United Nations General Assembly resolution ES-10/L.22

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UN General Assembly
Resolution ES‑10/L.22
United Nations General Assembly resolution A ES 10 L 22 vote.png

  Voted in favor
  Voted against
  Abstained
  Not present
Date 21 December 2017
Meeting no. 10th Emergency Special Session (continuation)
Code A/RES/ES‑10/L.22 (Document)
Subject Status of Jerusalem
Voting summary
128 voted for
9 voted against
35 abstained
21 absent
Result Recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void”

United Nations General Assembly resolution ES‑10/L.22 is a emergency session resolution declaring the status of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void.”.[1] It was adopted by the 37th Plenary meeting of the tenth emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly[2] during the tenure of the seventy-second session of the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 2017. The draft resolution was drafted by Yemen and Turkey.[3]Though strongly contested by the United States, it passed by 128 votes to nine against with 21 absentees and 35 abstentions.

Background[edit]

On 6 December 2017, US President Donald Trump said that he would recognise the status of Jerusalem as being Israel’s sovereign capital[4] in a departure from previous UNGA resolutions as well prevailing international norms where no state either recognises Jerusalem as a national capital nor has an embassy there. The move prompted protests from states and communities in many parts of the world.[5]

Following the failure of an United Nations Security Council resolution three days earlier, after an U.S. veto, to rescind the recognition by any states of Jerusalem as a national capital, Palestinian UN Ambassador Riyad Mansour said that the General Assembly would vote on a draft resolution calling for Trump’s declaration to be withdrawn. He sought to invoke Resolution 377, known as the “Uniting for Peace” resolution, to circumvent a veto. The resolution states that the General Assembly can call an Emergency Special Session to consider a matter “with a view to making appropriate recommendations to members for collective measures” if the Security Council fails to act.[6]

Campaign[edit]

On 20 December, US President Donald Trump threatened to cut US aid to countries voting against the US’ side.[7] The day before the vote, he said: “Let them vote against us…We don’t care…this isn’t like it used to be where they could vote against you and then you pay them hundreds of millions of dollars. We’re not going to be taken advantage of any longer.”[8]Ambassador Nikki Haley warned her country would remember and “take names” of every country that voted in favour of the resolution.[9][10][11][12] The governments of Turkey and Iran denounced USA’s threats as “anti-democratic” and “blackmail“.[13][14] She had sent to a letter to dozens of member states that warned Trump had asked her to “report back on those countries who voted against us.”[15] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan warned Trump that “he cannot buy Turkey’s democratic will with petty dollars” and “that opposition of other countries will teach the United States a good lesson”.[16][17]

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that Israel rejects this vote before it passes and called the UN “house of lies”.[18]

Canada’s, which was seeking re-negotiations of the NAFTA, Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland‘s spokesman confirmed its intention to abstain from the vote and that the resolution should not have come to the General Assembly.[19]

Content[edit]

The text of the resolution includes the following key statements:[20]

The General Assembly,

  • Bearing in mind the specific status of the Holy City of Jerusalem and, in particular, the need for the protection and preservation of the unique spiritual, religious and cultural dimensions of the City, as foreseen in the relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Stressing that Jerusalem is a final status issue to be resolved through negotiations in line with relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Expressing in this regard its deep regret at recent decisions concerning the status of Jerusalem,
  • Affirms that any decisions and actions which purport to have altered, the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council, and in this regard, calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem, pursuant to resolution 478 (1980) of the Security Council;
  • Demands that all States comply with Security Council resolutions regarding the Holy City of Jerusalem, and not to recognize any actions or measures contrary to those resolutions;
  • Reiterates its call for the reversal of the negative trends on the ground that are imperiling the two-State solution and for the intensification and acceleration of international and regional efforts and support aimed at achieving, without delay, a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East on the basis of the relevant United Nations resolutions, the Madrid terms of reference, including the principle of land for peace, the Arab Peace Initiative and the Quartet Roadmap and an end to the Israeli occupation that began in 1967.

It concluded in reading that “any decisions and actions, which purport to have altered the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council.”[21]

Motion[edit]

The motion was proposed by Yemen and Turkey.[22]

Debate[edit]

In introducing the resolution as Chair of the Arab Group, Yemen’s Amabassador said the US decision was a “blatant violation of the rights of the Palestinian people, as well as those of all Christians and Muslims.” He emphasized that it constituted a “dangerous breach of the Charter of the United Nations and a serious threat to international peace and security, while also undermining the chances for a two‑State solution and fuelling the fires of violence and extremism.”[23]

Turkey, who was the co-sponsor of the draft resolution, also spoke as current Chair of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation(OIC).[23] Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said that Trump’s decision was an outrageous assault to all universal values. “The Palestinians have the right to their own state based on 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital. This is the main parameter and only hope for a just and lasting peace in the region. However, the recent decision of a UN Member State to recognise Jerusalem, or Al-Quds, as the capital of Israel, violates international law, including all relevant UN resolutions.”[22]

The General Assembly heard from Palestinian Foreign Minister Riad Al‑Malki, who said that the meeting was “not because of any animosity to the United States of America” but instead the sessions was “called to make the voice of the vast majority of the international community — and that of people around the world — heard on the question of Jerusalem/Al‑Quds Al‑Sharif.” He called the US decision to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and to move its embassy there “an aggressive and dangerous move” which could inflame tensions and lead to a religious war that “has no boundaries.” He added that though the decision would have no impact on the city’s status, it would nevertheless compromise the role of the United States in the Middle East peace process.[23] He urged member states to reject “blackmail and intimidation.”[5]

US Ambassador Nikki Haley then said that her country was “singled out for attack” because of its recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. She added that: “The United States will remember this day in which it was singled out for attack in the General Assembly for the very act of exercising our right as a sovereign nation,” Haley said. We will remember it when we are called upon to once again make the world’s largest contribution to the United Nations, and so many countries come calling on us, as they so often do, to pay even more and to use our influence for their benefit.”[15] She added that: “America will put our embassy in Jerusalem. That is what the American people want us to do, and it is the right thing to do. No vote in the United Nations will make any difference on that…this vote will make a difference in how Americans view the UN.”[22]

Israel’s Ambassador Danny Danon then told the assembly that the vowed that “no General Assembly resolution will ever drive us from Jerusalem.”[4]

Venezuela’s Ambassador, speaking for the Non‑Aligned Movement (NAM), expressed “grave concern about Israel’s ongoing violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including attempts to alter the character, status and demographic composition of the City of Jerusalem. [It was] slso concerned about the decision to relocate the United States embassy [and] warned that such provocative actions would further heighten tensions, with potentially far‑reaching repercussions given the extremely volatile backdrop.[23]

Other speakers included, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Syria, Bangladesh, Cuba, Iran and China.[23]

Malaysia’s Ambassador Datuk Seri Mohammed Shahrul Ikram Yaakob said that, as a member of the OIC and NAM, “Malaysia joins the international community in expressing our deep concern and rejects the decision by the United States to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. It is also an infringement of the Palestinian people’s rights and their right to self determination.” He called for a peaceful two-state solution and that Malaysia is concerned the situation will only feed into the agenda of extremists.”[2]

Other speakers included, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and South Africa. The Permanent Observer for the Holy See, Tomasz Grysa, emphasised that Jerusalem was most sacred to the Abrahamic faiths and a symbol for millions of believers around the world who considered it their “spiritual capital.” Its significance went “beyond the question of borders, a reality that should be considered a priority in every negotiation for a political solution.” The Holy See, he said, called for a “peaceful resolution that would ensure respect for the sacred nature of Jerusalem and its universal value…reiterating that only international guarantee could preserve its unique character and status and provide assurance of dialogue and reconciliation for peace in the region.”[23]

After the motion was passed, more speeches continued with Estonia, who also spoke on behalf of other states. Australia’s Ambassador then explained her country’s government did “not support unilateral action that undermined the peace process [and] it did not believe today’s text would help to bring the parties back to the negotiating table.”[23]

Other speakers included, Paraguay, whose Ambassador said that the country would abstain because “the question of Jerusalem was a matter for the Security Council, as the primary body responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security.”[23] This was followed by El Salvador, Argentina and Romania.[23]

Canada’s Ambassador Marc-Andre Blanchard called the proposal “one-sided”[23] and said: “We are disappointed that this resolution is one sided and does not advance prospects for peace to which we aspire, which is why we have abstained on today’s vote.” He, however, added that Canada wanted to emphasise Jerusalem’s special significance to the Abrahamic religions of Jews, Muslims and Christians. “Denying the connection between Jerusalem and the Jewish, Muslim and Christian faiths undermines the integrity of the site for all. We also reiterate the need to maintain the status quo at Jerusalem’s Holy sites.[19]

Nicaragua’s explained its support of the resolution, as it “rebuffed recent unilateral attempts to modify the character and status of Jerusalem. Such unilateral actions were in blatant violation of resolution 2234 (2016) and others…unilateral actions jeopardised peace and stability in the Middle East and drew the international community further away from a solution.”[23]

Mexico’s Ambassador then explained the abstention and emphasised that convening an emergency session was a disproportionate response. “The United States must become part of the solution, not a stumbling block that would hamper progress…the international community was further than ever from agreement.”[23]

The Czech Republic then said that while it supported the European Union position, it had abstained because it “did not believe the draft resolution would contribute to the peace process.”[23]

Armenia said that is position “remained unchanged. The situation should be resolved through negotiations paving the way for lasting peace and security.”[23]

Hungary echoed Armenia’s stance and said it would not comment on the foreign relations of the United States.[23]

Latvia then spoke, before Estonia re-took the floor to say it had also spoken on behalf of Albania, Lithuania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.[23]

Result[edit]

Vote[24] Quantity States
Approve 128 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.
Reject 9 Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Togo, United States.
Abstain 35 Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Haiti, Hungary, Jamaica, Kiribati, Latvia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu.
Absent 21 Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor, El Salvador, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mongolia, Myanmar, Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Zambia.

Reactions[edit]

States

Israel – Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu rejected the result shortly after it was announced in call it “preposterous,” while he also thanked the states that supported “the truth” by not participating in “the theatre of the absurd.” He added that: “Jerusalem is our capital. Always was, always will be…But I do appreciate the fact that a growing number of countries refused to participate in this theatre of the absurd. So I appreciate that, and especially I want to again express our thanks to [US] President (Donald) Trump and Ambassador [Nikki] Haley, for their stalwart defence of Israel and their stalwart defence of the truth.” Defence Minister Avigdor Liberman, reminded Israelis of the longstanding Israeli disdain for such votes. “Let us just remember that this is the same UN about which our first ambassador to the organisation, Abba Eban, once said: ‘If Algeria introduced a resolution declaring that the earth was flat and that Israel had flattened it, it would pass by a vote of 164 to 13 with 26 abstentions’. There is nothing new in what just happened at the UN.” He also praised the US as “the moral beacon shining out of the darkness.” Minister of Strategic Affairs and Public Security Gilad Erdan said: “The historic connection between Israel and Jerusalem is stronger than any vote by the ‘United Nations’ — nations who are united only by their fear and their refusal to recognise the simple truth that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and the Jewish people.”

    • However, opposition Joint List Chairman and MK Ayman Odeh called the vote a wake-up call for Israel: “In the international arena, there still exists a large and definitive majority that believes that the Palestinian people, like all other nations, deserve a place in this world and the right to self-determination. This evening’s vote by the majority of the world’s nations against Trump’s announcement, in spite of the pressure and threats, flies in the face of Trump’s and Netanyahu’s diplomatic policy and is a clear statement by the international community in support of peace and the right of the Palestinians to an independent state, whose capital is East Jerusalem,”[8]
Media

Haaretz‘s Noa Landau, wrote, in citing unnamed diplomatic sourced, that Israel was particularly disappointed with countries like India that have enhanced bilateral relations with it recently. “The main disappointment in Israel was with the countries that have enhanced bilateral relations in recent years, especially those that share a particularly conservative worldview with the Netanyahu government. For example, India – whose Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, visited Israel in July, a tour that was memorable mainly for the pastoral photographs of him and Netanyahu embracing and wading in the waves – voted for the resolution against Israel and the United States.”[8]

Others

At a “Solidarity to Save Jerusalem” rally organised by the Barisan National government in Malaysia, one of the attendees Association of NextGen Christians of Malaysia President Joshua Hong said at the Putra Mosque: “We are here because we feel that the decision made by President Trump on announcing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel is merely a political decision. He added that the decision also hurts Christian and Arabic churches in Palestine and not just the Muslims. “To us as Christians, Jerusalem is a city of peace and after that announcement, we feel there is no more peace.I think it is not right and unjust. We believe we should continue pursuing the sustainable peace solution for Palestine and Israel, rather than just a single nation declaring it just like that.” He claimed that about 50 members of the group turned up in a show of support for the Palestinian people..[2]

Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Athletics
at the Games of the XXXI Olympiad
Athletics, Rio 2016.png
Venue Pontal (race walk)
Estádio Olímpico João Havelange
(track & field)
Sambódromo (marathon)
Dates 12–21 August
«2012 2020»
Athletics at the
2016 Summer Olympics
Athletics pictogram.svg
List of athletes
Track events
100 m men women
200 m men women
400 m men women
800 m men women
1500 m men women
5000 m men women
10,000 m men women
100 m hurdles women
110 m hurdles men
400 m hurdles men women
3000 m
steeplechase
men women
4 × 100 m relay men women
4 × 400 m relay men women
Road events
Marathon men women
20 km walk men women
50 km walk men
Field events
Long jump men women
Triple jump men women
High jump men women
Pole vault men women
Shot put men women
Discus throw men women
Javelin throw men women
Hammer throw men women
Combined events
Heptathlon women
Decathlon men

Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics were held during the last 10 days of the games, from 12–21 August 2016, at the Olympic Stadium. The sport of athletics in the 2016 Summer Olympics was split into three distinct sets of events: track and field events, road running events, and racewalking events.

Competition schedule[edit]

Track and field events were held at João Havelange Olympic Stadium, while the race walks and marathon start and finish in Recreio dos Bandeirantes and Sambódromo, respectively. Apart from the race walks and marathon, ten track and field events held finals in the morning session for the first time since 1988. This was implemented upon the request of the Rio 2016 Organizing Committee and the Olympic Broadcasting Service to be supported by the International Olympic Committee, ensuring that they received maximum visibility for the sport across all time zones.[2][3]

In the tables below, M stands for morning and A for afternoon.

Q Qualifiers H Heats ½ Semifinals F Final
Men[4]
Date → Fri 12 Sat 13 Sun 14 Mon 15 Tue 16 Wed 17 Thu 18 Fri 19 Sat 20 Sun 21
Event ↓ M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A
100 m Q H ½ F
200 m H ½ F
400 m H ½ F
800 m H ½ F
1500 m H ½ F
5000 m H F
10,000 m F
110 m hurdles H ½ F
400 m hurdles H ½ F
3000 m steeplechase H F
4 × 100 m relay H F
4 × 400 m relay H F
Marathon F
20 km walk F
50 km walk F
Long jump Q F
Triple jump Q F
High jump Q F
Pole vault Q F
Shot put Q F
Discus throw Q F
Javelin throw Q F
Hammer throw Q F
Decathlon F
Women[4]
Date → Fri 12 Sat 13 Sun 14 Mon 15 Tue 16 Wed 17 Thu 18 Fri 19 Sat 20 Sun 21
Event ↓ M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A
100 m Q H ½ F
200 m H ½ F
400 m H ½ F
800 m H ½ F
1500 m H ½ F
5000 m H F
10,000 m F
100 m hurdles H ½ F
400 m hurdles H ½ F
3000 m steeplechase H F
4 × 100 m relay H F
4 × 400 m relay H F
Marathon F
20 km walk F
Long jump Q F
Triple jump Q F
High jump Q F
Pole vault Q F
Shot put Q F
Discus throw Q F
Javelin throw Q F
Hammer throw Q F
Heptathlon F

Qualification[edit]

The Olympic qualification criteria were simplified by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) from a two-tiered “A” and “B” standard approach to a single qualification standard. Each National Olympic Committee was entitled to send up to three athletes per event that had reached that standard in the period from 2015 to 11 July 2016. Nations without a qualified athlete could enter one male and one female athlete who had not achieved the standard. Marathon runners had additional ways to qualify in that top 20 World Championship or top 10 IAAF Gold Label race finishers were treated as having achieved the standard.[5]

The relay teams entered were the top eight finishers at the 2015 IAAF World Relays plus the next eight highest ranking teams on the seasonal lists (based on an aggregate of their best two times).[6]

Nations with a strong tradition in athletics which had many qualified athletes available for events typically held selection trials to determine their teams (such as the 2016 United States Olympic Trials), or relied on panel decisions by their national governing bodies to determine which athletes could compete.

Daily summaries[edit]

Marathon runner Vanderlei de Limalighting the Olympic flame

At the opening ceremony two figures from the sport of athletics played a key role: Olympic medallist in the marathon, Vanderlei de Lima, lit the Olympic flame for his home nation, while Kenya’s Kipchoge Keino became the first recipient of theOlympic Laurel for his efforts in promoting sport.[7] Unlike most Suummer Olympic Gams, the athletics stadium was not the venue for the opening ceremony in Rio de Janeiro – that honour went to Brazil’s foremost soccer venue, the Maracanã Stadium.[8]

First three days[edit]

On the first day, the first gold medal was won by Almaz Ayana of Ethiopia, who broke a long-standing world record in the women’s 10,000 metres by almost fifteen seconds. The race as a whole was historically fast, setting four of the five fastest times ever for the distance and seeing eight national records broken. China’s Wang Zhen was the first male winner of the 2016 Olympic athletics, topping the 20 kilometres race walk podium. With her final throw of the event, Michelle Carter won the United States’ first ever title in the women’s shot put, preventing Valerie Adams from winning a third straight title. The first half of the heptathlon saw two athletes set a world heptathlon best: Belgium’s Nafissatou Thiam and Great Britain’s Katarina Johnson-Thompson both cleared 1.98 m (6 ft 534 in) for the high jump.[9] (Their marks would have been sufficient for the individual high jump gold.)[10]

Mo Farah leading in the men’s 10,000 metres final

The second day opened with a first in Olympic history as a man succeeded his brother as Olympic champion. In a dramatic final round, German discus throwerChristoph Harting moved up from fourth to gold medal position with a personal best throw and topped the podium as his brother Robert Harting had four years earlier.Mo Farah – a double-Olympic champion from 2012 – defended his 10,000 m crown in spite of a fall which saw him slip to the back of the pack during the middle of race. Farah had been one of three gold medallists for Great Britain on a “Super Saturday” for the host nation at the 2012 London Games, but the two others of that day did not prevail in Rio de Janeiro. Jessica Ennis entered as favourite for the Olympic heptathlon but was runner-up to Belgian Nafissatou Thiam in an upset which saw the 21-year-old add over three hundred points to her personal best score. Defending Olympic long jump champion Greg Rutherford was reduced to third place as American Jeff Henderson won the closely fought men’s competition. Another defending champion was dethroned in the women’s 100 metres: Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce‘s attempt to become the first person to win three straight Olympic track titles was thwarted by Jamaican teammate Elaine Thompson.[11]

Usain Bolt winning the 100 m final

The morning final for the third day was the women’s marathon, which saw Jemima Sumgong win Kenya’s first Olympic gold medal for that event. The race was unusual in that two sets of twins crossed the line together: North Korea’s Kim Hye-song andKim Hye-gyong took tenth and eleventh while Germans Anna and Lisa Hahner were 81st and 82nd. Furthermore Estonia’s Lily, Leila and Liina Luik became the first triplets to feature in an Olympic final. In the women’s triple jump Caterine Ibargüenwon Colombia’s first Olympic gold medal in athletics. Usain Bolt achieved the feat fellow Jamaican Fraser-Pryce had failed to do one day earlier by taking his third straight Olympic 100 m title. This made him the most decorated athlete in the 100 metres at the Olympics. South Africa’s Wayde van Niekerk provided the second world record performance of the athletics programme with his win of the men’s 400 metres in 43.03 seconds. This knocked 0.15 seconds of Michael Johnson‘s time which had gone unbeaten since 1999.[12]

Days 4, 5 and 6[edit]

The third and last athletics world record at the Olympics came on day four. Poland’s Anita Włodarczyk was dominant in thehammer throw, becoming the first woman to throw beyond eighty metres three times in a competition and adding over a metre to her own world record with 82.29 m (269 ft 1134 in). Four of her six throws would have been sufficient to win. Another record was in sight for Ruth Jebet in the women’s 3000 metres steeplechase, though she missed the mark by a second after slowing to celebrate winning Bahrain’s first Olympic gold in any sport. In the women’s 400 m Allyson Felix was stopped from winning an historic fifth Olympic gold by Shaunae Miller of the Bahamas, who dived at the line to win the race. Men’s 800 metres world record holder David Rudisha defended his 800 m Olympic title, being the first man in over half a century to achieve that. A surprise victory for the hosts came via Thiago Braz da Silva, who added ten centimetres to his previous best to win in an Olympic record of 6.03 m ahead of world record holder Renaud Lavillenie of France.[13] Departing from Olympic traditions, the home crowd booed Lavillenie while he was attempting his final vault and he was booed again at the medal ceremony after comparing his treatment to that of Jesse Owens at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Nazi Germany. The partisan treatment was criticised by da Silva, IOC President Thomas Bach and IAAF president Sebastian Coe, though defended by some as an intrinsic part of Brazilian sporting culture.[14][15][16]

On the fifth morning, Croatia’s Sandra Perković became the only woman to defend an individual Olympic athletics title that year, topping the discus podium. Christian Taylor became the only man in the field events to defend his 2012 Olympic title, repeating his American 1–2 finish with teammate Will Claye. The United States was less successful in the men’s 110 metres hurdles: its athletes failed to gain a medal for the first time ever (bar the 1980 boycott) while Jamaican Omar McLeod won by over a tenth of a second. Faith Kipyegon was a clear winner in the women’s 1500 metres ahead of Ethiopia’s Genzebe Dibaba. Derek Drouin won Canada’s first Olympic gold in athletics in twenty years in the men’s high jump.[17] In the women’s 5000 m heats American Abbey D’Agostino and Nikki Hamblin of New Zealand fell during the race. D’Agostino stopped to help Hamblin to her feet, but then struggled herself with an injured ankle, which led Hamblin to help in turn so the pair could finish. The pair were later given the Fair Play award by the International Fair Play Committee for their show of sportsmanship.[18]

