Year in review 2014

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2014 (MMXIV) is the current year, and is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar(dominical letter E), the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium, the 14th year of the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

By the United Nations, 2014 is designated the:

 Horus of the horizon 2014
stuff that happen in 2014
Islamic terror attack

Global search

1.Robin Williams

2.World Cup

3.Ebola

4.Malaysia Airlines

5.ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

6.Flappy Bird

7.Conchita Wurst

8.ISIS

9.Frozen

10.Sochi Olympics

Global news

1.Ebola

2.ISIS

3.Malaysia Airlines

4.Crimea / Ukraine

5.Ferguson

6.Gaza and Israel

7.Scotish Referendum

8.Oscar Pistorius trial

US

1 Robin Williams

2.World Cup

3.Ebola

4.Malaysia Airlines

5.Flappy Bird

6.ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

7.ISIS

8.Ferguson

9.Frozen

10.Ukraine

 Natural Disaster

1.Hurricane Arthur

2.Chile Earthquake

3.Napa Earthquake

4.Hurricane Iselle

5.Oso Mudslide

6.Hurricane Odile

7.Arkansas Tornado

8.Hurricane Julio

9.Alaska Earthquake

10.Hurricane Ana

 People

1.Jennifer Lawrence

2.Kim Kardashian

3.Tracy Morgan

4.Ray Rice

5.Tony Stewart

6.Iggy Azalea

7.Donald Sterling

8.Adrian Peterson

9.Rene Zellweger

10.Jared Leto

 Pregnancies

1.Mila Kunis

2.Ciara

3.Kourtney Kardashian

4.Kate Middleton

5.Kerry Washington

6.Carrie Underwood

7.Scarlett Johansson

8.Hayden Panettiere

9.Blake Lively

10.Eva Mendes

 Losses of 2014

1.Robin Williams

2.Joan Rivers

3.Philip Seymour Hoffman

4.Maya Angelou

5.Jan Hooks

6.Harold Ramis

7.Shirley Temple

8.Lauren Bacall

9.Mickey Rooney

10.James Avery

University & Colleague

1Università degli Studi eCampus

The eCampus University, often simply abbreviated as “Uniecampus” is a private university founded in 2006 in Novedrate, Italy.

#170 most searched

2University of Mississippi

The University of Mississippi is a public, coeducational research university in Oxford, Mississippi, United States.

#28 most searched

3California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona is a public polytechnic university located in Pomona, California, United States.

#183 most searched

4Mississippi State University

The Mississippi State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, commonly known as Mississippi State University, is…Wikipedia

#104 most searched

5Florida State University

The Florida State University is a space-grant and sea-grant public research university located in the state capital city…Wikipedia

#8 most searched

6Indiana University Bloomington

Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university located in Bloomington, Indiana, United States.

#37 most searched

7Tidewater Community College

Tidewater Community College, also known as “TCC,” is a two-year higher education institution in South Hampton Roads with…Wikipedia

#190 most searched

8Louisiana State University

Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College is a public coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana…Wikipedia

#19 most searched

9University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut is a public research university in the U.S. state of Connecticut.

#34 most searched

10Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University is a public, state-related research university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

#1 most searched

Scientist

1Stephen Wolfram

Stephen Wolfram is a scientist and technologist known for his contributions to theoretical physics, for his pioneering.

#2 most searched

2Haruko Obokata

Haruko Obokata is a Japanese stem-cell biologist and the Research Unit Leader of the Laboratory for Cellular Reprogramming.

#117 most searched

3Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research.

#3 most searched

4Dorothy Hodgkin

Dorothy Mary Hodgkin, OM, FRS, known professionally as Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin or simply Dorothy Hodgkin, was a British…Wikipedia

#59 most searched

5Mary Anning

Mary Anning was a British fossil collector, dealer, and palaeontologist who became known around the world for important.

#61 most searched

6Percy Lavon Julian

Percy Lavon Julian was an American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants.

#56 most searched

7John Eleuthère du Pont

John Eleuthère du Pont was a convicted murderer, an American multimillionaire, and member of the prominent du Pont family.

#60 most searched

8Peter Higgs

Peter Ware Higgs CH FRS FRSE is a British theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize laureate and emeritus professor at the.

#58 most searched

9Jonas Salk

Jonas Edward Salk was an American medical researcher and virologist. He discovered and developed the first successful.

#26 most searched

10Dian Fossey

Dian Fossey was an American zoologist, primatologist, and anthropologist who undertook an extensive study of gorilla groups.

#41 most searched

 Actors

1.Jared Leto

2.Matthew McConaughey

3.Macaulay Culkin

4.Chris Pratt

5.Theo James

6.Ansel Elgort

7.Jamie Dornan

8.Alfonso Ribeiro

9.James McAvoy

10.Laurence Fishburne

 Actresses

1.Jennifer Lawrence

2.Renee Zellweger

3.Betty White

4.Ellen Page

5.Kim Novak

6.Margot Robbie

7.Jacqueline Bisset

8.Lena Dunham

9.Melanie Griffith

10.Lea Thompson

 Athletes

1.Ray Rice

2.Adrian Peterson

3.Richard Sherman

4.Paul George

5.Carmelo Anthony

6.Derek Jeter

7.Johnny Manziel

8.Russell Wilson

9.Tony Gwynn

10.Tim Howard

 Politicians

1.Barack Obama

2.Chris Christie

3.Rand Paul

4.Rick Perry

5.Ted Cruz

6.Joe Biden

7.Elizabeth Warren

8.Scott Walker

9.Paul Ryan

10.Harry Reid

Us Governor

1Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-born American actor, filmmaker, activist, businessman, investor, writer,.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Chris Christie

Christopher James “Chris” Christie is the 55th Governor of New Jersey and a leading member of the Republican Party.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

3Rick Perry

James Richard “Rick” Perry is an American politician who is the 47th and current Governor of Texas.

