decreased and many lodges were unable to continue their work, especially in the southern States.[35] After the Civil War, with the beginning of industrialization, the deteriorating social circumstances brought large numbers of people to the IOOF and the lodges rallied.

From 1860 to 1910/1920, also known as the “Golden Age of Fraternalism” in America,[12][27] the Odd Fellows became the largest among all fraternal organizations, (at the time, even larger than Freemasonry).[27] By 1889, the IOOF had lodges in every American state.[36][37]

In 1896, the World Almanac showed the Odd Fellows as the largest among all fraternal organizations.[12]

International spread[edit]

By the late nineteenth century, the Order had spread to most of the rest of the world, establishing lodges in the Americas, Australasia, and Europe. The peak of membership was probably in 1915 when the IOOF had 3.4 million active members.[38]

Argentina

There was one IOOF lodge in the country, Buenos Ayres Lodge no.1 instituted on January 1, 1903, with 32 members. The most recent report from the lodge was received by the Sovereign Grand Lodge in 1912.[39]

Australasia

Because of failure to keep records, it is hard to trace the early history of Odd Fellowship in Australia. What was recorded is that a lodge of the Order of Loyal and Independent Odd Fellows was in existence in the state of New South Wales on February 24, 1836. The lodge was established in New Zealand in 1843. An Australian Supreme Grand Lodge was established in Victoria sometime in the year 1850 and this body made negotiations for affiliation with the Grand Lodge of the United States in 1861. It is also noted that an Ancient Independent Order of Odd Fellows was in existence from 1861 to 1867 in Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.[40]

Austria

Because of the condition of the government at that time, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Austria was first formed as a club in 1911. After WWI, conditions changed and the club was instituted as Friedens Lodge no.1 on June 4, 1922, in Vienna followed by Ikarius Lodge no.2, Pestalozzi Lodge no.3 and Fridtjof Nansen Lodge no.4. Mozart Lager Encampment no.1 was also instituted on June 3, 1932.[39]

Belgium

The first lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Belgia Lodge no.1, was instituted on June 13, 1911, in Antwerp. On March 15, 1975, Aurora Rebekah Lodge no.1 was instituted in Antwerp. Two more Odd Fellows Lodges were opened in the country.[39]

Canada

Oddfellows’ Hall in Streetsville,Mississauga, built in 1867. The building was sold in 1972.

Because many documents were not properly kept and some were destroyed, the precise date of the introduction of Odd Fellowship in Canada cannot be given. But it is known[by whom?] that two lodges under the Manchester Unity of Independent Order of Odd Fellows known as Royal Wellington Lodge no.1 and Loyal Bon Accorde Lodge no.2 existed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, as early as 1815.[citation needed]The older Order of Odd Fellows in Canada merged with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in 1843.[citation needed] The IOOF in Canada has 7 Grand Lodges, namely: Grand Lodge of Alberta, Grand Lodge of Atlantic Provinces, Grand Lodge of British Columbia, Grand Lodge of Manitoba, Grand Lodge of Ontario, Grand Lodge of Quebec and Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan.[40]

‘The Oddfellows [sic] galop’ [for piano] was dedicated by permission to the Worthy Grand Master and members of the I.O.O.F., Ontario by George Buckley Sippi (1847-1915), professor of music, Hellmuth College, London, Ont. The sheet music, which was published in London, Ont. by A. & S. Nordheimer, c. 1875, was illustrated with a drawing of Oddfellow’s Hall, London, Ont. with I.O.O.F. insignias in each corner.[41]

Chile

The first Lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, known as Valparaiso Lodge No.1, was instituted by Dr. Cornelius Logan, Grand Sire, on April 15, 1874. Four additional lodges were instituted in the following years, and a Grand Lodge of Chile was instituted on November 18, 1875. However, due to the political situation in the country, the lodges in the country were reduced to 3 active lodges in 1888 and the charter of the Grand Lodge was surrendered. In September 2012, there were 3 Odd Fellows Lodges and 3 Rebekahs Lodges in the country.[42]

Cuba

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Cuba when Porvenir Lodge no.1 was instituted in Havana on August 26, 1883. More lodges were then instituted the following years.[40] In 2012 there were about 116 Odd Fellows Lodges, 50 Rebekahs Lodges, 33 Encampments, 12 cantons and 2 Junior Lodges, totaling to about 15,000 members in Cuba.[43]

Czech Republic

The first attempt to establish the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the Czech Republic was in 1905 through the formation of Friendship Lodge No. 8 in Saxony. But the unstable political and social condition of the country hampered the development. The actual development of the IOOF began after the creation of Czechoslovakia. However, Lodges were banned and cancelled during WWII. The IOOF began to re-activate lodges in 1989, building the first Odd Fellows Hall in the Czech Republic in 1996. In 2010, Martel Rebekah Lodge No.4 was founded as the lodge for women.[44]

Denmark

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in the Kingdom of Denmark in 1878 and the Rebekahs in 1881. In September 2012, I.O.O.F had over 112 Odd Fellow Lodges and 94 Rebekah Lodges, with a total membership of 14,500 in Denmark. The I.O.O.F Grand Lodge headquarters of the Kingdom of Denmark is located at the Odd Fellow Palace in Copenhagen.[45][46]

Dominican Republic

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was formally established in the Dominican Republic when Dr. Joaquin Balaguer Lodge no.1 was founded on February 24, 2007, in the City of San Cristobal.[47]

Estonia

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded in Estonia when 1 Odd Fellows Lodge was founded by the Grand Lodge of Finland in 1993 and a Rebekah lodge in 1995.

