Neil Gorsuch

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Neil Gorsuch
Judge Gorsuch official portrait.jpg
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Assumed office
April 10, 2017
Nominated by Donald Trump
Preceded by Antonin Scalia
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit
In office
August 8, 2006 – April 10, 2017
Nominated by George W. Bush
Preceded by David M. Ebel
Succeeded by Vacant
Personal details
Born Neil McGill Gorsuch
August 29, 1967 (age 49)
Denver, Colorado, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Louise Gorsuch
Relations Anne Gorsuch Burford (mother)
Children 2, including Emma and Bindi
Education Columbia University (BA)
Harvard University (JD)
University College, Oxford(DPhil)

Neil McGill Gorsuch (/ˈɡɔːrsʌ/, with equal emphasis on both syllables;[1] born August 29, 1967)[2] is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.[3] President Donald Trump nominated Gorsuch to succeed Antonin Scalia.[4] Gorsuch is a proponent of textualism in statutory interpretation, originalism in interpreting the U.S. Constitution, and is an advocate of natural law philosophy.[5][6][7][8]

Gorsuch clerked for Judge David B. Sentelle on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit from 1991 to 1992, and then for U.S. Supreme Court Justices Byron White and Anthony Kennedy, from 1993 to 1994. From 1995 to 2005, Gorsuch was in private practice with the law firm of Kellogg, Huber, Hansen, Todd, Evans & Figel. Gorsuch was a Deputy Associate Attorney General at the U.S. Department of Justice from 2005 to his appointment to the Tenth Circuit. Gorsuch was nominated to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit by President George W. Bush on May 10, 2006, to replace Judge David M. Ebel, who took senior status in 2006.

He holds a Bachelor of Arts from Columbia University, Juris Doctor from Harvard Law School, and Doctor of Philosophy in Law from University College, Oxford.[9][10]

Early life

Gorsuch is the son of David Gorsuch and Anne Gorsuch Burford (née Anne Irene McGill; 1942–2004), a Colorado statehouse representative, who was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to be the first female Administrator of United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1981.[11][12][13] A fourth-generation Coloradan,[14] Gorsuch was born in Denver, Colorado, where he attended Christ the King, a K-12 Catholic school,[13] and later graduated from Georgetown Preparatory School, a Jesuit school in North Bethesda, Maryland, in 1985.[15][16][13][17]

He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from Columbia University in 1988, where he was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa.[2][11][18] He was also a member of Phi Gamma Delta fraternity.[19] As an undergraduate student, he wrote for the Columbia Daily Spectator student newspaper.[20][21] In 1986, he co-founded the alternative Columbia student newspaper The Fed.[22]

Gorsuch attended Harvard Law School where he graduated cum laude in 1991 with a Juris Doctor.[2][11] He received a Harry S. Truman Scholarship to attend.[23] While at Harvard, Gorsuch was an editor on the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy.[24] He was described as a committed conservative who supported the Gulf War and congressional term limits, on “a campus full of ardent liberals”.[25] Former President Barack Obama was one of Gorsuch’s classmates at Harvard Law.[26][27][28]

He received a Doctor of Philosophy degree in law (legal philosophy) from University College, Oxford in 2004 for research on assisted suicide and euthanasia.[9][2][11] He attended Oxford as a Marshall Scholar and was supervised by acclaimed natural law philosopher John Finnis.[9][6][10] While there, Gorsuch met and married his wife Louise, an Englishwoman and champion equestrienne on Oxford’s riding team.[13]

Career

Clerkships

Gorsuch served as a judicial clerk for Judge David B. Sentelle on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit from 1991 to 1992, and then for U.S. Supreme Court Justices Byron White and Anthony Kennedy from 1993–94.[24][2][29]

Private law practice

Instead of joining an established law firm, Gorsuch decided to join the two-year-old boutique firm Kellogg, Huber, Hansen, Todd, Evans & Figel. Eschewing appellate briefs, he focused on trial work.[13] After winning his first trial as lead attorney, a jury member told Gorsuch he was like Perry Mason.[13] He was an associate in the Washington, D.C., law firm from 1995–97 and a partner from 1998 to 2005.[2][30] Gorsuch’s clients included Colorado billionaire Philip Anschutz.[31]

In 2002, Gorsuch penned an op-ed criticizing the Senate for delaying the nominations of Merrick Garland and John Roberts to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, writing that “the most impressive judicial nominees are grossly mistreated” by the Senate.[32][33]

In 2005, at Kellogg Huber, Gorsuch wrote a brief denouncing class action lawsuits by shareholders. In the case of Dura Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. Broudo, Gorsuch opined that “The free ride to fast riches enjoyed by securities class action attorneys in recent years appeared to hit a speed bump” and that “the problem is that securities fraud litigation imposes an enormous toll on the economy, affecting virtually every public corporation in America at one time or another and costing businesses billions of dollars in settlements every year”.[30]

U.S. Department of Justice

Gorsuch served as Principal Deputy to the Associate Attorney General, Robert McCallum, at the United States Department of Justice from 2005 until 2006.[24][2] During his time at the United States Department of Justice Civil Division, Gorsuch was tasked with all the “terror litigation” arising from the President’s War on Terror, successfully defending the extraordinary rendition of Khalid El-Masri, fighting the disclosure of Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse photographs, and, in November 2005, traveling to inspect the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.[34] Gorsuch helped Attorney General Alberto Gonzales prepare for hearings after the public revelation of NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07), and worked with Senator Lindsey Graham in drafting the provisions in the Detainee Treatment Act which attempted to strip federal courts of jurisdiction over the detainees.[35]

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit

In January 2006, Philip Anschutz recommended Gorsuch’s nomination to Colorado’s U.S. Senator Wayne Allard and White House Counsel Harriet Miers.[31] On May 10, 2006, Gorsuch was nominated by President George W. Bush to the seat on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit vacated by Judge David M. Ebel, who was taking senior status.[11] Like Gorsuch, Ebel was a former clerk of Supreme Court Justice Byron R. White. The American Bar Association‘s Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary unanimously rated him “well qualified” in 2006.[36][37]

Just over two months later, on July 20, 2006, Gorsuch was confirmed by unanimous voice vote in the U.S. Senate.[38][39] Gorsuch was President Bush’s fifth appointment to the Tenth Circuit.[40]

When Gorsuch began his tenure at Denver’s Byron White United States Courthouse, Justice Anthony Kennedy administered the oath of office.[32]

Since taking office, Gorsuch has sent ten of his law clerks on to become Supreme Court clerks, and he is sometimes regarded as a “feeder judge“.[41]

During his time on the Circuit Court, since 2008, Gorsuch has been a Thomson Visiting Professor at the University of Colorado Law School, teaching one course per semester, either ethics or antitrust law.[42][43]

Freedom of religion

Gorsuch advocates a broad definition of religious freedom. In Hobby Lobby Stores v. Sebelius (2013) Gorsuch wrote a concurrence when the en banc circuit found the Affordable Care Act‘s contraceptive mandate on a private business violated the Religious Freedom Restoration Act.[44] That ruling was upheld 5–4 by the Supreme Court in Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. (2014).[45] When a panel of the court denied similar claims under the same act in Little Sisters of the Poor Home for the Aged v. Burwell (2015), Gorsuch joined Judges Harris Hartz, Paul Joseph Kelly Jr., Timothy Tymkovich, and Jerome Holmes in their dissent to the denial of rehearing en banc.[46] That ruling was vacated and remanded to the Tenth Circuit by the per curium Supreme Court in Zubik v. Burwell (2016).[45]

In Pleasant Grove City v. Summum (2007), he joined Judge Michael W. McConnell‘s dissent from the denial of rehearing en banc, taking the view that the government’s display of a donated Ten Commandments monument in a public park did not obligate the government to display other offered monuments.[47] Most of the dissent’s view was subsequently adopted by the Supreme Court, which reversed the judgment of the Tenth Circuit.[45]

Gorsuch has written that “the law […] doesn’t just apply to protect popular religious beliefs: it does perhaps its most important work in protecting unpopular religious beliefs, vindicating this nation’s long-held aspiration to serve as a refuge of religious tolerance”.[48]

Administrative law

Gorsuch has called for reconsideration of Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. (1984), in which the Supreme Court instructed courts to grant deference to federal agencies’ interpretation of ambiguous laws and regulations. In Gutierrez-Brizuela v. Lynch (2016), Gorsuch wrote for a unanimous panel finding that court review was required before an executive agency could reject the circuit court’s interpretation of an immigration law.[49][50]

Alone, Gorsuch added a concurring opinion, criticizing Chevron deference and National Cable & Telecommunications Ass’n v. Brand X Internet Services (2005) as an “abdication of judicial duty”, writing that deference is “more than a little difficult to square with the Constitution of the framers’ design”.[51][52]

In United States v. Hinckley (2008), Gorsuch argued that one possible reading of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act likely violates the nondelegation doctrine.[53]Antonin Scalia and Ruth Bader Ginsberg held the same view in their 2012 dissent of Reynolds v. United States.[54]

Interstate commerce

Gorsuch has been an opponent of the dormant Commerce Clause, which allows state laws to be declared unconstitutional if they too greatly burden interstate commerce. In 2011, Gorsuch joined a unanimous panel finding that the dormant Commerce Clause did not prevent the Oklahoma Water Resources Board from blocking water exports to Texas.[55] That ruling was affirmed by a unanimous Supreme Court in Tarrant Regional Water District v. Herrmann (2013).[56]

In 2013, Gorsuch joined a unanimous panel finding that federal courts could not hear a challenge to Colorado’s internet sales tax.[57] That ruling was reversed by a unanimous Supreme Court in Direct Marketing Ass’n v. Brohl (2015).[56] In 2016, the Tenth Circuit panel rejected the challenger’s dormant commerce clause claim, with Gorsuch writing a concurrence.[58]

In Energy and Environmental Legal Institute v. Joshua Epel (2015), Gorsuch held that Colorado’s mandates for renewable energy did not violate the commerce clause by putting out-of-state coal companies at a disadvantage.[59] Gorsuch wrote that the Colorado renewable energy law “isn’t a price-control statute, it doesn’t link prices paid in Colorado with those paid out of state, and it does not discriminate against out-of-staters”.[60][61]

Campaign finance

In Riddle v. Hickenlooper (2014), Gorsuch joined a unanimous panel of the Tenth Circuit in finding that it was unconstitutional for a Colorado law to set the limit on donations for write-in candidates at half the amount for major party candidates.[62] Gorsuch added a concurrence where he noted that although the standard of review of campaign finance in the United States is unclear, the Colorado law would fail even under intermediate scrutiny.[63]

Civil rights

In Planned Parenthood v. Gary Herbert (2016), Gorsuch wrote for the four dissenting judges when the Tenth Circuit denied a rehearing en banc of a divided panel opinion that had ordered the Utah Governor to resume the organization’s funding, which Herbert had blocked in response to a video controversy.[64][65]

In A.M., on behalf of her minor child, F.M. v. Ann Holmes (2016), the Tenth Circuit considered a case in which a 13-year-old child was arrested for burping and laughing in gym class. The child was handcuffed and arrested based on a New Mexico statute that makes it a misdemeanor to disrupt school activities. The child’s family brought a federal 42 U.S.C. § 1983 (civil rights) action against school officials and the school resource officer who made the arrest, arguing that it was a false arrest that violated the child’s constitutional rights. In a 94-page majority opinion, the Tenth Circuit held that the defendants enjoyed qualified immunity from suit.