+2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

4Jesse Ventura

James George Janos, better known by his stage name, Jesse Ventura, is an American politician, actor, author, naval veteran..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

5Andrew Cuomo

Andrew Mark Cuomo is an American politician who is the 56th and current Governor of New York.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

6Scott Walker

Scott Kevin Walker is an American Republican Party politician who is the 45th Governor of Wisconsin.

+5 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

7Rick Scott

Richard Lynn “Rick” Scott is an American businessman and politician who has been the 45th Governor of Florida since 2011.

+5 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

8Jeb Bush

John Ellis “Jeb” Bush served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007. He is the second son of former President George H.

+8 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Bob McDonnell

Robert Francis “Bob” McDonnell is a former American politician. He was the 71st Governor of Virginia.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

10Jerry Brown

Edmund Gerald “Jerry” Brown, Jr. is an American politician who currently serves as the 39th Governor of California since..

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

11Charlie Crist

Charles Joseph “Charlie” Crist, Jr. is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th Governor of Florida from 2007 to 2011.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

12Mike Huckabee

Michael Dale “Mike” Huckabee is an American politician who served as the 44th Governor of Arkansas..

-2 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

13Kathleen Sebelius

Kathleen Sebelius is an American politician who served as the 21st United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.

-6 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

14Bobby Jindal

Piyush “Bobby” Jindal is an American politician who is the 55th and current Governor of Louisiana and the Vice Chairman.

+4 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

15George Wallace

George Corley Wallace, Jr. was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive..

+2 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

16Pat Quinn

Patrick Joseph “Pat” Quinn III is an American politician who is the 41st and current Governor of Illinois.

New in chart

17Mark Warner

Mark Robert Warner is an American politician and the senior United States Senator from Virginia, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

18Jan Brewer

Janice Kay “Jan” Brewer is the 22nd Governor of the U.S. state of Arizona, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

19Huey Long

Huey Pierce Long, Jr., nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana.

New in chart

20Tom Corbett

Thomas Wingett “Tom” Corbett, Jr. is an American politician who is the 46th and current Governor of Pennsylvania.

New in chart

Books

1.Boy, Snow, Bird

2.Blood Will Out

3.Savage Harvest: A Tale of Cannibals. Colonialism and Michael Rockefeller’s Tragic Quest for Primitive Art

4.City of Heavenly Fire

5.Flash Boys

6.The Invention of Wings

7.All the Light We Cannot See

8.Words of Radiance

9.Yes Please

10.Capital in the Twenty First Century

 TV Shows

1.Game of Thrones

2.True Detective

3.Orange is the New Black

4.The Following

5.American Horror Story

6.Gotham

7.South Park

8.House of Cards

9.Outlander

10.The 100

Movie trailer

1.Gone Girl trailer

2.Interstellar trailer

3.Divergent trailer

4.Frozen trailer

5.The Lego Movie trailer

6.The Avengers 2 trailer

7.Godzilla trailer

8.The Hunger Games: Mockingjay Part 1 trailer

9.Annabelle trailer

10.Maleficent trailer

Movie

1.Frozen

2.Interstellar

3.Divergent

4.Gone Girl

5.Lone Survivor

6.Godzilla

7.22 Jump Street

8.Big Hero 6

9.Annabelle

10.Maleficent

Music Artist

1.Iggy Azalea

2.Lorde

3.Sam Smith

4.Meghan Trainor

5.Solange Knowles

6.Nicki Minaj

7.Weird Al

8.Sia

9.Daft Punk

10.Taylor Swift

 Song lyrics

1.Say Something lyrics

2.Anaconda lyrics

3.Fancy lyrics

4.Happy lyrics

5.Blank Space lyrics

6.Royals lyrics

7.Dark Horse lyrics

8.Bang Bang lyrics

9.Counting Stars lyrics

10.Wrecking Ball lyrics

 Music festivals

1.Coachella

2.Mysteryland

3.Boston Calling

4.Hard Summer

5.Electric Forest

6.Firefly Music Festival

7.Austin City Limits

8.South by Southwest

9.Outside Lands

10.Fun Fun Fun Fest

 Beers

1.Budweiser

2.Corona

3.Keystone

4.Miller

5.Blue Moon

6.Coors

7.Bud Light

8.PBR

9.Modelo

10.Sierra Nevada

 Video Games

1.Destiny

2.Titanfall

3.Watch Dogs

4.ArcheAge

5.Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare

6.Madden 15

7.Mario Kart 8

8.Dragon Age Inquisition

9.Battlefield Hardline

10.League of Angels

Cars

1.Ford

2.Jeep

3.Dodge

4.Toyota

5.General Motors

6.Subaru

7.Honda

8.Nissan

9.BMW

10.Tesla

Countries

1Ukraine

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the largest country entirely within Europe…Wikipedia

#18 most searched

2Korea

Korea, called Hanguk in South Korea and Joseon in North Korea, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct…Wikipedia

#36 most searched

3Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its..

#22 most searched

4Indonesia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia and Oceania..

#30 most searched

5Iraq

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia that borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east,.

#35 most searched

6Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#17 most searched

7Qatar

Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign Arab country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar.

#69 most searched

8Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea..

#15 most searched

9Bermuda

Bermuda, also referred to in legal documents as the Bermudas or Somers Isles, is a British Overseas Territory in the North.

#59 most searched

10Palestine

Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

#109 most searched

Cities

1Sochi

Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia..

#152 most searched

2Sonoma

Sonoma is a historically significant city in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, United States, surrounding its.

#135 most searched

3Manchester

Manchester is a city in Greater Manchester with a population of 514,417 in 2013; it lies within the United Kingdom’s second..

#124 most searched

4Kansas City

Kansas City or K.C. is the most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Missouri.

#35 most searched

5Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#79 most searched

6Cleveland

Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state…Wikipedia

#28 most searched

7Green Bay

Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the State of Wisconsin, located at the head of Green Bay,

#73 most searched

8Saint Paul

Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the state of Minnesota. As of 2013, the city’s estimated population was 294,873..