Conseslus Kipruto en route to the steeplechase title

In his last Olympic outing, Ezekiel Kemboi failed to defend his Olympic steeplechase title, which went to his Kenyan teammate Conseslus Kipruto in an Olympic record time. Kemboi’s initial bronze medal would have made him the first person to win three Olympic steeplechase medals, but a single step into the infield later saw him disqualified and Mahiedine Mekhissi-Benabbad of France achieve that feat in his place. Tianna Bartoletta beat the favourite in the women’s long jump, clearing a personal best of 7.17 m in the second to last round to leave her American rivalBrittney Reese with a silver medal. Americans also occupied the top spots in the women’s 100 metres hurdles with Brianna Rollins, Nia Ali and Kristi Castlin forming the first ever Olympic medal sweep by a nation in that event. The 100 m gold medallist Elaine Thompson completed a sprint double for Jamaica by defeating Dutch athlete Dafne Schippers in the women’s 200 metres final. High profile eliminations came in the men’s qualifiers as two strong contenders for Olympic titles, Paweł Fajdek in the hammer and Justin Gatlin in the 200 m, failed to progress.[19]

Final three days[edit]

Bolt with his third 200 m victory

The 400 metres hurdles finals were contested on day seven: Kerron Clement won the United States’s 19th men’s title and in contrast Dalilah Muhammad became the first American female winner. On a day of strong American performances, Ashton Eaton defended his decathlon title in an Olympic record score of 8893 points and in the men’s shot put Ryan Crouser greatly improved his best to 22.52 m (73 ft 1012 in) to break Ulf Timmermann‘s Olympic record from 1988 (among men’s Olympic records, only Bob Beamon‘s long jump had stood for longer).[20] The women’s javelin throw had an unexpected winner in Croatia’s Sara Kolak, whose winning mark of 66.18 m (217 ft 112 in) meant the 21-year-old had improved her best by over eight metres that year. The favourite delivered in the men’s 200 m, with Usain Bolt taking his third straight Olympic 200 m title by a margin of a quarter of a second. The women’s 4 × 100 metres relay heats featured the first ever re-run – Brazil has obstructed the American baton handover and the United States were allowed a solo run to qualify for the final on time, which they did.[21]

The American team after winning 4 × 100 m relay gold

The morning of the penultimate day began with two racewalking finals. In the men’s 50 km walk Matej Tóth overtook defending champion Jarred Tallent to win Slovakia’s first Olympic gold in athletics while Liu Hong return China to the top of the women’s 20 km walk podium. Ekaterini Stefanidi of Greece won the women’s pole vault after the pre-event favourites faltered. Dilshod Nazarov made history in the men’s hammer throw by becoming Tajikistan’s first Olympic gold medallist. Vivian Cheruiyot achieved a first for her country in the women’s 5000 metres by outrunning 10,000 m champion Almaz Ayana to take Kenya’s first ever gold in the distance event. In that race, Cheruiyot set the last of eight Olympic records in Rio. The 4 × 100 m finals delivered new highs for Olympic athletics. The American women overcame their qualification troubles by winning from lane one, making Allyson Felix the most successful female Olympian in athletics at five gold medals. Usain Bolt anchored the Jamaican men to the gold to complete a set of three consecutive victories across the 100 m, 200 m and relay (referred to as a “treble treble”). Bolt equalled Carl Lewis and Paavo Nurmi‘s record of nine Olympic gold medals in athletics.[22][23]

Vivian Cheruiyot celebrating Kenya’s first 5000 m women’s title

On the ninth and final day of action in the track and field stadium, Matthew Centrowitz Jr. secured a tactical win in the men’s 1500 m while Caster Semenyaused her sheer speed to win the women’s 800 m. Behind her Francine Niyonsabawon only the second ever medal for Burundi at the Olympics. In the women’s high jump, Ruth Beitia became Spain’s first female Olympic champion in athletics, though this was overshadowed by the fact her winning mark was the lowest since 1980 and she was outperformed by two heptathletes in Rio.[24] Thomas Röhler cleared ninety metres to win the men’s javelin throw. Mo Farah became the second most successful track athlete of the 2016 Rio Olympics by defending his 5000 m title, making him one of only two men alongside Finland’s Lasse Virén to have defended both long-distance titles at consecutive Olympics. In the last track events of the games, the United States won both the 4 × 400 metres relays. Their victory in the women’s race meant Allyson Felix set a record high for women’s Olympic athletics with six gold medals and nine medals overall.[25] The men’s marathon was contested on the last day of the Olympics and Eliud Kipchoge comfortably won by the largest margin since 1972.[26]

As in previous years, the United States won the most medals in athletics and at thirteen golds and 32 overall they won more than double the next most successful nations. In the absence of Russia, Kenya and Jamaica placed second and third with six gold medals and the only other nations to win more than ten medals in total. In the 2016 Olympic athletics programme, 141 medals were awarded and 43 nations reached the medal table.

Medal summary[edit]

Men[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 metres
details
Usain Bolt
 Jamaica
9.81 Justin Gatlin
 United States
9.89 Andre De Grasse
 Canada
9.91
200 metres
details
Usain Bolt
 Jamaica
19.78 Andre De Grasse
 Canada
20.02 Christophe Lemaitre
 France
20.12
400 metres
details
Wayde van Niekerk
 South Africa
43.03 WR Kirani James
 Grenada
43.76 LaShawn Merritt
 United States
43.85
800 metres
details
David Rudisha
 Kenya
1:42.15 Taoufik Makhloufi
 Algeria
1:42.61NR Clayton Murphy
 United States
1:42.93
1500 metres
details
Matthew Centrowitz, Jr.
 United States
3:50.00 Taoufik Makhloufi
 Algeria
3:50.11 Nick Willis
 New Zealand
3:50.24
5,000 metres
details
Mo Farah
 Great Britain
13:03.30 Paul Kipkemoi Chelimo
 United States
13:03.90 Hagos Gebrhiwet
 Ethiopia
13:04.35
10,000 metres
details
Mo Farah
 Great Britain
27:05.17 Paul Tanui
 Kenya
27:05.64 Tamirat Tola
 Ethiopia
27:06.26
110 metres hurdles
details
Omar McLeod
 Jamaica
13.05 Orlando Ortega
 Spain
13.17 Dimitri Bascou
 France
13.24
400 metres hurdles
details
Kerron Clement
 United States
47.73 Boniface Mucheru Tumuti
 Kenya
47.78 NR Yasmani Copello
 Turkey
47.92NR
3000 metres steeplechase
details
Conseslus Kipruto
 Kenya
8:03.28 OR Evan Jager
 United States
8:04.28 Mahiedine Mekhissi-Benabbad
 France
8:11.52
4 × 100 metres relay
details
 Jamaica (JAM)
Asafa Powell,
Yohan Blake,
Nickel Ashmeade,
Usain Bolt,
Jevaughn Minzie,
Kemar Bailey-Cole
37.27  Japan (JPN)
Ryota Yamagata,
Shota Iizuka,
Yoshihide Kiryu,
Asuka Cambridge
37.60 AR  Canada (CAN)
Akeem Haynes,
Aaron Brown,
Brendon Rodney,
Andre De Grasse,
Mobolade Ajomale
37.64NR
4 × 400 metres relay
details
 United States (USA)
Arman Hall,
Tony McQuay,
Gil Roberts,
LaShawn Merritt,
Kyle Clemons,
David Verburg,
2:57.30  Jamaica (JAM)
Peter Matthews,
Nathon Allen,
Fitzroy Dunkley,
Javon Francis,
Rusheen McDonald
2:58.16  Bahamas (BAH)
Alonzo Russell,
Michael Mathieu,
Steven Gardiner,
Chris Brown,
Stephen Newbold
2:58.49
Marathon
details
Eliud Kipchoge
 Kenya
2:08:44 Feyisa Lilesa
 Ethiopia
2:09:54 Galen Rupp
 United States
2:10:05
20 kilometres walk
details
Wang Zhen
 China
1:19:14 Cai Zelin
 China
1:19:26 Dane Bird-Smith
 Australia
1:19:37
50 kilometres walk
details
Matej Tóth
 Slovakia
3:40:58 Jared Tallent
 Australia
3:41:16 Hirooki Arai
 Japan
3:41:24
High jump
details
Derek Drouin
 Canada
2.38 m Mutaz Essa Barshim
 Qatar
2.36 m Bohdan Bondarenko
 Ukraine
2.33 m
Pole vault
details
Thiago Braz da Silva
 Brazil
6.03 m OR,AR Renaud Lavillenie
 France
5.98 m Sam Kendricks
 United States
5.85 m
Long jump
details
Jeff Henderson
 United States
8.38 m Luvo Manyonga
 South Africa
8.37 m Greg Rutherford
 Great Britain
8.29 m
Triple jump
details
Christian Taylor
 United States
17.86 m Will Claye
 United States
17.76 m Dong Bin
 China
17.58 m
Shot put
details
Ryan Crouser
 United States
22.52 mOR Joe Kovacs
 United States
21.78 m Tomas Walsh
 New Zealand
21.36 m
Discus throw
details
Christoph Harting
 Germany
68.37 m Piotr Małachowski
 Poland
67.55 m Daniel Jasinski
 Germany
67.05 m
Hammer throw
details
Dilshod Nazarov
 Tajikistan
78.68 m Ivan Tsikhan
 Belarus
77.79 m Wojciech Nowicki
 Poland
77.73 m
Javelin throw
details
Thomas Röhler
 Germany
90.30 m Julius Yego
 Kenya
88.24 m Keshorn Walcott
 Trinidad and Tobago
85.38 m
Decathlon
details
Ashton Eaton
 United States
8893 ptsOR Kévin Mayer
 France
8834 ptsNR Damian Warner
 Canada
8666 pts

* Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats and received medals.

Women[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 metres
details
Elaine Thompson
 Jamaica
10.71 Tori Bowie
 United States
10.83 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
 Jamaica
10.86
200 metres
details
Elaine Thompson
 Jamaica
21.78 Dafne Schippers
 Netherlands
21.88 Tori Bowie
 United States
22.15
400 metres
details
Shaunae Miller
 Bahamas
49.44 Allyson Felix
 United States
49.51 Shericka Jackson
 Jamaica
49.85
800 metres
details
Caster Semenya
 South Africa
1:55.28NR Francine Niyonsaba
 Burundi
1:56.49 Margaret Wambui
 Kenya
1:56.89
1500 metres
details
Faith Kipyegon
 Kenya
4:08.92 Genzebe Dibaba
 Ethiopia
4:10.27 Jennifer Simpson
 United States
4:10.53
5000 metres
details
Vivian Cheruiyot
 Kenya
14:26.17OR Hellen Onsando Obiri
 Kenya
14:29.77 Almaz Ayana
 Ethiopia
14:33.59
10,000 metres
details
Almaz Ayana
 Ethiopia
29:17.45WR Vivian Cheruiyot
 Kenya
29:32.53NR Tirunesh Dibaba
 Ethiopia
29:42.56
100 metres hurdles
details
Brianna Rollins
 United States
12.48 Nia Ali
 United States
12.59 Kristi Castlin
 United States
12.61
400 metres hurdles
details
Dalilah Muhammad
 United States
53.13 Sara Petersen
 Denmark
53.55 NR Ashley Spencer
 United States
53.72
3000 metres steeplechase
details
Ruth Jebet
 Bahrain
8:59.75AR Hyvin Jepkemoi
 Kenya
9:07.12 Emma Coburn
 United States
9:07.63AR
4 × 100 metres relay
details
 United States (USA)
Tianna Bartoletta,
Allyson Felix,
English Gardner,
Tori Bowie,
Morolake Akinosun
41.02  Jamaica (JAM)
Christania Williams,
Elaine Thompson,
Veronica Campbell-Brown,
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce,
Simone Facey,
Sashalee Forbes
41.36  Great Britain (GBR)
Asha Philip,
Desiree Henry,
Dina Asher-Smith,
Daryll Neita,
41.77 NR
4 × 400 metres relay
details
 United States (USA)
Allyson Felix,
Phyllis Francis,
Natasha Hastings,
Courtney Okolo,
Taylor Ellis-Watson,
Francena McCorory
3:19.06  Jamaica (JAM)
Stephenie Ann McPherson,
Anneisha McLaughlin-Whilby,
Shericka Jackson,
Novlene Williams-Mills,
Christine Day,
Chrisann Gordon
3:20.34  Great Britain (GBR)
Eilidh Doyle,
Anyika Onuora,
Emily Diamond,
Christine Ohuruogu,
Kelly Massey
3:25.88
Marathon
details
Jemima Sumgong
 Kenya
2:24:04 Eunice Kirwa
 Bahrain
2:24:13 Mare Dibaba
 Ethiopia
2:24:30
20 kilometres walk
details
Liu Hong
 China
1:28:35 María Guadalupe González
 Mexico
1:28:37 Lü Xiuzhi
 China
1:28:42
High jump
details
Ruth Beitia
 Spain
1.97 m Mirela Demireva
 Bulgaria
1.97 m Blanka Vlašić
 Croatia
1.97 m
Pole vault
details
Ekaterini Stefanidi
 Greece
4.85 m Sandi Morris
 United States
4.85 m Eliza McCartney
 New Zealand
4.80 mNR
Long jump
details
Tianna Bartoletta
 United States
7.17 m Britney Reese
 United States
7.15 m Ivana Španović
 Serbia
7.08 mNR
Triple jump
details
Caterine Ibargüen
 Colombia
15.17 m Yulimar Rojas
 Venezuela
14.98 m Olga Rypakova
 Kazakhstan
14.74 m
Shot put
details
Michelle Carter
 United States
20.63 mNR Valerie Adams
 New Zealand
20.42 m Anita Márton
 Hungary
19.87 m NR
Discus throw
details
Sandra Perković
 Croatia
69.21 m Mélina Robert-Michon
 France
66.73 mNR Denia Caballero
 Cuba
65.34 m
Hammer throw
details
Anita Włodarczyk
 Poland
82.29 mWR Zhang Wenxiu
 China
76.75 m Sophie Hitchon
 Great Britain
74.54 mNR
Javelin throw
details
Sara Kolak
 Croatia
66.18 mNR Sunette Viljoen
 South Africa
64.92 m Barbora Špotáková
 Czech Republic
64.80 m
Heptathlon
details
Nafissatou Thiam
 Belgium
6810 ptsNR Jessica Ennis-Hill
 Great Britain
6775 pts Brianne Theisen-Eaton
 Canada
6653 pts

* Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats and received medals.

Medal table[edit]

Key

*   Host nation (Brazil)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 United States 13 10 9 32
2 Kenya 6 6 1 13
3 Jamaica 6 3 2 11
4 China 2 2 2 6
5 South Africa 2 2 0 4
6 Great Britain 2 1 4 7
7 Croatia 2 0 1 3
Germany 2 0 1 3
9 Ethiopia 1 2 5 8
10 Canada 1 1 4 6
11 Poland 1 1 1 3
12 Bahrain 1 1 0 2
Spain 1 1 0 2
14 Bahamas 1 0 1 2
15 Belgium 1 0 0 1
Brazil* 1 0 0 1
Colombia 1 0 0 1
Greece 1 0 0 1
Slovakia 1 0 0 1
Tajikistan 1 0 0 1
21 France 0 3 3 6
22 Algeria 0 2 0 2
23 New Zealand 0 1 3 4
24 Australia 0 1 1 2
Japan 0 1 1 2
26 Belarus 0 1 0 1
Bulgaria 0 1 0 1
Burundi 0 1 0 1
Denmark 0 1 0 1
Grenada 0 1 0 1
Mexico 0 1 0 1
Netherlands 0 1 0 1
Qatar 0 1 0 1
Venezuela 0 1 0 1
36 Cuba 0 0 1 1
Czech Republic 0 0 1 1
Hungary 0 0 1 1
Kazakhstan 0 0 1 1
Serbia 0 0 1 1
Trinidad and Tobago 0 0 1 1
Turkey 0 0 1 1
Ukraine 0 0 1 1
Total 47 47 47 141

Records[edit]

World and Olympic records[edit]

Event Date Name Nationality Result Type
Women’s 10,000 metres 12 August Almaz Ayana Ethiopia 29:17.45 min WR
Men’s 400 metres 14 August Wayde van Niekerk South Africa 43.03 sec WR
Women’s hammer throw 15 August Anita Włodarczyk Poland 82.29 m WR
Men’s pole vault 15 August Thiago Braz da Silva Brazil 6.03 m OR
Men’s 3000 metres steeplechase 17 August Conseslus Kipruto Kenya 8:03.28 min OR
Men’s shot put 18 August Ryan Crouser United States 22.52 m OR
Men’s decathlon 18 August Ashton Eaton United States 8893 pts =OR
Women’s 5000 metres 19 August Vivian Cheruiyot Kenya 14:26.17 min OR

Continental records[edit]

The women’s 10,000 metres provided the first two continental records of the Olympics, in Almaz Ayana’s African record andMolly Huddle‘s record for the North, Central American and Caribbean region.[27]

Event Date Name Nationality Result Type
Women’s 10,000 metres 12 August Almaz Ayana Ethiopia 29:17.45 min AR
Women’s 10,000 metres 12 August Molly Huddle United States 30:13.17 min AR
Men’s 400 metres 14 August Wayde van Niekerk South Africa 43.03 sec AR
3000 metres steeplechase 15 August Ruth Jebet Bahrain 8:59.75 min AR
3000 metres steeplechase 15 August Emma Coburn United States 9:07.63 min AR
Women’s hammer throw 15 August Anita Włodarczyk Poland 82.29 m AR
Men’s 4 × 100 m relay 18 August Tang Xingqiang
Xie Zhenye
Su Bingtian
Zhang Peimeng
China 37.82 sec AR
Men’s 4 × 100 m relay 18 August Ryota Yamagata
Shota Iizuka
Yoshihide Kiryu
Asuka Cambridge
Japan 37.68 sec AR
Men’s 4 × 100 m relay 19 August Ryota Yamagata
Shota Iizuka
Yoshihide Kiryu
Asuka Cambridge
Japan 37.60 sec AR

Participation[edit]

Participating nations[edit]

Russia’s athletics team was banned from competing at the 2016 Summer Olympics on June 17, 2016, when the IAAF voted unanimously to prevent them from competing. This punishment is because of the ongoing Russian doping scandal.[28][29]Darya Klishina was the only Russian athlete allowed to participate.

The Refugee Olympic Team, in its first appearance, included six track and field athletes among it 10-strong team.[7]

[hide]Participating National Olympic Committees

Competitors[edit]

Doping[edit]

Russian Darya Klishina

The Olympic athletics competition was majorly affected by the ban of the All-Russia Athletic Federation (ARAF) by the sports governing body, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). The IAAF undertook this action to exclude all Russian athletes following the discovery of state-sponsored doping in Russia.[30] The Russian President accused the body of discrimination against his country’s athletes, saying the ban was a “collective punishment which has nothing to do with justice”. The Russian Minister for Sport, Vitaly Mutko, was directly implicated in the investigations.[31]

The members of Russia’s 68-strong team were allowed to appeal the ban and compete under a neutral flag if they could present evidence that they did not have links with the doping scandal and received testing independent of the Russian national anti-doping body. Only one athlete, United States-based long jumperDarya Klishina, met the criteria and was allowed to compete. Her selection garnered negative press in her home country.[32][33] The situation led pole vaulter Yelena Isinbayeva, one of Russia’s top athletes, to announce her intention to stand for ARAF President to resolve the crisis.[34]

Doping whistleblower Yuliya Stepanova was not allowed to compete

Yuliya Stepanova, a Russian runner who was key in unveiling the doping issue through her whistleblowing, attempted to gain permission from the international Olympic Committee to compete at the Games as an independent athlete, but was unsuccessful on the basis of her having previously failed a doping test. Her husband and coach Vitaly Stepanov, who also acted as whistleblower, said that the decision sent “a message that the World Anti-Doping Code and the values of Olympism are merely words on a page”.[35] The couple’s actions were widely denounced in Russia, with the president’s spokesman labelling the couple as “Judas”.[36]Stepanova received strong support from Travis Tygart, the head of the United States Anti-Doping Agency, who approved of her application to compete.[37]

Silvia Danekova of Bulgaria was the first athletics doping suspension at the Olympics, as the sample she had given on arrival was positive for EPO.[38] Two Kenyan officials were also sent home on doping points: coach John Anzrah impersonated runner Ferguson Rotich to give a doping control and Michael Rotich was expelled following allegations of forewarning athletes of unannounced drug tests.[39]

Year in review 2014

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2014 (MMXIV) is the current year, and is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar(dominical letter E), the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium, the 14th year of the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

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13Kathleen Sebelius

Kathleen Sebelius is an American politician who served as the 21st United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.

-6 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

14Bobby Jindal

Piyush “Bobby” Jindal is an American politician who is the 55th and current Governor of Louisiana and the Vice Chairman.

+4 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

15George Wallace

George Corley Wallace, Jr. was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive..

+2 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

16Pat Quinn

Patrick Joseph “Pat” Quinn III is an American politician who is the 41st and current Governor of Illinois.

New in chart

17Mark Warner

Mark Robert Warner is an American politician and the senior United States Senator from Virginia, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

18Jan Brewer

Janice Kay “Jan” Brewer is the 22nd Governor of the U.S. state of Arizona, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

19Huey Long

Huey Pierce Long, Jr., nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana.

New in chart

20Tom Corbett

Thomas Wingett “Tom” Corbett, Jr. is an American politician who is the 46th and current Governor of Pennsylvania.

New in chart

Books

1.Boy, Snow, Bird

2.Blood Will Out

3.Savage Harvest: A Tale of Cannibals. Colonialism and Michael Rockefeller’s Tragic Quest for Primitive Art

4.City of Heavenly Fire

5.Flash Boys

6.The Invention of Wings

7.All the Light We Cannot See

8.Words of Radiance

9.Yes Please

10.Capital in the Twenty First Century

 TV Shows

1.Game of Thrones

2.True Detective

3.Orange is the New Black

4.The Following

5.American Horror Story

6.Gotham

7.South Park

8.House of Cards

9.Outlander

10.The 100

Movie trailer

1.Gone Girl trailer

2.Interstellar trailer

3.Divergent trailer

4.Frozen trailer

5.The Lego Movie trailer

6.The Avengers 2 trailer

7.Godzilla trailer

8.The Hunger Games: Mockingjay Part 1 trailer

9.Annabelle trailer

10.Maleficent trailer

Movie

1.Frozen

2.Interstellar

3.Divergent

4.Gone Girl

5.Lone Survivor

6.Godzilla

7.22 Jump Street

8.Big Hero 6

9.Annabelle

10.Maleficent

Music Artist

1.Iggy Azalea

2.Lorde

3.Sam Smith

4.Meghan Trainor

5.Solange Knowles

6.Nicki Minaj

7.Weird Al

8.Sia

9.Daft Punk

10.Taylor Swift

 Song lyrics

1.Say Something lyrics

2.Anaconda lyrics

3.Fancy lyrics

4.Happy lyrics

5.Blank Space lyrics

6.Royals lyrics

7.Dark Horse lyrics

8.Bang Bang lyrics

9.Counting Stars lyrics

10.Wrecking Ball lyrics

 Music festivals

1.Coachella

2.Mysteryland

3.Boston Calling

4.Hard Summer

5.Electric Forest

6.Firefly Music Festival

7.Austin City Limits

8.South by Southwest

9.Outside Lands

10.Fun Fun Fun Fest

 Beers

1.Budweiser

2.Corona

3.Keystone

4.Miller

5.Blue Moon

6.Coors

7.Bud Light

8.PBR

9.Modelo

10.Sierra Nevada

 Video Games

1.Destiny

2.Titanfall

3.Watch Dogs

4.ArcheAge

5.Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare

6.Madden 15

7.Mario Kart 8

8.Dragon Age Inquisition

9.Battlefield Hardline

10.League of Angels

Cars

1.Ford

2.Jeep

3.Dodge

4.Toyota

5.General Motors

6.Subaru

7.Honda

8.Nissan

9.BMW

10.Tesla

Countries

1Ukraine

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the largest country entirely within Europe…Wikipedia

#18 most searched

2Korea

Korea, called Hanguk in South Korea and Joseon in North Korea, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct…Wikipedia

#36 most searched

3Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its..