Finland

After the Independent Order of Odd Fellows Grand Lodge of Sweden was established in 1895, the interest in Odd Fellowship was awakened in Finland. A letter from the year 1901 can be mentioned as a first sign of this interest. However, taking into consideration the political and social situation of Finland as a part of the Russian Empire at that time, the applicant was advised to abandon the whole idea. After Finland had declared independence in 1917, the idea of an Odd Fellows Lodge in Finland was raised again. A few interested people from the town Vaasa in Ostrobothnia province were able to join the Swedish Odd Fellow lodges until the Sovereign Grand Lodge finally permitted the Grand Lodge of Sweden to officially establish the IOOF in Finland in 1925. The first lodge established was named Wasa Lodge no.1 in the coastal town of Vaasa. Additional lodges were then formed in Helsinki in 1927 and a third lodge in Turku in 1931. Odd Fellows in Finland encountered great difficulties in 1930s and during the wartime. Especially the question of premises was quite difficult for many years. However, all three lodges which had been established before the war continued their activities almost without interruption. Only after the war, in the year 1951 was the next lodge established. Since then, the development has been steady and quite rapid. In the beginning of the 1980s, the number of brother lodges was 35 and the number of sister lodges 19 leading to the institution of the Grand Lodge of Finland on June 2, 1984. In the year 2008, there were 57 Odd Fellows lodges and 48 Rebekah lodges in Finland with about 8,200 members.[48]

Germany

Dr. John F. Morse was District Deputy Grand Sire for Europe.[when?] He was instrumental in founding the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Germany and Switzerland which help spread Thomas Wildey Odd Fellowship throughout the European continent. The first lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established on December 1, 1870, in Wurttemberg, Germany, by Dr. John F. Morse, a Past Grand Master in California and a member of California Odd Fellows Lodge #1 of San Francisco, California, U.S.A. After the institution of Wurttemberg Lodge, other lodges were instituted including Germania Lodge No. 1 in Berlin on March 30, 1871; Helvetia Lodge No. 1 in Zurich, Switzerland on April 2, 1871; Saxonia Lodge No. 1 in Dresden on June 6, 1871; and Schiller Lodge No. 3 in Stuttgart on May 25, 1872. During the first decades, many lodges were instituted including 56 lodges in the 1870s, 20 lodges in the 1880s, 41 lodges in the 1890s, and the membership totaled almost 4,000 brothers. The formal establishment of the I.O.O.F Grand Lodge of the German Empire was on December 28, 1872.[49]

Iceland

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Iceland was founded in August 1933 under the Jurisdiction of the I.O.O.F Grand Lodge of Kingdom of Denmark, until it established the Grand Lodge of Iceland on January 31, 1948. In September 2012, there were 26 Odd Fellows Lodges, 15 Rebekah Lodges, 5 Odd Fellow Encampments and 3 Rebekah Encampments – about 3,300 members with 1 Odd Fellow lodge waiting for approval for institution.[50]

Italy

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was first introduced in the country when Colombu Lodge no.1 was instituted in Naples in 1895.[40]

Mexico

The first lodge in Mexico under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, known as Ridgely Lodge no.1, was instituted on August 5, 1882. Several Lodges were opened the following years reaching up to 5 Lodges in 1895. However, the political situation affected their progress. In 2012, there was one Odd Fellows Lodge and one Rebekah Lodge re-instituted in 1996.[40]

Netherlands

Paradijs Loge nr. 1 (Paradise Lodge No. 1) was founded in Amsterdam on 19 March 1877 by L. Elkan and G.E. van Erpen, former members of an Odd Fellows lodge in theUSA. This initiative commenced in 1876, but initially the Dutch Government was not pleased. It subsequently stopped its resistance later in the same year. The translation of the rituals was the next problem, combined with the recognition by the Soeverine Loge (Sovereign Grand Lodge). Eventually the founder of the German Order, Ostheim, was appointed Gedeputeerd Groot Sire voor Nederland and installed the first Dutch board. In 1899, lodges were established in Den Haag and Groningen. Also in 1899, the firstNederlandse Grootorde (Grand Lodge of Netherlands) was founded. On 2 September 1911, the first Belgian Lodge, Belgia Loge nr. 201, was established in Antwerp, and the Order changed its name to Orde in Nederland en België.[citation needed]

Nigeria

Different Orders of Odd Fellows have existed in Nigeria since the 1800s. The Independent Order of Odd Fellows re-established lodges in the country in 2008. In January 2012, there were four Odd Fellow lodges in the country.[51]

Norway

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Norway in 1898 and is one of the strongest jurisdictions in terms of membership. In January 2010, there were 151 Odd Fellow Lodges and 125 Rebekah Lodges and about 23,414 members in the country.[52]

Panama

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Isthmian Canal Lodge No. 1, was instituted at Gorgona, September 17, 1907 in Panama. The charter was secured upon the application of named petitioners. Officers were installed. A special meeting was announced to institute a class of 25 on October 5, 1907.[53]

Poland

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Poland in Poznan in 1876 and in Wroclaw (then Breslau) in 1879. A Regional Grand Lodge of Silesia and Poznan was established in 1885, which opened lodges in Bydgoszcz in 1895, Gniezno in 1896, Torun in 1898, Gdansk in 1899, Pila 1899 and Grudziadz in 1901. After World War I, six Odd Fellows lodges worked in the Polish lands: in Poznań “Kosmos-Loge” in Inowroclaw “Astrea-Loge” in Bydgoszcz “Emanuel Schweizer Gedächnits Loge” in Gniezno “Friedens-Loge” in Torun “Coppernicus -Loge” and Grudziadz “Ostheim-Loge.” Moreover, in Gdansk Gedania-Loge “and the camp” Vistula-Lager” existed. In addition to the above-mentioned, there were 18 IOOF lodges in the Lower Silesia, including as many as five in Wroclaw, “Morse”, “Moltke,” Phönix “Freundschaft” and “Caritas”. In the years 1925 to 1926, they built a new, modern building for their headquarters. It was projected by A. Radig, and it stands in today’s Hallera Street in Wroclaw.[citation needed]

Puerto Rico

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was formally established in Puerto Rico when Boriken Lodge No. 1 was instituted on November 6, 1899, with the help of several members from Florida, New Jersey and New York Lodges of the IOOF. Naborias Rebekahs Lodge No. 1 was also formed in the country.[54][55]

Philippines

Filipinos first embraced the fraternalism of the Odd Fellows during the revolutionary era as a reaction to the perceived abuses by their Spanish colonists,[56] and by 1898, had formed several military lodges and Odd Fellows Association in Manila.[56] According to their own records, the early membership consisted primarily of military officers and government officials.[57] The organization failed during World War II, and was not reformed until November 21, 2009.[58] In 2012 there were 5 active I.O.O.F lodges located in various towns and cities in the country.