Gorsuch wrote a four-page dissent, arguing that the New Mexico Court of Appeals had “long ago alerted law enforcement” that the statute that the officer relied upon for the child’s arrest does not criminalize noises or diversions that merely disturb order in a classroom.[66][67][68]

Criminal law

In 2009, Gorsuch wrote for a unanimous panel finding that a court may still order criminals to pay restitution even after it missed a statutory deadline.[69] That ruling was affirmed 5–4 by the Supreme Court in Dolan v. United States (2010).[56]

In United States of America v. Miguel Games-Perez (2012), Gorsuch ruled on a case where a felon owned a gun in a jurisdiction where gun ownership by felons is illegal; however, the felon did not know that he was a felon at the time. Gorsuch concurred with the opinion that “The only statutory element separating innocent (even constitutionally protected) gun possession from criminal conduct in §§ 922(g) and 924(a) is a prior felony conviction. So the presumption that the government must prove mens rea here applies with full force.”[70]

In 2013, Gorsuch joined a unanimous panel finding that intent does not need to be proven under a bank fraud statute.[71] That ruling was affirmed by a Supreme Court unanimous in judgment in Loughrin v. United States (2014).[56]

In 2015, Gorsuch wrote a dissent to the denial of rehearing en banc when the Tenth Circuit found that a convicted sex offender had to register with Kansas after he moved to the Philippines.[72] The Tenth Circuit was then reversed by a unanimous Supreme Court in Nichols v. United States (2016).[56]

Death penalty

Gorsuch favors a strict reading of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996.[45] In 2015, he wrote for the court when it permitted Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt to order the execution of Scott Eizember, prompting a thirty-page dissent by Judge Mary Beck Briscoe.[73][74] After Oklahoma botched the execution of Clayton Lockett, Gorsuch joined Briscoe when the court unanimously allowed Attorney General Pruitt to continue using the same lethal injection protocol. That ruling was upheld 5–4 by the Supreme Court in Glossip v. Gross (2015).[75]

List of judicial opinions

During his tenure on the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, Judge Gorsuch has authored 212 published opinions.[76] Some of those are the following opinions:

Nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court

Do you support Gorsuch Confirmation

45% Yes

55% No

Do you support the filibuster Gorsuch ( CNN, TYT)

35, 85 % = 60 % Yes

57, 15 % = 38 % No

8 = 4%

 

After his nomination on January 31, 2017, Neil Gorsuch was confirmed by the Senate on April 7, 2017.[2] Gorsuch, age 49, is the youngest sitting Supreme Court justice since Clarence Thomas.[3] In February 2016, Associate Justice Antonin Scalia of the Supreme Court of the United States died, leaving a vacancy on the highest federal court in the United States. Article II of the U.S. Constitution gives the president the power to nominate justices to the Supreme Court, subject to the “advice and consent” of the United States Senate.[4] Scalia’s seat remained open until the beginning of the Trump administration in January 2017, as the Senate did not consider outgoing President Barack Obama‘s nomination of Merrick Garland, advising that the vacancy should be filled by the newly elected president, either Trump or Hillary Clinton.

On January 31, 2017, President Donald Trump announced his selection of Judge Neil Gorsuch for the vacant position of Associate Justice, and the nomination was transmitted to the Senate on the following day. After hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee, the nomination was sent to full Senate on April 4, 2017. When nominated, Gorsuch was an active judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, to which he had been appointed by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the Senate without opposition. Democrats filibustered the confirmation vote, after which Republicans invoked the “nuclear option“, removing the option to filibuster Supreme Court nominees.[5] On April 7, 2017, the Senate confirmed Gorsuch’s nomination to the Supreme Court with a bipartisan 54–45 vote, with three Democrats joining all the Republicans in attendance. Gorsuch took office in a private ceremony on April 10.

Background[edit]

Death of Justice Antonin Scalia[edit]

In 1986, President Ronald Reagan nominated then D.C. Circuit Judge Antonin Scalia to the Supreme Court to fill the associate justice vacancy caused by the retirement of Chief JusticeBurger and the appointment as Chief Justice of then-Associate Justice William H. Rehnquist. Scalia was unanimously confirmed by the Senate and became a part of the court’s conservative bloc, often supporting originalist and textualist positions.[7]

On February 13, 2016, Justice Scalia was found dead on a Texas ranch.[8][9] Scalia’s death marked only the second time in sixty years that a Supreme Court justice had died in office, the other being Chief Justice Rehnquist in 2005.[10] Scalia’s death was the seventh occasion since 1900 in which a seat on the Supreme Court of the United States was vacant during a year in which a presidential election was set to occur.[11]

One hour after Scalia’s death was confirmed, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY) announced that the Senate would not consider any replacement nominated by President Barack Obama.[12]

Nomination of Judge Merrick Garland[edit]

When Scalia died, President Barack Obama was a member of the Democratic Party, while the Republican Party held a 54–46 seat majority in the Senate.[13] Because of the composition of the Supreme Court at the time of Scalia’s death, and the belief that President Obama could replace Scalia with a much more liberal successor, some believed that an Obama appointee could potentially swing the Court in a liberal direction for many years to come, with potentially far-reaching political consequences.[14] President Obama ultimately nominated Merrick Garland on March 16, 2016. The Republican-controlled Senate refused to consider Garland’s nomination for 293 days, until it expired when the 114th Congress adjourned in January 2017.[15] The defeat of Garland’s nomination left Scalia’s seat vacant when President Trump took office in January 2017. Many Democrats reacted angrily to the Senate’s refusal to consider Garland, with Senator Jeff Merkley (Democrat from Oregon) describing the vacant seat as a “stolen seat.”[16] However, Republicans such as Iowa Senator Chuck Grassley argued that the Senate was within its rights to refuse to consider a nominee until the inauguration of a new president.[17]

Nomination[edit]

Candidates[edit]

During the 2016 presidential campaign, while Garland remained before the Senate, Trump released two lists of potential nominees. On May 18, 2016, Trump released a short list of eleven judges for nomination to the Scalia vacancy.[18]

In September 2016, Trump released a second list of ten possible nominees, this time including three minorities.[19] Both lists were assembled by the Federalist Society and the Heritage Foundation.[20] Leonard Leo of the Federalist Society played a major role in the creation of the second list, which included Gorsuch.[21] After winning the presidential election, Trump and White House Counsel Don McGahn interviewed four individuals for the Supreme Court opening, all of whom had appeared on one of the two previously-released lists.[20] The four individuals were federal appellate judges Thomas Hardiman, William H. Pryor Jr., and Neil Gorsuch, as well as federal district judge Amul Thapar.[20] All four had been appointed to the federal bench by President George W. Bush. While Pryor had been seen by many as the early front-runner due to the backing of Attorney General Jeff Sessions, many evangelicals expressed resistance to him, and the final decision ultimately came down to Gorsuch or Hardiman.[20] Hardiman had the support of Trump’s sister, Judge Maryanne Trump Barry,[20] but Trump instead chose to nominate Gorsuch.[22]

Announcement[edit]

President Trump announced the nomination of Gorsuch on January 31, 2017. The nomination was formally transmitted to the Senate on February 1, 2017.[23] His nomination is now pending before the Senate Judiciary Committee. At age 49, Gorsuch would be the youngest sitting Supreme Court justice since Clarence Thomas. Having clerked for Anthony Kennedy, Gorsuch would also be the first Supreme Court Justice to have previously clerked for a Justice still sitting on the court.[24]

In July 2006, Gorsuch’s nomination to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit had been confirmed in the Senate by a unanimous voice vote.[25] At the time of his nomination to the Supreme Court, Gorsuch was described as solidly conservative, but likely to be confirmed without much difficulty.[26][27][28] Richard Primus of Politico described Gorsuch as “Scalia 2.0” due to ideological similarities,[29] and a report prepared by Lee Epstein, Andrew Martin, and Kevin Quinn predicted that Gorsuch would be a “reliable conservative” similar to Scalia.[30]

Senate consideration[edit]

Committee[edit]

Gorsuch’s nomination was first considered by the Senate Judiciary Committee, which holds hearings on all federal judicial nominations and decides whether or not to send nominations to the full Senate for a final confirmation vote.[31] The committee consists of 11 Republican Senators and 9 Democratic Senators, and is chaired by Republican Chuck Grassley (R-IA). In February 2017, the committee requested the Justice Department to send all documents they had regarding Gorsuch’s work in the George W. Bush administration. As of March 9, 2017, the Justice Department had turned over more than 144,000 pages of documents and, according to a White House spokesman, more than 220,000 pages of documents in total had been sent to the committee.[32] Gorsuch’s confirmation hearings started on March 20, 2017, and lasted four days.[33][34] On April 3, the Judiciary Committee approved Gorsuch by in an 11–9 in a party-line vote.[35][36]

Confirmation hearings[edit]

Judge Gorsuch testifies before the Senate Judiciary Committee on March 20, 2017.

On the first day of hearings, Senators largely used their opening statements to criticize each other, with Ranking Member Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) complaining of the “unprecedented treatment” of Judge Merrick Garland, while Colorado Senator Michael Bennet (D-CO) felt “two wrongs don’t make a right”, and Senator Ted Cruz insisted President Trump’s nomination now carried “super-legitimacy”.[37]

Democratic Senators repeatedly criticized Gorsuch for a case where the Tenth Circuit ruled in favor of a truck driver who had abandoned his trailer in inclement conditions, with Senator Dick Durbin (D-IL) telling Gorsuch the weather was “not as cold as your dissent”.[37] In his own 16-minute opening statement, Gorsuch repeated his belief that a judge who likes all his rulings is “probably a pretty bad judge”, and noted that his large record included many examples where he ruled both for and against disadvantaged groups.[37]

On the second day of hearings Gorsuch responded to questions by committee members. When Chairman Chuck Grassley (R-IA) asked Gorsuch if he would “have any trouble ruling against the president who appointed you”, Gorsuch replied, no, and “that’s a softball”.[38] Senator Cruz used his time to ask Gorsuch about The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, basketball, and mutton busting.[38] When asked by Senator Lindsey Graham (R-SC) how he would have reacted if during his interview at Trump Tower the President had asked him to vote against Roe v. Wade, Gorsuch replied “I would have walked out the door”.[38]

Democratic Senators continued to criticize Gorsuch on his dissent in the case involving a truck driver, with Ranking Member Feinstein asking him “will you be for the little men” and Senator Al Franken (D-MN) telling the judge his position was “absurd”, going on to say “I had a career in identifying absurdity” (in reference to his former career as a comedian).[38]Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) used his time to praise Judge Garland, criticize those policies of President George W. Bush that Gorsuch had defended at the Justice Department, and to ask Gorsuch how he would rule in Washington v. Trump. He refused to comment on active litigation, explained that Justice Department lawyers must defend their client, but did say that Garland is “an outstanding judge” and that Gorsuch always reads his opinions with “special care”.[38]