#22 most searched

4Indonesia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia and Oceania..

#30 most searched

5Iraq

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia that borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east,.

#35 most searched

6Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#17 most searched

7Qatar

Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign Arab country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar.

#69 most searched

8Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea..

#15 most searched

9Bermuda

Bermuda, also referred to in legal documents as the Bermudas or Somers Isles, is a British Overseas Territory in the North.

#59 most searched

10Palestine

Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

#109 most searched

Cities

1Sochi

Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia..

#152 most searched

2Sonoma

Sonoma is a historically significant city in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, United States, surrounding its.

#135 most searched

3Manchester

Manchester is a city in Greater Manchester with a population of 514,417 in 2013; it lies within the United Kingdom’s second..

#124 most searched

4Kansas City

Kansas City or K.C. is the most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Missouri.

#35 most searched

5Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#79 most searched

6Cleveland

Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state…Wikipedia

#28 most searched

7Green Bay

Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the State of Wisconsin, located at the head of Green Bay,

#73 most searched

8Saint Paul

Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the state of Minnesota. As of 2013, the city’s estimated population was 294,873..

#128 most searched

9Dallas

Dallas is a major city in Texas and is one of the two urban centers of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the…Wikipedia

#5 most searched

10Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

#114 most searched

Energy Company

1Duke Energy

Duke Energy, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is the largest electric power holding company in the United States..

+1 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

9 years in top 10

2Chevron

Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. Headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active…Wikipedia

+3 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3National Grid plc

National Grid plc is a British multinational electricity and gas utility company headquartered in London, United Kingdom…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

4BP

BP plc, sometimes referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company…Wikipedia

-3 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Florida Power & Light

Florida Power & Light Company, the principal subsidiary of NextEra Energy Inc., commonly referred to by its initials, FPL…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

7Xcel Energy

Xcel Energy Inc. is a utility holding company based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, serving more than 3.3 million electric…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

8ExxonMobil

Exxon Mobil Corp., or ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas, United States…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

9Public Service Enterprise Group

Public Service Enterprise Group, founded as the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and later renamed Public Service…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

10Consolidated Edison

Consolidated Edison, Inc., commonly known as Con Edison or Con Ed, is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

Financial company

1Wells Fargo

Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational banking and financial services holding company which is headquartered..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Bank of America

Bank of America is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Chase

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase, is a national bank that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

4Capital One

Capital One Financial Corporation is a U.S.-based bank holding company specializing in credit cards, home loans, auto..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5American Express

The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Citibank

Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational Citigroup.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7PNC Financial Services

PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. is an American financial services corporation, with assets of approximately $271.2 billion.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

8USAA

The United Services Automobile Association is a Texas-based Fortune 500 diversified financial services group of companies.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Fidelity Investments

FMR LLC or Fidelity Investments is an American multinational financial services corporation…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

10State Farm Insurance

State Farm is a group of insurance and financial services companies in the United States. The company also has operations in Canada.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

Retail company

1Amazon.com

Amazon.com, Inc. is an American international electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, United States.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Walmart

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., branded as Walmart, is an American multinational retail corporation that operates chains of large.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Target Corporation

Target Corporation is an American retailing company, founded in 1902 and headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

New in chart

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

4The Home Depot

The Home Depot is an American retailer of home improvement and construction products and services.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Best Buy

Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics corporation headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Lowe’s

Lowe’s is an American chain of retail home improvement and appliance stores that has retail stores in the United States,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7Costco

Costco Wholesale Corporation is an American membership-only warehouse club that provides a wide selection of merchandise.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

8Walgreens

The Walgreen Company is the largest drug retailing chain in the United States. As of May 31, 2014, the company operated.

+2 since last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

9J. C. Penney

  1. C. Penney Company Inc., known as JCPenney, is a chain of American mid-range department stores based in Plano, Texas..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

10Toys “R” Us

Toys “R” Us, Inc. is an American toy and juvenile-products retailer founded in 1948 and headquartered in Wayne, New Jersey…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

Medicine

1Advil

Advil is a brand of ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Advil is manufactured by Pfizer and has been on the market since 1984.

#53 most searched

2Tylenol

Tylenol is an American brand of drugs advertised for reducing pain, reducing fever, and relieving the symptoms of allergies.

#7 most searched

3Triamcinolone acetonide

Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various skin conditions, to relieve the discomfort of.

#122 most searched

4Anxiolytic

An anxiolytic is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents…Wikipedia

#131 most searched

5Adderall

Adderall is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention deficit.

#2 most searched

6Cortisone

Cortisone is a 21-carbon steroid hormone. It is one of the main hormones released by the adrenal gland in response to stress..

#72 most searched

7Tums

Tums is an antacid made of sucrose and calcium carbonate manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

#133 most searched

8Gabapentin

Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant and analgesic drug. It was originally developed to treat epilepsy, and is currently also..

#14 most searched

9Triamcinolone

Triamcinolone is a long-acting synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.

#70 most searched

10Insulin

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

#37 most searched

Animals

1Pig

A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates.

#10 most searched

2Bear

Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds.

#6 most searched

3Ape

Apes are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid catarrhine primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia and distinguished.

#64 most searched

4Pony

A pony is a small horse. Depending on context, a pony may be a horse that is under an approximate or exact height at the.

#42 most searched

5Eagle

Eagle is a common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae; it belongs to several groups of genera.

#32 most searched

6Lion

The lion is one of the five big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae.

#11 most searched

7Turkey

The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.

#12 most searched

8Dolphin

Dolphins are cetacean mammals closely related to whales and porpoises. There are almost forty species of dolphin in 17 genera.

#29 most searched

9Duck

Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese.

#16 most searched

10Bison

Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and four extinct species are recognized.

#131 most searched

Chemical weapon

1Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen.

#4 most searched

2Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, less reactive than its.

#19 most searched

3Lithium

Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali.

#22 most searched

4Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series.

#3 most searched

5Carbon

Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is.

#5 most searched

6Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a bright yellow dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal.

#1 most searched

7Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal and.

#9 most searched

8Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It is the lightest pnictogen and at room temperature,

#16 most searched

9Krypton

Krypton is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 elements.

#49 most searched

10Thorium

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only.

#46 most searched

Space object

1Moon

The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. Although not the largest natural satellite in the Solar System, it is, among.

#1 most searched

267P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko, officially designated 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko and sometimes shortened to 67P/C-G, is a.

#35 most searched

3Io

Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter. It is the fourth-largest moon and has the highest…Wikipedia

#15 most searched

4Ceres

Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

#16 most searched

5Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fourth-largest planet by diameter.

#10 most searched

6Europa

Europa, is the sixth-closest moon of the planet Jupiter, and the smallest of its four Galilean satellites, but still the.

#13 most searched

7Alpha Lupi

Alpha Lupi is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Lupus. According to the Bortle Dark-Sky Scale, the.

#61 most searched

8Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

#4 most searched

9Pluto

Pluto is the largest object in the Kuiper belt, and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun.

#8 most searched

10Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has no natural satellite.

#5 most searched

Events

January

February

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October

November

December[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 2014
Further information: Category:2014 deaths
Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

In fiction

List of Banks owned by the Rothschild Family

“Give me control over a nations currency, and I care not who makes its laws” – Baron M.A. Rothschild

rothcrest

ROTHSCHILD OWNED BANKS:
Afghanistan, Bank of Afghanistan,
Albania, Bank of Albania,
Algeria, Bank of Algeria,
Argentina, Central Bank of Argentina,
Armenia, Central Bank of Armenia,
Aruba, Central Bank of Aruba,
Australia, Reserve Bank of Australia,
Austria, Austrian National Bank,
Azerbaijan, Central Bank of Azerbaijan Republic,
Bahamas, Central Bank of The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Central Bank of Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bank,
Barbados, Central Bank of Barbados,
Belarus, National Bank of the Republic of Belarus,
Belgium, National Bank of Belgium,
Belize, Central Bank of Belize,
Benin, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Bermuda, Bermuda Monetary Authority,
Bhutan, Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan,
Bolivia, Central Bank of Bolivia,
Bosnia, Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Bank of Botswana,
Brazil, Central Bank of Brazil,
Bulgaria, Bulgarian National Bank,
Burkina Faso, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Burundi, Bank of the Republic of Burundi,
Cambodia, National Bank of Cambodia,
Came Roon, Bank of Central African States,
Canada, Bank of Canada – Banque du Canada,
Cayman Islands, Cayman Islands Monetary Authority,
Central African Republic, Bank of Central African States,
Chad, Bank of Central African States,
Chile, Central Bank of Chile,

China, The People’s Bank of China,

Colombia, Bank of the Republic,
Comoros, Central Bank of Comoros,
Congo, Bank of Central African States,
Costa Rica, Central Bank of Costa Rica,
Côte d’Ivoire, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Croatia, Croatian National Bank,
Cuba, Central Bank of Cuba,
Cyprus, Central Bank of Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Czech National Bank,
Denmark, National Bank of Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Central Bank of the Dominican Republic,
East Caribbean area, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank,
Ecuador, Central Bank of Ecuador,
Egypt, Central Bank of Egypt ,
El Salvador, Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Bank of Central African States,
Estonia, Bank of Estonia,
Ethiopia, National Bank of Ethiopia,
European Union, European Central Bank,

money-world-

Fiji, Reserve Bank of Fiji,
Finland, Bank of Finland,
France, Bank of France,
Gabon, Bank of Central African States,
The Gambia, Central Bank of The Gambia,
Georgia, National Bank of Georgia,
Germany, Deutsche Bundesbank,
Ghana, Bank of Ghana,
Greece, Bank of Greece,
Guatemala, Bank of Guatemala,

Guinea Bissau, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Guyana, Bank of Guyana,
Haiti, Central Bank of Haiti ,
Honduras, Central Bank of Honduras,
Hong Kong, Hong Kong Monetary Authority,
Hungary, Magyar Nemzeti Bank,
Iceland, Central Bank of Iceland,
India, Reserve Bank of India,
Indonesia, Bank Indonesia,
Iran, The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran,

Iraq, Central Bank of Iraq,

Ireland, Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland,
Israel, Bank of Israel,
Italy, Bank of Italy,
Jamaica, Bank of Jamaica,
Japan, Bank of Japan,
Jordan, Central Bank of Jordan,
Kazakhstan, National Bank of Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Central Bank of Kenya,
Korea, Bank of Korea,
Kuwait, Central Bank of Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic,
Latvia, Bank of Latvia,
Lebanon, Central Bank of Lebanon,
Lesotho, Central Bank of Lesotho,

Libya, Central Bank of Libya,

us-homeland-security-seal-plaque_m-747261

Uruguay, Central Bank of Uruguay,
Lithuania, Bank of Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Central Bank of Luxembourg,
Macao, Monetary Authority of Macao,
Macedonia, National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia,
Madagascar, Central Bank of Madagascar,
Malawi, Reserve Bank of Malawi,
Malaysia, Central Bank of Malaysia,
Mali, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Malta, Central Bank of Malta,
Mauritius, Bank of Mauritius,
Mexico, Bank of Mexico,
Moldova, National Bank of Moldova,
Mongolia, Bank of Mongolia,
Montenegro, Central Bank of Montenegro,
Morocco, Bank of Morocco,
Mozambique, Bank of Mozambique,
Namibia, Bank of Namibia,
Nepal, Central Bank of Nepal,
Netherlands, Netherlands Bank,
Netherlands Antilles, Bank of the Netherlands Antilles,
New Zealand, Reserve Bank of New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Central Bank of Nicaragua,
Niger, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria,
Norway, Central Bank of Norway,
Oman, Central Bank of Oman,
Pakistan, State Bank of Pakistan,
Papua New Guinea, Bank of Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Central Bank of Paraguay,
Peru, Central Reserve Bank of Peru,
Philip Pines, Bangko Sentralng Pilipinas,
Poland, National Bank of Poland,
Portugal, Bank of Portugal,
Qatar, Qatar Central Bank,
Romania, National Bank of Romania,
Russia, Central Bank of Russia,

Rwanda, National Bank of Rwanda,
San Marino, Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino,
Samoa, Central Bank of Samoa,
Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency,

Senegal, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Serbia, National Bank of Serbia,
Seychelles, Central Bank of Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Bank of Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Monetary Authority of Singapore,
Slovakia, National Bank of Slovakia,
Slovenia, Bank of Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Central Bank of Solomon Islands,
South Africa, South African Reserve Bank,
Spain, Bank of Spain,
Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Bank of Sudan,
Surinam, Central Bank of Suriname,
Swaziland, The Central Bank of Swaziland,
Sweden, Sveriges Riksbank,
Switzerland, Swiss National Bank,

Tajikistan, National Bank of Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Bank of Tanzania,
Thailand, Bank of Thailand,
Togo, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Tonga, National Reserve Bank of Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Central Bank of Tunisia,
Turkey, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey,

Uganda, Bank of Uganda,
Ukraine, National Bank of Ukraine,
United Arab Emirates, Central Bank of United Arab Emirates,

United Kingdom, Bank of England,

United States, Federal Reserve, Federal Reserve Bank of New York,

US-FederalReserveSystem-Seal_svg_

Vanuatu, Reserve Bank of Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Central Bank of Venezuela,

Vietnam, The State Bank of Vietnam,
Yemen, Central Bank of Yemen,
Zambia, Bank of Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe,
Bank For International Settlements, (BIS),

Wahhabi / Hanabli movement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Islamic conservative” and “Conservative Islam” redirect here. For other conservative Islamist movements, see Muslim conservatism.

Wahhabism is named after an eighteenth century preacher and scholar, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792).[15] He started a revivalist movement in the remote, sparsely populated region of Nejd,[16] advocating a purging of practices such as the popular cult of saints, and shrine and tomb visitation, widespread among Muslims, but which he considered idolatry, impurities and innovations in Islam.[4][17] Eventually he formed a pact with a local leader Muhammad bin Saud offering political obedience and promising that protection and propagation of the Wahhabi movement, would mean “power and glory” and rule of “lands and men.”[18] The movement is centered on the principle of Tawhid,[19] or the “uniqueness” and “unity” of God.[17] The movement also draws from the teachings of Medieval theologian Ibn Taymiyyah and early jurist Ahmad ibn Hanbal.[20] It aspires to return to the earliest fundamental Islamic sources of the Quran and Hadith,[20] rejecting traditional Islamic legal scholarship beyond the first three generations of Muslims as an unnecessary innovation.[21][22]Wahhabism (Arabic: وهابية‎, Wahhābiyyah) or Wahhabi mission[1] (Arabic: ألدعوة ألوهابية‎, al-Da’wa al-Wahhābiyyah ) is a religious movement or sect or form[2] of Sunni Islam variously described as “orthodox”, “ultraconservative”,[6] “austere”,[2] “fundamentalist”,[7] “puritanical”[8] (or “puritan”),[9] an Islamic “reform movement” to restore “pure monotheistic worship”,[10] or an “extremist pseudo-Sunni movement”.[11] Adherents often object to the term Wahhabi or Wahhabism as derogatory, and prefer to be called Salafi or muwahhid.

Estimates of the number of adherents to Wahhabism vary, with one source giving a figure of 5 million Wahhabis in the GCC region.[23] According to Columbia University, the majority of the GCC’s Wahhabis are from Qatar, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia.[23] 46.87% of Qataris[23] and 44.8% ofEmiratis are Wahhabis.[23] 5.7% of Bahrainis are Wahhabis and 2.17% of Kuwaitis are Wahhabis.[23] Wahhabis are the “dominant minority” in Saudi Arabia.[24] There are 4 million Saudi Wahhabis since 22.9% of Saudis are Wahhabis (concentrated in Najd).[23] The alliance between followers of ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud’s successors (the House of Saud) created the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia—where Mohammed bin Abd Al-Wahhab’s teachings are state-sponsored and the dominant form of Islam[2][25]—and continues to this day. With the help of funding from petroleum exports[26] (and other factors[27]), the movement underwent “explosive growth” beginning in the 1970s and now has worldwide influence.[2]

Wahhabism has been accused of being “a source of global terrorism”,[28][29] and for causing disunity in the Muslim community by labeling non-Wahhabi Muslims as apostates[30] (takfir) thus paving the way for their bloodshed. It has also been criticized for the destruction of historic mazaars, mausoleums, and other Muslim and non-Muslim buildings and artifacts. The “boundaries” of what make up Wahabism have been called “difficult to pinpoint”,[37] but in contemporary usage, the terms Wahhabi and Salafi are often used interchangeably, and considered to be movements with different roots that have merged since the 1960s. But Wahhabism has also been called “a particular orientation within Salafism”,[4] or an ultra-conservative, Saudi brand of Salafism.[21][22]

Definitions and etymology

Definitions

Some definitions or uses of the term Wahhabi Islam include

  • “a corpus of doctrines, but also a set of attitudes and behavior, derived from the teachings of a particularly severe religious reformist who lived in central Arabia in the mid-eighteenth century.” (Gilles Kepel)[41]
  • “pure Islam” (David Commins paraphrasing supporters definition),[42] that does not deviate from Sharia law in any way and should be called Islam and not Wahhabism.(Prince Salman bin Abdul Aziz, the governor of the Saudi capital Riyadh)[13]
  • “a misguided creed that fosters intolerance, promotes simplistic theology, and restricts Islam’s capacity for adaption to diverse and shifting circumstances.” (David Commins paraphrasing opponents definition)[42]
  • “a conservative reform movement … the creed upon which the kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded, and [which] has influenced Islamic movements worldwide.” (Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world)[43]
  • “a sect dominant in Saudi Arabia and Qatar” with footholds in “India, Africa, and elsewhere”, with a “steadfastly fundamentalist interpretation of Islam in the tradition of Ibn Hanbal”. (Cyril Glasse)[19]
  • an “eighteenth-century reformist/revivalist movement for sociomoral reconstruction of society”, “founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab” (Oxford Dictionary of Islam).[44]
  • “a political trend” within Islam that “has been adopted for power-sharing purposes”, but cannot be called a sect because “It has no special practices, nor special rites, and no special interpretation of religion that differ from the main body of Sunni Islam,” (Abdallah Al Obeid, the former dean of the Islamic University of Medina and member of the Saudi Consultative Council)[37]
  • “the true salafist movement.” Starting out as a theological reform movement, it had “the goal of calling (da‘wa) people to restore the ‘real’ meaning of tawhid (oneness of God or monotheism) and to disregard and deconstruct ‘traditional’ disciplines and practices that evolved in Islamic history such as theology and jurisprudence and the traditions of visiting tombs and shrines of venerated individuals.” (Ahmad Moussalli)[45]
  • a term used by opponents of Salafism in hopes of besmirching that movement by suggesting foreign influence and “conjuring up images of Saudi Arabia”. The term is “most frequently used in countries where Salafis are a small minority” of the Muslim community but “have made recent inroads” in `converting` the local population to Salafism. (Quintan Wiktorowicz)[12]
  • a blanket term used inaccurately to refer to “any Islamic movement that has an apparent tendency toward misogyny, militantism, extremism, or strict and literal interpretation of the Quran and hadith” (Natana J. DeLong-Bas)[46]

Etymology

Wahhabis under the leadership ofAbdullah bin Saud destroyed the tomb of Hussein bin Ali (Muhammad‘s grandson and an important figure in both Sunni and Shia Islam), furthermore Islam‘s holiest shrines inMakkah and Madinah were damaged and innocent civilians were put to death when they objected to it.[34][35]Abdullah bin Saud was captured, put on trial and executed in Istanbul bySunni Ottomans.[47]

According to Saudi writer Abdul Aziz Qassim, it was the Ottomans who “first labelled Abdul Wahhab’s school of Islam in Saudi Arabia as Wahhabism”. The British also adopted it and expanded its use in the Middle East. In the US the term “Wahhabi” was used in the 1950s to refer to “puritan Muslims”, according to Life magazine.[48]

Wahhabis do not like—or at least did not like—the term. Ibn Abd-Al-Wahhab’s was averse to the elevation of scholars and other individuals, including using a person’s name to label an Islamic school.[31] According to Robert Lacey “the Wahhabis have always disliked the name customarily given to them” and preferred to be called Muwahhidun. English translation of that term, “Unitarians,” however causes confusion with the Christian denomination (Unitarian Universalism) and other terms have not caught on. Like the Christian Quakers then, Wahhabis have “remained known by the name first assigned to them by their detractors.”[49]

According to social scientist Quintan Wiktorowicz, “Wahhabi” has also been used by its opponents “to denote foreign influence”, particularly in countries where they are “a small minority of the Muslim community, but have made recent inroads in “converting” the local population to the movement ideology”.[12]

According to Saudi author Abdul Aziz Qassim, the name Wahhabis prefer is “the reform or Salafi movement of the Sheikh”.[50] Wiktorowicz also urges use of the term Salafi, maintaining

one would be hard pressed to find individuals who refer to themselves as Wahhabis or organizations that use “Wahhabi” in their title, or refer to their ideology in this manner (unless they are speaking to a Western audience that is unfamiliar with Islamic terminology, and even then usage is limited and often appears as “Salafi/Wahhabi”).[12]

However, authors at Global Security and Library of Congress state the term is now commonplace and used even by Wahhabi scholars in the Najd,[4][51] often called the “heartland” of Wahhabism.[52]

American scholar Christopher M. Blanchard distinguishes between the two by using Wahhabism to refer to “a conservative Islamic creed centered in and emanating from Saudi Arabia,” and Salafiyya to refer to “a more general puritanical Islamic movement that has developed independently at various times and in various places in the Islamic world.”[31]