#128 most searched

9Dallas

Dallas is a major city in Texas and is one of the two urban centers of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the…Wikipedia

#5 most searched

10Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

#114 most searched

Energy Company

1Duke Energy

Duke Energy, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is the largest electric power holding company in the United States..

+1 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

9 years in top 10

2Chevron

Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. Headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active…Wikipedia

+3 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3National Grid plc

National Grid plc is a British multinational electricity and gas utility company headquartered in London, United Kingdom…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

4BP

BP plc, sometimes referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company…Wikipedia

-3 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Florida Power & Light

Florida Power & Light Company, the principal subsidiary of NextEra Energy Inc., commonly referred to by its initials, FPL…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

7Xcel Energy

Xcel Energy Inc. is a utility holding company based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, serving more than 3.3 million electric…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

8ExxonMobil

Exxon Mobil Corp., or ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas, United States…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

9Public Service Enterprise Group

Public Service Enterprise Group, founded as the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and later renamed Public Service…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

10Consolidated Edison

Consolidated Edison, Inc., commonly known as Con Edison or Con Ed, is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

Financial company

1Wells Fargo

Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational banking and financial services holding company which is headquartered..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Bank of America

Bank of America is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Chase

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase, is a national bank that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

4Capital One

Capital One Financial Corporation is a U.S.-based bank holding company specializing in credit cards, home loans, auto..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5American Express

The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Citibank

Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational Citigroup.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7PNC Financial Services

PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. is an American financial services corporation, with assets of approximately $271.2 billion.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

8USAA

The United Services Automobile Association is a Texas-based Fortune 500 diversified financial services group of companies.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Fidelity Investments

FMR LLC or Fidelity Investments is an American multinational financial services corporation…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

10State Farm Insurance

State Farm is a group of insurance and financial services companies in the United States. The company also has operations in Canada.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

Retail company

1Amazon.com

Amazon.com, Inc. is an American international electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, United States.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Walmart

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., branded as Walmart, is an American multinational retail corporation that operates chains of large.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Target Corporation

Target Corporation is an American retailing company, founded in 1902 and headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

New in chart

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

4The Home Depot

The Home Depot is an American retailer of home improvement and construction products and services.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Best Buy

Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics corporation headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Lowe’s

Lowe’s is an American chain of retail home improvement and appliance stores that has retail stores in the United States,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7Costco

Costco Wholesale Corporation is an American membership-only warehouse club that provides a wide selection of merchandise.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

8Walgreens

The Walgreen Company is the largest drug retailing chain in the United States. As of May 31, 2014, the company operated.

+2 since last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

9J. C. Penney

  1. C. Penney Company Inc., known as JCPenney, is a chain of American mid-range department stores based in Plano, Texas..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

10Toys “R” Us

Toys “R” Us, Inc. is an American toy and juvenile-products retailer founded in 1948 and headquartered in Wayne, New Jersey…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

Medicine

1Advil

Advil is a brand of ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Advil is manufactured by Pfizer and has been on the market since 1984.

#53 most searched

2Tylenol

Tylenol is an American brand of drugs advertised for reducing pain, reducing fever, and relieving the symptoms of allergies.

#7 most searched

3Triamcinolone acetonide

Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various skin conditions, to relieve the discomfort of.

#122 most searched

4Anxiolytic

An anxiolytic is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents…Wikipedia

#131 most searched

5Adderall

Adderall is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention deficit.

#2 most searched

6Cortisone

Cortisone is a 21-carbon steroid hormone. It is one of the main hormones released by the adrenal gland in response to stress..

#72 most searched

7Tums

Tums is an antacid made of sucrose and calcium carbonate manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

#133 most searched

8Gabapentin

Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant and analgesic drug. It was originally developed to treat epilepsy, and is currently also..

#14 most searched

9Triamcinolone

Triamcinolone is a long-acting synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.

#70 most searched

10Insulin

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

#37 most searched

Animals

1Pig

A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates.

#10 most searched

2Bear

Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds.

#6 most searched

3Ape

Apes are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid catarrhine primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia and distinguished.

#64 most searched

4Pony

A pony is a small horse. Depending on context, a pony may be a horse that is under an approximate or exact height at the.

#42 most searched

5Eagle

Eagle is a common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae; it belongs to several groups of genera.

#32 most searched

6Lion

The lion is one of the five big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae.

#11 most searched

7Turkey

The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.

#12 most searched

8Dolphin

Dolphins are cetacean mammals closely related to whales and porpoises. There are almost forty species of dolphin in 17 genera.

#29 most searched

9Duck

Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese.

#16 most searched

10Bison

Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and four extinct species are recognized.

#131 most searched

Chemical weapon

1Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen.

#4 most searched

2Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, less reactive than its.

#19 most searched

3Lithium

Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali.

#22 most searched

4Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series.

#3 most searched

5Carbon

Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is.

#5 most searched

6Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a bright yellow dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal.

#1 most searched

7Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal and.

#9 most searched

8Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It is the lightest pnictogen and at room temperature,

#16 most searched

9Krypton

Krypton is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 elements.

#49 most searched

10Thorium

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only.

#46 most searched

Space object

1Moon

The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. Although not the largest natural satellite in the Solar System, it is, among.

#1 most searched

267P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko, officially designated 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko and sometimes shortened to 67P/C-G, is a.

#35 most searched

3Io

Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter. It is the fourth-largest moon and has the highest…Wikipedia

#15 most searched

4Ceres

Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

#16 most searched

5Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fourth-largest planet by diameter.

#10 most searched

6Europa

Europa, is the sixth-closest moon of the planet Jupiter, and the smallest of its four Galilean satellites, but still the.

#13 most searched

7Alpha Lupi

Alpha Lupi is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Lupus. According to the Bortle Dark-Sky Scale, the.

#61 most searched

8Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

#4 most searched

9Pluto

Pluto is the largest object in the Kuiper belt, and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun.

#8 most searched

10Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has no natural satellite.