On the third day of hearings Gorsuch continued to answer questions by committee members. Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) asked Gorsuch if “you think your writings reflect a knee-jerk attitude against common-sense regulations”, to which the judge replied “no”.[39] In response to Senator Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI)’s question of if the judge would be subject to agency capture by big business, Gorsuch replied “nobody will capture me”.[40] Franken laughed out loud after Senator Jeff Flake (R-AZ) asked Gorsuch if he had ever served on a jury; Gorsuch said he had. Flake then asked Gorsuch if he would rather fight “100 duck-sized horses or one horse-size duck”, to which Gorsuch avoided giving a firm answer.[39]

Senator Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) told Gorsuch he employed only “selective originalism”.[clarification needed][40] He replied to a question by Ranking Member Feinstein on the Equal Protection Clause by saying, “no one is looking to return us to horse and buggy days” and that “it matters not a whit that some of the drafters of the Fourteenth Amendment were racists. Because they were. Or sexists, because they were. The law they drafted promises equal protection of the laws to all persons. That’s what they wrote.”[40]

During Wednesday’s hearings, the Supreme Court unanimously reversed the Tenth Circuit in an Individuals with Disabilities Education Act case Gorsuch had not been involved in, although in 2008 he had written for a unanimous panel applying the same circuit precedent.[40] Still, Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer (D-NY) said this demonstrated “a continued, troubling pattern of Judge Gorsuch deciding against everyday Americans – even children who require special assistance at school”.[40]

[hide]Confirmation Hearing Witnesses for Neil Gorsuch
Date Witnesses Role Notes
March 20 Michael Bennet, Senator (D-CO) Introducer, home state senator Testimony.[a]
Cory Gardner, Senator (R-CO) Introducer, home state senator Testimony.[b]
Neal Katyal, Former Acting Solicitor General (May 2010-June 2011) Introducer Testimony.[c]
Neil Gorsuch Nominee Testimony.[d]
March 21
March 22
March 23 Nancy Scott Degan, Chair, American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary Congressional witness Testimony.[e]
Shannon Edwards, Member, American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary Congressional witness
Deanell Reece Tacha, Pepperdine University School of Law Duane And Kelly Roberts Dean And Professor Of Law, U.S. Court Of Appeals Judge (Retired) Republican witness Testimony.[f]
Robert Harlan Henry, President of Oklahoma City University, U.S. Court Of Appeals Judge (Retired) Republican witness
John L. Kane Jr., United States federal judge, United States District Court for the District of Colorado Republican witness
Leah Bressack, former law clerk Republican witness Testimony.[g]
Elisa Massimino, President and CEO, Human Rights First Democratic witness Testimony.[h]
Jameel Jaffer, Executive Director, Columbia University/Knight First Amendment Institute Democratic witness Testimony.[i]
Jeff Perkins Democratic witness Testimony.[j]
Guerino J. Calemine, III, General Counsel, Communication Workers of America Democratic witness Testimony.[k]
Jeff Lamken, Partner, MoloLamken Republican witness Testimony.[l]
Lawrence Solum, Carmack Waterhouse Professor Of Law, Georgetown University Law Center Republican witness Testimony.[m]
Jonathan Turley, J.B. And Maurice C. Shapiro Professor Of Public Interest Law, The George Washington University Law School Republican witness Testimony.[n]
Karen Harned, Executive Director, National Federation Of Independent Business Small Business Legal Center Republican witness Testimony.[o]
Heather McGhee, President, Demos Democratic witness Testimony.[p]
Fatima Goss Graves, Senior Vice President For Program & President-Elect, National Women’s Law Center Democratic witness Testimony.[q]
Patrick Gallagher, Director, Sierra Club Environmental Law Program Democratic witness Testimony.[r]
Eve Hill, Partner, Brown Goldstein Levy Democratic witness Testimony.[s]
Peter Kirsanow, Commissioner, U.S. Commission On Civil Rights; Partner, Benesch, Friedlander, Coplan & Aronoff Republican witness Testimony.[t]
Alice Fisher, Partner, Latham & Watkins Republican witness Testimony.[u]
Hannah Smith, Senior Counsel, Becket Fund Republican witness Testimony.[v]
Timothy Meyer, former law clerk Republican witness Testimony.[w]
Jamil N. Jaffer, former law clerk Republican witness Testimony.[x]
Kristen Clarke, President & CEO, Lawyers Committee For Civil Rights Under Law Democratic witness Testimony.[y]
Sarah Warbelow, Legal Director, Human Rights Campaign Democratic witness Testimony.[z]
Amy Hagstrom Miller, President, CEO, & Founder, Whole Woman’s Health Democratic witness Testimony.[aa]
William Marshall, William Rand Kenan Jr. Distinguished Professor Of Law, University Of North Carolina Democratic witness Testimony.[ab]
Sandy Phillips Democratic witness Testimony.[ac]

Full Senate[edit]

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell

Gorsuch needed to win a simple majority vote of the full Senate to be confirmed, but the opposition could prevent a vote through a filibuster, which required a 60-vote super-majority to be defeated. At the time of the Gorsuch nomination, Republicans held 52 seats in the 100-seat chamber, as well as the potential tie-breaking vote in Vice President Pence.[41] After nominating Gorsuch, President Trump called on the Senate to use the “nuclear option” and abolish the filibuster for Supreme Court appointments if its continued existence would prevent Gorsuch’s confirmation.[42](The nuclear option was used in 2013 to abolish filibusters for all presidential appointments except nominations to the Supreme Court.)

While some Republican Senators such as John McCain (R-AZ) expressed reluctance about abolishing the filibuster for executive appointments, others such as John Cornyn (R-TX) argued that the GOP majority should reserve all options necessary to confirm Gorsuch.[41] Other political commentators have proposed that GOP Senate leadership adopt a strategic use of Standing Rule XIX to avoid the elimination of the filibuster.[43][44]

During the last day of committee hearings, Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) announced from the Senate floor that he would filibuster the nomination.[45] Democratic opposition focused on complaints saying that Scalia’s seat should have been filled by President Obama.[46][47] In addition, Democratic Senators Al Franken (D-MN), Bernie Sanders (D/I-VT), Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), and Kamala Harris (D-CA) criticized aspects of Gorsuch’s record. Senator Jeff Merkley (D-OR) said he would do “anything in his power”—including the power of filibustering—to oppose Gorsuch’s nomination.[48] Other Democratic Senators including Joe Manchin (D-WV),[49] Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND),[50] and Joe Donnelly (D-IN) support Gorsuch.[51]

Nuclear option[edit]

On April 6, 2017, Democrats filibustered (prevented cloture of) the confirmation vote of Gorsuch. The Senate Republicans invoked the so-called “nuclear option” and changed the Senate rules to end fillibusters for Supreme Court nominees. After the change to Senate rules the Senate in a bipartisan vote (Senate Republicans along with Democratic Senators Joe Manchin (D-WV), Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND), Joe Donnelly (D-IN), and Michael Bennet (D-CO)) agreed to cloture. After the change, Gorsuch was confirmed on April 7.[52][53]

Confirmation vote[edit]

File:President Trump Attends the Swearing-In Ceremony of the Honorable Neil Gorsuch.webm

The swearing-in ceremony of Gorsuch on 10 April 2017, attended by President Donald Trump and Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy.

The Senate confirmed Gorsuch on April 7, 2017, by a bipartisan vote of 54–45. All Senate Republicans present, along with Democratic Senators in states that voted heavily for Trump, Manchin (D-WV), Heitkamp (D-ND), and Donnelly (D-IN), voted to confirm Gorsuch.[54] Republican Georgia Senator Johnny Isakson was absent for the vote because he was recovering from back surgery.[55]

State Senator Party Vote
Tennessee Lamar Alexander R Yea
Wisconsin Tammy Baldwin D Nay
Wyoming John Barrasso R Yea
Colorado Michael Bennet D Nay
Connecticut Richard Blumenthal D Nay
Missouri Roy Blunt R Yea
New Jersey Cory Booker D Nay
Arkansas John Boozman R Yea
Ohio Sherrod Brown D Nay
North Carolina Richard Burr R Yea
Washington Maria Cantwell D Nay
West Virginia Shelley Moore Capito R Yea
Maryland Ben Cardin D Nay
Delaware Tom Carper D Nay
Pennsylvania Bob Casey D Nay
Louisiana Bill Cassidy R Yea
Mississippi Thad Cochran R Yea
Maine Susan Collins R Yea
Delaware Chris Coons D Nay
Tennessee Bob Corker R Yea
Texas John Cornyn R Yea
Nevada Catherine Cortez Masto D Nay
Arkansas Tom Cotton R Yea
Idaho Mike Crapo R Yea
Texas Ted Cruz R Yea
Montana Steve Daines R Yea
Indiana Joe Donnelly D Yea
Illinois Tammy Duckworth D Nay
Illinois Dick Durbin D Nay
Wyoming Mike Enzi R Yea
Iowa Joni Ernst R Yea
California Dianne Feinstein D Nay
Nebraska Deb Fischer R Yea
Arizona Jeff Flake R Yea
Minnesota Al Franken D Nay
Colorado Cory Gardner R Yea
New York Kirsten Gillibrand D Nay
South Carolina Lindsey Graham R Yea
Iowa Chuck Grassley R Yea
California Kamala Harris D Nay
New Hampshire Maggie Hassan D Nay
Utah Orrin Hatch R Yea
New Mexico Martin Heinrich D Nay
North Dakota Heidi Heitkamp D Yea
Nevada Dean Heller R Yea
Hawaii Mazie Hirono D Nay
North Dakota John Hoeven R Yea
Oklahoma Jim Inhofe R Yea
Georgia Johnny Isakson R Not Voting
Wisconsin Ron Johnson R Yea
Virginia Tim Kaine D Nay
Louisiana John Neely Kennedy R Yea
Maine Angus King Ind. Nay
Minnesota Amy Klobuchar D Nay
Oklahoma James Lankford R Yea
Vermont Patrick Leahy D Nay
Utah Mike Lee R Yea
West Virginia Joe Manchin D Yea
Massachusetts Ed Markey D Nay
Arizona John McCain R Yea
Missouri Claire McCaskill D Nay
Kentucky Mitch McConnell R Yea
New Jersey Bob Menendez D Nay
Oregon Jeff Merkley D Nay
Kansas Jerry Moran R Yea
Alaska Lisa Murkowski R Yea
Connecticut Chris Murphy D Nay
Washington Patty Murray D Nay
Florida Bill Nelson D Nay
Kentucky Rand Paul R Yea
Georgia David Perdue R Yea
Michigan Gary Peters D Nay
Ohio Rob Portman R Yea
Rhode Island Jack Reed D Nay
Idaho Jim Risch R Yea
Kansas Pat Roberts R Yea
South Dakota Mike Rounds R Yea
Florida Marco Rubio R Yea
Vermont Bernie Sanders Ind. Nay
Nebraska Ben Sasse R Yea
Hawaii Brian Schatz D Nay
New York Chuck Schumer D Nay
South Carolina Tim Scott R Yea
New Hampshire Jeanne Shaheen D Nay
Alabama Richard Shelby R Yea
Michigan Debbie Stabenow D Nay
Alabama Luther Strange R Yea
Alaska Dan Sullivan R Yea
Montana Jon Tester D Nay
South Dakota John Thune R Yea
North Carolina Thom Tillis R Yea
Pennsylvania Pat Toomey R Yea
New Mexico Tom Udall D Nay
Maryland Chris Van Hollen D Nay
Virginia Mark Warner D Nay
Massachusetts Elizabeth Warren D Nay
Rhode Island Sheldon Whitehouse D Nay
Mississippi Roger Wicker R Yea
Oregon Ron Wyden D Nay
Indiana Todd Young R Yea
vote by party[56] D
R
Ind.
3–43
51–0
0–2

Responses from organizations and notable persons[edit]

Protests at the U.S. Supreme Court occurred following Gorsuch’s nomination.