Spain

Interests about forming a lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Spain started very long ago but was unsuccessful until Andalucia Rebekah Lodge no.1 was established in 1995, and Costa del Sol Lodge no.1 was founded in the country by members of the IOOF from Denmark and Norway in 2002.[59]

Sweden

Although some ancient form of an Order of Odd Fellows may have existed in the country, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows was first established in Malmo, Sweden, in 1884, and a Grand Lodge of the Kingdom of Sweden was instituted in 1895. In 2012, Sweden held the strongest membership in IOOF with more than 174 Odd Fellow Lodges, 113 Rebekah Lodges, and over 40,000 members.[60]

Switzerland

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was first established in Switzerland on June 19, 1871, when Helvetia Lodge no.1 was instituted in Zurich by Dr. Morse of California and Mr. Schaettle and Bernheim, members of the fraternity in Germany. The I.O.O.F Grand Lodge of Switzerland was established on April 22, 1874.[40]

United Kingdom

There were many Oddfellows organizations in the United Kingdom starting in the 1700s and 1800s. The Independent Order of Oddfellows (Manchester Unity), commonly called Manchester Unity, was founded in 1810 when it separated from the Grand United Order of Oddfellows. Manchester Unity chartered the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in North America in 1820 and is the sister organization of the IOOF. In January 2012, it had about 200,000 members in the UK.[61]

Uruguay

The first Lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Uruguay on February 9, 1966, known as Artigas Lodge no.1. The Rebekahs was also established on November 19, 1966, known as Amanecer Rebekah Lodge no.1. Additional lodges, Uruguay Lodge no.2, Horizontes Rebekah Lodge no.2 and El Ceibo Lodge have been instituted and 5 lodges meet in the same hall in Montevideo.[39]

Venezuela

The first lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded in the City of Caracas, Venezuela, on August 2, 1986, known as Pakritti Lodge no.1.[62]

20th century[edit]

The Great Depression and the introduction of Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s New Deal brought a decline in membership. During the depression, people could not afford Odd Fellows membership fees, and when the New Deal’s social reforms started to take effect, the need for the social work of the Odd Fellows declined.[35]

In 1971 the IOOF changed its constitution, removing its whites only clause. In 1979 the Order had 243,000 members.[63]

Some branches of the order (i.e., some countries) have allowed women to join the Odd Fellows itself, leading to the Rebekahs’ decline in importance. Also, the higher branches and their degrees are, in some countries, becoming regarded as less important or too time-consuming, and (in those countries) are gradually being abandoned.

21st century[edit]

Although there was a decline in membership in fraternal organizations in general during the 20th century, membership in the 21st century has started to increase. The IOOF continues in the 21st century with lodges around the world, and is claimed to be the “largest united international fraternal order in the world under one head”,[64] with every lodge working with the Sovereign Grand Lodge located in the United States. Also, the British “Independent Order of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity”, and the IOOF have recognized each other inter-fraternally; members of the Manchester Unity and the IOOF can visit each other’s lodges, and are welcome as brothers and sisters.[65] Currently, there are about 12,000 lodges with nearly 600,000 members.[66]

Units of the Order in the U.S.A. include:[67]

  • Odd Fellows Lodge
  • Rebekahs Lodge
  • Encampment
  • Ladies Encampment Auxiliary (LEA)
  • Patriarchs Militant
  • Ladies Auxiliary Patriarchs Militant (LAPM)
  • Junior Odd Fellows Lodge
  • Theta Rho Girls Club
  • United Youth Groups
  • Zeta Lambda Tau

Summary of Grand Lodges by region[edit]

There are IOOF lodges in at least 29 countries:[67][68][69][70][71][72] Each Grand Lodge has a number of subordinate lodges that report to them.

Region Total
Grand
Lodges
Ref Regions / Jurisdictions / Countries    (Date established) Ref
Africa 0 [69]
[70]
[71]
Liberia (1874)*,[73] Nigeria (2008)*,[74] [69]
[70]
[71]
Asia 0 Philippines (1872)*[69][73][75]
Australasia 6 Australasia, New South Wales (1836), New Zealand (1843), South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia
Canada 8 Canada (1843), Alberta, Atlantic Provinces, British Columbia (1864), Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec (1878), Saskatchewan
Europe 13 Europe (2006), Austria, Czech Republic (1877)*,[67][73] Denmark (1878), Estonia (1993)*,[67][73] Finland (1925), France (1884)*,[67][73] Germany (1870), Iceland (1897), Netherlands & Belgium (1911), Norway (1898), Poland (1938)*,[67][73] Spain*,[67][73] Sweden (1895), Switzerland (1871)
Central America 2 Belize*,[67][73] Dominican Republic*,[67][73] Cuba (1883), America Latina (Cuba), Mexico (1882), Puerto Rico (1999)*,[73][76]
South America 1 Chile (1874),[77] Uruguay*,[67][73] Venezuela,[67][73]
United Kingdom 0 (The IOOF in United Kingdom is under the mother chapter, Manchester Unity.)[72]
United States of America 51 Sovereign Grand Lodge (1819), Alabama, Arizona (1884), Arkansas, California (1847), Colorado (1860), Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii (1846), Idaho, Illinois (1838), Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri (1834), Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York (1806), North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma (1875), Oregon, Pennsylvania (1821), Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington (1878), West Virginia, Wisconsin (1835), Wyoming
Totals 81

Symbols, lodges, officers, positions and degrees[edit]

In order to fully understand the purposes and principles of Odd Fellowship, instruction in ceremonial form is divided into degrees. These degrees are dramatic in form and aim to emulate and impart the principles of the fraternity: Friendship, Love, Truth, Faith, Hope, Charity and Universal Justice. Each degree consists of symbols that aim to teach a practical moral code and encourages members to live and act upon them to act positive change upon the world.[78] In the past, when most Odd Fellows lodges offered financial benefits for the sick and distressed members, such symbols, passwords and hand signs were used as proof of membership and to protect the lodge funds from impostors. These symbols, signs and passwords have been carried forward to modern times as a tradition.[79] The most widely encountered symbol of the IOOF – on signs, buildings and gravemarkers – is the three-link chain (“the Chain With Three Links”, the “Triple Links”) with three initials, ‘F’, ‘L’ and ‘T’, one each inside each link, signifying Friendship, Love and Truth.

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the US has three levels of “Lodge”: the Lodge,[80] the Encampment, and the Patriarchs Militant. In addition, there is a private club named The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS). In Australia, this system has been implemented in a slightly different, but largely similar manner.[81]

Lodge[edit]

The Lodge is assigned to new initiates.[82] The initials of the subordinate lodge are “FLT” which stands for Friendship, Love and Truth as the basic guides to live by as an Odd Fellow. Once a member has made their way through all the degrees and has had the 3rd degree (truth) bestowed upon them, they are entitled to hold an officer position in their lodge, and are also eligible to go on further in Odd Fellowship through the higher degree branches such as the Encampment and the Patriarchs Militant (aka the Canton).