History

The Wahhbi mission started as a revivalist movement in the remote, arid region of Nejd. With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, the Al Saud dynasty, and with it Wahhabism, spread to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. After the discovery of petroleum near the Persian Gulf in 1939, it had access to oil export revenues, revenue that grew to billions of dollars. This money—spent on books, media, schools, universities, mosques, scholarships, fellowships, lucrative jobs for journalists, academics and Islamic scholars—gave Wahhabism a “preeminent position of strength” in Islam around the world.[53]

In the country of Wahhabism’s founding—and by far the largest and most powerful country where it is the state religion—Wahhabi ulama gained control over education, law, public morality and religious institutions in the 20th century, while permitting as a “trade-off” doctrinally objectionable actions such as the import of modern technology and communications, and dealings with non-Muslims, for the sake of the consolidation of the power of its political guardian, the Al Saud dynasty.[54]

However, in the last couple of decades of the twentieth century several crises worked to erode Wahhabi “credibility” in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the Muslim world—the November 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque by militants; the deployment of US troops in Saudi during the 1991 Gulf War against Iraq; and the 9/11 2001 al-Qaeda attacks on New York and Washington.[55]

In each case the Wahhabi establishment was called on to support the dynasty’s efforts to suppress religious dissent—and in each case it did [55]—exposing its dependence on the Saudi dynasty and its often unpopular policies.[56][57]

In the West, the end of the Cold War and the anti-communist alliance with conservative, religious Saudi Arabia, and the 9/11 attacks created enormous distrust towards the kingdom and especially its official religion.[58]

Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab

The founder of Wahhabism, Mohammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, was born around 1700 in a small oasis town in the Najd region, in what is now central Saudi Arabia. He studied inBasra (in what is now Iraq)[59][60] and possibly Mecca and Medina while there to perform Hajj,[61][62] before returning to his home town of ‘Uyayna in 1740. There he worked to spread (what he believed to be) the call (da’wa) for a restoration of true monotheistic worship,[63] purified of innovations, such as invoking or making vows to “holy men” or “saints”. The “pivotal idea” of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s teaching was that people who called themselves Muslims but who participated in such innovations were not just misguided or committing a sin, but were “outside the pale of Islam altogether,” as were Muslims who disagreed with his definition. [64]

This included not just lax, unlettered, nomadic Bedu, but Shia, Sufi, and Ottomans.[65] Such infidels were not to be killed outright, but to be given a chance to repent first.[66][67]

With the support of the ruler of the town—Uthman ibn Mu’ammar—he carried out some of his religious reforms in ‘Uyayna, including the demolishing of the tomb of Zayd ibn al-Khattab (one of the Sahaba (companions) of the prophet Muhammad), and the stoning to death of an adulterous woman.[68] However, a more powerful chief, (Sulaiman ibn Muhammad ibn Ghurayr), pressured Uthman ibn Mu’ammar to expell him from ‘Uyayna.[69]

Alliance with the House of Saud

Further information: First Saudi State

The First Saudi state1744-1818

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932

The ruler of nearby town, Muhammad ibn Saud, invited ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab to join him, and in 1744 a pact was made between the two. [70] Ibn Saud would protect and propagate the doctrines of the Wahhabi mission, while ibn Abdul Wahhab “would support the ruler, supplying him with `glory and power.`” Whoever championed his message, ibn Abdul Wahhab promised, `will, by means of it, rule and lands and men.` [18] Ibn Saud would abandon un-Sharia taxation of local harvests, and in return God might compensate him with booty from conquest and sharia compliant taxes that would exceed what he gave up.[71] The alliance between the Wahhabi mission and Al Saud family has “endured for more than two and half centuries,” surviving defeat and collapse.[70][72] The two families have intermarried multiple times over the years and in today’s Saudi Arabia, the minister of religion is always a member of the Al ash-Sheikh family, (i.e. a descendent of Ibn Abdul Wahhab).[73]

According to most sources, Ibn Abd al-Wahhab declared jihad against neighboring tribes, whose practices of praying to saints, making pilgrimages to tombs and special mosques, he believed to be the work of idolaters/unbelievers. [32] [66][74][75] (One academic disputes this. According to Natana DeLong-Bas, Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was restrained in urging fighting with perceived unbelievers, preferring to preach and persuade rather than attack. It was only after the death of Muhammad bin Saud in 1765 that, according to DeLong-Bas, Muhammad bin Saud’s son and successor, Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad, used a “convert or die” approach to expand his domain,[79] and when Wahhabis adopted the takfir ideas ofIbn Taymiyya.[80])

Conquest expanded through the Arabian Peninsula until it conquered Mecca and Medina the early 19th century. [51][81] (It was at this time, according to DeLong-Bas, that Wahhabis embraced the ideas of Ibn Taymiyya—which allow self-professed Muslim who do not follow Islamic law to be declared non-Muslims—to justify their warring and conquering the Muslim Sharifs of Hijaz.[80])

One of their most noteworthy and controversial attacks was on Karbala in 1802 (1217 AH). There, according to a Wahhabi chronicler `Uthman b. `Abdullah b. Bishr: “The Muslims”—as the Wahhabis referred to themselves, not feeling the need to distinguish themselves from other Muslims, since they did not believe them to be Muslims —

scaled the walls, entered the city … and killed the majority of its people in the markets and in their homes. [They] destroyed the dome placed over the grave of al-Husayn [and took] whatever they found inside the dome and its surroundings … the grille surrounding the tomb which was encrusted with emeralds, rubies, and other jewels … different types of property, weapons, clothing, carpets, gold, silver, precious copies of the Qur’an.”[82]

Wahhabis also massacred the male population and enslaved the women and children of the city of Ta’if in Hejaz in 1803.[83]

The Ottoman Empire eventually succeeded in counterattacking. In 1818 they defeated Al Saud, leveling the capital (Diriyah, executing the Al-Saud emir, exiling the emirate’s polittical and relgious leadership,[72][84] and otherwise unsuccessfully attempted to stamp out not just the House of Saud but the Wahhabi mission.[85] A second, smaller Saudi state (Emirate of Nejd) lasted from 1819-1891. Its borders being within Najd, Wahhabism was protected from further Ottoman or Egyptian campaigns by the Nejd’s isolation, lack of valuable resources, and that era’s limited communication and transportation.[86]

By the 1880s, at least among townsmen if not bedohin, Wahhabi strict monotheistic doctrine had become the native religious culture of the Najd.[87]

Abdul-Aziz Ibn Saud

Ibn Saud, the first king of Saudi Arabia

Further information: History of Saudi Arabia

T. E. Lawrence was sympathetic toSalafi elements in the Arabian Peninsula that intended to oust theOttoman Empire.

In 1901, Abdul-Aziz Ibn Saud, a fifth generation descendent of Muhammad ibn Saud,[88] began a military campaign that led to the conquest of much of the Arabian peninsula and the founding of present day Saudi Arabia, after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.[89] The result that safeguarded of the vision of Islam based around the tenets of Islam as preached by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab was not bloodless, as 40,000 public executions and 350,000 amputations were carried out during its course, according to some estimates.

Under the reign of Abdul-Aziz, “political considerations trumped religious idealism” favored by pious Wahhabis. His political and military success gave the Wahhabi ulama control over religious institutions with jurisdiction over considerable territory, and in later years Wahhabi ideas formed the basis of the rules and laws concerning social affairs, and shaped the kingdom’s judicial and educational policies.[94] But protests from Wahhabi ulama were overridden when it came to consolidating power in Hijaz and al-Hasa, avoiding clashes with the great power of the region (Britain), adopting modern technology, establishing a simple governmental administrative framework, or signing an oil concession with the U.S. [95] The Wahhabi ulama also issued a fatwa affirming that “only the ruler could declare a jihad”[96] (a violation of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s teaching according to Deong-Bas.[46])

As the realm of Wahhabism expanded under Ibn Saud into areas of Shiite (Al-Hasa, conquered in 1913) and pluralistic Muslim tradition (Hejaz, conquered in 1924-5), Wahhabis pressed for forced conversion of Shia and an eradication of (what they saw as) idolatry. Ibn Saud sought “a more relaxed approach”.[97]

In al-Hasa, efforts to stop the observance of Shia religious holidays and replace teaching and preaching duties of Shia clerics with Wahhabi, lasted only a year.[98]

In Mecca and Jeddah (in Hejaz) prohibition of tobacco, alcohol, playing cards and listening to music on the phonograph was looser than in Najd. Over the objections of Wahhabi ulama, Ibn Saud permitted both the driving of automobiles and the attendance of Shia at hajj.[99]

Enforcement of the commanding right and forbidding wrong, such as enforcing prayer observance and separation the sexes, developed a prominent place during the second Saudi emirate, and in 1926 a formal committee for enforcement was founded in Mecca.

While Wahhabi warriors swore loyalty to monarchs of Al Saud, there was one major rebellion. King Abdul-Aziz put down rebelling Ikhwan—nomadic tribesmen turned Wahhabi warriors who opposed his “introducing such innovations as telephones, automobiles, and the telegraph” and his “sending his son to a country of unbelievers (Egypt)”. [102] Britain had aided Abdul-Aziz, and when the Ikhwan attacked the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, as a continuation of jihad to expand the Wahhabist realm, Abdul-Aziz struck, killing hundreds before the rebels surrendered in 1929.[103]

Connection with the outside

Before Abdul-Aziz, during most of the second half of the 19th century, there was a strong aversion in Wahhabi lands to mixing with “idolaters” (which included most of the Muslim world). Voluntary contact was considered by Wahhabi clerics to be at least a sin, and if one enjoyed the company of idolaters, and “approved of their religion”, an act of unbelief. [104] Travel outside the pale of Najd to the Ottoman lands “was tightly controlled, if not prohibited altogether”.[105]

Over the course of its history, however, Wahhabism has became more accommodating towards the outside world.[106] In the late 1800s, Wahhabis found Muslims with at least similar beliefs—first with Ahl-i Hadith in India,[107] and later with Islamic revivalists in Arab states (one being Mahmud Sahiri al-Alusi in Baghdad).[108] The revivalists and Wahhabis shared a common interest in Ibn Taymiyya‘s thought, the permissibility of ijtihad, and the need to purify worship practices of innovation.[109] In the 1920s, Rashid Rida, a pioneerSalafist whose periodical al-Manar was widely read in the Muslim world, published an “anthology of Wahhabi treatises,” and a work praising the Ibn Saud as “the savior of the Haramayn [the two holy cities] and a practitioner of authentic Islamic rule”. [110][111]

In a bid “to join the Muslim mainstream and to erase the reputation of extreme sectarianism associated with the Ikhwan,” in 1926 Ibn Saud convened a Muslim congress of representatives of Muslim governments and popular associations.[112] By the early 1950s, the “pressures” on Ibn Saud of controlling the regions of Hejaz and al-Hasa — “outside the Wahhabi heartland”—and of “navigating the currents of regional politics” “punctured the seal” between the Wahhabi heartland and the “land of idolatry” outside.

A major current in regional politics at that time was secular nationalism, which, Gamal Abdul Nasser, was sweeping the Arab world. To combat it, Wahhabi missionary outreach worked closely with Saudi foreign policy initiatives. In May 1962, a conference in Mecca organized by Saudis discussed ways to combat secularism and socialism. In its wake, theWorld Muslim League was established.[115] To propagate Islam and `repel inimical trends and dogmas`, the League opened branch offices around the globe. [75] It developed closer association between Wahhabis and leading Salafis, and made common cause with the Islamic revivalist Muslim Brotherhood, Ahl al-Hadith and the Jamaat-i Islami, combating Sufism and “innovative” popular religious practices[115] and rejecting the West and Western “ways which were so deleterious of Muslim piety and values.” [116] Missionaries were sent to West Africa, where the League funded schools, distributed religious literature, and gave scholarships to attend Saudi religious universities. One result was the Izala Societywhich fought Sufism in Nigeria, Chad, Niger, and Cameroon.[117]

An event that had a great effect on Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia[118] was the “infiltration of the transnationalist revival movement” in the form of thousands of pious, Islamist Arab Muslim Brotherhood refugees from Egypt following Nasser’s clampdown on the brotherhood[119] (and also from similar nationalist clampdowns in Iraq[120] and Syria.[121]), to help staff the new school system of (the largely illiterate) Kingdom. [122] Brethern refugees

The Brotherhood’s Islamist ideology differed from the more conservative Wahhabism which preached loyal obedience to the king. The Brotherhood dealt in what one author (Robert Lacey) called “change-promoting concepts” like social justice, and anticolonialism, and gave “a radical, but still apparently safe, religious twist” to the Wahhabi values Saudi students “had absorbed in childhood”. With the Brotherhood’s “hands-on, radical Islam”, jihad became a “practical possibility today”, not just part of history.[123]

The Brethren were ordered by the Saudi clergy and government not to attempt to proselytize or otherwise get involved in religious doctrinal matters within the Kingdom, but nonetheless “took control” of Saudi Arabia’s intellectual life” by publishing books and participating in discussion circles and salons held by princes. [124] In time they took leading roles in key governmental ministries,[125] and had influence on education curriculum.[126] An Islamic university in Medina created in 1961 to train—mostly non-Saudi—proselytizers to Wahhabism, [127] became “a haven” for Muslim Brother refugees from Egypt.[128] The Brothers’ ideas eventually spread throughout the kingdom and had great effect on Wahhabism—although observers differ as to whether this was by “undermining” it[118][129]) or “blending” with it.

Growth

In the 1950s and 60s within Saudi Arabia, the Wahhabi ulama maintained their hold on religious law courts, presided over the creation of Islamic universities, and a public school system which gave students “a heavy dose of religious instruction”.[132] Outside of Saudi the Wahhabi ulama became “less combative” toward the rest of the Muslim world. In confronting the challenge of the West, Wahhabi doctrine “served well” for many Muslims as a “platform” and “gained converts beyond the peninsula.”[132][133]

A number of reasons have been given for this success. The growth in popularity and strength of both Arab nationalism (although Wahhabis opposed any form of nationalism as an ideology, Saudis were Arabs, and their enemy the Ottoman caliphate was ethnically Turkish),[27] and Islamic reform (specifically reform by following the example of those first three generations of Muslims known as the Salaf);[27] the destruction of the Ottoman Empire which sponsored their most effective critics,[134] the destruction of another rival, the Khilafa in Hejaz, in 1925.[27] Not least in importance was the money Saudi Arabia earned from exporting oil.[53]

Petroleum export era

The pumping and export of oil from Saudi Arabia started during World War II, and its earnings helped fund religious activities in the 1950s and 60. But it was the 1973 oil crisis and quadrupling in the price of oil that both increased the kingdom’s wealth astronomically and enhanced its prestige by demonstrating its international power as a leader of OPEC. By 1980, Saudi Arabia was earning every three days the income from oil it had taken a year to earn before the embargo.[135] Tens of billions of dollars of this money were spent on books, media, schools, scholarships for students (from primary to post-graduate), fellowships and subsidies to reward journalists, academics and Islamic scholars, the building of hundreds of Islamic centers and universities, and over one thousand schools and one thousand mosques.[136][137] [138] During this time Wahhabism attained what Gilles Kepel called a “preeminent position of strength in the global expression of Islam.”[53]

Afghanistan jihad

The “apex of cooperation” between Wahhabis and Muslim revivalist groups was the Afghan jihad.[139]

In December 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan—its poor Muslim neighbor—concerned about a growing Islamic insurgency against a friendly, pro-modernization regime there. Shortly thereafter, Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, a Muslim Brother cleric with ties to Saudi religious institutions,[140] issued a fatwa[141] declaring defensive jihad in Afghanistan against the atheist Soviet Union, “fard ayn”, a personal (or individual) obligation for all Muslims. The edict was supported by Saudi Arabia’s Grand Mufti (highest religious scholar),Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, among others.[142][143]

Between 1982 and 1992 an estimated 35,000 individual Muslim volunteers went to Afghanistan to fight the Soviets and their Afghan regime. Thousands more attended frontier schools teeming with former and future fighters. Somewhere between 12,000 and 25,000 of these volunteers came from Saudi Arabia.[144] Saudi Arabia and the other conservative Gulf monarchies also provided considerable financial support to the jihad — $600 million a year by 1982.[145]

By 1989, Soviet troops had withdrawn and within a few years not only had the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul collapsed, so had the Soviet Union.

This Saudi/Wahhabi religious triumph further stood out in the Muslim world because many Muslim-majority states (and the PLO) were allied with the Soviet Union and did not support the Afghan jihad.[146] But many jihad volunteers (most famously Osama bin Laden) returning home to Saudi and elsewhere were often radicalized by Islamic militants who were “much more extreme than their Saudi sponsors.”[146]

“Erosion” of Wahhabism

Grand Mosque seizure

Main article: Grand Mosque Seizure

In 1979, 400–500 Islamist insurgents using smuggled weapons and supplies, took over the Grand mosque in Mecca, called for an overthrow of the monarchy, denounced the Wahhabi ulama as royal puppets, and announced the arrival of the Mahdi of “end time“. The insurgents deviated from Wahhabi doctrine in significant details,[147] but were alsoassociated with leading Wahhabi ulama (Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz knew the insurgent’s leader, Juhayman al-Otaybi).[148] Their seizure of Islam‘s holiest site, the taking hostage of hundreds of hajj pilgrims, and the deaths of hundreds of militants, security forces and hostages caught in crossfire during the two week long retaking of the mosque, all shocked theIslamic world[149] and did not enhance the prestige of Al Saud as “custodians” of the mosque.

The incident also damaged the prestige of the Wahhabi establishment. Saudi leadership sought and received Wahhabi fatawa to approve the military removal of the insurgents and after that to execute them.[150] But Wahhabi clerics also fell under suspicion for involvement with the insurgents. [151] In part as a consequence, Sahwa clerics influenced by Brethren’s ideas were given freer reign. Their ideology was also thought more likely to compete with the recent Islamic revolutionism/third-worldism of the Iranian Revolution.[151]

Although the insurgents were motivated by religious puritanism, the incident was not followed by a crackdown on other religious purists, but by giving greater power to the ulama and religious conservatives to more strictly enforce Islamic codes in myriad ways[152]—from the banning of women’s images in the media to adding even more hours of Islamic studies in school and giving more power and money to the religious police to enforce conservative rules of behaviour.[153][154][155]

1990 Gulf War

In August 1990 Iraq invaded and annexed the oil-rich emirate of Kuwait. Concerned that Saddam Hussein might push south and seize its own oil fields, Saudis requested military support from the US and allowed tens of thousands of US troops to be based in the Kingdom to fight Iraq.[125]

But what “amounted to seeking infidels’ assistance against a Muslim power” was difficult to justify in terms of Wahhabi doctrine.

Again Saudi authorities sought and received a fatwa from leading Wahhabi ulama supporting their action. The fatwa failed to persuade many conservative Muslims and ulama who strongly opposed US presence, including the Muslim Brotherhood-supported the Sahwah “Awakening” movement that began pushing for political change in the Kingdom.[158]Outside the kingdom, Islamist/Islamic revival groups that had long received aid from Saudi and had ties with Wahhabis (Arab jihadists, Pakistani and Afghan Islamists) supported Iraq, not Saudi.[26]

During this time and later, many in the Wahhabi/Salafi movement (such as Osama bin Laden) not only no longer looked to the Saudi monarch as an emir of Islam, but supported his overthrow, focusing on jihad (Salafist jihadists) against the US and (what they believe are) other enemies of Islam. (This movement is sometimes called neo-Wahhabi or neo-salafi.)

After 9/11

The 2001 9/11 attacks on (Saudi’s putative ally) the US that killed almost 3,000 people and caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage[161] were assumed by many (at least outside the kingdom) to be “an expression of Wahhabism”, since the Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden and most of the 9/11 hijackers are Saudi nationals.[162] A backlash in the formerly hospitable US against the kingdom focused on its official religion that came to be considered by “some … a doctrine of terrorism and hate.”[58]

Inside the kingdom, Crown Prince Abdullah addressed the country’s religious, tribal, business, and media leadership following the attacks in a series of televised gatherings calling for a strategy to correct what has gone wrong. According to author Robert Lacey, the gatherings and later articles and replies by a top cleric (Dr. Adullah Turki) and two top Al Saud princes (Prince Turki Al-Faisal, Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz), served as an occasion to sort out who had the ultimate power in the kingdom—the Al Saud dynasty and not the ulema. It was declared that it has always been the role of executive rulers in Islamic history to exercise power and the job of the religious scholars to advise, never to govern.[123]

In 2003-2004, Saudi Arabia saw a wave of Al-Qaeda-related suicide bombings, attacks on Non-Muslim foreigners and gun battles between Saudi security forces and militants. One reaction to the attacks was a trimming back of the Wahhabi establishment’s domination of religion and society. “National Dialogues” were held that “included Shiites, Sufis, liberal reformers, and professional women.”[163] In 2009, as part of what some called an effort to “take on the ulema and reform the clerical establishment”, King Abdullah issued a decree that only “officially approved” religious scholars would be allowed to issue fatwas in Saudi Arabia. The king also expanded the Council of Senior Scholars (containing officially approved religious scholars) to include scholars from Sunni schools of Islamic jurisprudence other than the Hanbali madhabShafi’i, Hanafi and Maliki schools.[164]

Relations with the Muslim Brotherhood have deteriorated steadily. After 9/11, the then interior minister Prince Nayef, blamed the Brotherhood, for extremism in the kingdom,[165] and he declared it guilty of “betrayal of pledges and ingratitude” and “the source of all problems in the Islamic world”, after it was elected to power in Egypt.[166] In March 2014 the Saudi government declared the Brotherhood a “terrorist organization”.[125]

Wahhabi influence in Saudi Arabia, however, remained tangible in the physical conformity in dress, in public deportment, and in public prayer. Most significantly, the Wahhabi legacy was manifest in the social ethos that presumed government responsibility for the collective moral ordering of society, from the behavior of individuals, to institutions, to businesses, to the government itself. [167]

Memoirs of Mr. Hempher

A widely circulated but discredited apocryphal description of the founding of Wahhabism[168][169] known as Memoirs of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy to the Middle East (other titles have been used),[170] alleges that a British agent named Hempher was responsible for creation of Wahhabism. In the “memoir”, Hempher corrupts Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, manipulating him[171] to preach his new interpretation of Islam for the purpose of sowing dissension and disunity among Muslims so that “We, the English people, … may live in welfare and luxury.”[170]

Practices

As a religious revivalist movement that works to bring Muslims back from it believes are foreign accretions that have corrupted Islam,[172] and believes that Islam is a complete way of life and so has prescriptions for all aspects of life, Wahhabism is quite strict in what it considers Islamic behavior.