Norm Eisen, who was named by Obama to be Special Counsel for Ethics and Government Reform in the White House and Ambassador to the Czech Republic, has endorsed Gorsuch.[57] Eisen was a classmate of both Gorsuch and Obama at Harvard Law.[57] Neal Katyal, who served as Acting Solicitor General of the United States during the Obama Administration and who is currently a law professor at Georgetown University Law Center, endorsed Gorsuch for approval to the Supreme Court.[58]

The National Rifle Association, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the Second Amendment Foundation and other gun rights groups endorsed Gorsuch,[59][60][61] while Americans for Responsible Solutions, the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence and other gun control proponents have opposed his nomination.[62][63] House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) claimed Gorsuch “comes down on the side of felons over gun safety”. Politifact called her statement misleading and said that Gorsuch’s past rulings do not “demonstrate that he thinks more felons should be allowed guns than what is already permitted under the law”.[64]

The American Civil Liberties Union raised concerns about Gorsuch’s respect for disability rights.[65] The Secular Coalition for America, Freedom from Religion Foundation and Union for Reform Judaism all voiced concerns with Gorsuch’s nomination.[66]

On April 4, 2017, Politico reported that Rebecca Moore Howard, a Syracuse University professor, accused Gorsuch of plagiarism.[67][68][69] Oxford University Emeritus Professor John Finnis, who supervised Gorsuch’s dissertation at Oxford disagreed and stated, “The allegation is entirely without foundation. The book is meticulous in its citation of primary sources. The allegation that the book is guilty of plagiarism because it does not cite secondary sources which draw on those same primary sources is, frankly, absurd.”[67] Abigail Lawlis Kuzma, the supposed victim of the plagiarism and who is Indiana‘s deputy attorney general, has supported Gorsuch by saying, “I have reviewed both passages and do not see an issue here, even though the language is similar. These passages are factual, not analytical in nature, framing both the technical legal and medical circumstances of the ‘Baby/Infant Doe‘ case that occurred in 1982.”[67][68]

Legal philosophy

Gorsuch is a proponent of originalism, the idea that the Constitution should be interpreted as perceived at the time of enactment, and of textualism, the idea that statutes should be interpreted literally, without considering the legislative history and underlying purpose of the law.[5][6][7] An editorial in the National Catholic Register opined that Gorsuch’s judicial decisions lean more toward the natural law philosophy.[90]

Judicial activism

In a 2005 speech at Case Western Reserve University, Gorsuch said that judges should strive

to apply the law as it is, focusing backward, not forward, and looking to text, structure, and history to decide what a reasonable reader at the time of the events in question would have understood the law to be—not to decide cases based on their own moral convictions or the policy consequences they believe might serve society best.[91]

In a 2005 article published by National Review, Gorsuch argued that “American liberals have become addicted to the courtroom, relying on judges and lawyers rather than elected leaders and the ballot box, as the primary means of effecting their social agenda” and that they are “failing to reach out and persuade the public”. Gorsuch wrote that, in doing so, American liberals are circumventing the democratic process on issues like gay marriage, school vouchers, and assisted suicide, and this has led to a compromised judiciary, which is no longer independent. Gorsuch wrote that American liberals’ “overweening addiction” to using the courts for social debate is “bad for the nation and bad for the judiciary”.[92][38]

States’ rights and federalism

Gorsuch was described by Justin Marceau, a professor at the University of Denver‘s Sturm College of Law, as “a predictably socially conservative judge who tends to favor state power over federal power”. Marceau added that the issue of states’ rights is important since federal laws have been used to reel in “rogue” state laws in civil rights cases.[93]

Assisted suicide

In July 2006, Gorsuch’s book, The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia, was published by Princeton University Press.[94][95] It was developed from his doctoral thesis.[96][9]

In the book, Gorsuch makes clear his personal opposition to euthanasia and assisted suicide, arguing that America should “retain existing law [banning assisted suicide and euthanasia] on the basis that human life is fundamentally and inherently valuable, and that the intentional taking of human life by private persons is always wrong.”[95][48][97]

On April 4, 2017, Politico reported that Rebecca Moore Howard, a Syracuse University professor, accused Gorsuch of plagiarism.[98][99][100] Oxford University Emeritus Professor John Finnis, who supervised Gorsuch’s dissertation at Oxford disagreed and stated, “The allegation is entirely without foundation. The book is meticulous in its citation of primary sources. The allegation that the book is guilty of plagiarism because it does not cite secondary sources which draw on those same primary sources is, frankly, absurd.”[98] Abigail Lawlis Kuzma, the supposed victim of the plagiarism and who is Indiana‘s deputy attorney general, has supported Gorsuch by saying, “I have reviewed both passages and do not see an issue here, even though the language is similar. These passages are factual, not analytical in nature, framing both the technical legal and medical circumstances of the ‘Baby/Infant Doe’ case that occurred in 1982.”[98][99]

Personal life

Gorsuch and his wife, Louise, who is British, met at Oxford. They live in Boulder, Colorado and have two daughters, Emma and Belinda.[101][43][17]

Gorsuch has timeshare ownership of a cabin on the headwaters of the Colorado River outside Granby, Colorado with associates of Philip Anschutz.[31] He enjoys the outdoors and fly fishing and on at least one occasion went fly fishing with Justice Scalia.[14][102] He raises horses, chickens, and goats, and often arranges ski trips with colleagues and friends.[45]

He is the author of two books. His first book, The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia, was published by Princeton University Press in July 2006.[103] He is a co-author of The Law of Judicial Precedent, published by Thomson West in 2016.[30]

Religion

Neil and his siblings, brother J.J. and sister Stephanie, were raised as Roman Catholics and attended weekly Mass. Neil Gorsuch later attended Georgetown Preparatory School, a Jesuit school in North Bethesda, Maryland, from which he graduated in 1985.[15][16][13][17]

Gorsuch’s wife, Louise, is British-born and the two met while Neil was studying at Oxford. When the couple returned to the United States they started attending an Episcopal parish in Vienna, Virginia. Gorsuch currently attends St. John’s Episcopal Church in Boulder. If Gorsuch considers himself Protestant, his confirmation would make him the first Protestant to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court since the retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens.[104][4][105] Gorsuch has not publicly stated if he considers himself a Catholic who attends a Protestant church, or if he has fully converted to Protestantism, but “according to church records, the Gorsuches were members of Holy Comforter”, an Episcopal church.[106]

Awards and honors

Gorsuch is the recipient of the Edward J. Randolph Award for outstanding service to the Department of Justice, and of the Harry S. Truman Foundation’s Stevens Award for outstanding public service in the field of law.[43]

Rand Paul

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Paul Rand.
Rand Paul
Rand Paul, official portrait, 112th Congress alternate.jpg
United States Senator
from Kentucky
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 3, 2011
Serving with Mitch McConnell
Preceded by Jim Bunning
Personal details
Born Randal Howard Paul
January 7, 1963 (age 52)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Kelley Ashby (1990–present)
Relations Ron Paul (Father)
Children 3
Alma mater Baylor University (no degree)
Duke University School of Medicine (M.D.)
Religion Presbyterianism[1]
Website Senate website
Campaign website

Dr. Randal HowardRandPaul (born January 7, 1963) is an American politician and physician. Since 2011, Paul has served in theUnited States Senate as a member of the Republican Party representing Kentucky. He is the son of former U.S. Representative Ron Paul of Texas.

Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Paul attended Baylor University and is a graduate of the Duke University School of Medicine. Paul began practicing ophthalmology in 1993 in Bowling Green, Kentucky, and established his own clinic in December 2007. Throughout Paul’s life, he volunteered for his father’s campaigns. In 2010, Paul entered politics by running for a seat in the United States Senate. Paul has described himself as a Constitutional conservative and a supporter of the Tea Party movement, and has advocated for a balanced budget amendment, term limits, and privacy reform.

On April 7, 2015, Paul officially announced his candidacy for the Republican nomination for the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

Early life

Randal Howard Paul was born on January 7, 1963, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Carol (née Wells) and Ron Paul, who is also a politician and physician. The elder Paul was a U.S. Representative from Texas and ran for President three times.[2] The middle child of five, his siblings are Ronald “Ronnie” Paul Jr., Lori Paul Pyeatt, Robert Paul, and Joy Paul-LeBlanc.[3] Paul was baptized in the Episcopal Church[4] and identified as a practicing Christian as a teenager.[5] Despite his father’s libertarian views and strong support for individual rights,[5][6] the novelist Ayn Rand was not the inspiration for his first name. Growing up, he went by “Randy”,[7] but his wife shortened it to “Rand.”[5][8][9]

The Paul family moved to Lake Jackson, Texas, in 1968,[7][10] where he was raised[11][12] and where his father began a medical practice and for an extent of time was the onlyobstetrician in Brazoria County.[7][10] When he was 13, his father was elected to the United States House of Representatives.[13] That same year, Paul attended the 1976 Republican National Convention, where his father headed Ronald Reagan‘s Texas delegation.[14] The younger Paul often spent summer vacations interning in his father’s congressional office.[15] In his teenage years, Paul studied the Austrian economists that his father respected, as well as the writings of Objectivist philosopher Ayn Rand.[7] Paul went to Brazoswood High School and was on the swimming team and played defensive back on the football team.[5][11] Paul attended Baylor University from fall 1981 to summer 1984 and was enrolled in the honors program. During the time he spent at Baylor, he was involved in the swim team and the Young Conservatives of Texas and was a member of a secret organization known as the NoZe Brotherhood.[16] Paul also regularly contributed to The Baylor Lariat.[14] Paul dropped out of Baylor without completing his Bachelor’s degree in either biology or English,[17] when he was accepted into his father’s alma mater, the Duke University School of Medicine. At the time, Duke did not require an undergraduate degree for admission to its graduate school. He earned a M.D. degree in 1988 and completed his residency in 1993.[18]

Medical career

After completing his residency in ophthalmology, Paul moved to Bowling Green, Kentucky. He has held a state-issued medical license since moving there in 1993.[19] He received his first job from John Downing of Downing McPeak Vision Centers, which brought him to Bowling Green after completing his residency. Paul worked for Downing for about five years before parting ways. Afterwards, he went to work at the Graves Gilbert Clinic, a private medical group in Bowling Green, for 10 years before creating his own practice in a converted one-story house across the street from Downing’s office.[20] After his election to the U.S. Senate, he merged his practice with Downing’s medical practice.[21] Paul has faced two malpractice lawsuits between 1993 and 2010; he was cleared in one case while the other was settled for $50,000.[20] His medical work has been praised by Downing and he has medical privileges at two Bowling Green hospitals.[19][20] Paul specializes in cataract and glaucoma surgeries, LASIK procedures, and corneal transplants.[8] As a member of the Bowling Green Noon Lions Club, Paul founded the Southern Kentucky Lions Eye Clinic in 2009 to help provide eye surgery and exams for those who cannot afford to pay.[22] Paul won the Melvin Jones Fellow Award for Dedicated Humanitarian Services from the Lions Club International Foundation for his work establishing the Southern Kentucky Lions Eye Clinic.[23]

National Board of Ophthalmology

In 1995, Paul passed the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) boards on his first attempt and earned board-certification under the ABO for 10 years.