#5 most searched

Events

January

February

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October

November

December[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 2014
Further information: Category:2014 deaths
Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

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In fiction

Royal Dutch Shell

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Royal Dutch Shell plc
Type Public limited company
Traded as LSERDSA, RDSB
EuronextRDSA, RDSB
NYSERDS.A, RDS.B
Industry Oil and gas
Founded 1907
Headquarters The Hague, Netherlands
(Headquarters)
Shell Centre,
London, United Kingdom
(Registered office)
Area served Worldwide
Key people Ben van Beurden (CEO)
Jorma Ollila (Chairman)
Products Petroleum, natural gas, and other petrochemicals
Revenue Decrease US$ 451.235 billion (2013)[1]
Operating income Decrease US$ 26.870 billion (2013)[1]
Profit Decrease US$ 16.371 billion (2013)[1]
Total assets Decrease US$ 357.512 billion (2013)[1]
Total equity Decrease US$ 180.047 billion (2013)[1]
Employees 92,000 (2014)[1]
Subsidiaries
Website Shell.com

Royal Dutch Shell plc (LSERDSA, RDSB), commonly known as Shell, is an AngloDutch multinational oil andgas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.[2] Created by the merger of Royal Dutch Petroleum and UK-based Shell Transport & Trading, it is the second largest company in the world, in terms of revenue,[1] and one of the six oil and gas “supermajors“.

Shell is also one of the world’s most valuable companies.[3] As of January, 2013 the largest shareholder is Capital Research Global Investors with 9.85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6.89%.[4] Shell topped the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the world’s largest companies.[5] Royal Dutch Shell revenue was equal to 84% of the Netherlands’s $555.8 billion GDP at the time.[6]

Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration andproduction, refining, distribution and marketing, petrochemicals, power generation and trading. It has minor renewable energy activities in the form of biofuels[7] and wind.[8] It has operations in over 90 countries, produces around 3.1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide.[9] Shell Oil Company, its subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses.[10]

Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. As of 6 July 2012, it was the largest company on the FTSE, with a market capitalisation of £140.9 billion.[11] It has secondary listings on Euronext Amsterdam and the New York Stock Exchange.

History

Origins

Royal Dutch Petroleum dock in theDutch East Indies (now Indonesia)

The Royal Dutch Shell Group was created in February 1907 through the amalgamation of two rival companies: Royal Dutch Petroleum Company and the “Shell” Transport and Trading Company Ltd of the United Kingdom. It was a move largely driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil.[12] Royal Dutch Petroleum Company was a Dutch company founded in 1890 to develop an oilfield in Sumatra.[13] For various reasons, the new firm operated as a dual-listed company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence, but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes. The terms of the merger gave 60 percent ownership of the new group to the Dutch arm and 40 percent to the British.[14]

The “Shell” Transport and Trading Company (the quotation marks were part of the legal name) was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, and his brother Samuel Samuel.[15] Their father had owned an antique company in Houndsditch, London,[16] which expanded in 1833 to import and sell sea-shells, after which the company “Shell” took its name.[13][17]

National patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies.[14] The Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij, was in charge at The Hague of production and manufacture.[18] A British company was formed, called the Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company, based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products.[18]

20th century

During the First World War, Shell was the main supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force.[19] It was also the sole supplier of aviation fuel and supplied 80 percent of the British Army’s TNT.[19] It also volunteered all of its shipping to the British Admiralty.[19]

The German invasion of Romania in 1916 saw 17 percent of the group’s worldwide production destroyed.[19]

In 1919, Shell took control of the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company and in 1921 formed Shell-Mex Limited which marketed products under the “Shell” and “Eagle” brands in the United Kingdom. In 1929, Shell Chemicals was founded.[19] By the end of the 1920s, Shell was the world’s leading oil company, producing 11 percent of the world’s crude oil supply and owning 10 percent of its tanker tonnage.[19]

Shell Mex House was completed in 1931, and was the head office for Shell’s marketing activity worldwide.[19] In 1932, partly in response to the difficult economic conditions of the times, Shell-Mex merged its UK marketing operations with those of British Petroleum to create Shell-Mex and BP,[20] a company that traded until the brands separated in 1975. Royal Dutch Company ranked 79th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.[21]

The 1930s saw Shell’s Mexican assets seized by the local government.[19] After the invasion of the Netherlands by Germany in 1940, the head office of the Dutch companies was moved to Curacao.[19]

Around 1952, Shell was the first company to purchase and use a computer in the Netherlands.[22] The computer, a Ferranti Mark 1*, was assembled and used at the Shell laboratory in Amsterdam. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it subsequently sold in 1994 and now forms part of BHP Billiton.[23]

21st century[edit]

In November 2004, following a period of turmoil caused by the revelation that Shell had been overstating its oil reserves, it was announced that the Shell Group would move to a single capital structure, creating a new parent company to be named Royal Dutch Shell plc, with its primary listing on the London Stock Exchange, a secondary listing on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, its headquarters and tax residency in The Hague, Netherlands and its registered office in London. The unification was completed on 20 July 2005 and the original owners delisted their companies from the respective exchanges. On 20 July 2005, the Shell Transport & Trading Company plc was delisted from the LSE,[24] where as, Royal Dutch Petroleum Company from NYSE on 18 November 2005.[25] The shares of the company were issued at a 60/40 advantage for the shareholders of Royal Dutch in line with the original ownership of the Shell Group.[26]

During the 2009 Iraqi oil services contracts tender, a consortium led by Shell (45%) and which included Petronas (30%) was awarded a production contract for the “Majnoon field” in the south of Iraq, which contains an estimated 12.6 billion barrels (2.00×109 m3) of oil.[27][28] The “West Qurna 1 field” production contract was awarded to a consortium led by ExxonMobil (60%) and included Shell (15%).[29]

In February 2010 Shell and Cosan formed a 50:50 joint-venture, Raízen, comprising all of Cosan’s Brazilian ethanol, energy generation, fuel distribution and sugar activities, and all of Shell’s Brazilian retail fuel and aviation distribution businesses.[30] In March 2010, Shell announced the sale of some of its assets, including its liquid petroleum gas (LPG) business, to meet the cost of a planned $28bn capital spending programme. Shell invited buyers to submit indicative bids, due by 22 March, with a plan to raise $2–3bn from the sale.[31] In June 2010, Royal Dutch Shell agreed to acquire all the business of East Resources for a cash consideration of $4.7 billion. The transaction included East Resources’ tight gas fields.[32]