This does not mean however, that all adherents agree on what is required or forbidden, or that rules have not varied by area or changed over time. In Saudi Arabia the strict religious atmosphere of Wahhabi doctrine is visible in the conformity in dress, public deportment, and public prayer,[173] and makes its presence felt by the wide freedom of action of the “religious police“, clerics in mosques, teachers in schools, and judges (who are religious legal scholars) in Saudi courts.[174]

Commanding right and forbidding wrong

Wahhabism is noted for its policy of “compelling its own followers and other Muslims strictly to observe the religious duties of Islam, such as the five prayers”, and for “enforcement of public morals to a degree not found elsewhere”.[175]

While other Muslims might urge abstention from alcohol, modest dress, and salat prayer, for Wahhabis prayer “that is punctual, ritually correct, and communally performed not only is urged but publicly required of men.” Not only is wine forbidden, but so are “all intoxicating drinks and other stimulants, including tobacco.” Not only is modest dress prescribed, but the type of clothing that should be worn, especially by women (a black abaya, covering all but the eyes and hands) is specified.[51]

Following the preaching and practice of Abdul Wahhab that coercion should be used to enforce following of sharia, an official committee has been empowered to “Command the Good and Forbid the Evil” (the so-called “religious police”) [160][175] in Saudi Arabia—the one country founded with the help of Wahhabi warriors and whose scholars and pious dominate many aspects of the Kingdom’s life. Committee “field officers” enforce strict closing of shops at prayer time, segregation of the sexes, prohibition of the sale and consumption of alcohol, driving of motor vehicles by women, and other social restrictions.[176]

A large number of practices have been reported forbidden by Saudi Wahhabi officials, preachers or religious police. Practices that have been forbidden as Bida’a (innovation) orshirk and sometimes “punished by flogging” during Wahhabi history include performing or listening to music, dancing, fortune telling, ambulets, television programs (unless religious), smoking, playing backgammon, chess, or cards, drawing human or animal figures, acting in a play or writing fiction (both are considered forms of lying), dissecting cadavers (even in criminal investigations and for the purposes of medical research), recorded music played over telephones on hold, the sending of flowers to friends or relatives who are in the hospital Common Muslim practices Wahhabis believe are contrary to Islam include listening to music in praise of Muhammad, praying to God while visiting tombs (including the tomb of Muhammad), celebrating mawlid (birthday of the Prophet),[182] the use of ornamentation on or in mosques.[183] The driving of motor vehicles by women is allowed in every country but Wahhabi-dominated Saudi Arabia,[184] the famously strict Taliban practiced dream interpretation, discouraged by Wahhabis.[185][186]

Wahhabism emphasizes `Thaqafah Islamiyyah` or Islamic culture and the importance of avoiding non-Islamic cultural practices and non-Muslim friendship no matter how innocent these may appear, on the grounds that the Sunna forbids imitating non-Muslims.[189] Foreign practices sometimes punished and sometimes simply condemned by Wahhabi preachers as unIslamic, include celebrating foreign days (such as Valentine’s Day[190] or Mothers Day.[187][189]) shaving, cutting or trimming of beards,[191] giving of flowers,[192]standing up in honor of someone, celebrating birthdays (including the Prophet’s), keeping or petting dogs.[180] Wahhabi scholars have warned against taking non-Muslims as friends, smiling at or wishing them well on their holidays.[193]

Wahhabis are not in unamimous agreement on what is forbidden as sin. Some Wahhabi preachers or activists go further than the official Saudi Arabian Council of Senior Scholarsin forbidding (what they believe to be) sin. Several wahhabis have declared Football (Soccer) forbidden for a variety of reasons (because it is a non-Muslim, foreign practice—because of the revealing uniforms, or because of the foreign non-Muslim language (foul, penalty kick) used in matches.[194] [195]) The Saudi Grand Mufti, on the other hand has declared football permissable (halal). [196]

Senior Wahhabi leaders in Saudi Arabia have determined that Islam forbids the traveling or working outside the home by a woman without their husband’s permission—permission which may be revoked at any time—on the grounds that the different physiological structures and biological functions of the different genders mean that each sex is assigned a different role to play in the family. [197] As mentioned before, Wahhabism also forbids the driving of motor vehicles by women. Sexual intercourse out of wedlock may be punished with beheading[198] although sex out of wedlock is permissible with a slave women (Prince Bandar bin Sultan was the product of “a brief encounter” between his father Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz” — the Saudi defense minister for many years — and “his slave, a black servingwoman”)[123] or was before slavery was banned in Saudi Arabia in 1962.[199]

Despite this strictness, senior Wahhabi scholars of Islam in the Saudi kingdom have made exceptions in ruling on what is haram. Foreign non-Muslim troops are forbidden in Arabia except when the king needed them to confront Saddam Hussein in 1990; gender mixing of men and women is forbidden, and fraternization with non-Muslims is discouraged, but not at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). Movie theaters and driving by women are forbidden except at the ARAMCO compound in eastern Saudi, populated by workers for the company that provides almost all the government’s revenue. (The exceptions made at KAUST are also in effect at ARAMCO.)[200]

And more general rules of what is permissible have changed over time. Abdul-Aziz Ibn Saud imposed Wahhabi doctrines and practices “in a progressively gentler form” as his early 20th century conquests expanded his state into urban areas, especially the Hejab.[201] After vigorous debate Wahhabi religious authorities in Saudi Arabia allowed the use of paper money (in 1951), the abolition of slavery (in 1962), education of females (1964), and use of television (1965).[199] Music the the sound of which once might have led to summary execution is now commonly heard on Saudi radios. [201] Minarets for mosques and use of funeral markers, which were once forbidden, are now allowed. Prayer attendance which was once enforced by flogging, is no longer. [202]

Appearance

Wahhabism (and Salafism) puts great store in public behavior and appearance. It is said that a “badge” of a Salafi or Wahhabi is a robe to short to cover the ankle, and an untrimmed beard.[203]

However, the “long, white flowing thobe” has been called the “Wahhabi national dress” of Saudi Arabia.[204]

Wahhabiyya mission

Wahhabi mission, or Dawah Wahhabiyya, is to spread purified Islam through the world, both Muslim and non-Muslim. [205] Tens of billions of dollars have been spent by the Saudi government and charities on mosques, schools, education materials, scholarships, throughout the world to promote Islam and the Wahhabi interpretation of it. Tens of thousands of volunteers[144] and several billion dollars also went in support of the jihad against the atheist communist regime governing Muslim Afghanistan.[145]

Regions

Wahhabism originated in Nejd region, and its conservative practices have stronger support there than in regions in the kingdom to the east or west of it.[206] [207] [208] Glasse credits the softening of some Wahhabi doctrines and practices on the conquest of the Hejaz region “with its more cosmopolitan traditions and the traffic of pilgrims which the new rulers could not afford to alienate”.[201]

The only other country “whose native population is Wahhabi and that adheres to the Wahhabi creed”, is the small gulf monarchy of Qatar [209][210] whose version of Wahhabism is notably less strict.

Unlike Saudi Arabia, Qatar made significant changes in the 1990s. Women are now allowed to drive and travel independently; non-Muslims are permitted to consume alcohol and pork. The country sponsors a film festival, has a “world-class art museums”, host the Al Jazeera and will hold the 2022 football World Cup, and has no religious force that polices public morality. Qatari’s attribute its different interpretation of Islam to the absence of an indigenous clerical class and autonomous bureaucracy (religious affairs authority, endowments, Grand Mufti), the fact that Qatari rulers do not derive their legitimacy from such a class. [210][211]

Beliefs

The Wahhabi subscribe to Sunni Islam (though some people dispute that a Wahhabi is a Sunni).[212] and the primary doctrine of the uniqueness and unity of God (Tawhid);[17][213]the first aspect of which is belief in Allah and His Lordship, that He alone is the believer’s lord, or Rabb; the second being that once one affirms the oneness of worship to Allah and Allah alone; the third being the belief and affirmation of Allah’s Names and Attributes.

Wahhabi theology is very precise in its creed or Aqeedah where the Quran and Hadith are the only fundamental and authoritative texts taken with the understanding of the Salaf. Commentaries and “the examples of the early Muslim community (Ummah) and the four Rightly Guided Caliphs (AD 632–661)” known as Athar narrations are used to support these texts, hence the name of the school of theology given as Athari, but are not considered independently authoritative.[46]

Ibn Abd al-Wahhab further explains in his book Kitab al-Tawhid, which draws directly on material from the Quran and the narrations of the Prophet, that worship in Islam includes conventional acts of worship such as the five daily prayers; fasting; Dua (supplication); Istia’dha (seeking protection or refuge); Ist’ana (seeking help), and Istigatha to Allah (seeking benefits and calling upon Allah alone). Therefore, making du’a or calling upon anyone or anything other than God, or seeking supernatural help and protection that is only befitting of a divine being from something other than Allah alone are acts of “shirk” and contradict the tenets of Tawhid.[214][page needed] Ibn Abd al-Wahhab further explains that Muhammad during his lifetime tried his utmost to identify and repudiate all actions that violated these principles.[214][page needed]

The most important of these commentaries are those by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab in particular his book Kitab al-Tawhid, and the works of Ibn Taymiyyah.[citation needed] Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was a follower of Ahmad ibn Hanbal‘s school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) like most in Nejd at the time, but “was opposed to any of the schools (Madh’hab) being taken as an absolute and unquestioned authority”.[214][page needed]

However Ibn Abd al-Wahhab did not totally condemn taqlid, or blind adherence, only at scholarly level in the face of a clear evidence or proof from a hadeeth or Qur’anic text.[215]Although Wahhabis are associated with the Hanbali school, early disputes did not center on fiqh.[216]

Politics[edit]

According to ibn Abdal-Wahhab there are three objectives for Islamic government and society: “to believe in Allah, enjoin good behavior, and forbid wrongdoing.” This doctrine has been sustained by Wahhabis since his death in missionary literature, sermons, fatwa rulings, and explications of religious doctrine.[51] According to Muhammad ibn Abdal-Wahhab’s teachings, a Muslim must present a bayah, or oath of allegiance, to a Muslim ruler during his lifetime to ensure his redemption after death. The ruler, conversely, is owed unquestioned allegiance from his people so long as he leads the community according to the laws of God.[51][217] Wahhabis have traditionally given their allegiance to the House of Saud, but a movement of “Salafi jihadis” has developed among those who believe Al Saud has abandoned the laws of God.[159][160] Wahhabis are similar to Islamists such as theMuslim Brotherhood in their belief in Islamic dominion over politics and government and the importance of dawah (proselytizing or preaching of Islam) not just towards non-Muslims but towards erring Muslims. However Wahhabi preachers are conservative and do not deal with concepts such as social justice, anticolonialism, or economic equality, expounded upon by Islamist Muslims.[218]

Condemnation of “priests” and other religious leaders[edit]

Wahhabism denounces the practice of total blind adherence to the interpretations of scholars, at a scholarly level, and of practices passed on within the family or tribe.[citation needed]Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was dedicated to champion these principles and combat what was seen as the stagnation of Islamic scholarship which the majority of Muslims had seemingly fully adhered to without question, through taqlid of the established Ottoman clergy at the time.[citation needed]

His idea was that what he perceived to be blind deference to religious authority obstructs this direct connection with the Qur’an and Sunnah, leading him to deprecate the importance and full authority of leaders at the time, such as the scholars and muftis of the age. When arguing for his positions, Ibn Abd al-Wahhab would use translations and interpretation of the verses (known as ayat in Arabic) of the Qur’an that were contrary to the consensus amongst the scholars of the age, and positions against which there had been consensus for centuries. This methodology was considered extremely controversial at the time, in opposition to established clergy of the era, and was refuted as being erroneous by a number of scholars.[219][220][221] However the Wahhabi movement saw itself as championing the re-opening of ijtihad, being intellectual pursuit of scholarly work clarifying opinions in the face of new evidence being a newly proven sound or sahih hadeeth, a discovered historical early ijma (scholarly consensus from the early Muslims) or a suitable analogy,qiyas, based on historical records; in contrast to the witnessed saturation of Islamic jurisprudence that no longer considered ijtihad to be a viable alternative to total scholarly taqlid, being total submission to previous scholarly opinion regardless of unquestionable proof that contradicts this.[222]

Fiqh

A popular misconception associated with the movement of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab is the condemnation of the legal schools of jurisprudence, however documentation of a letter correspondence by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab recorded by his son Abdallah refutes this accusation.[223]

And also we are upon the madhhab of Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal in the matters of jurisprudence, and we do not show rejection to the one who made taqleed of one of the four Imaams as opposed to those besides them… And we do not deserve the status of absolute ijtihaad and there is none amongst us who lays claim to it, except that in some of the issues (of jurisprudence), when a plain, clear text from the Book, or a Sunnah unabrogated, unspecified and uncontradicted by what is stronger than it, and by which one of the four Imaams have spoken, we take it and we leave our madhhab … And we do not investigate (scrutinize) anyone in his madhhab, nor do we find fault with him except when we come across a plain, clear text which opposes the madhhab of one of the four Imaams and it is a matter through which an open and apparent symbol

… Thus, there is no contradiction between (this and) not making the claim of independent ijtihaad, because a group from the scholars from the four madhhabs are preceded choosing certain preferred opinions in certain matters, who, whilst making taqleed of the founders of the madhhab (in general), opposed the madhhab (in those matters).

This was seen as a revival of the tradition recorded whereby the early students of the scholars of the Madh’habs would leave their teacher’s position in light of a newly found evidence once the hadeeth had been collected.[224]

“… and this is not contradictory to the lack of the claim to ijtihaad. For it has been that a group of the imaams of the four madhaahib had their own particular views regarding certain matters that were in opposition to their madhhab, whose founder they followed.” [225]

However some modern day adherents to wahhabism consider themselves to be ‘non-imitators’ or ‘not attached to tradition’, and therefore answerable to no school of law at all, observing instead what they would call the practice of early Islam. However, to do so does correspond to the ideal aimed at by Ibn Hanbal, and thus they can be said to be of his ‘school’ however only a scholar would be capable of this level of ijtihad and most Salafi scholars warn against this for the uneducated laymen.[226]

Theology

Adherents to the Wahhabi movement take their theological viewpoint with an aspiration to assimilate with the beliefs of the early Muslims, being the first three generations otherwise known as the Salaf. This theology was taken from exegesis of the Quran and statements of the early Muslims and later codified by a number of scholars, the most well known being the 13th century Syrian scholar Ibn Taymiyyah, into what is now known as the Athari theological creed. This was upheld by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in his various works on theology.[227]

And it is that we accept the aayaat and ahaadeeth of the Attributes upon their apparent meanings, and we leave their true meanings, while believing in their realities, to Allaah ta’aalaa. For Maalik, one of the greatest of the ‘ulamaa’ of the Salaf, when asked about al-istiwaa’ in His Saying (ta’aalaa): “Ar-Rahmaan rose over the Throne.” [Taa-Haa: 5] said: “Al-istiwaa’ is known, the “how” of it is unknown, believing in it is waajib, and asking about it is bid’ah.” [225]

Some criticism accuses this school as being anthropomorphic however Ibn Taymiyyah in his work Al-Aqidah Al-Waasitiyyah refutes the stance of the Mushabbihah (those who liken the creation with God: anthropomorphism) and those who deny, negate, and resort to allegorical/metaphorical interpretations of the Divine Names and Attributes. He contends that the methodology of the Salaf is to take the middle path between the extremes of anthropomorphism and negation/distortion. He further states that salaf affirmed all the Names and Attributes of God without tashbih (establishing likeness), takyeef (speculating as to “how” they are manifested in the divine), ta’teel (negating/denying their apparent meaning) and without ta’weel (giving it secondary/symbolic meaning which is different from the apparent meaning).[228][229]

Population

One of the more detailed estimates of religious population in the Persian Gulf is by Mehrdad Izady who estimates, “using cultural and not confessional criteria”, only than 4.56 million Wahhabis in the Persian Gulf region, about 4 million from Saudi Arabia, (mostly the Najd), and the rest coming overwhelmingly from the Emirates and Qatar.[23] Most Sunni Qatarisare Wahhabis (46.87% of all Qataris)[23] and 44.8% of Emiratis are Wahhabis.[23] 5.7% of Bahrainis are Wahhabis and 2.17% of Kuwaitis are Wahhabis.[23]

Notable leaders

There has traditionally been a recognized head of the Wahhabi “religious estate”, often a member of Al ash-Sheikh (a decedent of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab) or related to another religious head. For example, Abd al-Latif was the son of Abd al-Rahman ibn Hasan.

  • Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792) was the founder of the Wahhabi movement.[230]
  • Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1752-1826) was the head of Wahhabism after his father retired from public life in 1773. After the fall of the first Saudi emirate, Abd Allah went into exile in Cairo where he died.[230]
  • Sulayman ibn Abd Allah (1780-1818) was a grandson of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and author of an influential treatise that restricted travel to and residing in land of idolaters (i.e. land outside of the Wahhabi area).[231]
  • Abd al-Rahman ibn Hasan (1780-1869) was head of the religious estate in the second Saudi emirate.[230]
  • Abd al-Latif ibn Abd al-Rahman (1810-1876) Head of religious estate in 1860 and early 1870s.[230]
  • Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Latif Al ash-Sheikh (1848-1921) was the head of religious estate during period of Rashidi rule and the early years of King Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud.[230]
  • Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh (1893-1969) was the head of Wahhabism in mid twentieth century. He has been said to have “dominated the Wahhabi religious estate and enjoyed unrivaled religious authority.”[232]

In more recent times, a couple of Wahhabi clerics have risen to prominence that have no relation to ibn Abd al-Wahhab.

  • Abdul Aziz Bin Baz, has been called “the most prominent proponent” of Wahhabism during his time. He died in 1999.[233]
  • Muhammad ibn al-Uthaymeen, another “giant” died in 2001. According to David Dean Commins, no one “has emerged” with the same “degree of authority in the Saudi religious establishment” since their deaths.[233]

International influence and propagation

Explanation for influence

Khaled Abou El Fadl attributed the appeal of Wahhabism to some Muslims as stemming from

  • Arab nationalism, which followed the Wahhabi attack on the Ottoman Empire
  • Reformism, which followed a return to Salaf (as-Salaf aṣ-Ṣāliḥ😉
  • Destruction of the Hejaz Khilafa in 1925;
  • Control of Mecca and Medina, which gave Wahhabis great influence on Muslim culture and thinking;
  • Oil, which after 1975 allowed Wahhabis to promote their interpretations of Islam using billions from oil export revenue.[234]

Scholar Gilles Kepel, agrees that the tripling in the price of oil in the mid-1970s and the progressive takeover of Saudi Aramco in the 1974–1980 period, provided the source of much influence of Wahhabism in the Islamic World.

… the financial clout of Saudi Arabia had been amply demonstrated during the oil embargo against the United States, following the Arab-Israeli war of 1973. This show of international power, along with the nation’s astronomical increase in wealth, allowed Saudi Arabia’s puritanical, conservative Wahhabite faction to attain a preeminent position of strength in the global expression of Islam. Saudi Arabia’s impact on Muslims throughout the world was less visible than that of Khomeini‘s Iran, but the effect was deeper and more enduring. …. it reorganized the religious landscape by promoting those associations and ulemas who followed its lead, and then, by injecting substantial amounts of money into Islamic interests of all sorts, it won over many more converts. Above all, the Saudis raised a new standard — the virtuous Islamic civilization — as foil for the corrupting influence of the West.[53]

Funding factor

Estimates of Saudi spending on religious causes abroad include “upward of $100 billion”,[235] between $2 and 3 billion per year since 1975. (compared to the annual Soviet propaganda budget of $1 billion/year),[236] and “at least $87 billion” from 1987-2007[237]

Its largesse funded an estimated “90% of the expenses of the entire faith”, throughout the Muslim World, according to journalist Dawood al-Shirian.[238] It extended to young and old, from children’s madrasas to high-level scholarship.[239] “Books, scholarships, fellowships, mosques” (for example, “more than 1,500 mosques were built from Saudi public funds over the last 50 years”) were paid for.[240] It rewarded journalists and academics, who followed it and built satellite campuses around Egypt for Al Azhar, the oldest and most influential Islamic university.[137] Yahya Birt counts spending on “1,500 mosques, 210 Islamic centres and dozens of Muslim academies and schools”.[236][241]

This financial has done much to overwhelm less strict local interpretations of Islam, according to observers like Dawood al-Shirian and Lee Kuan Yew,[238] and has caused the Saudi interpretation (sometimes called “petro-Islam”[242]) to be perceived as the correct interpretation—or the “gold standard” of Islam—in many Muslims’ minds.[243][244]

Criticism and controversy

Criticism by other Muslims

Among the criticism, or comments made critics, of Wahhabi movement are

  • that it is not so much strict and uncompromising as aberrant,[245] going beyond the bounds of Islam in its restricted definition of tawhid (montheism), and much too willing to takfir(declare non-Muslim and subject to execution) Muslims it found in violation of Islam[246] (in the second Wahhabi-Saudi jihad/conquest of the Arabian peninsula, an estimated 400,000 were killed or wounded according to some estimates[90][91][92][93]);
  • that bin Saud’s agreement to wage jihad to spread Ibn Abdul Wahhab’s teachings had more to do with traditional Nejd practice of raiding — “instinctive fight for survival and appetite for lucre”—than with religion.[247]
  • that it has no connection to other Islamic revival movements;[75]
  • that unlike other revivalists, its founder Abd ul-Wahhab showed little scholarship—writing little and making even less commentary [75]
  • that its contention that ziyara (visiting tombs of Muhammad, his family members, descendants, companions, or Sufi saints) and tawassul (intercession), violate tauhid al-‘ibada(directing all worship to God alone) has no basis in tradition, in consensus or in hadith, and that even if it did, it would not be grounds for excluding practioners of ziyara andtawassul from Islam[246]
  • that historically Wahhabis have had a suspicious willingness to ally itself with non-Muslim powers (specifically America and Britain), and in particular to ignore the encroachments into Muslim territory of a non-Muslim imperial power (the British) while waging jihad and weakening the Muslim Caliphate (Ottomans)[248][249] and
  • that Wahhabi strictness in matters of hijab and separation of the sexes, has led not to a more pious and virtuous—if less colorful and fun environment—Saudi Arabia, but to a society showing a very unIslamic lack of respect towards women.