Prior to this, in 1992, the ABO had changed their certification program, which had previously awarded lifetime certifications, instead requiring doctors to recertify every 10 years. Those who had already been given lifetime certification were allowed to keep it (according to the ABO, they would not legally have been able to rescind these certifications).[24]Shortly after this change, Paul began a campaign to protest it. This effort culminated in 1997 with him creating, “along with 200 other young ophthalmologists”, the National Board of Ophthalmology (NBO) to offer an alternative certification system, at a cost substantially lower than that of the ABO.[24][25][26] Its certification exam, an open book take-home test, was described by one taker as “probably harder” and “more clinically relevant” than the ABO’s exam.[24]

Named board members were Paul, his wife, and his father-in-law.[27] The NBO was never itself accepted as an accrediting entity by organizations such as the American Board of Medical Specialities,[19] and its certification was considered invalid by many hospitals and insurance companies.[24] Paul let his own ABO certification lapse in 2005, which did not affect his practice in Kentucky, since the state does not require board certification.[24]

By Paul’s estimate, about 50 or 60 doctors were certified by the NBO.[24] The NBO was incorporated in 1999, but Paul allowed it to be dissolved in 2000 when he did not file the required paperwork with the Kentucky Secretary of State’s office. He later recreated the board in 2005, but it was again dissolved in 2011.[28]

Political activism

Paul served as the head of the local chapter of the Young Conservatives of Texas during his time at Baylor University.[14] In 1984, Paul took a semester off to aid his father’s primary challenge to Republican Senator Phil Gramm.[14] While attending Duke Medical School, Paul volunteered for his father’s 1988 Libertarian presidential campaign.[15] In response to President Bush breaking his election promise to not raise taxes, Paul founded the North Carolina Taxpayers Union in 1991.[15] In 1994, Paul founded the anti-tax organization Kentucky Taxpayers United (KTU), serving as chair of the organization from its inception. He has often cited his involvement with KTU as the foundation of his involvement with state politics.[29] Described as “ideological and conservative” by the Lexington Herald-Leader, the group considered itself nonpartisan,[30][31] examining Kentucky legislators’ records on taxation and spending and encouraging politicians to publicly pledge to vote uniformly against tax increases.[32][33] Paul managed his father’s successful1996 Congressional campaign, in which the elder Paul returned to the House after a twelve-year absence.[14] The elder Paul defeated incumbent Democrat-turned-RepublicanGreg Laughlin in the Republican primary, despite Laughlin’s support from the NRCC and Republican leaders such as Newt Gingrich and George W. Bush.[14]

The Wall Street Journal reported in 2010 that although Paul had told a Kentucky television audience as recently as September 2009 that KTU published ratings each year on state legislators’ tax positions and that “we’ve done that for about 15 years”, the group had stopped issuing its ratings and report cards after 2002 and had been legally dissolved by the state in 2000 after failing to file registration documents.[29]

Paul spoke on his father’s behalf when his father was campaigning for office,[34] including throughout the elder Paul’s run in the 2008 presidential election, during which Rand campaigned door-to-door in New Hampshire[35] and spoke in Boston at a fundraising rally for his father on the 234th anniversary of the Boston Tea Party.[36]

In February 2014, Paul joined the Tea Party-affiliated conservative advocacy group FreedomWorks in filing a class-action lawsuit charging that the federal government’s bulk collection of Americans’ phone records metadata is a violation of the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.[37][38][39] Commenting on the lawsuit at a press conference, Paul said, “I’m not against the NSA, I’m not against spying, I’m not against looking at phone records…. I just want you to go to a judge, have an individual’s name and [get] a warrant. That’s what the Fourth Amendment says.”[37] He also said there was no evidence the surveillance of phone metadata had stopped terrorism.[37] Critics, including Harvard University law professor Alan Dershowitz[40] and Steven Aftergood, the director of the American Scientists’ Project on Government Secrecy,[39] called the lawsuit a political “stunt”. Paul’s political campaign organization said that the names of members of the public who went to Paul’s websites and signed on as potential class-action participants would be available in the organization’s database for future campaign use.[37][41] On the announcement of the filing of the lawsuit, Mattie Fein, the spokeswoman for and former wife of attorney Bruce Fein, complained that Fein’s intellectual contribution to the lawsuit had been stolen and that he had not been properly paid for his work.[42] Paul’s representatives denied the charge, and Fein issued a statement saying that Mattie Fein had not been authorized to speak for him on the matter and that he had in fact been paid for his work on the lawsuit.[42]

Paul is co-author of a book entitled The Tea Party Goes to Washington (2011)[43][44] and also the author of Government Bullies: How Everyday Americans Are Being Harassed, Abused, and Imprisoned by the Feds (2012).[45] Paul was included in Time magazine’s world’s 100 most influential people, for 2013 and 2014.[46][47]

Election to U.S. Senate

Primary campaign

Then-U.S. Senate candidate Rand Paul speaking at a Tea Party rally in Hawesville, Kentucky, on November 21, 2009

Then-U.S. Senate candidate Rand Paul greeting supporters at Bowman Field in Louisville, Kentucky on November 1, 2010.

At the beginning of 2009, there was movement by political supporters of his father to draft Paul in a bid to replace beleaguered Republican Kentucky senator Jim Bunning. Paul’s potential candidacy was discussed in the Los Angeles Times[48] and locally in the Kentucky press.[49] Paul’s father said, “Should Senator Bunning decide not to run, I think Rand would make a great U.S. Senator.”[50] On April 15, 2009, Paul gave his first political speech as a potential candidate at a Tea Party rally held in his town of Bowling Green, Kentucky, where more than 700 people had gathered in support of the Tea Party movement.[51]

On May 1, 2009, Paul officially confirmed that if Bunning, whose fundraising in 2009 matched his poor numbers in opinion polling for the 2010 election,[52] declined to seek a third term, he would almost certainly run in the Republican Party primary to succeed him,[53] and formed an exploratory committee soon after, while still promising to stay out of the race if Bunning ultimately decided to run for reelection. Paul made this announcement on MSNBC’s The Rachel Maddow Show, though a Kentucky news site first broke the news.[54]

On July 28, 2009, Bunning announced that he would not run for reelection in the face of insufficient fundraising. The announcement left only Paul and Secretary of State Trey Grayson as the remaining candidates for the Republican nomination,[55] with Paul announcing on August 5, 2009, that he would officially run for the U.S. Senate as a Republican. The announcement was made through a series of national TV events, radio, and other programs, as well as newspapers in Kentucky.[56][57][58]

On August 20, 2009, Paul’s supporters planned a moneybomb to kick off his campaign. The official campaign took in $433,509 in 24 hours. His website reported that this set a new record in Kentucky’s political fundraising history in a 24-hour period.[59] A second “moneybomb” was held on September 23, 2009, to counter a D.C. fundraiser being held for primary opponent Trey Grayson, by 23 Republican United States Senators.[60] The theme was a UFC “fight” between “We the People” and the “D.C. Insiders”.[61] Later in the campaign, Paul claimed his pledge to not take money from lobbyists and Senators who had voted for the bailout was only a “primary pledge”;[62] he subsequently held a DC fundraiser with the same Senators who had been the target of the September 23, 2009, “moneybomb”. Paul ended up raising some $3 million during the primary period. Paul’s fundraising was aided by his father’s network of supporters.[14]

Although Grayson was considered the frontrunner in July 2009,[63] Paul found success characterizing Grayson as a “career politician” and challenging Grayson’s conservatism. Paul ran an ad in February that made an issue out of Grayson’s September 2008 admission that he voted for Bill Clinton when he was 20 years old.[64] James Dobson, a Christian evangelical figure, endorsed Grayson on April 26 based on the advice of what Dobson described as “senior members of the GOP”, but on May 3 the Paul campaign announced that Dobson had changed his endorsement to Paul[65] after Paul and some Paul supporters had lobbied Dobson insisting on Paul’s social conservative bona fides.[66]

On May 18, Paul won the Republican Senatorial primary by a 23% margin,[67][68] meaning he would face the Kentucky Attorney General Jack Conway, in the November 2 general election.[69]

General campaign

In the 2010 general election, Paul faced Kentucky Attorney General Jack Conway. The campaign attracted $8.5 million in contributions from outside groups, of which $6 million was spent to help Paul and $2.5 million to help Conway. This money influx was in addition to the money spent by the candidates themselves: $6 million by Paul and $4.7 million by Conway.[70][71] On June 28, 2010, Paul supporters held their first post-primary online fundraising drive, this time promoted as a “money blast”.[72][73]

Paul’s campaign got off to a rough start after his comments on the Civil Rights Act of 1964 stirred controversy.[74] Paul stated that he favored 9 out of 10 titles of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, but that had he been a senator during the 1960s, he would have raised some questions on the constitutionality of Title II of the Act.[75] Paul said that he abhors racism, and that he would have marched with Martin Luther King Jr. to repeal Jim Crow Laws. He later released a statement declaring that he would have voted for the Act and stated “unequivocally … that I will not support any efforts to repeal the Civil Rights Act of 1964”.[76][77] Later he generated more controversy by characterizing statements made byObama Administration officials regarding the BP oil spill cleanup as sounding “un-American”.[78]

Paul defeated Conway in the general election with 56% of the vote to 44% for Conway.