Over the course of 2013, the corporation began the sale of its US shale gas assets and cancelled a US$20 billion gas project that was to be constructed in the US state of Louisiana. A new CEO Ben van Beurden was appointed in January 2014, prior to the announcement that the corporation’s overall performance in 2013 was 38 per cent lower than 2012—the value of Shell’s shares fell by 3 per cent as a result.[33] Following the sale of the majority of its Australian assets in February 2014, the corporation plans to sell a further US$15 billion worth of assets in the period leading up to 2015, with deals announced in Australia, Brazil and Italy.[34]

Corporate affairs

Management

On 4 August 2005, the board of directors announced the appointment of Jorma Ollila, chairman and CEO of Nokia at the time, to succeed Aad Jacobs as the company’s non-executive chairman on 1 June 2006. Ollila is the first Shell chairman to be neither Dutch nor British. Other non-executive directors include Maarten van den Bergh, Wim Kok, Nina Henderson, Lord Kerr, Adelbert van Roxe, and Christine Morin-Postel.

Currently Ben van Beurden is CEO of Shell. On 10 July 2013, Shell announced the appointment of van Beurden, the previous director of its refining and marketing operations, as the corporation’s new CEO, a transition that became effective on 3 January 2014.[33]

His Predecessor was Peter Voser who became CEO of Shell on 1 July 2009.[35] Voser, who is Swiss, was the first non-Dutch, non-British CEO of the company.

Following a career at the corporation, in locations such as Australia and Africa, Ann Pickard was appointed as the executive vice president of the Arctic at Royal Dutch Shell, a role that was publicized in an interview with McKinsey & Company in June 2014.[36]

The name Shell is linked to The “Shell” Transport and Trading Company.[37] In 1833, the founder’s father, Marcus Samuel, founded an import business to sellseashells to London collectors. When collecting seashell specimens in the Caspian Sea area in 1892, the younger Samuel realised there was potential in exportinglamp oil from the region and commissioned the world’s first purpose-built oil tanker, the Murex (Latin for a type of snail shell), to enter this market; by 1907 the company had a fleet. Although for several decades the company had a refinery at Shell Haven on the Thames, there is no evidence of this having provided the name.

The Shell logo is one of the most familiar commercial symbols in the world. This logo is known as the “pecten” after the sea shell Pecten maximus (the giantscallop), on which its design is based. The yellow and red colours used are thought[38] to relate to the colours of the flag of Spain, as Shell built early service stations in California, previously a Spanish colony. The current revision of the logo was designed by Raymond Loewy in 1971.[39]

The slash was removed from the name “Royal Dutch/Shell” in 2005, concurrent with moves to merge the two legally separate companies (Royal Dutch and Shell) to the single legal entity which exists today.[40]

Logo evolution

Shell Formula One sponsorship[edit]

A Shell-sponsored Ferrari F60Formula One motor racing car

Shell has been involved with Formula One for many years, particularly with Scuderia Ferrari who the company have worked with for over fifty years. Shell was also the title sponsor for the Belgian Grand Prix in the 2013 season.

Operations

Business groupings

Upstream activities currently generate around two-thirds of Shell’s revenues

Shell is currently organised into four major business groupings:

  • Upstream International – manages the Upstream business outside the Americas. It searches for and recovers crude oil and natural gas, liquefies and transports gas, and operates the upstream and midstream infrastructure necessary to deliver oil and gas to the market. Its activities are organised primarily within geographic units, although there are some activities that are managed across the business or provided through support units.
  • Upstream Americas – manages the Upstream business in North and South America. It searches for and recovers crude oil and natural gas, transports gas and operates the upstream and midstream infrastructure necessary to deliver oil and gas to market. Upstream Americas also extracts bitumen from oil sands that is converted into synthetic crude oil. It comprises operations organised into business-wide managed activities and supporting activities.
  • Downstream – manages Shell’s manufacturing, distribution and marketing activities for oil products and chemicals. Manufacturing and supply includes refinery, supply and shipping of crude oil.
  • Projects & technology – manages the delivery of Shell’s major projects and drives the research and innovation to create technology solutions. It provides technical services and technology capability covering both Upstream and Downstream activities. It is also responsible for providing functional leadership across Shell in the areas of health, safety and environment, and contracting and procurement.

Oil and gas activities[edit]

Former Shell oil depot inKowloon, Hong Kong

Shell’s primary business is the management of a vertically integrated oil company. The development of technical and commercial expertise in all stages of this vertical integration, from the initial search for oil (exploration) through its harvesting (production), transportation, refining and finally trading and marketing established the core competencies on which the company was founded. Similar competencies were required for natural gas, which has become one of the most important businesses in which Shell is involved, and which contributes a significant proportion of the company’s profits. While the vertically integrated business model provided significant economies of scale and barriers to entry, each business now seeks to be a self-supporting unit without subsidies from other parts of the company.

Traditionally, Shell was a heavily decentralised business worldwide (especially in the downstream) with companies in over 100 countries, each of which operated with a high degree of independence. The upstream tended to be far more centralised with much of the technical and financial direction coming from the central offices in The Hague. Nevertheless, there were very large “exploration and production” companies in a few major oil and gas production centres such as the United Kingdom (Shell Expro, a Joint Venture with Exxon), Nigeria, Brunei, and Oman.

Downstream operations, which now also includes the chemicals business, generates a third of Shell’s profits worldwide and is known for its global network of more than 40,000 petrol stations and its 47 oil refineries. The downstream business, which in some countries also included oil refining, generally included a retail petrol station network, lubricants manufacture and marketing, industrial fuel and lubricants sales and a host of other product/market sectors such as LPG and bitumen. The practice in Shell was that these businesses were essentially local and that they were best managed by local “operating companies” – often with middle and senior management reinforced by expatriates. In the 1990s, this paradigm began to change, and the independence of operating companies around the world was gradually reduced. Today, virtually all of Shell’s operations in various businesses are much more directly managed from London and The Hague. The autonomy of “operating companies” has been largely removed, as more “global businesses” have been created.