Initial opposition

Allegedly the first people to oppose Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab were his father Abd al-Wahhab and his brother Salman Ibn Abd al-Wahhab who was an Islamic scholar andqadi. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s brother wrote a book in refutation of his brothers’ new teachings, called: “The Final Word from the Qur’an, the Hadith, and the Sayings of the Scholars Concerning the School of Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab”), also known as: “Al-Sawa`iq al-Ilahiyya fi Madhhab al-Wahhabiyya” (“The Divine Thunderbolts Concerning the Wahhabi School”).[250]

In “The Refutation of Wahhabism in Arabic Sources, 1745–1932”,[250] Hamadi Redissi provides original references to the description of Wahhabis as a divisive sect (firqa) and outliers (Kharijites) in communications between Ottomans and Egyptian Khedive Muhammad Ali. Redissi details refutations of Wahhabis by scholars (muftis); among them Ahmed Barakat Tandatawin, who in 1743 describes Wahhabism as ignorance (Jahala).

Shi’a criticism

In 1801 and 1802, the Saudi Wahhabis under Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud attacked and captured the holy Shia cities of Karbala and Najaf in Iraq and destroyed the tombs of Husayn ibn Ali who is the grandson of Muhammad, and son of Ali (Ali bin Abu Talib), the son-in-law of Muhammad (see: Saudi sponsorship mentioned previously). In 1803 and 1804 the Saudis captured Mecca and Madinah and demolished various venerated shrines, monuments and removed a number of what was seen as sources or possible gateways to polytheism or shirk – such as the shrine built over the tomb of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad. In 1998 the Saudis bulldozed and allegedly poured gasoline over the grave ofAminah bint Wahb, the mother of Muhammad, causing resentment throughout the Muslim World.[251][252][253] Shi’a and other minorities in Islam insist that Wahhabis are behind targeted killings in many countries such as Iraq, Pakistan and Bahrain.

Sunni and Sufi criticism

One early rebuttal of Wahhabism, (by Sunni jurist Ibn Jirjis) argued that Whoever declares that there is no god but God and prays toward Mecca is a believer, supplicating the dead is permitted because it is not a form of worship but merely calling out to them, and that worship at graves is not idolatry unless the supplicant believes that buried saints have the power to determine the course of events. (These arguments were specifically rejected as heretical by the Wahhabi leader at the time.) [254]

The Syrian professor and scholar Dr. Muhammad Sa’id Ramadan al-Buti criticises the Salafi movement in a few of his works.[255]

The Sufi Islamic Supreme Council of America founded by the Naqshbandi sufi Shaykh Hisham Kabbani classify Wahhabbism as being extremist and heretical based on Wahhabbism’s rejection of sufism and what they believe to be traditional sufi scholars.[256][257][258]

Non-Religious motivations

According to at least one critic, the 1744-1745 alliance between Ibn Abdul Wahhab and the tribal chief Muhammad bin Saud to wage jihad on neighboring allegedly false-Muslims, was a “consecration” by Ibn Abdul Wahhab of bin Saud tribe’s long standing raids on neighboring oases by “renaming those raids jihad.” Part of the Nejd’s “Hobbesian state of perpetual war pitted Beouin bribes against one another for control of the scarce resources that could stave off starvation.” And a case of substituting fath, “the `opening` or conquest of a vast territory through religious zeal”, for the “instinctive fight for survival and appetite for lucre.” [247]

Wahhabism in the United States

A study conducted by the NGO Freedom House found Wahhabi publications in mosques in the United States. These publications included statements that Muslims should not only “always oppose” infidels “in every way”, but “hate them for their religion … for Allah’s sake”, that democracy “is responsible for all the horrible wars… the number of wars it started in the 20th century alone is more than 130 wars,” and that Shia and certain Sunni Muslims were infidels.[259][260] In a response to the report, the Saudi government stated, “[It has] worked diligently during the last five years to overhaul its education system” but “[o]verhauling an educational system is a massive undertaking.”[261]

A review of the study by Institute for Social Policy and Understanding (ISPU) complained the study cited documents from only a few mosques, arguing most mosques in the U.S. are not under Wahhabi influence.[262] ISPU comments on the study were not entirely negative however, and concluded:

American-Muslim leaders must thoroughly scrutinize this study. Despite its limitations, the study highlights an ugly undercurrent in modern Islamic discourse that American-Muslims must openly confront. However, in the vigor to expose strains of extremism, we must not forget that open discussion is the best tool to debunk the extremist literature rather than a suppression of First Amendment rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution.[262]

Militant and political Islam

What connection, if any, there is between Wahhabism and Jihadi Salafis is disputed. Natana De Long-Bas, senior research assistant at the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University, argues:

The militant Islam of Osama bin Laden did not have its origins in the teachings of Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab and was not representative of Wahhabi Islam as it is practiced in contemporary Saudi Arabia, yet for the media it came to define Wahhabi Islam during the later years of bin Laden’s lifetime. However “unrepresentative” bin Laden’s global jihad was of Islam in general and Wahhabi Islam in particular, its prominence in headline news took Wahhabi Islam across the spectrum from revival and reform to global jihad.[263]

Noah Feldman distinguishes between what he calls the “deeply conservative” Wahhabis and what he calls the “followers of political Islam in the 1980s and 1990s,” such as Egyptian Islamic Jihad and later Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri. While Saudi Wahhabis were “the largest funders of local Muslim Brotherhood chapters and other hard-line Islamists” during this time, they opposed jihadi resistance to Muslim governments and assassination of Muslim leaders because of their belief that “the decision to wage jihad lay with the ruler, not the individual believer”.[264]

An analysis by START of the Global Terrorism Database reveals an increase from a few hundred in 1976 to 10,000 acts in 1983. In 2012, it found more than 8,500 terrorist attacks killed nearly 15,500 people, and six of the seven most deadly terror groups were affiliated with al Qaeda.[265]

However, Karen Armstrong states that Osama bin Laden, like most extremists, followed the ideology of Sayyid Qutb, not “Wahhabism”.[266]

Destruction of Islam’s early historical sites

The Wahhabi teachings disapprove of veneration of the historical sites associated with early Islam, on the grounds that only God should be worshipped and that veneration of sites associated with mortals leads to idolatry.[267] Many buildings associated with early Islam, including mazaar, mausoleums and other artifacts have been destroyed in Saudi Arabia by Wahhabis from early 19th century through the present day.[34][35] This practice has proved controversial and has received considerable criticism from Sunni and Shia Muslims and in the non-Muslim World.

Rejection of appellation

The appellation ‘Wahhabi’ is rejected by many people, including Muslims and non-Muslims who have studied the phenomenon. The term is mostly prevalent in anti-Saudi Arabiandiscourses, and is subsequently especially popular with Shias; in Saudi Arabia, the term ‘Wahhabi’ is virtually non-existent. The status of ‘Wahhabism’ as a distinct, separate sect of Islam is widely disputed.

Saudi Arabian Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud publicly dismissed the label ‘Wahhabism’ as ‘a doctrine that doesn’t exist here (Saudi Arabia)’ and said that ‘Wahhabism’ was a term coined by enemies of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. He defied efforts to locate the deviance of the form of Islam practiced in Saudi Arabia from the teachings of the Quranand Prophetic Hadiths.[268][269]

In his book ‘The Road the Mecca’, Muhammad Asad contends that Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Al-Wahhab‘s initial idea was nothing more than a literal revivification of Islamic principles[270] and puts no emphasis at all on the spiritual side of Islam. He also said that the idea’s acquisition of power further putrefied it:

Тhe history of Wahbab Najd is the history оf а religious idea which first rose on the wings of enthusiasm апd longing and then sank down into the lowlands of pharisaic self-righteousness. For all virtue destroys itself as soon as it ceases to be longing and humility.

[10][ Iraq Exodus ]

The SECOND ANGEL said Harvest time has come in Israel and all the way to Iran.

Then I saw that the second angel had a sickle in his hand, and he said,"
Harvest time has come in Israel and the countries all the way to Iran." I saw Turkey
and those countries that have refused Me and refused My message of love shall hate
each other and kill one another."
I saw the angel raise the sickle and come down on all the Middle East countries.

Blood and Fire
I saw Iran, Persia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, all of Georgia, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan,
Israel, all of Asia Minor full of blood.  I saw blood and fire all over these countries.
Nuclear weapons used in many of those countries. Smoke rising from everywhere.
Sudden destruction, men destroying one another.

"Israel, Oh Israel, the great judgment has come.  The chosen, the church, the remnant,
shall be purified. The Spirit of God shall prepare the children of God." I saw fires rising
to heaven. This is the final judgment. My church shall be purified, protected and ready
for the final day. Men will die from thirst. Water shall be scarce all over the Middle East.
Rivers shall dry up, and men will fight for water in those countries. The angel showed
me that the United Nations shall be broken in pieces because of the crisis in the MidEast.
There shall be no more United Nations. The angel with the sickle shall reap the harvest.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
the Iraqi war form 2003 to 2011 is what lead to the the situation is Iraq where they control 1/3 of the country for more detail on the iraq war at the bottom of the page.
Insurgency in Iraq
(post-U.S. withdrawal)
Part of the Aftermath of the Iraq War and Spillover of the Syrian Civil War (Arab Winter)
Iraq war map.png
A map of the situation in Iraq, as of 16 February 2015. For a map of the current military situation in Iraq, see here.
Date 18 December 2011 – ongoing
(3 years and 2 months)
Location Iraq (mostly central and northern, including Baghdad)
Result Ongoing

Belligerents
 ISIL


Ba’ath Party Loyalists

Military Council of Anbar’s Revolutionaries[5]


Ansar al-Islam,
Mujahideen Army,
Ansar al-Sunnah,

Supported by:

Iraqi government

 Iran

 Syria
(airstrikes)
 Russia


 Iraqi Kurdistan

PKK,
 Syrian Kurdistan,

PJAK,
Flag of the Syriac-Aramaic People.svg MFS,
QPC,
Dwekh Nawsha,
Nineveh Plain Protection Units,
Sinjar Protection Forces,
Sinjar Defense Force,
Malik Al-Tawus Troop/Sinjar Resistance Units
 Iran
International Coalition forces:[29][30]


IRGC-Seal.svg Special Groups

Hezbollah,
Supported by:

Commanders and leaders
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi,
Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri,
IAILogo.png Ismail Jubouri,
Abu Hashim al Ibrahim,
Fuad Masum
Haider Al-Abadi
Nouri al-Maliki
(2011–2014)
Babaker Shawkat B. Zebari
Massoud Barzani
Ahmad Abu Risha


Muqtada al-Sadr,
Qais al-Khazali,,
Akram al-Kabi
Shiism arabic blue.svg Abu Mustafa al-Sheibani,
Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis,
Wathiq al-Battat (POW)

Strength
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant:


Ba’ath Party Loyalists

Iraqi Security Forces
600,000 (300,000 Armyand 300,000 Police)[95]
Awakening Councilmilitias – 30,000[96]
Contractors ~7,000[97][98]
US Forces 1,000[99]
Canadian Forces 600[100]


Peshmerga: 150,000–200,000[101][102][103]


Special Groups: 7,000[104]
Badr Brigade: 10,000[105]

Insurgent losses
6,760 killed, 5,529 arrested
(Government figures, December 2011 – June 2014)
Iraqi security forces losses
1,668 policemen and 1,791 soldiers killed
3,088 policemen and 3,208 soldiers wounded
(Government figures, December 2011 – June 2014)
Civilian casualties
12,068 killed and 18,875 wounded
(Government figures, December 2011 – June 2014)
Total casualties
25,487 killed
(Government figures, December 2011 – June 2014)
28,138 killed
(civilians and executed prisoners only)
(Iraq body count figures, December 2011 – July 2014)

ContentsIn 2014, the Iraqi insurgency escalated with the conquest of Fallujahand Mosul and major areas in northern Iraq by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as ISIS). This has resulted in the forced resignation of the Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, airstrikes by the United States, Iran, and possibly Syria and Russia,[112] and the participation of Iranian troops.[113]

Chronology[edit]

January[edit]

  • ISIS militants were in control of more than half of the Iraqi city of Fallujah and parts of Ramadi. Tribesmen held parts of the other half, according to an interior ministry official. A witness in the city west of Baghdad said that militants had set up checkpoints each manned by six to seven people in central and south Fallujah. “InRamadi, it is similar — some areas are controlled by ISIS and other areas are controlled by” tribesmen, the interior ministry official said, referring to the Anbar Province capital, which lies farther to the west. A journalist in Ramadi saw dozens of trucks carrying heavily armed men driving in the city’s east, playing songs praising ISIS. Clashes broke out in the Ramadi area as security forces tore down the country’s main Sunni Arab anti-government protest site, and continued for two more days. On Wednesday, militants in the city sporadically clashed with security forces and torched four police stations, but the clashes had subsided by Thursday, the Agence France-Presse journalist said. The violence also spread to Fallujah, where police abandoned most of their positions on Wednesday and militants burned some police stations.
Minister of the Interior Nouri al-Maliki said that Iraqi soldiers would depart restive cities in Anbar Province, but reversed that decision the following day. Army forces on Thursday remained outside Ramadi.[114]
  • ISIS militants advanced into gained ground and took over several police stations in Fallujah. In early morning, ISIS fighters advanced into areas in central Ramadi and deployed snipers on one street. A police colonel said the army had re-entered into areas of Fallujah, between Ramadi and Baghdad, but that around a quarter of it remained under ISIS control. Soldiers and armed tribesmen held the rest and had also surrounded the city, he said.
However, another senior officer, a police lieutenant colonel, said that while soldiers had deployed around the city they had yet to enter Fallujah.[115][116]
  • Iraqi government has lost control of the city of Fallujah, which is now held by ISIS militants, a senior security official in Anbar provincesaid. Fallujah is under the control of ISIS.[117] Earlier on Friday, more than 100 people were killed as Iraqi police and tribesmen battled Al-Qaeda linked militants who took over parts of two cities onAnbar province, declaring one an ISIS.[118]
On the same day, the Iraq army shelled the western city of Fallujah with mortar bombs overnight to try to wrest back control from Sunni Muslim militants and tribesmen, killing at least eight people. Fallujah has been held since by militants linked to al Qaeda and by tribal fighters united in their opposition to Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, in a serious challenge to the authority of his Shi’ite-led government inAnbar province. Medical sources in Fallujah said another 30 people were wounded in shelling by the army.[119]
  • At least 20 people killing in new wave of bombings which hit on the Iraq’s capital, Baghdad.[120]
  • Iraqi missile strikes on Ramadi killed 25 militants.[121] Also in same day, unidentified gunmen have killed seven police officers, including a captain, in an attack at a security checkpoint north of the Iraqi capital Baghdad. The deadly incident took place on a highway north of the city of Samarra.
No group has claimed responsibility for the attack, but police officials say the main suspects are militants linked to al-Qaeda.[122]
  • Gunmen attacked a military site north of the Iraqi capital, killing 12 soldiers and wounding four. The militants stormed a building at the site in the Al-Adhim area, then bombed it. Militants opposed to theIraqi government frequently target members of the security forces with bombings and shootings.[123]
  • A suicide bomber killed 23 Iraqi army recruits and wounded 36 in Baghdad on Thursday, officials said, in an attack on men volunteering to join the government’s struggle to crush al Qaedalinked militants in Anbar province. Brigadier General Saad Maan, spokesman for the Baghdad Security Operations Centre, said the bomber blew himself up among the recruits at the small Muthenna Airbase, used by the army in the capital. Maan put the death toll at 22 but health ministry officials said morgue records showed 23 had died.
No group immediately claimed responsibility for the attack, which occurred a day after Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki said he would eradicate the “evil” of al Qaeda and its allies.[124]
  • A car bomb exploded outside a bus station in central Baghdad, killing at least nine people and wounding 16. No group immediately has claimed responsibility for attack on bus terminal Alawi al-Hilla.[125] Also on Sunday, bombing targeting a general in northern Iraq outside his home in eastern Sulaimaniyah, damaged his vehicle but left him unharmed.[126]
  • Four car bombs killed at least 25 people in Shi’ite Muslim districts of Baghdad, in violence that coincided with a visit to the Iraqi capital byU.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. Although no group claimed responsibility, the bombings appeared to be part of a relentless campaign by al Qaeda linked Sunni Muslim militants to undermine Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki’s Shi’ite-led government.[127]
  • Bombings and shootings killed at least eight people in and around the Iraqi capital, including a judge. Gunmen in a speeding car opened fire at the judge, killing him and his driver. Later in the afternoon a sticky bomb attached to a mini-bus exploded in the Shiite neighborhood of Sadr city, killing three passengers and wounding eight.[128]
  • Bomb attacks and shootings killed at least 75 people in Iraq, police and hospital sources said, making it one of the bloodiest days in months, but troops reclaimed a town west of Baghdad.[129]
  • The bodies of 14 Sunni Muslim tribesmen were found in date palm groves north of Baghdad, a day after they were kidnapped by uniformed men in security forces vehicles. The victims, all from the Albu Rawdas tribe, had been abducted while they were attending a funeral in the town of Tarmiya, 25 km (16 miles) north of the Iraqi capital.[130]
  • Five bombings in Baghdad, including an attack on a glitzy new shopping mall in the west of the capital, killed 14 people and wounded several others. The blasts struck in the neighbourhoods of Mansur, Nahda, Taubchi, Sarafiyah and Amriyah—all across the capital.[131]
  • Seven bomb explosions killed 26 people and wounded 67 in the Iraqi capital, as security forces battled Sunni Muslim militants around the western cities of Fallujah and Ramadi.
No group claimed responsibility for the blasts.[132] On same day, a senior Iraqi official claims ISIS fighters hunkered down in a city they seized late last month west of Baghdad have enough heavy weapons to allegedly take the country’s capital.[133]
  • Two soldiers and three would-be suicide bombers were killed and 18 other soldiers wounded in separate violent attacks in eastern and central Iraq. On the same day, security forces thwarted coordinated predawn attacks by ISIS militants in eastern Diyala province when the troops came under arms fire near the provincial capital city ofBaquba, some 65 km northeast of Baghdad, prompting a fierce clash with the attackers, killing three of them and seized three of their explosive vests.[134]
  • Iraqi armed forces in Anbar Province Iraqi armed forces killed scores of ISIS militants as the army continues its fight against terrorists. According to Iraqi Defense Ministry, the air forces carried airstrikes to bases Takfiri militants in western Anbar province and killing scores militants.[135]
  • January 25 – Three mortar shells landed in the village mainly populated by Shia Muslims near the Iraqi city of Baquba has killed six people.[136] On the same day, double bombing has killed a soldier and his entire family in their home in townMuqdadiyah in 90 kilometers (60 miles) north of Baghdad.[137]
  • At least four people were killed and 14 wounded in the afternoon when almost simultaneously three car bombs detonated in northern Iraq, in city Kirkuk, some 250 km north of Baghdad. On the same day, head of a city council and two of councillors were killed by gunmen who attacked their convoy near the town of Wajihiyah in eastern Diyala province also in al-Rashdiyah northern suburb Baghdad, gunmen killed an ex-officer of Saddam Hussein’s army and his wife.[138]
  • Seven members of Iraq’s security forces killed on during an armed attack north of Baghdad, the latest in a surge in violence fuelling fears the country is slipping back into all-out conflict.[139]
  • At least 13 people were killed and 39 others wounded in violent attacks in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad. According toUNAMI in Iraq in 2013 were killed a total of 8,868 Iraqis, including 7,818 civilians and civilian police personnel.[140]
  • Security officials said militants stormed an office of Ministry of Human Rights (Iraq) in northeast Baghdad and took a number of civil servants hostage. The attack was mounted by eight armed men.[141] Later, security forces kill to all attackers and free hostages.[142]

February[edit]

  • Last month in terrorist attacks and other violence across Iraq, 1,013 people, including 795 civilians, 122 soldiers and 96 policemen, were killed during some form of violence.[143]
  • At least 20 people were killed and 68 others wounded in violent attacks in and around the Iraqi capital of Baghdad. The deadliest attack occurred in the area of Abu Dusher in southern Baghdad when two car bombs exploded, leaving four people killed and 16 others wounded.[144]
  • At least 16 people were killed in a string of bombings in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad.[145] On the same day, Iraqi officials said up to 32 people were also killed during two more attacks in crowded places in Baghdad.[146]
  • Iraqi officials said at least nine people were killed and 22 were wounded in a string of car bombings that hit commercial areas in the Baghdad’s eastern neighborhood of Jamila and northern neighborhood of Kazimiyah.[147]
  • Attacks in Baghdad and north of the capital killed nine people, including a supporter of powerful Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, who was standing in parliamentary elections to be held in April.[148] On the same day, another five were also killed and dozens more injured in Tuz Khormato, east of Tikrit in Saladin Province.[149]
  • At least 19 people were killed and 19 wounded in violent attacks across Iraq. Attacks occurred at a marketplace in the Shiite district of Sadr City in the eastern part of the Iraqi capital of Baghdad, as well as in the town of Mahmoudiyah, some 30 km south of Baghdad. Violence also claimed lives in the southwestern part of city of Baquba, capital of theDiyala province.[150]
  • At least 22 insurgents, including a suicide bomber were killed and 15 injured when a car bomb mistakenly went off in a militant compound north of Baghdad.[151]
  • 15 soldiers were killed in a pre-dawn assault on an army camp guarding an oil pipeline near Hamam al-Alil in the north of Nineveh Province, one of the most violent parts of Iraq.[152]
  • At least 17 civilians, including soldiers, were killed across Iraq by car bombs and roadside explosives.
No terrorist groups claimed responsibility for these attacks.[153]
  • Talib Hameed Mustafa, mayor of the city Sulaiman Bek, reported that gunmen seized the town, some 90 km east ofTikrit after clashes with security forces.[154]
  • Talib Mohammed mayor of the city Sulaiman Bek said, that Iraqi troops backed by helicopter gunships regained ground in the northern town of Sulaiman Bek, a day after parts of it were overrun by ISIS militants. At least 12 ISIS militants were killed by the army.[155]
  • 17 soldiers and policemen were killed and 12 others wounded in separate attacks targeting the security forces across Iraq.[156]
  • At least 13 people were killed and 65 injured in consequence of the explosion of seven car bombs in central Iraq.[157]
  • 16 people were killed and 32 others wounded in separate violent attacks, mainly targeting Iraqi security forces across the country.[158]
  • At least 20 people were killed and 35 wounded in Iraq when three mortar rounds struck a crowded market in a mainly Shi’ite Muslim town of Mussayab, 60 km south of the Baghdad.[159]
  • 21 people were killed and 26 others wounded in violent attacks across Iraq.[160]
  • February 27 – At least 42 people were killed as a motorcycle rigged with explosives detonated in Baghdad’s Sadr Cityand militants targeted mostly Shi’ite neighbourhoods around the country.[161]

March[edit]