Lodge Officer Positions[83]
Office Elected/
Appointed
Duty
Noble Grand Elected Sits as Chair for Meetings, Official Representative of lodge to outside persons and organizations and see that the lodge program is planned in advance
Vice Grand Elected Exercise power to assist Noble Grand in Presiding Meetings. Assume the duties and responsibilities of the NG in times of absence or if necessary
Past Grand Elected Assist Noble Grand and lodge officers in every way possible. May act as NG or VG when legally called thereto
Secretary Elected Records minutes at meetings, files necessary paper work, sends and receives communications.
Financial Secretary Elected Notify and collect to members their dues and financial obligations
Treasurer Elected Keeps an accurate file of all finances and receipts of the lodge and writes all checks ordered
Warden Appointed Responsible for the general welfare of the applicant, examines all present before the lodge is opened, give charge of office during initiations, in-charge of regalia and lodge room property and will place regalia in the lodge room before and removing it on closing
Conductor Appointed Receives the candidates when they enter the lodge room, perform all duties assigned in conferring the degrees and assist the Warden while in the lodge
Chaplain Appointed Leads the opening the closing ceremonies and performs all functions assigned during conferral of degrees
Right Supporter of Noble Grand Appointed Supports the NG in keeping order, execute commands, open and close the lodge in due form, see that signs are given correctly and occupy chair of NG when vacated temporarily during lodge hours.
Left Supporter of Noble Grand Appointed See that members who enter the room are in proper regalia and give the signs correctly and to officiate for the Right Supporter when absent
Right Supporter of Vice Grand Appointed Observe that members give the signs correctly, report to the Noble Grand members that do not conduct themselves according to the regulations of the Order.
Left Supporter of Vice Grand Appointed Assist the Right Supporter and officiate for that officer when absent
Color Bearer Appointed Oversees flags and proper presentation of such
Right Scene supporter Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
Left Scene Supporter Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
Inner Guardian Appointed Guards the inner door
Outer Guardian Appointed Guards the outer door
Musician (Optional) Appointed Play all required music and accompaniment during meetings and ceremonies.
Subordinate Lodge Degrees

0 Initiatory
1 Friendship
2 Brotherly/Sisterly Love
3 Truth

Encampment[edit]

The Encampment is a higher branch in the IOOF and is open to third degree members in good standing. This branch is based on the principles of Faith, Hope and Charity. One must go through the Encampment first before seeking entrance into the highest branch, the Patriarchs Militant.[84] Once one has accomplished the Royal Purple degree of the Encampment, one is eligible to hold an officer position in the Encampment and is also eligible for the Patriarchs Militant.

The initials of the Encampment are FHC which stands for Faith, Hope and Charity. The Encampment’s seal is a purple tent with golden trim, the triple links above the tent door and crossed shepherds crooks. These symbols can be seen on the purple fez that American members of this branch wear. One must retain their membership and remain in good standing within their own subordinate lodge while in the Encampment.

Encampment Officers[83]
Office Elected/
Appointed
Duty
Chief Patriarch (male)/Chief Matriarch (female) Elected Sits as Chair for Meetings, Official Representative of Encampment to outside persons and organizations and see that the program is planned in advance
Senior Warden Elected Exercise power to assist Chief Patriarch and High Priest in Presiding Meetings. Assume the duties and responsibilities of the CP in times of absence or if necessary
Junior Warden Elected Examine members prior to opening and assist Chief Patriarch and High Priest
High Priest Elected Provide counsel to members
Scribe Elected Records minutes at meetings, files necessary paper work, sends and receives communications.
Financial Scribe Elected Notify and collect to members their dues and financial obligations
Treasurer Elected Keeps an accurate file of all finances and receipts of the lodge and writes all checks ordered
Chaplain Appointed Leads the opening the closing ceremonies and performs all functions assigned during conferral of degrees
Color Bearer Appointed Oversees flags and proper presentation of such
Guide Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
Instructor Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
First, Second, Third, Fourth Guardian of the Tent All Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
First, Second, Third, Fourth Watch All Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
Inside Sentinel Appointed Guards the inner door
Outside Sentinel Appointed Guards the outer door
Musician (Optional) Appointed Play all required music and accompaniment during meetings and ceremonies.
Encampment Degrees

1 Patriarch
2 Golden Rule
3 Royal Purple

Again, in legal terminology, American Encampments are also considered U.S. I.R.S. 501(c)(8) Mutual Benefit Corporations.

Patriarchs Militant[edit]

Founded during the American Civil war, the Patriarchs Militant (PM) is Odd Fellowship’s uniformed branch,[85] and is the branch which offers the highest degree of the IOOF. It is purely semi-military in its character, organized for chivalric display and is admirably fulfilling its mission through the annual ‘Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers’ ceremony held in Washington, DC, Canada and other public ceremonies conducted in several countries such as Cuba.[86]

There is only one degree, the Chevalier degree. Upon completion of this degree, one is entitled to hold office in the Canton. Sometimes the Patriarchs Militant is referred to as “the Canton”, due to the Canton being the name used in lieu of “Lodge”. The seal of the PM is a gold and jeweled crown, within which is a shepherds crook crossed with a sword and the triple links of Odd Fellowship connecting the two at the bottom. One must retain their membership and remain in good standing within both the subordinate lodge and Encampment while a member of the PM.

Canton Officers
Office Elected/
Appointed
Duty
Commandant Elected Sits as Chair for Meetings, Official Representative of Canton to outside persons and organizations and see that the program is planned in advance
Lieutenant Elected
Ensign Elected Examine members prior to opening and assist Commandant and Lieutenant
Clerk/Accountant Elected Records minutes at meetings, files necessary paper work, sends and receives communications.
Chaplain Appointed Leads opening and closing prayer
Color Bearer Appointed Oversees flags and proper presentation of such
Guard Appointed
Sentinel Appointed
Picket Appointed
Musician (Optional) Appointed Play all required music and accompaniment during meetings and ceremonies.
Patriarch Militant Degree

1 Chevalier

American Cantons are also considered US IRS 501(c) (8) Mutual Benefit Corporations.

The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS)[edit]

AMOS[87] was preceded by a number of independent clubs, such as the OOH&P (Oriental Order of Humility and Perfection) and the Imperial Order of Muscovites. These were disbanded in the first two decades of the 20th Century, and melded together to form the AMOS. The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans is not an officially recognized body within Odd Fellowship; it is a private club to which only those who are Odd Fellows may belong. A brother who holds the third degree and is in good standing within his subordinate lodge (i.e. he has not been expelled or in arrears of dues, etc.) is eligible to make an application to join.