Africa

Shell began drilling for oil in Africa during the 1950s. Shell began production in Nigeria in 1958.[41] Shell operates in the upstream oil sector in Algeria, Cameroon, Egypt, Gabon where is the giant Rabi-Kounga oil field, Ghana, Libya, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia; and in the downstream sector in 16 other countries.[42]

In Nigeria, Shell told US diplomats that it had placed staff in all the main ministries of the government.[43]

In April 2010, Shell announced its intention to divest from downstream business of all African countries except South Africa and Egypt to Vitol and “Helios”.[44] In several countries such as Tunisia, protests and strikes broke out. Shell denied rumours of the sellout.[45] Shell continues however upstream activities/extracting crude oil in the oil-rich Niger Delta as well as downstream/commercial activities in South Africa. In June 2013, the company announced a strategic review of its operations in Nigeria, hinting that assets could be divested. In August 2014, the company disclosed it was in the process of finalizing the sale of its interests in four Nigerian oil fields.[46]

Asia

Malaysia

Shell first entered Malaysia, Miri in 1910[47] in an oil well drilling project.

Malaysia’s first oil well was discovered by Shell on Canada Hill in Miri, Sarawak in 1910. Shell’s Miri No. 1 was spudded on 10 August that year, and began producing 83 barrels per day in December. Today, the oil well, fondly known as the Grand Old Lady, is a state monument.

After the discovery of oil in Miri, Shell built Malaysia’s first oil refinery in 1914. In the same year, Shell laid a submarine pipeline in Miri, a breakthrough in the technology of transporting crude to tankers at that time.

In Malaysia, 2012, Shell refining capacity is 109,000 b/d. In the Port Dickson refinery, Shell invested MYR 800 million to upgrade the diesel processing plant.

In 2012, Shell have 900 retail outlets and planning to open 30 more in the future.

Philippines[edit]

Shell oil depot (Poro Point, San Fernando, La Union).

Royal Dutch Shell operates in the Philippines under its subsidiary, Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation. Its headquarters is in Makati City and it has facilities in the Pandacan oil depot and other key locations.[48]

On January 2010, the Bureau of Customs claimed 7.34 billion pesos worth of unpaid excise taxes against Pilipinas Shell for importing Catalytic cracked gasoline (CCG) and light catalytic cracked gasoline (LCCG) stating that those imports are bound for tariff charges.[49]

Pilipinas Shell denied the claim stating that those imports are raw materials for making their products. The company later emphasised that they are considering closing their local oil refinery if the case continues. Pilipinas Shell informed the public that they will exhaust all necessary steps to meet the demand for fuel.

Singapore[edit]

Shell has a strong presence in Singapore, indeed Singapore is the main centre for Shell’s petrochemical operations in Asia Pacific region. Shell Eastern Petroleum limited (SEPL) have their refinery located in Singapore’s Pulau Bukom island. They also operate as Shell Chemicals Seraya in Jurong Island.

Europe[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Shell first started trading in Ireland in 1902.[50] Shell E&P Ireland (SEPIL) (previously Enterprise Energy Ireland) is an Irish exploration and production subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell. Its headquarters are on Leeson Street in Dublin. It was acquired in May 2002.[51] Its main project is the Corrib gas project, a large gas field off the northwest coast, for which Shell has encountered controversy and protests in relation to the onshore pipeline and licence terms.

In 2005 Shell disposed of its entire retail and commercial fuels business in Ireland to Topaz Energy Group. This included depots, company-owned petrol stations and supply agreements stations throughout the island of Ireland.[52] The retail outlets were re-branded as Topaz in 2008/9.[53]

Nordic countries[edit]

On 27 August 2007, Royal Dutch Shell and Reitan Group, the owner of the 7-Eleven brand in Scandinavia, announced an agreement to re-brand some 269 service stations across Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark, subject to obtaining regulatory approvals under the different competition laws in each country.[54] On April 2010 Shell announced that the corporation is in process of trying to find a potential buyer for all of its operations in Finland and is doing similar market research concerning Swedish operations.[55][56] On October 2010 Shell’s gas stations and the heavy vehicle fuel supply networks in Finland and Sweden, along with a refinery located in Gothenburg, Sweden were sold to St1, a Finnish energy company, more precisely to its major shareholding parent company Keele Oy.[57] Shell branded gas stations will be rebranded within maximum of five years from the acquisition and the number of gas stations is likely to be reduced. Until then the stations will operate under Shell brand licence.

United Kingdom[edit]

Shell has interests in more than 50 fields, 30 offshore installations, 30 subsea installations, 2 Floating production storage and offloading vessels, 3 onshore gas plants and a marine terminal based In the UK sector of the North Sea. The company’s ventures there account for 12% of the country’s oil and gas supply. Shell has 6,500 employees in the UK, however in August 2014 it announced it was laying off 250 of them, mainly in Aberdeen.[58]

North America[edit]

Main articles: Shell Oil Company and Shell Canada

Through most of Shell’s history, its business in the United States, Shell Oil Company was substantially independent with its stock (“Shell Oil”) being traded on the NYSE and with little direct involvement from the group’s central offices in the running of the American business. Such practice also changed in the 1990s when Shell first bought out the shares in Shell Oil that it did not own and then took a more hands-on approach. In Canada, also previously very independent, Shell has completed its purchase of the shares in Shell Canada that it did not own, to apply the new global business model.