  • March 1 – The UNAMI said a total of 703 people were killed in Iraq in February. The figure excluded deaths from the ongoing fighting between the Iraqi forces and ISIS militants in the western Anbar Province. Some 564 civilians and 139 members of security forces were killed in the violence in the country, while 1,381 people, including 1,179 civilians, were injured.[162]
  • March 5 – Up to 26 people were killed and 87 others wounded in violent attacks across Iraq, including a series of car bombs in Baghdad.[163]
  • March 6 – At least 37 civilians killing in the series of bombings on commercial areas in central Iraq.[164]
  • March 9 – At least 50 people killed and more than 150 wounded of the suicide bombing at a crowded checkpoint south of the city Baghdad.[165]
  • March 18 – At least 18 people were killed and 24 others wounded in separate attacks across Iraq.[166]
  • March 19 – At least 37 people killed and 40 people injured due to outbreaks violence across Iraq, including shelling and clashes in a militant-held city on Baghdad’s doorstep.[167]
  • March 21 – The militants seized a village Sarha in north of Iraq and also 27 people killing including at least 10 policemen and more than 50 injured in consequence of attacks nationwide.[168]
  • March 25 – More than 80 people were killed in a series of attacks in Iraq, with the heaviest death toll in the Baghdad area. At least 41 of the victims were Iraqi Army soldiers, who suffered a major ambush near Taji that killed 22 and injured 15 others. An earlier suicide bombing near the city killed another 5 soldiers and wounded 14 others, while an attack on a base in Tarmiyah killed 8 soldiers and injured 14 others.[169][170]
  • March 27 – Iraqi authorities say that 19 people killed and 52 wounding in bombings targeting a commercial street and a market have in the same neighborhood northern Baghdad.[171]

April[edit]

  • 2 April, at least 25 people were killed and 23 wounded in separate attacks mainly targeting soldiers the Iraqi security forces across Iraq.[172]
  • 3 April, the Interior Ministry’s spokesman Saad Maan Ibrahim said that more than 40 ISIS militants and one officer of Iraqi security forces died in clashes near Baghdad.[173] Later more five people dead and seventeen injured elsewhere in the country in consequence the attacks.[174]
  • 5 April, at least 18 soldiers killed in an explosion and ensuing gunfight at booby-trapped house near the city of Fallujah.[175]
  • 8 April, at least 15 people dead in attacks in Iraq while security forces said they killed 25 militants near Baghdad amid worries insurgents are encroaching on the capital weeks ahead of elections.[176]
  • 9 April, at least 24 people killing and 48 wounded in a series of car bombs has hit several mostly Shiite neighborhoods in Baghdad.[177]
  • 10 April, at least 25 people were killed and 31 others wounded in separate violent attacks across Iraq.[178]
  • 12 April, at least 21 people were killed and 45 others wounded in separate violent attacks across Iraq.[179]
  • 13 April, at least 36 people were killed and 28 others wounded in separate violent attacks across Iraq.[180]
  • 16 April, at least 36 people were killed and 53 others wounded in separate attacks across Iraq.[181]
  • 17 April, at least 30 people, including Iraqi soldiers, have been killed and dozens more injured in consequence separate terrorist attacks across Iraq.[182]
  • 19 April, at least 69 people were killed about half of them were militants and 73 civilians and security personnel were wounded in during ongoing violence across Iraq.[183]
  • 20 April, at least 79 people were killed and 112 more were wounded in during ongoing violence across Iraq.[184]
  • 21 April, 33 people were killed and some 50 others wounded in separate attacks, including two suicide bombings across Iraq.[185]
  • 23 April, Militants wearing military uniforms carried out an overnight attack against a balloting centre in a remote area of the country’s north and killed 10 guards.[186]
  • 26 April, at least 31 people were killed and 56 others wounded in two car bomb attacks at a parliamentary election rally in Baghdad.[187]
  • 28 April, Nearly 60 people including 27 members of the Iraqi security forces have been killed and 50 others injured in a series of bomb attacks across Iraq while as the country prepares for parliamentary elections.[188]
  • 29 April, a total of 35 people were killed and 69 others wounded in separate attacks across Iraq.[189]

May[edit]

  • 4 May, Officials said that more than 30 people killed within 24 hours in consequence violence in Iraq, including shelling in a militant-held city and an attack targeting Shiite pilgrims.[190]
  • 6 May, a total of 24 people were killed and 29 wounded in separate violent incidents across of Iraq.[191]
  • 11 May, a total of 41 people were killed including 20 soldiers the Iraqi army and 30 people injured across Iraq in separate insurgent attacks that mainly targeted security forces.[192][193]
  • 16 May, at least 29 people killed and dozens wounded during bombings and shootings around Iraq’s capital, including an attack involving militants using a fake checkpoint to kill army officers.[194]
  • 28 May, over 60 people have been killed and scores of others injured the across Iraq.[195]
  • 29 May, At least 74 people have been killed and 52 injuring in a series of attacks across Iraq, including the capital,Baghdad.[196]

June[edit]

Current (16 February 2015) military situation:

  Controlled by Syrian opposition
  Controlled by Syrian government
  Controlled by Iraqi government
  Controlled by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS)
  Controlled by Syrian Kurds
  Controlled by Iraqi Kurds
  • In early June, following its large-scale offensives in Iraq, ISIS was reported to have seized control of most of Mosul, the second most populous city in Iraq, a large part of the surrounding Nineveh province, and the city of Fallujah.[197] ISIS also took control of Tikrit, the administrative center of the Salah ad Din Governorate,[198] with the ultimate goal of capturingBaghdad, the Iraqi capital.[199] ISIS was believed to have only 2,000–3,000 fighters up until the Mosul campaign, but during that campaign, it became evident that this number was a gross underestimate.[200]
  • Also in June, there were reports that a number of Sunni groups in Iraq that were opposed to the predominantly Shia government had joined ISIS, thus bolstering the group’s numbers.[201][not in citation given][202] However, theKurds—who are mostly Sunnis—in the northeast of Iraq, were unwilling to be drawn into the conflict, and there were clashes in the area between ISIS and the Kurdish Peshmerga.[203][204]
  • 5 June: ISIS militants stormed the city of Samarra, Iraq, before being ousted from the city by airstrikes mounted by the Iraqi military.[205]
  • 6 June: ISIS militants carried out multiple attacks in the city of Mosul, Iraq.[206][207]
  • 7 June: ISIS militants took over the University of Anbar in Ramadi, Iraq and held 1,300 students hostage, before being ousted by the Iraqi military.[208][209]
  • 9 June: Mosul fell to ISIS control. The militants seized control of government offices, the airport, and police stations.[210]Militants also looted the Central Bank in Mosul, reportedly absconding with US$429 million.[211] More than 500,000 people fled Mosul to escape ISIS.[212] Mosul is a strategic city as it is at a crossroad between Syria and Iraq, and poses the threat of ISIS seizing control of oil production.[200]
  • 11 June: ISIS seized the Turkish consulate in the Iraqi city of Mosul, and kidnapped the head of the diplomatic mission and several staff members. ISIS seized the Iraqi city of Tikrit.[213]
  • 12 June: Human Rights Watch, an international human rights advocacy organization, issued a statement about the growing threat to civilians in Iraq.[214]
  • 13 June: Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, expressed alarm at reports that ISIS fighters “have been actively seeking out—and in some cases killing—soldiers, police and others, including civilians, whom they perceive as being associated with the government.”[215]

US Secretary of State John Kerryand Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Malikiin Baghdad on 23 June 2014

  • 15 June: ISIS militants captured the Iraqi city of Tal Afar, in the province of Nineveh.[216] ISIS claimed that 1,700 Iraqi soldiers who had surrendered in the fighting had been killed, and released many images of mass executions via its Twitter feed and various websites.[217]
  • 22 June: ISIS militants captured two key crossings in Anbar, a day after seizing the border crossing at Al-Qaim, a town in a province which borders Syria. According to analysts, capturing these crossings could aid ISIS in transporting weapons and equipment to different battlefields.[218]
  • 24 June: The Syrian Air Force bombed ISIS positions in Iraq. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki stated: “There was no coordination involved, but we welcome this action. We welcome any Syrian strike against Isis because this group targets both Iraq and Syria.”[219]
  • 25 June: The al-Nusra Front‘s branch in the Syrian town of al-Bukamal pledged loyalty to ISIS, thus bringing months of fighting between the two groups to a close.[220][221]
  • 25 June: In an interview with the BBC Arabic service, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki said that Iraq had purchased usedSukhoi fighter jets from Russia and Belarus to battle ISIS militants, after delays in the delivery of F-16 fighterspurchased from the US.[222] “[If] we had air cover, we would have averted what happened”, he said.[223][224]
  • 26 June: Iraq launched its first counterattack against ISIS’s advance with an airborne assault designed to seize back control of Tikrit University.[225]
  • 28 June: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Obama administration had requested US$500 million from the US Congress to use in the training and arming of “moderate” Syrian rebels fighting against the Syrian government, in order to counter the growing threat posed by ISIS in Syria and Iraq.[226]
  • 29 June: ISIS announced the establishment of a new caliphate. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed its caliph, and the group formally changed its name to the Islamic State.[227]

July[edit]

Prophet Yunus Mosquebefore being destroyed.

  • 2 July: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the self-proclaimed caliph of the new Islamic State, said that Muslims should unite to capture Rome in order to “own the world.”[228][229] He called on Muslims the world over to unite behind him as their leader.[230]
  • 3 July: ISIS captured Syria’s largest oilfield from rival Islamist fighters, al-Nusra Front, who put up no resistance to the attack. Taking control of the al-Omar oilfield gave ISIS access to potentially useful crude oil reserves.[231]
  • 17 July: Syria’s Shaer gas field in the Homs Governorate was seized by the Islamic State. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, at least 90 National Defence Force guards defending the field were killed, as were 21 ISIS fighters.[232] The SOHR later put the death toll from the fighting and executions at 270 soldiers, militiamen and staff, and at least 40 ISIS fighters.[233]
  • 19 July: ISIS claimed responsibility for a suicide bombing, which killed 33 people and left more than 50 wounded. The explosion occurred in Baghdad’s Kadhimiya district, which is the site of a major Shia shrine.[234]
  • 24 July: ISIS blew up the Mosque and tomb of the Prophet Yunus (Jonah) in Mosul,[235] with no reported casualties.[236]Residents in the area said that ISIS had erased a piece of Iraqi heritage.[237] Johah’s tomb was also an important holy site in the Jewish heritage as well.[238]
  • 26 July: ISIS blew up the Nabi Shiyt (Prophet Seth) shrine in Mosul. Sami al-Massoudi, deputy head of the Shiaendowment agency which oversees holy sites, confirmed the destruction and added that ISIS had taken artifacts from the shrine to an unknown location.[239]
  • 28 July: To mark the Muslim holy festival of Eid al-Fitr, which ends the period of Ramadan, ISIS released and circulated a 30-minute video showing graphic scenes of mass executions.[240][241]
  • The UN reported that of the 1,737 fatal casualties of the Iraq conflict during July, 1,186 were civilians.[242]
File:President Obama Makes a Statement on Iraq - 080714.ogg

President Obama delivers an update on the situation and U.S. position on Iraq, authorizing airstrikes against ISIL and humanitarian aid forreligious minorities trapped on a mountain.[243]

August[edit]

File:U.S. FA-18 Super Hornet strikes in Iraq August 8 2014.ogv

U.S. F/A-18 fighters bomb Islamic State artillery targets on August 8

  • 1 August: The Indonesian BNPT (id) declared ISIS a terrorist organization.[244][245][246][247][248][249]
  • 2 August: The Iraqi Army confirmed that 37 loyalist fighters had died during combat with Islamic State militants south of Baghdad, and in Mosul. The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) claimed that “hundreds” of IS militiamen had died in the action.[250]
  • 2 August: ISIS and its al-Nusra Front allies invade Lebanon in and around the town of Arsal, sparking a five day battle between them and the Lebanese army, who push ISIS back across the border into Syria. Over a hundred fighters were killed, and scores of civilians were killed or wounded.
  • 3 August: IS fighters occupied the city of Zumar and an oilfield in the north of Iraq, after a battle against Kurdish forces.[251]
  • 5 August: Al Jazeera reported that an IS offensive in the Sinjar area of northern Iraq had forced 30,000–50,000 Yazidis to flee into the mountains, fearing they would be killed by the IS. They had been threatened with death if they refused conversion to Islam. A UN representative said that “a humanitarian tragedy is unfolding in Sinjar.”[252]
  • 6 August: The Islamic State kidnapped 400 Yazidi women in Sinjar to sell them as sex slaves.[253]
  • 7 August: IS fighters took control of the town of Qaraqosh in the province ofNineveh in northern Iraq, which forced its large Christian population to flee.[254] President Obama authorized targeted airstrikes in Iraq against ISIS, along with airdrops of aid.[255] The UK offered the US assistance with surveillance and refuelling, and planned humanitarian airdrops to Iraqi refugees.[256]
  • 8 August: The US asserted that the systematic destruction of the Yazidi people by the Islamic State was genocide.[257]The US military launched indefinite airstrikes targeting Islamic State fighters, equipment and installations, with humanitarian aid support from the UK and France, in order to protect civilians in northern Iraq.[258][259] The Islamic State had advanced to within 30 km of Erbil in northern Iraq.[260][261] The UK is also considering joining the US in airstrikes.[262]
  • 10 August: France’s Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said that Iraq’s Kurds must be equipped to fight against ISIS and indicated that France would consider providing arms aid “in liaison with the Europeans”.[263] Islamic State militants buried an unknown number of Yazidi women and children alive, in an attack that killed 500 people, in what has been described as ongoing genocide in northern Iraq.[264][265]
  • 11 August: The Arab League accused the Islamic State of committing crimes against humanity.[266][267] The UK decided not to join the US in airstrikes and instead stepped up its humanitarian aid to refugees.[268]
  • 12 August: The parents of kidnapped American journalist James Foley received an email from his captors. The US announced that it would not extend its airstrikes against the Islamic State to areas outside northern Iraq, emphasizing that the objective of the airstrikes was to protect US diplomats in Erbil.[269] The US and the UK airdropped 60,000 litres of water and 75,000 meals for stranded refugees. The Vatican called on religious leaders of all denominations, particularly Muslim leaders, to unite and condemn the IS for what it described as “heinous crimes” and the use of religion to justify them.[270]
  • 13 August: The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that Islamic State jihadists had seized control of six villages near the Turkish border in the northern province of Aleppo in Syria.[271]

    More than 10,000 Kurds in Hanoverprotest against the terror of ISIS in Iraq, 16 August 2014

  • 15 August: The United Nations Security Council issued a resolution which “deplores and condemns in the strongest terms the terrorist acts of ISIL (Islamic State) and its violent extremist ideology, and its continued gross, systematic and widespread abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law.”[272]
  • 16 August: The Islamic State massacred 80 Yazidis.[273] The EU agreed to supply Kurdish forces with arms,[274] and US military forces continued to attack Islamic State fighters in the area around Iraq’s crucial Mosul Dam.[275]
  • 17 August: The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that the Islamic State had killed 700 members of the Syrian al-Shaitat tribe, mostly civilians, after two weeks of clashes over the control of two oilfields in the region.[276] Peshmerga troops, aided by the US air campaign, began an offensive to take back the strategic Mosul Dam from the Islamic State, amid fears that the destruction of the dam might unleash a 65-foot wave of water that could engulf the northern city of Mosul, and even flood Baghdad.[277][278]
  • 18 August: Pope Francis, leader of the world’s 1.2 billion Roman Catholics, said that the international community would be justified in stopping Islamist militants in Iraq. He also said that it should not be up to a single nation to decide how to intervene in the conflict.[279] The Dutch send fighter jets to strike ISIS Iraq when needed.[280][281]
  • 19 August: According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, the size of the Islamic State’s forces had grown to more than 50,000 fighters in Syria.[82] American journalist James Foley was beheaded by the Islamic State on video tape.[282]
  • 20 August: US President Obama denounced the “brutal murder of Jim Foley by the terrorist group ISIL.”[283]
  • 21 August: The US military admitted that a covert rescue attempt involving dozens of US Special Operations forces had been made to rescue James Foley and other Americans held captive in Syria by Islamic State militants. The air and ground assault, involving the first known US military ground action inside Syria, had the authorization of PresidentBarack Obama. The ensuing gunfight resulted in one US soldier being injured. The rescue was unsuccessful, as Foley and the other captives were not in the location targeted. This was the first known engagement by US ground forces with suspected Islamic State militants. US Defense Secretary warned that the Islamic State are tremendously well-funded, “they have no standard of decency, of responsible human behavior,” and are an imminent threat to the US.[284]
  • 22 August: The US is considering airstrikes on ISIS in Syria, which would draw US military forces directly into the Syrian Civil War, as President Obama develops a long-term strategy to defeat the Islamic State.[285]
  • 23 August: Al Jazeera America reports that Iranian troops had crossed into Iraq and were fighting alongside the Peshmerga and Iraqi troops.[113]
  • 28 August: American drones select new traget data on August 28 [286][287][288]
  • 31 August: the United States, France, United Kingdom and Australia began humanitarian aid drops, like food, water and medical supplies, to help prevent a potential massacre against the Shi’a Turkmen minority in Amirli. The US also carried out air strikes on ISIS positions around and near Amirli. Iraqi officials stated that they had reached Amirli and broken the siege and that the military was currently fighting to clear the areas around the town. This is known to be the first major turning point against the Islamic State in Iraq.[289]

September[edit]

  • 2 September: The United States sends an additional 250 US troops to protect American personnel.[290]
  • 3 September: A video is released by ISIL(S) on social media of a second American reporter being beheaded[291] by a masked man, believed to be “Jihad John”, the same man who beheaded American journalist James Foley; David Hawthorne Cains was also presented in the video and the masked man stated that if America and its allies do not stop and withdraw from Iraq, then the English hostage will be the 3rd person to be beheaded. Australia delivers a load of armaments to Kurdish forces in Northern Iraq, to help fight against ISIL(S).[citation needed]
  • 7 September: The United States launches new airstrikes on ISIL(S) in western Iraq, in an effort to protect the Haditha Dam.[292]
  • 10 September: U.S. President Barack Obama authorises $25 million for “immediate military assistance” to the Iraqigovernment and Kurdistan Regional Government. He also outlines plans to expand US operations against ISIL(S) toSyria in a televised address to the nation.[293][294] RSA Muslims condemn ISIS.[295]
  • 14 September: 400 Australian Air Force personnel, up to eight Super Hornet aircraft, an early warning and control aircraft and an aerial refuelling aircraft were also pleged on the 14th.[296]
  • 19 September: First French airstrikes occur. Belgian participation for one month was authorized by the country’s Chamber of Representatives in the afternoon of September 19, after more than 3½ hours of debate.[297] The Belgian military contingent was said to number 120, including eight pilots and an unknown amount of F-16 multirole fighters, to be based in Jordan, Defense Minister Pieter De Crem said.[297]
  • 22 September: Aussie police call for calm after terrorist inspired ‘Isis’ graffiti attack in the city of Cairns on September 22.[298]
  • 23 September: A pair of U.S. Air Force F-15E Strike Eagles fly over northern Iraq after conducting airstrikes in northern Syria, in the morning of September 23, 2014. Reuters[299] Cruise missiles hit Al Raqqar in Sirya. A refinery, the GPO, power station and army recruit center were hit on September 23.[300]
  • 24 September: As a result of a United Nations General Assembly meeting, various nations have decided that they will provide military support against ISIS.
  • 25 September: U.S. and Arab airstrikes target ISIS-held oil facilities in Syria and Iraq.
  • 26 September: Large numbers staged protests in Europe and the United States in solidarity with the mostly Kurdish people of Kobane in Syria, coinciding with the first US airstrikes on the city’s outskirts on Saturday against Islamic State (IS or ISIS) forces. Sit-ins and protests took place on Friday and Saturday in cities in Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, Britain, Austria and the United States.[301] Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt announced that Denmark would be deploying 250 pilots and staff, three reserve jets on the 26th.[297] 4 combat jets were added later that day.[302] Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt announced that Denmark would be deploying 250 pilots and staff, three reserve F-16 fighter jets and four F-16 fighter jet combatant planes on the 27th [299]
  • 28 September: 6 Aussie F/A-18F Super Hornets, a E-7A Wedgetail and a KC-30A were sent in.[303] An Airbus Voyagerin flight refueling aircraft was also in used a second sortie over Northern Iraq on 28 September.[304]
  • 29 September: A mortar shells hit near the Turkey/Sirya border crossing of Mursitpinar, close to a group of journalists and Turkish security forces, and another shell landed near a refugee camp, about one kilometer inside Turkey.[305]Canada’s parliament debates doing airstrikes in Iraq on September 29.[306]
  • 30 September: A British Panavia Tornado jet dropped a Paveway IV bomb on “a heavy weapon position” operated by ISIS in northwest Iraq, thus marking the first engagement of the British military against IS targets.[307] 2 RAF Tornados used a Paveway IV bomb to blow up an ISIS truck in northern Iraq.[308] Australia offers 200 special forces to the Kurds on September 30 [309] 600 Aussie troops land in the UAE on Sept 14th [296][310][311][312][313][314][315][316]

October[edit]

  • 1 October: America sends Apache helicopters and crews to Iraq.[317]
  • 2 October: Some British jihadists threatened an ‘imminent’ terror attack to avenge UK airstrikes on ISIS in Iraq on October 2.[318] It was revealed on October 2 that three deceased ISIS members from Britain were originally from Tower HamletsBangladeshi district. A fourth British casualty, Ibrahim Kamara, was a 19-year-old student from Brighton.[318]Canada joined the anti-ISIS air strikes on October 2.[306][319] The six-month mission was planned to include CF-18 fighter jets and refueling and surveillance aircraft, but not ground troops.[306]
  • 3 October: The “Iraq III No!” anti-war activists rallied in Central London to protest against British airstrikes on Islamic State positions in Iraq on October 3.[320] Australia authorized its special forces troops to go to Iraq as part of the anti-ISIS coalition that day,[321][322] as well as authorizing airstrikes.[323] The White House praised Australia over its decision to join airstrikes in Iraq and to send special forces military trainers to the country on October 3.[324] PM Mr Abbott gives RAAF planned airstrikes the go-ahead. Australia’s cabinet approved Australia’s Super Hornets to start bombing raids against Islamic State extremists in the near future, supported by 400 RAAF personnel.[325] The RAAF will deploy 6 Super Hornets, a Wedgetail surveillance aircraft and a in-flight refueller. About 200 special forces members will train and advise Iraqi forces, but are awaiting final legal approval before deploying. Any airraids are planned to support Iraq’s government against ISIS.[325] The PM of New Zealand and the PM of PNG offered political support to Australia.[325]
  • 4 October: Manchester‘s leading Muslims condemn the murder of British aid convoy volunteer Alan Henning. Naved Siddiqi of the Islamic Society of Britain, said there were “very clear distinctions” between the jihadists and ordinary Muslims on October 4.[326] Islamic State also threatened to kill the American aid worker Peter Kassig that day, after releasing a video of murder of British hostage Alan Henning. The ISIS fighter says in the video: “Obama, you have started your aerial bombardment in [Al-] Sham. So it’s only right we continue to strike the necks of your .”[327]
  • 14 October: ISIS forces capture the city of Hīt, after the 300-strong Iraqi Army garrison has abandoned and set afire its local base and supplies and about 180,000 civilians (including refugees of the preious Anbar offensive) have fled the area.[328][329]
  • 24 October: Operation Ashura is launched by Iraqi forces and Iranian-backed Shia militas, scoring a major victory and retaking the strategic town of Jurf al-Sakhar near Baghdad, and secured the way for millions of Shia pilgrims who are going to Karbala and Najaf in the Day of Ashura. Kurdish forces, meanwhile, recapture Zumar.[330]

November[edit]

December[edit]

  • On 17 December, Peshmerga forces launched the Sinjar offensive from Zumar and managed to break the siege of Mount Sinjar, recapture more than 700 square kilometers of territory,[334] close in on Tal Afar, clear areas north of Mount Sinjar,[335] and push into the city of Sinjar.[336] As of 27 December 2014, the offensive is ongoing.
  • At December 19, 2014, Fox News confirms through Pentagon officials that the top leaders of ISIL was killed in a U.S. airstrikes, including a deputy to ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.[337]

Iraq War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the war that started in 2003 and ended in 2011. For other wars and conflicts in Iraq, see Iraq War (disambiguation).
Iraq War
Part of the Global War on Terrorism
Iraq War montage.png
Clockwise from top: Delta Force of Task Force 20 alongside troops of 3rd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, at Uday Hussein and Qusay Hussein’s hideout; insurgents in northern Iraq; an Iraqi insurgent firing a MANPADS; the toppling of the Saddam Hussein statue in Firdos Square.
Date 20 March 2003 – 18 December 2011
(8 years, 8 months, 4 weeks and 1 day)
Location Iraq
Result
Belligerents
Invasion phase (2003)
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 Poland Peshmerga
Invasion phase (2003) Ba’athist Iraq
Post-invasion (2003–11)

 United States(2003–11)
 United Kingdom(2003–11)
New Iraqi government

 Iraqi Kurdistan

Post-invasion (2003–11)
Iraqi Regional Branch


Sunni insurgents


Shia insurgents


For fighting between insurgent groups, see Civil war in Iraq (2006–07).