U.S. Senate career

112th Congress (2011–13)

Rand Paul being sworn in as a senator by Vice President Joe Biden, along with his family, in the Old Senate Chamber in the United States Capitolbuilding

Paul was sworn in on January 5, 2011, along with his father, who simultaneously served in the House of Representatives.[79]

Paul was assigned to serve on the Energy and Natural Resources, Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, Homeland Security and Government Affairs, and Small Business committees.[80] Paul also formed the Senate Tea Party Caucus with Jim DeMint and Mike Lee as its inaugural members.[81] His first legislative proposal was to cut $500 billion from federal spending in one year. This proposal included cutting the Department of Education by 83 percent and the Department of Homeland Security by 43 percent, as well as folding theDepartment of Energy into the Department of Defense and eliminating the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Seven independent agencies would be eliminated and food stamps would be cut by 30 percent. Under Paul’s proposal, defense spending would be reduced by 6.5 percent and international aid would be eliminated.[82] He later proposed a five-year budget plan intended to balance the budget.[83]

In February, Paul was one of two Republicans to vote against extending three key provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act (roving wiretaps, searches of business records, and conducting surveillance of “lone wolves”—individuals not linked to terrorist groups).[84][85]

On March 2, Paul was one of nine senators to vote against a stopgap bill that cut $4 billion from the budget and temporarily prevent agovernment shutdown, saying that it did not cut enough from the budget.[86] One week later, he voted against the Democratic and Republican budget proposals to keep funding the federal government, saying that both bills did not cut enough spending. Both bills failed to pass the Senate.[87] He later voted against stopgap measures on March 17 and April 8, both of which passed the senate.[88] On April 14, He was one of 19 senators to vote against a budget that cut $38.5 billion from the budget and fund the government for the remainder of the fiscal year.[89] Paul voiced opposition to U.S. intervention in the Libyan civil war and has criticized President Obama for not gaining congressional consent forOperation Odyssey Dawn.[90] During the debt ceiling crisis, the Senator stated that he would only support raising the debt ceiling if a balanced budget amendment was enacted.[91] Paul was a supporter of the Cut, Cap and Balance Act, which was tabled by Democratic opposition.[92] On August 3, Paul voted against a bill that would raise the debt ceiling.[93]

On September 7, Paul called for a vote of no confidence in U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner.[94] Later that month, Paul blocked legislation that would strengthen safety rules for oil and gas pipelines because he stated the bill was not strong enough.[95] In October, Paul blocked a bill that would provide $36 million in benefits for elderly and disabled refugees, saying that he was concerned that it could be used to aid domestic terrorists. This was in response to two alleged terrorists who came to the United States through a refugee program and were receiving welfare benefits when they were arrested in 2011 in Paul’s hometown of Bowling Green.[96] Paul lifted his hold on the bill after Democratic leaders promised to hold a Congressional hearing into how individuals are selected for refugee status and request an investigation on how the two suspects were admitted in the country through a refugee program.[97]

113th Congress (2013–15)

For the 113th Congress, Paul was added to the Foreign Relations committee and retained his spot on the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, Homeland Security and Government Affairs, and Small Business committees.[98]

On March 6–7, 2013, Paul engaged in a filibuster to delay voting on the nomination of John O. Brennan as the Director of the CIA. Paul questioned the Obama administration’suse of drones and the stated legal justification for their potential use within the United States. Paul held the floor for 12 hours and 52 minutes.[99] He ceded to several Republican senators and Democratic senator, Ron Wyden, who generally also questioned drone usage.[100][101] Paul said his purpose was to challenge drone policy in general and specifically as it related to noncombatants on U.S. soil. He requested a pledge from the Administration that noncombatants would not be targeted on U.S. soil.[102] Attorney General Eric Holder responded that the President is not authorized to deploy extrajudicial punishment without due process, against non-combatant citizens. Paul answered that he was “quite happy” with the response.[103] The filibuster was ended with a cloture vote of 81 to 16, and Brennan was confirmed by the Senate with a vote of 63 to 34.[104]

Rand Paul speaking during his filibuster on the Senate floor on March 6, 2013.

In March 2013, Paul, with Senators Ted Cruz and Mike Lee, threatened another filibuster, this one opposing any legislative proposals to expand federal gun control measures.[105] The filibuster was attempted on April 11, 2013, but was dismissed by cloture, in a 68–31 vote.[106] Also in March 2013, Paul endorsed fellow Kentucky Republican Senator Mitch McConnell‘s 2014 re-election campaign.[107] McConnell had previously hired Paul’s 2010 campaign manager, Jesse Benton, as his own campaign manager.[108] Paul’s endorsement was seen as a major win for McConnell in avoiding a challenge in the Republican primary.[107]

In response to Detroit’s declaration of bankruptcy, Paul stated he would not allow the government to attempt to bail out Detroit. In a phone interview with Breitbart.com on July 19, 2013, Paul said, “I basically say he is bailing them out over my dead body because we don’t have any money in Washington.” Paul said he thought a federal bailout would send the wrong message to other cities with financial problems.[109]

In September, Paul stated that the United States should avoid military intervention in the ongoing Syrian civil war.[110] In an op-ed, Paul disputed the Obama administration’s claims that the threat of military force caused Syria’s government to consider turning over its chemical weapons, instead arguing that the opposition to military action in Syria, and the delay that it caused, led to diplomatic progress.[111]

In October 2013, Paul was the subject of some controversy when it was discovered that he had plagiarized from Wikipedia part of a speech in support of Virginia gubernatorial candidate Ken Cuccinelli. Referencing the movie Gattaca, Paul quoted almost verbatim from the Wikipedia article about the film without citing the source.[112][113][114] Evidence soon surfaced that Paul had copied sentences in a number of his other speeches nearly verbatim from other authors without giving credit to the original sources,[115][116] including in the speech he had given as the Tea Party rebuttal to the president’s 2013 State of the Union address. In addition, a three-page-long passage of Paul’s book Government Bullies was taken directly from an article by the conservative think tank The Heritage Foundation.[117][118] When it became apparent that Paul’s Washington Times op-ed on mandatory minimums and related testimony he had given before the Senate Judiciary Committee both contained material that was virtually identical to an article that had been published by another author in The Week a few days earlier,[119] the Washington Times said that the newspaper would no longer publish the weekly column Paul had been contributing to the paper.[120] After a week of almost daily news reports of new allegations of plagiarism, Paul said that he was being held to an “unfair standard”, but would restructure his office in order to prevent mistakes in the future, if that would be what it would take “to make people leave me the hell alone.”[121]

In response to political turmoil in Ukraine in early 2014, Paul initially said that the US should remain mindful of the fact that although the Cold War is over, Russia remains a military power with long-range nuclear missiles. He said that the US should try to maintain a “respectful relationship with Russia” and avoid taking actions that the Russians might view as a provocation, such as seeking to have Ukraine join NATO or otherwise interfering in Russia’s relationship with Ukraine.[122] Two weeks later, after the Russian parliament authorized the use of military force in Ukraine[123] and Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered military exercises along Russia’s border with Ukraine,[124] Paul began taking a different tone.[125] He wrote: “Vladimir Putin’s invasion of Ukraine is a gross violation of that nation’s sovereignty and an affront to the international community…. Putin must be punished for violating the Budapest Memorandum, and Russia must learn that the U.S. will isolate it if it insists on acting like a rogue nation.”[126] He said that the US and European allies could retaliate against Russia’s military aggression without any need for military action. He urged that the US impose economic sanctions on Russia and resume an effort to build defensive anti-missile installations in Poland and the Czech Republic. He also called for the US to take steps as a counterweight to Russia’s strategic influence on Europe’s oil and gas supply, such as lifting restrictions on new exploration and drilling for fossil fuels in the United States along with immediate approval of the controversialKeystone Pipeline, which he said would allow the US to ship more oil and gas to Europe if Russia attempts to cut off its own supply to Europe.[126]

Paul played a leading role in blocking a treaty with Switzerland that would enable the IRS to conduct tax evasion probes, arguing that the treaty would infringe upon Americans’ privacy.[127] Paul received the 2014 Distinguished Service Award from the Center for the National Interest (formally called the Nixon Center) for his public policy work.[128]

In response to reports that the CIA infiltrated the computers of the Senate Intelligence Committee, Paul called for the firing of CIA Director John O. Brennan.[129] In December 2014, Paul supported the actions to change the US policy towards Cuba and trade with that country taken by the Obama administration.[130]

114th Congress (2015–present)

In the beginning of 2015, Senator Paul re-introduced the Federal Reserve Transparency Act.[131] Senator Paul also introduced the FAIR Act, or Fifth Amendment Integrity Restoration Act, which would restrict civil forfeiture proceedings.[132]

On May 20, 2015, Paul spoke for ten and a half hours in opposition to the reauthorization of Section 215 of the Patriot Act.[133][134] Sections of the Patriot Act were prevented from being reauthorized on June 1.[135]

Committee assignments

Current
Previous

2016 presidential campaign

Rand Paul speaking at the 2013Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in National Harbor, Maryland, on March 14, 2013

Background

Paul was considered a potential candidate for the Republican nomination for the Presidency of the United States since at least January 2013.[136] He delivered the Tea Party response to President Barack Obama’s State of the Union address on February 13, 2013,[137] whileMarco Rubio gave the official Republican response. This prompted some pundits to call that date the start of the 2016 Republican primaries.[138] That year, he spoke at the Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington D.C., where he won the 2016 Presidential straw poll. Paul went on to win the straw poll for the next two years as well, leading to some considering Paul to be a front runner for the nomination, although CPAC attendees are typically considered younger and more libertarian-minded than average Republican voters.[139][140][141]

In a speech at the GOP Freedom Summit in April 2014, Paul insisted that the GOP has to broaden its appeal in order to grow as a party. To do so, he said it cannot be the party of “fat cats, rich people and Wall Street” and that the conservative movement has never been about rich people or privilege, “we are the middle class”, he said. Paul also said that conservatives must present a message of justice and concern for the unemployed and be against government surveillance to attract new people to the movement, including the young, Hispanics, and blacks[142] During the 2014 election, Paul launched a social media campaign titled “Hillary’s Losers” which was meant to highlight many of the Democratic candidates that lost their bids for the U.S. Senate despite endorsements from Hillary Clinton. Clinton is also a candidate for President and is considered a front runner for the Democratic Party’s nomination.[143]

Paul began to assemble his campaign team, setting up campaign offices and hiring his campaign manager at in the beginning of 2015, fueling speculation that he was preparing to enter the Presidential race.[144] In February 2015, Paul said he would make an announcement about whether or not he would be running in late March or early April.[145]

Campaign

Rand Paul at the launch of his Presidential campaign at the Galt House Hotel in Louisville, Kentucky, on April 7, 2015.