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

Shell petrol station in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales

Main article: Shell Australia

In Australia, Wesfarmers-owned retailer Coles Group purchased the rights to 584 Shell Australia-owned service stations, which formed the seven Shell Multi Site Franchisees (MSFs), in 2003 for A$100 million (approximately US$93.1 million)—the financial terms of the property lease and other components of the deal were not disclosed. Described at the time by Ian McKenzie, General Manager External Affairs of Shell Oceania, as an “alliance,” the arrangement meant that Shell retained ownership of the network and leased the sites to Coles under a long-term property lease. Shell’s rival Woolworths Limitedsubsequently announced a partnership with Caltex in August 2003, adding 160 sites to its discount fuel business.[59]

As part of the deal with the Coles Group, the service stations were co-branded Coles Express and Shell, with the former managing the convenience stores, while Shell assumed responsibility of the fuel infrastructure. Service station staff became Coles Express employees and the Coles Group sets pump prices, while Shell supplies all fuel products.[59]

On May 20, 2011, Royal Dutch Shell’s final investment decision for the world’s first floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) facility was finalized following the discovery of the remote offshore Prelude field—located off Australia’s northwestern coast and estimated to contain about 3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas equivalent reserves—in 2007. FLNG technology is based on liquefied natural gas (LNG) developments that were pioneered in the mid-20th century and facilitates the exploitation of untapped natural gas reserves located in remote areas, often too small to extract any other way.[60][61]

The floating vessel to be used for the Prelude field, also known as “Prelude,” is promoted as the longest floating structure in the world and will take in the equivalent of 110,000 barrels of oil per day in natural gas—at a location 200 km (125 miles) off the coast of Western Australia—and cool it into liquefied natural gas for transport and sale in Asia. The Prelude is scheduled to start producing LNG in 2016—analysts estimated the total cost of construction at more than US$12 billion.[60][61][62]

Following the decision by the Royal Dutch Shell fuel corporation to close its Geelong, Australia refinery in April 2013, a third consecutive annual loss was recorded for Shell’s Australian refining and fuel marketing assets. Revealed in June 2013, the writedown is worth A$203 million, and was preceded by a A$638m writedown in 2012 and a A$407m writedown in 2011, after the closure of the Clyde refinery in Sydney, Australia.[63]

In February 2014, Shell sold its Australian refinery and petrol stations for US$2.6 billion (A$2.9 billion) to Vitol, a Geneva-based company.[64] Vitol stated that the Geelong refinery will remain open, as the company plans to expand further into the Australian market. At the time of the sale, Royal Dutch Shell was expected to continue investment into the Australian market, with projects that involve Chevron Corp., Woodside Petroleum and Prelude.[34]

Shell sold 9.5% of its 23.1% stake in Woodside Petroleum in June 2014 and advised that it had reached an agreement for Woodside to buy back 9.5% of its shares at a later stage. Shell became a major shareholder in Woodside after a 2001 takeover attempt was blocked by then federal Treasurer Peter Costello and the corporation has been open about its intention to sell its stake in Woodside as part of its target to shed assets. At a general body meeting, held on August 1, 2014, 72 percent of shareholders voted to approve the buy-back, short of the 75 percent vote that was required for approval. A statement from Shell read: “Royal Dutch Shell acknowledges the outcome of Woodside Petroleum Limited’s shareholders’ negative vote on the selective buy-back proposal. Shell is reviewing its options in relation to its remaining 13.6 percent holding.”[65]

New Zealand[edit]

Shell has had a long-time presence in New Zealand, and partly owns the Maui and Kapuni natural gas fields. In 2011 it completed the sale of its petrol retail division to Infratil and the New Zealand Superannuation Fund, which rebranded the stations as Z Energy. Shell still operates in New Zealand via gas and condensate exploration and infrastructure.

Other activities[edit]

Over the years Shell has occasionally sought to diversify away from its core oil, gas and chemicals businesses. These diversifications have included nuclear power(a short-lived and costly joint venture with Gulf Oil in the USA); coal (Shell Coal was for a time a significant player in mining and marketing); metals (Shell acquired the Dutch metals-mining company Billiton in 1970) and electricity generation (a joint venture with Bechtel called Intergen). None of these ventures was seen as successful and all have now been divested.[citation needed]

In the early 2000s Shell moved into alternative energy and there is now an embryonic “Renewables” business that has made investments in solar power, wind power, hydrogen, and forestry. The forestry business went the way of nuclear, coal, metals and electricity generation, and was disposed of in 2003. In 2006 Shell paid SolarWorld to take over its entire solar business[66] and in 2008, the company withdrew from the London Array which has become the world’s largest offshore wind farm.[67]

Shell also is involved in large-scale hydrogen projects. HydrogenForecast.com describes Shell’s approach thus far as consisting of “baby steps”, but with an underlying message of “extreme optimism”.[68]

Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Brazilian sugarcane producer Cosan which is the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues and a major producer of ethanol.[69]

Current projects[edit]

Arctic[edit]

Following the purchase of an offshore lease in 2005, Shell initiated its US$4.5 billion Arctic drilling program in 2006, after the corporation purchased the “Kulluk” oil rig and leased the Noble Discoverer drillship.[70][71] At inception, the project was led by Pete Slaiby, a Shell executive who had previously worked in the North Sea.[72]However, after the purchase of a second offshore lease in 2008, Shell only commenced drilling work in 2012, due to the refurbishment of rigs, permit delays from the relevant authorities and lawsuits.[73][74][75] The plans to drill in the Arctic led to protests from environmental groups, particularly Greenpeace; furthermore, analysts in the energy field, as well as related industries, also expressed skepticism due to perceptions that drilling in the region is “too dangerous because of harsh conditions and remote locations”.[75][76]

Further problems hampered the Arctic project after the commencement of drilling in 2012, as Shell dealt with a series of issues that involved air permits, Coast Guard certification of a marine vessel and severe damage to essential oil-spill equipment. Additionally, difficult weather conditions resulted in the delay of drilling during mid-2012 and the already dire situation was exacerbated by the “Kulluk” incident at the end of the year. Royal Dutch Shell had invested nearly US$5 billion by this stage of the project.[72][75]