Commanders and leaders
Ayad Allawi
Ibrahim al-Jaafari
Nouri al-Maliki
Ricardo Sanchez
George W. Casey, Jr.
David Petraeus
Raymond T. Odierno
Lloyd Austin
George W. Bush
Tommy Franks
Barack Obama
Tony Blair
Gordon Brown
David Cameron
Anders Fogh Rasmussen
Ba’ath Party
Saddam Hussein (POW) Skull and crossbones.svg
Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri


Sunni insurgency
Abu Omar al-Baghdadi 
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi 
Abu Ayyub al-Masri 
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
IAILogo.png Ishmael Jubouri
Abu Abdullah al-Shafi’i (POW)


Shia insurgency

Muqtada al-Sadr
Shiism arabic blue.svg Abu Deraa
Qais al-Khazali
Akram al-Kabi

Strength
Invasion forces (2003–2004)
265,000
 United States: 148,000
 United Kingdom: 45,000
 Australia: 2,000
 Poland: 194
Iraqi Kurdistan Peshmerga: 70,000


Coalition forces (2004–2009)
176,000 at peak
United States Forces – Iraq (2010–2011)
112,000 at activation
Security contractors6,000–7,000 (estimate)[6]
Iraqi security forces
805,269 (military andparamilitary: 578,269,[7]police: 227,000)
Awakening militias
≈103,000 (2008)[8]
Iraqi Kurdistan
≈400,000 (Kurdish Border Guard: 30,000,[9] Peshmerga375,000)

Coat of arms (emblem) of Iraq 1991-2004.svg Iraqi Armed Forces: 375,000 (disbanded in 2003)
Iraqi Republican Guard Symbol.svgSpecial Iraqi Republican Guard: 12,000
Iraqi Republican Guard Symbol.svgIraqi Republican Guard: 70,000–75,000
Fedayeen Saddam SSI.svgFedayeen Saddam: 30,000


Sunni Insurgents
≈70,000 (2007)[10]
Mahdi Army
≈60,000 (2007)[11]
al-Qaeda
≈1,300 (2006)[12]

Islamic State of Iraq
≈1,000 (2008)
Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order
≈500–1,000 (2007)

Casualties and losses
Iraqi Security Forces(post-Saddam)
Killed: 17,690[13]
Wounded: 40,000+[14]Coalition forces
Killed: 4,809[15][16](4,491 U.S.,[17] 179 UK,[18]139 other)
Missing/captured(U.S.): 17 (8 rescued, 9 died in captivity)[19]
Wounded: 32,753+(32,226 U.S.,[20] 315 UK, 212+ other[21])[22][23][24][25]Injured/diseased/other medical*: 51,139(47,541 U.S.,[26] 3,598 UK)[22][24][25]Contractors
Killed: 1,554[27][28]
Wounded & injured: 43,880[27][28]Awakening Councils
Killed: 1,002+[29]
Wounded: 500+ (2007),[30] 828 (2008)[31]Total dead: 25,286
Total wounded: 117,961
Iraqi combatant dead(invasion period): 7,600–10,800[32][33] Insurgents(post-Saddam)
Killed: 26,544 (2003–2011)[34]
Detainees: 12,000 (Iraqi-held)[35]Total dead: 34,144–37,344
Estimated violent deaths:
Lancet survey (March 2003 – July 2006): 601,027 (95% CI: 426,369–793,663)[36][37]
Iraq Family Health Survey (March 2003 – July 2006):151,000 (95% CI: 104,000–223,000)[38]Documented deaths from violence:
Iraq Body Count (2003 – 14 December 2011): 103,160–113,728 civilian deaths recorded,[39] and 12,438 new deaths added from the Iraq War Logs[40]
Associated Press (March 2003 – April 2009):110,600[41]For more information see: Casualties of the Iraq War
* “injured, diseased, or other medical”: required medical air transport. UK number includes “aeromed evacuations”
** Total deaths include all additional deaths due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare, etc.

The Iraq War[nb 1] was a protracted armed conflict that began with the 2003 invasion of Iraq led by the United States. The invasion toppled the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict, however, continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government.[42] The United States officially withdrew from the country in 2011, but the insurgency and various dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue.
The invasion began on 20 March 2003. The U.S., joined by the United Kingdom and several coalition allies, launched a “shock and awe” surprise attack without declaring war. Iraqi forces were quickly overwhelmed as U.S. forces swept through the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba’athist government; Saddam was captured in December 2003 and executed by a military court three years later. However, the power vacuum following Saddam’s demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis as well as a lengthy insurgency against U.S. and coalition forces. The United States responded with a troop surge in 2007; the heavy American security presence and deals made between the occupying forces and Sunni militias reduced the level of violence. The U.S. began withdrawing its troops in the winter of 2007–2008. The winding down of U.S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama. The U.S. formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011.[43]

The Bush Administration based its rationale for war principally on the assertion that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and that Saddam’s government posed an immediate threat to the United States and its coalition allies.[44][45] Select U.S. officials accused Saddam of harboring and supporting al-Qaeda,[46] while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship and bring democracy to the people of Iraq.[47][48] After the invasion, no substantial evidence was found to verify the initial claims about WMDs. The rationale and misrepresentation of pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism within the U.S. and internationally.

As a result of the war, Iraq held multi-party elections in 2005. Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister in 2006 and remained in office until 2014. The Maliki government enacted policies that were widely seen as having the effect of alienating the country’s Sunni minority, worsening sectarian tensions. In the summer of 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies. The Iraq War caused hundreds of thousands of civilian and military casualties (see estimates below). The majority of casualties occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007.

Background[edit]

Iraq disarmament and pre-war intelligence[edit]

Prior to September 2002, the CIA was the Bush administration’s main provider of intelligence on Iraq. In September, a Pentagonunit called Office of Special Plans (OSP), was created by Paul Wolfowitz and Douglas Feith, and headed by Feith, as charged by then-United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, to supply senior George W. Bush administration officials with raw intelligence pertaining to Iraq.[49] Seymour Hersh writes that, according to a Pentagon adviser, “[OSP] was created in order to find evidence of what Wolfowitz and his boss, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, wanted to be true—that Saddam Hussein had close ties to Al Qaeda, and that Iraq had an enormous arsenal ofchemical, biological, and possibly even nuclear weapons (WMD) that threatened the region and, potentially, the United States. […] ‘The agency [CIA] was out to disprove linkage between Iraq andterrorism,’ the Pentagon adviser told me.”[50]

U.N. weapons inspections resume[edit]

The issue of Iraq’s disarmament reached a turning point in 2002–2003, when President Bush demanded a complete end to allegedIraqi production of weapons of mass destruction and full compliance with U.N. Security Council Resolutions requiring U.N. weapons inspectors unfettered access to suspected weapons production facilities. The U.N. had prohibited Iraq from developing or possessing such weapons after the Persian Gulf War and required Iraq to permit inspections confirming compliance. During inspections in 1999, U.S. intelligence agents supplied the United States with a direct feed of conversations between Iraqi security agencies as well as other information. This was confirmed by theNew York Times and the Wall Street Journal.[51]

During 2002, U.S. President George Bush repeatedly warned of military action against Iraq unless inspections were allowed to progress unfettered. In accordance with U.N. Security Council Resolution 1441 Iraq agreed to new inspections in late 2002. With the cooperation of the Iraqis, a third weapons inspection team in 2003 led by David Kelly viewed and photographed two alleged mobile weapons laboratories, which were actually facilities for the production of hydrogen gas to fill balloons.[52]

Shortly before the invasion, Hans Blix, the lead weapons inspector, advised the U.N. Security Council that Iraq was cooperating with inspections and the confirmation of disarmament through inspections could be achieved quickly if Iraq remained cooperative.[53]

Weapons of mass destruction[edit]

Yellowcake uranium[edit]

A UN weapons inspector examines an Iraqi factory in 2002.

In 1990, before the Persian Gulf War, Iraq had stockpiled 550 short tons (500 t) of yellowcake uranium at the Tuwaitha nuclear complex about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Baghdad.[54] In late February 2002, the CIA sent former Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson to investigate reports (later found to be forgeries) that Iraq was attempting to purchase additional yellowcake fromNiger. Wilson returned and informed the CIA that reports of yellowcake sales to Iraq were “unequivocally wrong.” The Bush administration, however, continued to allege Iraq’s attempts to obtain additional yellowcake were a justification for military action, most prominently in the January 2003, State of the Union address, in which President Bush declared that Iraq had sought uranium, citing British intelligence sources.[55]

In response, Wilson wrote a critical New York Times op-ed piece in June 2003 stating that he had personally investigated claims of yellowcake purchases and believed them to be fraudulent.[56] After Wilson’s op-ed, Wilson’s wife Valerie Plamewas publicly identified as an undercover CIA analyst by a columnist. This led to aJustice Department investigation into the source of the leak. The federal investigation led to the conviction of I. Lewis (Scooter) Libby, Vice President Dick Cheney’s chief of staff, on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice.[54]

On 1 May 2005, the “Downing Street memo” was published in The Sunday Times. It contained an overview of a secret 23 July 2002, meeting among British government,Ministry of Defence, and British intelligence figures who discussed the build-up to the Iraq war—including direct references to classified US policy of the time. The memo stated that “Bush wanted to remove Saddam, through military action, justified by the conjunction of terrorism and WMD. But the intelligence and facts were being fixed around the policy”.[57]

In September 2002, the Bush administration, the CIA and the DIA said attempts by Iraq to acquire high-strength aluminum tubes that were prohibited under the UN monitoring program and which they said pointed to a clandestine effort to make centrifuges to enrich uranium for nuclear bombs.[58] This analysis was opposed by the United States Department of Energy(DOE) and INR, which was significant because of DOE’s expertise in such gas centrifuges and nuclear weapons programs. The DOE and INR argued that the Iraqi tubes were poorly suited for centrifuges and that while it was technically possible with additional modification, conventional military uses were more plausible.[59] A report released by the Institute for Science and International Security in 2002 reported that it was highly unlikely that the tubes could be used to enrich uranium.[60]

An effort by the DOE to correct this detail in comments prepared for United States Secretary of State Colin Powell‘s UN appearance was rebuffed by the administration[60][61] and Powell, in his address to the UN Security Council just before the war, referenced the aluminum tubes, stating that while experts disagreed on whether or not the tubes were destined for a centrifuge program, the specifications of the tubes were unusually tight.[62] Powell later admitted he had presented what turned out to be an inaccurate case to the UN on Iraqi weapons, and the intelligence he was relying on was, in some cases, “deliberately misleading.”[63][64][65] After the 2008 US presidential election, and the election of Democratic party nomineeBarack Obama, President Bush stated that “[my] biggest regret of all the presidency has to have been the intelligence failure in Iraq”.[66]

Poison gas[edit]

The CIA had contacted Iraq’s foreign minister, Naji Sabri, who was being paid by the French as an agent. Sabri informed them that Saddam had hidden poison gas among Sunni tribesmen, had ambitions for a nuclear program but that it was not active, and that no biological weapons were being produced or stockpiled, although research was underway.[67] According to Sidney Blumenthal, George Tenet briefed Bush on 18 September 2002, that Sabri had informed them that Iraq did not have WMD.

On 21 June 2006 the US House of Representatives Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence released key points from a classified report from the National Ground Intelligence Center on the recovery of a small number of degraded chemical munitions in Iraq. The report stated that “Coalition forces have recovered approximately 500 weapons munitions which contain degraded mustard or sarin nerve agent.” However, all are thought to be pre-Gulf War munitions.[68]

Biological weapons[edit]

Based on reports obtained by the German intelligence service from an Iraqi defector codenamed “Curveball“, Colin Powell presented evidence to the United Nations security council that Iraq had an active biological weapons programs. On 15 February 2011, the defector—a scientist identified as Rafid Ahmed Alwan al-Janafi—admitted to journalists working for The Guardian newspaper that he lied to the Bundesnachrichtendienst in order to strengthen the case against Saddam Hussein, whom he wished to see removed from power.[69]

Post-invasion views on WMD[edit]

In December 2009, former U.K. Prime Minister Tony Blair stated that he “would still have thought it right to remove [Saddam Hussein]” regardless of whether Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction or not.[70]

Preparations for Iraq war[edit]

President George Bush, surrounded by leaders of the House and Senate, announces the Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq, 2 October 2002

Excerpt from Donald Rumsfeld memo dated 27 November 2001[71]

In the days immediately following 9/11, the Bush Administration national security team actively debated an invasion of Iraq. A memo written by Sec. Rumsfeld dated 27 November 2001 considers a US-Iraq war. One section of the memo questions “How start?”, listing multiple possible justifications for a US-Iraq War.[71][72]

During 2002 the amount of ordnance used by British and American aircraft patrolling the no-fly zones of Iraq increased compared to the previous years[73] and by August had “become a full air offensive”. Tommy Franks, the allied commander, later stated that the bombing was designed to “degrade” the Iraqi air defense system before an invasion.[74]

In October 2002, a few days before the US Senate voted on the Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq, about 75 senators were told in closed session that Iraq had the means of attacking the Eastern Seaboard of the US with biological or chemical weapons delivered byunmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.)[45]On 5 February 2003, Colin Powellpresented further evidence in his Iraqi WMD program presentation to the UN Security Council that UAVs were ready to be launched against the United States. At the time, there was a vigorous dispute within the US military and intelligence communities as to whether CIA conclusions about Iraqi UAVs were accurate[75] and other intelligence agencies suggested that Iraq did not possess any offensive UAV capability, saying the few they had were designed for surveillance and intended for reconnaissance.[76] The Senate voted to approve the Joint Resolution with the support of large bipartisan majorities on 11 October 2002, providing the Bush administration with alegal basis for the US invasion under US law.

The resolution granted the authorization by the Constitution of the United States and the United States Congress for the President to command the military to fight anti-United States violence. Citing the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, the resolution reiterated that it should be the policy of the United States to remove the Saddam regime and promote a democratic replacement. The authorization was signed by President George W. Bush on 16 October 2002.

Chief UN weapons inspector Hans Blix remarked in January 2003 that “Iraq appears not to have come to a genuine acceptance—not even today—of the disarmament, which was demanded of it and which it needs to carry out to win the confidence of the world and to live in peace.”[77] Among other things he noted that 1,000 short tons (910 t) of chemical agent were unaccounted for, information on Iraq’s VX nerve agent program was missing, and that “no convincing evidence” was presented for the destruction of 8,500 litres (1,900 imp gal; 2,200 US gal) of anthrax that had been declared.[77]

United States Secretary of StateColin Powell holding a model vial ofanthrax while giving a presentation to the United Nations Security Council

In the 2003 State of the Union address, President Bush said “we know that Iraq, in the late 1990s, had several mobile biological weapons labs”. On 5 February 2003, Secretary of State Colin Powell appeared before the UN to present evidence that Iraq was hiding unconventional weapons.[78] The French government also believed that Saddam had stockpiles of anthrax and botulism toxin, and the ability to produce VX.[79] In March, Blix said progress had been made in inspections, and no evidence of WMD had been found.[80] Iraqi scientist Rafid Ahmed Alwan al-Janabi codenamed “Curveball”, admitted in February 2011, that he lied to the CIA about biological weapons in order to get the US to attack and remove Saddam from power.[81]

From the left: French President Jacques Chirac, US President George W. Bush, UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi. Chirac was against the invasion, the other three leaders were in favor.

In early 2003, the US, British, and Spanish governments proposed the so-called “eighteenth resolution” to give Iraq a deadline for compliance with previous resolutions enforced by the threat of military action. This proposed resolution was subsequently withdrawn due to lack of support on the UN Security Council. In particular, North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) members France, Germany and Canada and non-NATO member Russia were opposed to military intervention in Iraq, due to the high level of risk to the international community’s security, and defended disarmament through diplomacy.[82][83]

A meeting between George W. Bush and Tony Blair took place on 31 January 2003, in the White House. A secret memo of this meetingpurportedly showed that the Bush administration had already decided on the invasion of Iraq at that point. Bush was allegedly floating the idea of painting a U‑2 spyplane in UN colors and letting it fly low over Iraq to provoke Iraqi forces into shooting it down, thereby providing a pretext for the United States and Britain to invade. Bush and Blair made a secret deal to carry out the invasion regardless of whether WMD were discovered by UN weapons inspectors, in direct contradiction with statements Blair made to the British House of Commons afterwards that the Iraqi regime would be given a final chance to disarm. In the memo, Bush is paraphrased as saying, “The start date for the military campaign was now pencilled in for 10 March. This was when the bombing would begin.”[84] Bush said to Blair that he “thought it unlikely that there would be internecine warfare between the different religious and ethnic groups” in Iraq after the war.

Opposition to invasion[edit]

In October 2002 former US President Bill Clinton warned about possible dangers of pre-emptive military action against Iraq. Speaking in the UK on a Labour Party conference he said: “As a preemptive action today, however well-justified, may come back with unwelcome consequences in the future….I don’t care how precise your bombs and your weapons are, when you set them off, innocent people will die.”[85][86]

Anti-War protest in London, 2002.

On 20 January 2003, French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin declared “we believe that military intervention would be the worst solution”.[87] Meanwhile anti-war groups across the world organised public protests. According to French academic Dominique Reynié, between 3 January and 12 April 2003, 36 million people across the globe took part in almost 3,000 protests against war in Iraq, with demonstrations on 15 February 2003, being the largest and most prolific.[88] Nelson Mandela voiced his opposition in late January, stating “All that (Mr. Bush) wants is Iraqi oil,”.[89]

In February 2003, the US Army’s top general, Eric Shinseki, told the Senate Armed Services Committee that it would take “several hundred thousand soldiers” to secure Iraq.[90] Two days later, US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said the post-war troop commitment would be less than the number of troops required to win the war, and that “the idea that it would take several hundred thousand US forces is far from the mark.” Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz said Shineski’s estimate was “way off the mark,” because other countries would take part in an occupying force.[91]

In March 2003, Hans Blix reported that “No evidence of proscribed activities have so far been found” in Iraq, saying that progress was made in inspections which would continue. He estimated the time remaining for disarmament being verified through inspections to be “months”.[80] But the US government announced that “diplomacy has failed”, and that it would proceed with a coalition of allied countries—named the “coalition of the willing“—to rid Iraq of its alleged WMD. The US government abruptly advised UN weapons inspectors to leave Baghdad immediately.

There were serious legal questions surrounding the launching of the war against Iraq and the Bush Doctrine of preemptive war in general. On 16 September 2004, Kofi Annan, the Secretary General of the United Nations, said of the invasion, “I have indicated it was not in conformity with the UN Charter. From our point of view, from the Charter point of view, it was illegal.”

In November 2008 Lord Bingham, the former British Law Lord, described the war a serious violation of international law, and accused Britain and the United States of acting like a “world vigilante“. He also criticized the post-invasion record of Britain as “an occupying power in Iraq”. Regarding the treatment of Iraqi detainees in Abu Ghraib, Bingham said: “Particularly disturbing to proponents of the rule of law is the cynical lack of concern for international legality among some top officials in the Bush administration.”[92] In July 2010, Deputy Prime Minister of the UK Nick Clegg, in an official PMQs session in Parliament, condemned the invasion of Iraq as illegal.[93] Theorist Francis Fukuyama has argued that “the Iraq war and the close association it created between military invasion and democracy promotion tarnished the latter”.[94]

The invasion[edit]

Destroyed remains of Iraqi tanks near Al Qadisiyah.

US Marines escort captured enemy prisoners to a holding area in the desert of Iraq on 21 March 2003.

US soldiers at the Hands of Victory monument in Baghdad

The first Central Intelligence Agency team entered Iraq on 10 July 2002.[95] This team was composed of members of the CIA’s Special Activities Division and was later joined by members of the US military’s elite Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC).[96] Together, they prepared for the invasion of conventional forces. These efforts consisted of persuading the commanders of several Iraqimilitary divisions to surrender rather than oppose the invasion, and to identify all of the initial leadership targets during very high risk reconnaissance missions.[96]

Most importantly, their efforts organized the Kurdish Peshmerga to become the northern front of the invasion. Together this force defeated Ansar al-Islam in