The brothers who belong to the AMOS, much like the Shriners, wear a red fez, but the tassel which hangs from the fez is of different colors depending on the degree attained or the office held. The seal of the AMOS is an owl sitting upon a pyramid. Above the owl are the words “WE NEVER SLEEP”; at the base of the pyramid is the word Xerxes, and below the pyramid is the Arabian sword called a scimitar. The word Xerxes alludes to the password of the first degree of the AMOS.

The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS) Degrees
  1. Humility (or Samaritan) [Red fez with a yellow tassel]
  2. Perfection (or Sheik) [Red fez with a red tassel]

Junior Lodge[edit]

The Junior Lodge was created in 1921. Its original name was apparently the Loyal Sons of the Junior Order of Odd fellows. It was created for young males who were interested in joined the Oddfellows upon reaching adulthood. The ritual and ceremonies were supervised by a member of the senior order. There were 4,873 members in 1970.[88]

Grand United Order of Odd Fellows in America[edit]

The Grand United Order of Odd Fellows[31] is a fraternal organization founded in 1843 for black members.[89] The GUOOF was founded by Peter Ogden, an African American sailor, who obtained its charter directly from the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows in Great Britain.[90] Although still in existence, membership in the US has declined, due to the mainstream IOOF no longer being segregated and the decline in fraternal membership in general.

Notable members of the IOOF[edit]

“Odd Fellowship, unlike many other organizations, makes no special effort to attract ‘name’ members. Ours is a warm, personal type of affiliation that doesn’t rely on ‘rubbing elbows’ with the famous to give us satisfaction.”[64] Below are some of the notable men and women who were members of the fraternity:

Wyatt Earp‘s IOOF membership card, 1909

Architectural impact[edit]

Although in Britain the Odd Fellows tended to meet in pubs, in the US the lodges often built their own facilities. Many of these are now on the US National Register of Historic Places:

See also

Fraternal / sorority Orders around the world

Social or general fraternities and sororities, in the North American fraternity system, are those that do not promote a particular profession (as professional fraternities are) or discipline (such as service fraternities and sororities). Instead, their primary purposes are often stated as the development of character, literary or leadership ability, or a more simple social purpose. Some organizations in this list have a specific major listed as a traditional emphasis. These organizations are social organizations which cater to students in those majors. Other organizations listed have a traditional emphasis in a specific religion or ethnic background. Despite this emphasis, most organizations have non-discrimination membership policies.

Fraternity is usually understood to mean a social organization composed only of men, and sorority one of women, although many women’s organizations also refer to themselves as fraternities. For the purposes of this article, national also includes international organizations, and local refers to organizations that are composed of only one chapter. This list is not exhaustive and does not include local organizations that do not have Wikipedia articles.

International

Australia

Fraternities or lodges were an important part of Australian society in the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. They were gradually replaced by “service clubs“, such asLions, Apex, Rotary, etc. By the end of the 20th century, all the fraternities had been wound up[clarification needed] except for the Freemasons and a few lodges of the Buffaloes. The reasons for their decline probably have something to do with generational change and bemusement at the secretive rites that all fraternities had, as the service clubs that succeeded them did fairly similar charitable work.

No general history has been written, but some of the many lodges that operated in the state of Victoria were:

  • Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes,
  • Druids,
  • Foresters,
  • Freemasons,
  • Odd Fellows ,

Of course in those sectarian times there had to be two different lodges for those of Irish descent:

Canada

Europe

South Africa

United States

Organization Symbol Founded Affiliation Traditional Emphasis
Acacia (Chapters) AKAKIA 1904 NIC Masonic (Masonic membership no longer required)[1]
Adelphikos Αδελφικοσ 1913 Local, Grove City College Christian
Alpha Beta Chi ΑΒΧ 1941 CIPFI Puerto Rican
Alpha Chi Alpha ΑΧΑ 1919 Local, Dartmouth College Traditional
Alpha Chi Rho (Chapters) ΑΧΡ 1895 NIC Traditional
Alpha Delta ΑΔ 1847 Local, Dartmouth College Traditional
Alpha Delta Gamma (Chapters) ΑΔΓ 1924 NIC Jesuit
Alpha Delta Phi (Chapters) ΑΔΦ 1832 NIC Originally a secret literary society, now traditional
Alpha Epsilon Pi (Chapters) ΑΕΠ 1913 NIC Jewish
Alpha Gamma Omega ΑΓΩ 1927 Unaffiliated Christian
Alpha Gamma Rho (Chapters) ΑΓΡ 1904 NIC Agricultural
Alpha Iota Omicron ΑΙΟ 1998 Unaffiliated South Asian[2]
Alpha Kappa Lambda (Chapters) ΑΚΛ 1914 NIC Traditional
Alpha Phi Alpha ΑΦΑ 1906 NIC, NPHC African-American
Alpha Phi Delta ΑΦΔ 1914 NIC Italian-American
Alpha Sigma Phi (Chapters) ΑΣΦ 1845 NIC Originally secret sophomore society, now traditional
Alpha Tau Omega (Chapters) ΑΤΩ 1865 NIC Founded on Christian principles, now traditional
Beta Chi Theta (Chapters) ΒΧΘ 1999 NIC, NAPA South Asian
Beta Epsilon Gamma Gamma Alpha Rho Sigma ΒΕΓΓΑΡΣ 1923 Local, Loyola University New Orleans Jesuit
Beta Kappa Gamma ΒΚΓ 1999 Unaffiliated Asian[3]
Beta Sigma Psi (Chapters) ΒΣΨ 1925 NIC Lutheran[4]
Beta Theta Pi (Chapters) ΒΘΠ 1839 NIC Traditional[5]
Beta Upsilon Chi ΒΥΧ 1985 Unaffiliated Christian
Bones Gate BG 1901 Local, Dartmouth College Traditional
Chi Gamma Epsilon ΧΓΕ 1905 (1987) Local, Dartmouth College Traditional
Chi Heorot ΧH 1897 Local, Dartmouth College Traditional
Chi Phi (Chapters) ΧΦ 1824 NIC Traditional
Chi Psi (Chapters) ΧΨ 1841 NIC Traditional
Delphic of Gamma Sigma Tau ΓΣΤ 1871 NMGC Multicultural
Delta Chi (Chapters) ΔΧ 1890 NIC Originally a law fraternity, now traditional
Delta Epsilon Psi ΔΕΨ 1998 NIC South Asian
Delta Gamma Iota ΔΓΙ 1965 Unaffiliated national Traditional[6]
Delta Kappa Epsilon (Chapters) ΔΚΕ 1844 NIC Originally secret society, traditional
Delta Lambda Phi ΔΛΦ 1986 NIC Gay, bisexual, progressive
Delta Rho Upsilon ΔΡΥ 1929 Local/Traditional
Delta Omega Epsilon ΔΩΕ 1985 Unaffiliated national Traditional[7]
Delta Phi (Chapters) ΔΦ 1827 NIC Originally secret society, traditional
Delta Sigma Phi (Chapters) ΔΣΦ 1899 NIC Traditional/Social
Delta Tau Delta (Chapters) ΔΤΔ 1858 NIC Originally literary society, traditional
Delta Theta Sigma ΔΘΣ 1906 Unaffiliated National Agricultural[8]
Delta Upsilon (Chapters) ΔΥ 1834 NIC Traditional
Epsilon Sigma Rho ΕΣΡ 1986 Unaffiliated national Multicultural[9]
FarmHouse (Chapters) FH 1905 NIC Agricultural
Gamma Omega Delta ΓΩΔ 1989 Unaffiliated national Multicultural[10]
Gamma Zeta Alpha (Chapters) ΓΖΑ 1987 NALFO Latino[11]
Iota Nu Delta ΙΝΔ 1994 NIC South Asian
Iota Phi Theta ΙΦΘ 1963 NIC, NPHC African-American
Kappa Alpha Order (Chapters) ΚΑ 1865 NIC Traditional/Social
Kappa Alpha Society (Chapters) ΚΑ 1825 NIC Originally literary society, traditional/social
Kappa Alpha Psi (Chapters) ΚΑΨ 1911 NIC, NPHC African-American
Kappa Delta Phi (Chapters) ΚΔΦ 1900 NIC Traditional
Kappa Delta Rho (Chapters) ΚΔΡ 1905 NIC Traditional
Kappa Kappa Kappa ΚΚΚ 1842 Local, Dartmouth College Traditional
Kappa Sigma (Chapters) ΚΣ 1869 Unaffiliated national Traditional[12]
Kappa Upsilon Chi ΚΥΧ 1993 Unaffiliated Christian[13]
Lambda Alpha Upsilon (Chapters) ΛΑΥ 1985 NALFO Latino
Lambda Chi Alpha (Chapters) ΛΧΑ 1909 NIC Traditional
Lambda Iota Society ΛΙ 1836 Local, University of Vermont Originally secret literary society, Traditional
Lambda Phi Epsilon (Chapters) ΛΦΕ 1981 NIC, NAPA Asian
Lambda Sigma Upsilon (Chapters) ΛΣΥ 1979 NALFO, NIC Latino
Lambda Theta Phi (Chapters) ΛΘΦ 1975 NALFO, NIC Latino
Lambda Upsilon Lambda (Chapters) ΛΥΛ 1982 NALFO Latino
Men of God 1999 UCCFS Christian[14]
Nu Alpha Kappa (Chapters) ΝΑΚ 1988 NIC Latino
Nu Sigma Beta ΝΣΒ 1937 CIPFI Puerto Rican
Omega Delta Phi (Chapters) ΩΔΦ 1987 NIC Latino
Omega Psi Phi (Chapters) ΩΨΦ 1911 NPHC African-American
Phi Beta Sigma (Chapters) ΦΒΣ 1914 NIC, NPHC African-American
Phi Delta Alpha ΦΔΑ 1884 Local, Dartmouth College Traditional
Phi Delta Gamma ΦΔΓ 1942 CIPFI Puerto Rican
Phi Delta Psi ΦΔΨ 1977 Unaffiliated national African-American[15]
Phi Delta Theta (Chapters) ΦΔΘ 1848 NIC Originally nonsectarian, Traditional
Phi Epsilon Chi ΦEX 1943 CIPFI Puerto Rican
Phi Eta Kappa ΦΗΚ 1906 Local, University of Maine Traditional
Phi Eta Mu ΦΗΜ 1923 CIPFI Puerto Rican
Phi Gamma Delta (Chapters) FIJI 1848 NIC Traditional
Phi Iota Alpha (Chapters) ΦΙΑ 1931 NIC Latino
Phi Kappa Pi ΦΚΠ 1913 Unaffiliated, Canadian national Traditional[16]
Phi Kappa Psi (Chapters) ΦΚΨ 1852 NIC Originally service, traditional
Phi Kappa Sigma (Chapters) ΦΚΣ 1850 NIC Originally secret order, traditional
Phi Kappa Tau (Chapters) ΦΚΤ 1906 NIC Traditional
Phi Kappa Theta (Chapters) ΦΚΘ 1889 NIC Catholic
Phi Lambda Chi (Chapters) ΦΛΧ 1925 NIC Traditional
Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia ΦΜΑ 1898 NIMC Music
Phi Mu Delta (Chapters) ΦΜΔ 1918 NIC Originally Commons Club, traditional
Phi Rho Eta ΦΡΗ 1994 Unaffiliated national African-American[17]
Phi Sigma Alpha (Chapters) ΦΣΑ 1928 CIPFI Puerto Rican/Hispanic
Phi Sigma Chi ΦΣΧ 1996 NMGC Multicultural[18]
Phi Sigma Gamma ΦΣΓ 1915-1916 Unaffiliated national Osteopathic Medicine
Phi Sigma Kappa (Chapters) ΦΣΚ 1873 NIC Traditional
Phi Sigma Nu ΦΣΝ 1996 Unaffiliated national Native American
Phi Sigma Phi ΦΣΦ 1988 NIC Traditional[19]
Pi Alpha Phi (Chapters) ΠΑΦ 1929 NAPA Asian
Pi Delta Psi (Chapters) ΠΔΨ 1994 NAPA Asian
Pi Kappa Alpha ΠΚΑ 1868 NIC Traditional
Pi Kappa Phi (Chapters) ΠΚΦ 1904 NIC Traditional
Pi Lambda Phi (Chapters) ΠΛΦ 1895 NIC Traditional
Psi Sigma Phi (Chapters) ΨΣΦ 1990 NMGC Multicultural
Psi Upsilon (Chapters) ΨΥ 1833 NIC Traditional
Seal and Serpent 1905 Local, Cornell University Traditional
Sigma Alpha Epsilon (Chapters) ΣΑΕ 1856 NIC Traditional
Sigma Alpha Mu (Chapters) ΣΑΜ 1909 NIC Jewish
Sigma Beta Rho ΣΒΡ 1996 NIC, NAPA South Asian/Multicultural
Sigma Chi (Chapters) ΣΧ 1855 NIC Originally literary society, traditional
Sigma Delta Alpha ΣΔΑ 1992 Unaffiliated National Latino
Sigma Lambda Beta (Chapters) ΣΛΒ 1986 NIC Latino
Sigma Nu (Chapters) ΣΝ 1869 NIC Originally anti-hazing, traditional
Sigma Phi Delta (Chapters) ΣΦΔ 1924 NIC Engineering
Sigma Phi Epsilon (Chapters) ΣΦΕ 1901 NIC Traditional
Sigma Phi Society ΣΦ 1827 NIC Originally secret society, traditional
Sigma Pi (Chapters) ΣΠ 1897 NIC Originally literary society, traditional
Sigma Tau Gamma (Chapters) ΣΤΓ 1920 NIC Originally literary society, traditional
Sigma Thêta Pi ΣΘΠ 2003 Unaffiliated national Francophone Greek
Tau Delta Phi ΤΔΦ 1910 NIC Jewish Social
Tau Epsilon Phi (Chapters) ΤΕΦ 1910 NIC Jewish Social
Tau Kappa Epsilon (Chapters) ΤΚΕ 1899 NIC Traditional
Theta Chi (Chapters) ΘΧ 1856 NIC Traditional/Social
Theta Delta Chi (Chapters) ΘΔΧ 1847 NIC Originally secret society, traditional/Social
Theta Gamma ΘΓ 1912 Unaffiliated national Traditional
Theta Xi (Chapters) ΘΞ 1864 NIC Engineering, social
Triangle Fraternity (Chapters) TriangleDeltaT.png 1907 NIC Engineering, architecture, and Science
Trojan Knights 1921 Local, University of Southern California Traditional
Zeta Beta Tau (Chapters) ΖΒΤ 1898 NIC Originally Jewish, traditional (no religious affiliation)
Zeta Phi Rho ΖΦΡ 1995 Unaffiliated national Multicultural
Zeta Psi (Chapters) ΖΨ 1847 NIC Traditional/social