Paul officially announced his presidential candidacy on April 7, 2015. Within a day of his announcement, Paul raised $1 million, which “puts him about on par with Texas Senator Ted Cruz“.[146] However, Paul also faced a $1 million ad campaign against him, criticizing his foreign policy views. Paul was also criticized for having heated exchanges with the press. Paul is known for being accessible to the media but he admitted in an interview on CNN to being “short-tempered” with the press.[147][148]

Senate reelection

In April 2011, Paul filed to run for re-election to his Senate seat in 2016.[149] If he does become the Republican presidential (or vice-presidential) nominee, state law prohibits him from simultaneously running for re-election.[150] In March 2014, the Republican-controlledKentucky Senate passed a bill that would allow Paul to run for both offices, but the Democratic-controlled Kentucky House of Representatives declined to take it up.[151][152][153] Paul spent his own campaign money in the 2014 legislative elections, helping Republican candidates for the State House in the hopes of flipping the chamber, thus allowing the legislature to pass the bill (Democratic Governor Steve Beshear‘s veto can be overridden with a simple majority).[154][155] However, the Democrats retained their 54–46 majority in the State House.[156][157][158] Paul has since given his support to the idea that the Kentucky Republican Party could decide to hold a caucus rather than a primary, potentially giving Paul more time to decide whether he should run for U.S. Senator or continue a potential bid for President.[159]

Political positions

A supporter of the Tea Party movement,[160][161] Paul has described himself as a “constitutional conservative”.[162] He is generally described as a libertarian, a term he both embraced[163] and rejected[164] during his first Senate campaign. He supports term limits, a balanced budget amendment, and the Read the Bills Act, in addition to the widespread reduction of federal spending and taxation.[165] He favors a flat tax rate of 14.5% for individuals and business, and elimination of taxes on inheritance, gifts, capital gains, dividends, and interest.[166]

On social issues, Paul describes himself as “100% pro life“, believing that legal personhood begins at fertilization.[167][168][169] In 2009, his position was to ban abortion under all circumstances.[170][171] Since 2010, he has said he would allow for a doctor’s discretion in life-threatening cases such as ectopic pregnancies.[172] Concerning same-sex marriage, Paul has made a distinction between his personal beliefs and how he feels the government should handle it. He has stated that he personally feels same-sex marriage “offends [himself] and a lot of people”, and said there is a “crisis that allows people to think there would be some other sorts of marriage.”[173][174] However, he believes the issue should be left to the states to decide, and would not support a federal ban.[175][176]

Concerning drugs, Paul has criticized mandatory minimums that he believes have led to unreasonably harsh sentences for repeat offenders. He has highlighted the case ofTimothy L. Tyler as particularly unfair.[177] Paul does not believe in legalizing the recreational use of drugs like marijuana and cocaine,[164] but does not support jailing marijuana users.[178] He supports state laws to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes.[179] Paul was one of three U.S. senators in 2015 to introduce a bipartisan bill, CARERS, that would legalize medical marijuana under federal law.[180]

Paul opposes all forms of gun control as a violation of Second Amendment rights, including provisions of the Patriot Act.[181] His advocacy of personal property rights includes introducing House Bill S. 890, the Defense of Environment and Property Act of 2012. Provisions of the bill include restricting the ability of the Environmental Protection Agency and other Federal agencies to “impinge upon states’ power over land and water use.” The bill holds requires Federal agencies to reimburse private property owners double the amount of any economic losses arising from new Federal regulations “that relate to the definition of navigable waters or waters of the United States”, and holds the enforcement of any such regulation in abeyance until such payments are complete.[182]

Unlike his more stridently “non-interventionist” father, Paul concedes a role for American armed forces abroad, including permanent foreign military bases.[183] He has said that he blames supporters of the Iraq War and not President Obama for the growth in violence that occurred in 2014, and that the Iraq War “emboldened” Iran.[184] Dick Cheney, John McCain and Rick Perry have responded by calling Paul an isolationist,[185][186] but Paul has pointed to opinion polls of likely GOP primary voters as support for his position.[187]Paul also stated: “I personally believe that this group [‍ISIS‍] would not be in Iraq and would not be as powerful had we not been supplying their allies in the war [against SyrianBashar al-Assad‘s government].”[188] Paul then supported airstrikes against ISIS, but questioned the constitutionality of Obama’s unilateral actions without a clear congressional mandate.[189][190] Paul has stated concerns about arms sent to Syrian rebels that wind up in unfriendly hands.[191] In 2015, Paul called for a defense budget of $697 billion in 2016. In 2011, shortly after being elected, he proposed a budget which specified $542 billion in defense spending.[192]

In February 2015, Paul created some controversy by suggesting that states should not require parents to vaccinate their children because parents should have the freedom to make that decision for their children. In an interview with CNBC on February 2, Paul clarified this statement, commenting “I’m not arguing vaccines are a bad idea. I think they are a good thing. But I think the parent should have some input. The state doesn’t own your children. Parents own the children, and it is an issue of freedom.”[193] He later posted a video of himself being vaccinated on YouTube.[194]

Personal life

Year in review 2014

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2014 (MMXIV) is the current year, and is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar(dominical letter E), the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium, the 14th year of the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

By the United Nations, 2014 is designated the:

 Horus of the horizon 2014
stuff that happen in 2014
Islamic terror attack

Global search

1.Robin Williams

2.World Cup

3.Ebola

4.Malaysia Airlines

5.ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

6.Flappy Bird

7.Conchita Wurst

8.ISIS

9.Frozen

10.Sochi Olympics

Global news

1.Ebola

2.ISIS

3.Malaysia Airlines

4.Crimea / Ukraine

5.Ferguson

6.Gaza and Israel

7.Scotish Referendum

8.Oscar Pistorius trial

US

1 Robin Williams

2.World Cup

3.Ebola

4.Malaysia Airlines

5.Flappy Bird

6.ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

7.ISIS

8.Ferguson

9.Frozen

10.Ukraine

 Natural Disaster

1.Hurricane Arthur

2.Chile Earthquake

3.Napa Earthquake

4.Hurricane Iselle

5.Oso Mudslide

6.Hurricane Odile

7.Arkansas Tornado

8.Hurricane Julio

9.Alaska Earthquake

10.Hurricane Ana

 People

1.Jennifer Lawrence

2.Kim Kardashian

3.Tracy Morgan

4.Ray Rice

5.Tony Stewart

6.Iggy Azalea

7.Donald Sterling

8.Adrian Peterson

9.Rene Zellweger

10.Jared Leto

 Pregnancies

1.Mila Kunis

2.Ciara

3.Kourtney Kardashian

4.Kate Middleton

5.Kerry Washington

6.Carrie Underwood

7.Scarlett Johansson

8.Hayden Panettiere

9.Blake Lively

10.Eva Mendes

 Losses of 2014

1.Robin Williams

2.Joan Rivers

3.Philip Seymour Hoffman

4.Maya Angelou

5.Jan Hooks

6.Harold Ramis

7.Shirley Temple

8.Lauren Bacall

9.Mickey Rooney

10.James Avery

University & Colleague

1Università degli Studi eCampus

The eCampus University, often simply abbreviated as “Uniecampus” is a private university founded in 2006 in Novedrate, Italy.

#170 most searched

2University of Mississippi

The University of Mississippi is a public, coeducational research university in Oxford, Mississippi, United States.

#28 most searched

3California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona is a public polytechnic university located in Pomona, California, United States.

#183 most searched

4Mississippi State University

The Mississippi State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, commonly known as Mississippi State University, is…Wikipedia

#104 most searched

5Florida State University

The Florida State University is a space-grant and sea-grant public research university located in the state capital city…Wikipedia

#8 most searched

6Indiana University Bloomington

Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university located in Bloomington, Indiana, United States.

#37 most searched

7Tidewater Community College

Tidewater Community College, also known as “TCC,” is a two-year higher education institution in South Hampton Roads with…Wikipedia

#190 most searched

8Louisiana State University

Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College is a public coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana…Wikipedia

#19 most searched

9University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut is a public research university in the U.S. state of Connecticut.

#34 most searched

10Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University is a public, state-related research university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

#1 most searched

Scientist

1Stephen Wolfram

Stephen Wolfram is a scientist and technologist known for his contributions to theoretical physics, for his pioneering.

#2 most searched

2Haruko Obokata

Haruko Obokata is a Japanese stem-cell biologist and the Research Unit Leader of the Laboratory for Cellular Reprogramming.

#117 most searched

3Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research.

#3 most searched

4Dorothy Hodgkin

Dorothy Mary Hodgkin, OM, FRS, known professionally as Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin or simply Dorothy Hodgkin, was a British…Wikipedia

#59 most searched

5Mary Anning

Mary Anning was a British fossil collector, dealer, and palaeontologist who became known around the world for important.

#61 most searched

6Percy Lavon Julian

Percy Lavon Julian was an American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants.

#56 most searched

7John Eleuthère du Pont

John Eleuthère du Pont was a convicted murderer, an American multimillionaire, and member of the prominent du Pont family.

#60 most searched

8Peter Higgs

Peter Ware Higgs CH FRS FRSE is a British theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize laureate and emeritus professor at the.

#58 most searched

9Jonas Salk

Jonas Edward Salk was an American medical researcher and virologist. He discovered and developed the first successful.

#26 most searched

10Dian Fossey

Dian Fossey was an American zoologist, primatologist, and anthropologist who undertook an extensive study of gorilla groups.

#41 most searched

 Actors

1.Jared Leto

2.Matthew McConaughey

3.Macaulay Culkin

4.Chris Pratt

5.Theo James

6.Ansel Elgort

7.Jamie Dornan

8.Alfonso Ribeiro

9.James McAvoy

10.Laurence Fishburne

 Actresses

1.Jennifer Lawrence

2.Renee Zellweger

3.Betty White

4.Ellen Page

5.Kim Novak

6.Margot Robbie

7.Jacqueline Bisset

8.Lena Dunham

9.Melanie Griffith

10.Lea Thompson

 Athletes

1.Ray Rice

2.Adrian Peterson

3.Richard Sherman

4.Paul George

5.Carmelo Anthony

6.Derek Jeter

7.Johnny Manziel

8.Russell Wilson

9.Tony Gwynn

10.Tim Howard

 Politicians

1.Barack Obama

2.Chris Christie

3.Rand Paul

4.Rick Perry

5.Ted Cruz

6.Joe Biden

7.Elizabeth Warren

8.Scott Walker

9.Paul Ryan

10.Harry Reid

Us Governor

1Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-born American actor, filmmaker, activist, businessman, investor, writer,.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Chris Christie

Christopher James “Chris” Christie is the 55th Governor of New Jersey and a leading member of the Republican Party.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

3Rick Perry

James Richard “Rick” Perry is an American politician who is the 47th and current Governor of Texas.

+2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

4Jesse Ventura

James George Janos, better known by his stage name, Jesse Ventura, is an American politician, actor, author, naval veteran..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

5Andrew Cuomo

Andrew Mark Cuomo is an American politician who is the 56th and current Governor of New York.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

6Scott Walker

Scott Kevin Walker is an American Republican Party politician who is the 45th Governor of Wisconsin.

+5 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

7Rick Scott

Richard Lynn “Rick” Scott is an American businessman and politician who has been the 45th Governor of Florida since 2011.

+5 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

8Jeb Bush

John Ellis “Jeb” Bush served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007. He is the second son of former President George H.

+8 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Bob McDonnell

Robert Francis “Bob” McDonnell is a former American politician. He was the 71st Governor of Virginia.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

10Jerry Brown

Edmund Gerald “Jerry” Brown, Jr. is an American politician who currently serves as the 39th Governor of California since..

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

11Charlie Crist

Charles Joseph “Charlie” Crist, Jr. is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th Governor of Florida from 2007 to 2011.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

12Mike Huckabee

Michael Dale “Mike” Huckabee is an American politician who served as the 44th Governor of Arkansas..

-2 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

13Kathleen Sebelius

Kathleen Sebelius is an American politician who served as the 21st United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.

-6 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

14Bobby Jindal

Piyush “Bobby” Jindal is an American politician who is the 55th and current Governor of Louisiana and the Vice Chairman.

+4 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

15George Wallace

George Corley Wallace, Jr. was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive..

+2 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

16Pat Quinn

Patrick Joseph “Pat” Quinn III is an American politician who is the 41st and current Governor of Illinois.

New in chart

17Mark Warner

Mark Robert Warner is an American politician and the senior United States Senator from Virginia, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

18Jan Brewer

Janice Kay “Jan” Brewer is the 22nd Governor of the U.S. state of Arizona, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

19Huey Long

Huey Pierce Long, Jr., nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana.

New in chart

20Tom Corbett

Thomas Wingett “Tom” Corbett, Jr. is an American politician who is the 46th and current Governor of Pennsylvania.

New in chart

Books

1.Boy, Snow, Bird

2.Blood Will Out

3.Savage Harvest: A Tale of Cannibals. Colonialism and Michael Rockefeller’s Tragic Quest for Primitive Art

4.City of Heavenly Fire

5.Flash Boys

6.The Invention of Wings

7.All the Light We Cannot See

8.Words of Radiance

9.Yes Please

10.Capital in the Twenty First Century

 TV Shows

1.Game of Thrones

2.True Detective

3.Orange is the New Black

4.The Following

5.American Horror Story

6.Gotham

7.South Park

8.House of Cards

9.Outlander

10.The 100

Movie trailer

1.Gone Girl trailer

2.Interstellar trailer

3.Divergent trailer

4.Frozen trailer

5.The Lego Movie trailer

6.The Avengers 2 trailer

7.Godzilla trailer

8.The Hunger Games: Mockingjay Part 1 trailer

9.Annabelle trailer

10.Maleficent trailer

Movie

1.Frozen

2.Interstellar

3.Divergent

4.Gone Girl

5.Lone Survivor

6.Godzilla

7.22 Jump Street

8.Big Hero 6

9.Annabelle

10.Maleficent

Music Artist

1.Iggy Azalea

2.Lorde

3.Sam Smith

4.Meghan Trainor

5.Solange Knowles

6.Nicki Minaj

7.Weird Al

8.Sia

9.Daft Punk

10.Taylor Swift

 Song lyrics

1.Say Something lyrics

2.Anaconda lyrics

3.Fancy lyrics

4.Happy lyrics

5.Blank Space lyrics

6.Royals lyrics

7.Dark Horse lyrics

8.Bang Bang lyrics

9.Counting Stars lyrics

10.Wrecking Ball lyrics

 Music festivals

1.Coachella

2.Mysteryland

3.Boston Calling

4.Hard Summer

5.Electric Forest

6.Firefly Music Festival

7.Austin City Limits

8.South by Southwest

9.Outside Lands

10.Fun Fun Fun Fest

 Beers

1.Budweiser

2.Corona

3.Keystone

4.Miller

5.Blue Moon

6.Coors

7.Bud Light

8.PBR

9.Modelo

10.Sierra Nevada

 Video Games

1.Destiny

2.Titanfall

3.Watch Dogs

4.ArcheAge

5.Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare

6.Madden 15

7.Mario Kart 8

8.Dragon Age Inquisition

9.Battlefield Hardline

10.League of Angels

Cars

1.Ford

2.Jeep

3.Dodge

4.Toyota

5.General Motors

6.Subaru

7.Honda

8.Nissan

9.BMW

10.Tesla

Countries

1Ukraine

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the largest country entirely within Europe…Wikipedia

#18 most searched

2Korea

Korea, called Hanguk in South Korea and Joseon in North Korea, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct…Wikipedia

#36 most searched

3Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its..

#22 most searched

4Indonesia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia and Oceania..

#30 most searched

5Iraq

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia that borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east,.

#35 most searched

6Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#17 most searched

7Qatar

Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign Arab country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar.

#69 most searched

8Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea..

#15 most searched

9Bermuda

Bermuda, also referred to in legal documents as the Bermudas or Somers Isles, is a British Overseas Territory in the North.

#59 most searched

10Palestine

Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

#109 most searched

Cities

1Sochi

Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia..

#152 most searched

2Sonoma

Sonoma is a historically significant city in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, United States, surrounding its.

#135 most searched

3Manchester

Manchester is a city in Greater Manchester with a population of 514,417 in 2013; it lies within the United Kingdom’s second..

#124 most searched

4Kansas City

Kansas City or K.C. is the most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Missouri.

#35 most searched

5Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#79 most searched

6Cleveland

Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state…Wikipedia

#28 most searched

7Green Bay

Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the State of Wisconsin, located at the head of Green Bay,

#73 most searched

8Saint Paul

Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the state of Minnesota. As of 2013, the city’s estimated population was 294,873..

#128 most searched

9Dallas

Dallas is a major city in Texas and is one of the two urban centers of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the…Wikipedia

#5 most searched

10Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

#114 most searched

Energy Company

1Duke Energy

Duke Energy, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is the largest electric power holding company in the United States..

+1 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

9 years in top 10

2Chevron

Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. Headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active…Wikipedia

+3 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3National Grid plc

National Grid plc is a British multinational electricity and gas utility company headquartered in London, United Kingdom…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

4BP

BP plc, sometimes referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company…Wikipedia

-3 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Florida Power & Light

Florida Power & Light Company, the principal subsidiary of NextEra Energy Inc., commonly referred to by its initials, FPL…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

7Xcel Energy

Xcel Energy Inc. is a utility holding company based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, serving more than 3.3 million electric…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

8ExxonMobil

Exxon Mobil Corp., or ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas, United States…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

9Public Service Enterprise Group

Public Service Enterprise Group, founded as the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and later renamed Public Service…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

10Consolidated Edison

Consolidated Edison, Inc., commonly known as Con Edison or Con Ed, is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

Financial company

1Wells Fargo

Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational banking and financial services holding company which is headquartered..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Bank of America

Bank of America is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Chase

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase, is a national bank that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

4Capital One

Capital One Financial Corporation is a U.S.-based bank holding company specializing in credit cards, home loans, auto..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5American Express

The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Citibank

Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational Citigroup.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7PNC Financial Services

PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. is an American financial services corporation, with assets of approximately $271.2 billion.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

8USAA

The United Services Automobile Association is a Texas-based Fortune 500 diversified financial services group of companies.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Fidelity Investments

FMR LLC or Fidelity Investments is an American multinational financial services corporation…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

10State Farm Insurance

State Farm is a group of insurance and financial services companies in the United States. The company also has operations in Canada.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

Retail company

1Amazon.com

Amazon.com, Inc. is an American international electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, United States.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Walmart

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., branded as Walmart, is an American multinational retail corporation that operates chains of large.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Target Corporation

Target Corporation is an American retailing company, founded in 1902 and headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

New in chart

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

4The Home Depot

The Home Depot is an American retailer of home improvement and construction products and services.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Best Buy

Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics corporation headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Lowe’s

Lowe’s is an American chain of retail home improvement and appliance stores that has retail stores in the United States,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7Costco

Costco Wholesale Corporation is an American membership-only warehouse club that provides a wide selection of merchandise.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

8Walgreens

The Walgreen Company is the largest drug retailing chain in the United States. As of May 31, 2014, the company operated.

+2 since last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

9J. C. Penney

  1. C. Penney Company Inc., known as JCPenney, is a chain of American mid-range department stores based in Plano, Texas..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

10Toys “R” Us

Toys “R” Us, Inc. is an American toy and juvenile-products retailer founded in 1948 and headquartered in Wayne, New Jersey…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

Medicine

1Advil

Advil is a brand of ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Advil is manufactured by Pfizer and has been on the market since 1984.

#53 most searched

2Tylenol

Tylenol is an American brand of drugs advertised for reducing pain, reducing fever, and relieving the symptoms of allergies.

#7 most searched

3Triamcinolone acetonide

Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various skin conditions, to relieve the discomfort of.

#122 most searched

4Anxiolytic

An anxiolytic is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents…Wikipedia

#131 most searched

5Adderall

Adderall is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention deficit.

#2 most searched

6Cortisone

Cortisone is a 21-carbon steroid hormone. It is one of the main hormones released by the adrenal gland in response to stress..

#72 most searched

7Tums

Tums is an antacid made of sucrose and calcium carbonate manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

#133 most searched

8Gabapentin

Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant and analgesic drug. It was originally developed to treat epilepsy, and is currently also..

#14 most searched

9Triamcinolone

Triamcinolone is a long-acting synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.

#70 most searched

10Insulin

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

#37 most searched

Animals

1Pig

A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates.

#10 most searched

2Bear

Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds.

#6 most searched

3Ape

Apes are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid catarrhine primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia and distinguished.

#64 most searched

4Pony

A pony is a small horse. Depending on context, a pony may be a horse that is under an approximate or exact height at the.

#42 most searched

5Eagle

Eagle is a common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae; it belongs to several groups of genera.

#32 most searched

6Lion

The lion is one of the five big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae.

#11 most searched

7Turkey

The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.

#12 most searched

8Dolphin

Dolphins are cetacean mammals closely related to whales and porpoises. There are almost forty species of dolphin in 17 genera.

#29 most searched

9Duck

Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese.

#16 most searched

10Bison

Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and four extinct species are recognized.

#131 most searched

Chemical weapon

1Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen.

#4 most searched

2Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, less reactive than its.

#19 most searched

3Lithium

Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali.

#22 most searched

4Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series.

#3 most searched

5Carbon

Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is.

#5 most searched

6Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a bright yellow dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal.

#1 most searched

7Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal and.

#9 most searched

8Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It is the lightest pnictogen and at room temperature,

#16 most searched

9Krypton

Krypton is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 elements.

#49 most searched

10Thorium

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only.

#46 most searched

Space object

1Moon

The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. Although not the largest natural satellite in the Solar System, it is, among.

#1 most searched

267P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko, officially designated 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko and sometimes shortened to 67P/C-G, is a.

#35 most searched

3Io

Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter. It is the fourth-largest moon and has the highest…Wikipedia

#15 most searched

4Ceres

Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

#16 most searched

5Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fourth-largest planet by diameter.

#10 most searched

6Europa

Europa, is the sixth-closest moon of the planet Jupiter, and the smallest of its four Galilean satellites, but still the.

#13 most searched

7Alpha Lupi

Alpha Lupi is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Lupus. According to the Bortle Dark-Sky Scale, the.

#61 most searched

8Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

#4 most searched

9Pluto

Pluto is the largest object in the Kuiper belt, and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun.

#8 most searched

10Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has no natural satellite.

#5 most searched

Events

January

February

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October

November

December[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 2014
Further information: Category:2014 deaths
Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

In fiction