Sororities and women’s fraternities[edit]

Organization Symbol Founded Affiliation Traditional emphasis
Alpha Chi Omega ΑΧΩ 1885 NPC Originally music, now Traditional
Alpha Delta Chi ΑΔΧ 1925 Unaffiliated Christian
Alpha Delta Pi ΑΔΠ 1851 NPC Originally secret society, traditional
Alpha Epsilon Phi ΑΕΦ 1909 NPC Originally Jewish, traditional
Alpha Gamma Delta (Chapters) ΑΓΔ 1904 NPC Traditional
Alpha Kappa Alpha ΑΚΑ 1908 NPHC African-American
alpha Kappa Delta Phi aΚΔΦ 1990 NAPA Asian
Alpha Nu Omega ΑΝΩ 1988 UCCFS Christian
Alpha Omicron Pi ΑΟΠ 1897 NPC Traditional
Alpha Phi ΑΦ 1872 NPC Traditional
Alpha Phi Gamma ΑΦΓ 1994 NAPA Asian
Alpha Pi Omega ΑΠΩ 1994 Unaffiliated Native American
Alpha Pi Sigma ΑΠΣ 1990 NALFO Latina[20]
Alpha Sigma Alpha (Chapters) ΑΣΑ 1901 NPC Traditional
Alpha Sigma Kappa ΑΣΚ 1989 Unaffiliated Math, architecture, engineering, and science
Alpha Sigma Omega ΑΣΩ 1997 Unaffiliated Latina and Caribbean[21]
Alpha Sigma Rho ΑΣΡ 1998 NAPA Asian[22]
Alpha Sigma Tau ΑΣΤ 1899 NPC Traditional
Alpha Xi Delta ΑΞΔ 1893 NPC Traditional
Ceres 1984 Unaffiliated Agricultural[23]
Chi Omega (Chapters) ΧΩ 1895 NPC Traditional
Chi Upsilon Sigma ΧΥΣ 1980 NALFO Latina
Delta Chi Lambda ΔΧΛ 2000 Unaffiliated National Asian[24]
Delta Delta Delta ΔΔΔ 1888 NPC Traditional
Delta Gamma ΔΓ 1873 NPC Traditional
Delta Gamma Pi ΔΓΠ 1998 Unaffiliated Multicultural[citation needed]
Delta Kappa Delta ΔΚΔ 1999 NAPA South Asian
Delta Lambda Chi ΔΛΧ 2002 Unaffiliated Asian
Delta Phi Epsilon ΔΦΕ 1917 NPC Non-sectarian
Delta Phi Lambda ΔΦΛ 1998 NAPA Asian
Delta Phi Mu ΔΦΜ 1991 Unaffiliated national Multicultural
Delta Phi Omega ΔΦΩ 1998 Unaffiliated national South Asian
Delta Psi Epsilon ΔΨΕ 1999 UCCFS Christian
Delta Sigma Chi ΔΣΧ 1996 Unaffiliated national Multicultural[25]
Delta Sigma Theta ΔΣΘ 1913 NPHC African-American
Delta Tau Lambda ΔΤΛ 1994 Unaffiliated national Latina
Delta Xi Nu ΔΞΝ 1997 Unaffiliated national Multicultural
Delta Xi Phi ΔΞΦ 1994 NMGC Multicultural
Delta Zeta ΔΖ 1902 NPC Traditional
Eta Gamma Delta ΗΓΔ 1928 CIPFI Puerto Rican
Gamma Alpha Omega ΓΑΩ 1993 NALFO Latina
Gamma Eta ΓΗ 1995 NMGC Multicultural
Gamma Phi Beta ΓΦΒ 1874 NPC Traditional
Gamma Phi Omega ΓΦΩ 1991 Unaffiliated national Latina[26]
Gamma Rho Lambda ΓΡΛ 2003 Unaffiliated national LGBTQ[27]
Kappa Alpha Theta ΚΑΘ 1870 NPC Traditional
Kappa Beta Gamma ΚΒΓ 1917 Unaffiliated national Traditional
Kappa Delta ΚΔ 1897 NPC Traditional
Kappa Delta Chi ΚΔΧ 1987 NALFO Latina
Kappa Delta Phi National Affiliated Sorority ΚΔΦ 1977 Unaffiliated Traditional
Kappa Kappa Gamma ΚΚΓ 1870 NPC Traditional
Kappa Phi Gamma ΚΦΓ 1998 Unaffiliated national South Asian
Kappa Phi Lambda ΚΦΛ 1995 NAPA Asian
Kappa Phi Chi KΦX 1991 Local, Brooklyn College Traditional
Lambda Pi Chi ΛΠΧ 1988 NALFO Latina
Lambda Pi Upsilon ΛΠΥ 1992 NALFO Latina
Lambda Psi Delta ΛΨΔ 1997 NMGC Multicultural
Lambda Sigma Gamma ΛΣΓ 1986 NMGC Multicultural
Lambda Tau Omega ΛΤΩ 1988 NMGC Multicultural
Lambda Theta Alpha ΛΘΑ 1975 NALFO Latina
Lambda Theta Nu ΛΘΝ 1986 NALFO Latina
Mu Alpha Phi ΜΑΦ 1927 CIPFI Puerto Rican
Mu Epsilon Theta ΜΕΘ 1987 Unaffiliated, national Catholic[28]
Mu Sigma Upsilon ΜΣΥ 1981 NMGC Multicultural
National Society of Pershing Angels 1962 Unaffiliated Military drill[29]
Omega Phi Beta ΏΦΒ 1989 NALFO Latina
Omega Phi Chi ΏΦΧ 1988 NMGC Multicultural
Phi Beta Chi ΦΒΧ 1978 Unaffiliated national Lutheran
Phi Mu (Chapters) ΦΜ 1852 NPC Traditional
Phi Sigma Rho ΦΣΡ 1984 Unaffiliated national Engineering
Phi Sigma Sigma (Chapters) ΦΣΣ 1913 NPC Non-sectarian
Pi Beta Phi (Chapters) ΠΒΦ 1867 NPC Originally secret, Traditional
Pi Lambda Chi ΠΛΧ 1994 Unaffiliated national Latina[30]
Sigma Alpha Epsilon Pi ΣΑΕΠ 1998 Unaffiliated national Jewish
Sigma Delta Tau ΣΔΤ 1917 NPC Non-sectarian
Sigma Gamma Rho ΣΓΡ 1922 NPHC African-American
Sigma Iota Alpha ΣΙΑ 1990 NALFO Latina
Sigma Kappa ΣΚ 1874 NPC Traditional
Sigma Lambda Alpha ΣΛΑ 1990 NALFO Latina
Sigma Lambda Gamma (Chapters) ΣΛΓ 1990 Unaffiliated national Latina
Sigma Lambda Upsilon ΣΛΥ 1987 NALFO Latina
Sigma Omega Nu ΣΩΝ 1996 Unaffiliated national Latina[31]
Sigma Omega Phi ΣΩΦ 2008 Unaffiliated national “Aggressive” lesbian[32]
Sigma Omicron Pi ΣΟΠ 1930 NAPA Asian
Sigma Phi Omega ΣΦΩ 1949 Unaffiliated national Asian
Sigma Pi Alpha ΣΠΑ 2004 Unaffiliated Chicana/Latina[33]
Sigma Psi Zeta ΣΨΖ 1994 NAPA Asian
Sigma Sigma Rho ΣΣΡ 1998 NAPA South Asian
Sigma Sigma Sigma ΣΣΣ 1898 NPC Traditional
Theta Nu Xi ΘΝΞ 1997 NMGC Multicultural
Theta Phi Alpha ΘΦΑ 1912 NPC Originally catholic, traditional
Zeta Chi Phi ΖΧΦ 2003 Unaffiliated national Multicultural
Zeta Phi Beta ΖΦΒ 1920 NPHC African-American
Zeta Sigma Chi ΖΣΧ 1991 Unofficial national Multicultural
Zeta Tau Alpha ΖΤΑ 1898 NPC Traditional

Coeducational fraternities[edit]

Coeducational fraternities permit both male and female members. Occasionally coed groups use the term frarority.

Organization Symbol Founded Affiliation Traditional emphasis
Alpha Nu Omega (Chapters) ΑΝΩ 1988 UCCFS Christian coed fraternity
Zeta Phi Zeta ΖΦΖ 2001 UCCFS Christian[34]
Alpha Delta Phi Society ΑΔΦ 1832 Unaffiliated, national Literary and traditional
Alpha Psi Lambda ΑΨΛ 1985 NALFO Latino
St. Anthony Hall (Delta Psi) ΔΨ 1847 Unaffiliated, national Literary and social
Delta Psi Alpha ΔΨΑ 1998 Unaffiliated, national Multicultural
Lambda Lambda Lambda ΛΛΛ 2006 Unaffiliated, national Traditional
Theta Delta Sigma ΘΔΣ 2001 Unaffiliated, national Multicultural
Alpha Theta ΑΘ 1920 Local, Dartmouth College Traditional
Delta Lambda Psi ΔΛΨ 2005 Local, University of California at Santa Cruz LBGTQ
Zeta Delta Xi ΖΔΞ 1852 Local, Brown University Traditional
Kappa Gamma Psi ΚΓΨ 1913 Local, Ithaca College Performing arts
Nu Alpha Phi ΝΑΦ 1994 Local, SUNY Albany Asian
Phi Tau ΦΤ 1905 Local, Dartmouth College Traditional
Psi Upsilon ΨΥ 1833 Local, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Traditional

Defunct national organizations[edit]

Organization Symbol Operated/Merged
Alpha Delta Theta ΑΔΘ 1919 – 1939, Phi Mu
Beta Phi Alpha ΒΦΑ 1919 – 1941, Delta Zeta
Delta Sigma Epsilon ΔΣΕ 1914 – 1956, Delta Zeta
Iota Alpha Pi ΙΑΠ 1903 – 1971
Kappa Phi Lambda ΚΦΛ 1862 – 1874
Lambda Omega ΛΩ 1915 – 1933, Delta Zeta
Pi Delta Kappa ΠΔΚ 1907 – 1913, Chi Omega
Pi Kappa Sigma ΠΚΣ 1894 – 1959 Sigma Kappa
Pi Lambda Sigma ΠΛΣ 1903 – 1959 Beta Phi Mu
Sigma Iota ΣΙ 1904 – 1931 Phi Iota Alpha
Phi Omega Pi ΦΩΠ 1922 – 1946 Delta Zeta
Phi Lambda Alpha ΦΛΑ 1919 – 1931 Phi Iota Alpha
Theta Kappa Nu ΘKN 1924 – 1939 Lambda Chi Alpha
Theta Upsilon ΘΥ 1921 – 1962 Delta Zeta

See also