As the Kulluk oil rig was being towed to the American state of Washington to be serviced in preparation for the 2013 drilling season, a winter storm on December 27, 2012 caused the towing crews, as well as the rescue service, to lose control of the situation. As of January 1, 2013, the Kulluk was grounded off the coast Sitkalidak Island, near the eastern end of Kodiak Island. Following the accident, a Fortune magazine contacted Larry McKinney, the executive director at the Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies at Texas A&M, and he explained that ““A two-month delay in the Arctic is not a two-month delay … A two-month delay could wipe out the entire drilling season.”[72]

It was unclear if Shell would recommence drilling in mid-2013, following the “Kulluk” incident and, in February 2013, the corporation stated that it would “pause” its closely watched drilling project off the Alaskan coast in 2013, and will instead prepare for future exploration.[77] In January 2014, the corporation announced the extension of the suspension of its drilling program in the Arctic, with chief executive van Beurden explaining that the project is “under review” due to both market and internal issues.[78]

A June 2014 interview with Pickard indicated that, following a forensic analysis of the problems encountered in 2012, Royal Dutch Shell will continue with the project and Pickard stated that she perceives the future of the corporation activity in the Arctic region as a long-term “marathon”.[36] Pickard stated that the forensic “look back” revealed “there was an on/off switch” and further explained:

In other words, don’t spend the money unless you’re sure you’re going to have the legal environment to go forward. Don’t spend the money unless you’re sure you’re going to have the permit. No, I can’t tell you that I’m going to have that permit until June, but we need to plan like we’re going to have that permit in June. And so probably the biggest lesson is to make sure we could smooth out the on/off switches wherever we could and take control of our own destiny.[36]

Based upon the interview with Pickard, Shell is approaching the project as an investment that will reap energy resources with a lifespan of around 30 years.[36]

Controversies[edit]

Former Shell Research and Technology Centre,Amsterdam

Shell has been criticised for its businesses in Africa, notably in relation to protests of the Ogoni in 1995.[79]

In the 1990s, protesters criticised the company’s environmental record, particularly the possible pollution caused by the proposed disposal of the Brent Spar platform into the North Sea. Despite support from the UK government, Shell reversed the decision under public pressure but maintained that sinking the platform would have been environmentally better.[80] Shell subsequently published an unequivocal commitment to sustainable development, supported by executive speeches reinforcing this commitment.[81]

2004 overstatement of oil reserves[edit]

In 2004 Shell overstated its oil reserves, resulting in loss of confidence in the group, a £17 million fine by the Financial Services Authority and the departure of the chairman Philip Watts. A lawsuit resulted in the payment of $450 million to non-American shareholders in 2007.[82][83][84]

Corporate communications[edit]

Shell Centre building in London, UK

Shell’s advertising regarding its renewable energy business has been described as a greenwash by some environmental lobbies,[85]though its renewable energy activities have been praised by other commentators.[86]

In August 2008, the British Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) ruled that Shell had misled the public in an advertisement when it claimed that a $10 billion oil sands project in Alberta, Canada was a “sustainable energy source”.[87]

Environmental pollution[edit]

The presence of companies like Shell in the Niger-Delta has led to extreme environmental issues in the Niger Delta. Many pipelines in the Niger-Delta owned by Shell are old and corroded. This has resulted in many oil spills in this area that have degraded the environment, killing off vegetation and fish. Shell has acknowledged its responsibility for keeping the pipelines new but has also denied responsibility for environmental causes.[88] This has led to mass protests from the Niger-Delta inhabitants and Amnesty International against Shell and Friends of the Earth Netherlands. It has also led to action plans to boycott Shell by environmental groups, and human rights groups.[89]

In January 2013, a Dutch court rejected four out of five allegations brought against the firm over oil pollution in the Niger Delta but found a subsidiary guilty of one case of pollution, ordering compensation to be paid to a Nigerian farmer.[90]

On 15 January 1999, off the Argentinian town of Magdalena, Buenos Aires, the Shell tanker Estrella Pampeana collided with a German freighter, emptying its contents into the lake, polluting the environment, drinkable water, plants and animals. Over a decade after the spill, a referendum held in Magdalena determined the acceptance of a US$9.5 million compensatory payout from Shell.[91] Shell denied responsibility for the spill, but an Argentine court ruled in 2002 that the corporation was responsible.[92]

In 2013, Royal Dutch Shell PLC reported CO2 emissions of 81 million metric tonnes. [93]

Health and safety[edit]

A number of incidents over the years led to criticism of Shell’s health and safety record, including repeated warnings by the UK Health and Safety Executive about the poor state of the company’s North Sea platforms.[94]

Human rights[edit]

Vigil at the Shell Centre, London, on the 17th Anniversary of Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Ogoni 9.

In the beginning of 1996, several human rights groups brought cases to hold Shell accountable for alleged human rights violations in Nigeria, including summary execution, crimes against humanity, torture, inhumane treatment and arbitrary arrest and detention. In particular, Shell stood accused of ­collaborating in the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other leaders of the Ogoni tribe of southern Nigeria, who were hanged in 1995 by Nigeria’s then military rulers.[95] The lawsuits were brought against Royal Dutch Shell and Brian Anderson, the head of its Nigerian operation.[96] In 2009, Shell agreed to pay $15.5m in a legal settlement.[95] Shell has not accepted any liability over the allegations against it.[97]

In 2009, Shell was the subject of an Amnesty International report into the deterioration of human rights as a consequence of Shell’s activities in the Niger Delta. In particular, Amnesty criticised the continuation of gas flaring and Shell’s slow response to oil spills.[98]

In 2010, a leaked cable revealed that Shell claims to have inserted staff into all the main ministries of the Nigerian government and know “everything that was being done in those ministries”, according to Shell’s top executive in Nigeria. The same executive also boasted that the Nigerian government had forgotten about the extent of Shell’s infiltration.[43] Documents released in 2009 (but not used in the court case) reveal that Shell regularly made payments to the Nigerian military in order to prevent protests.[99]

Royal Dutch shell license blocks in Nigeria

Arctic project[edit]

In 2010 Greenpeace activists painted “No Arctic Drilling” with spilled BP oil on the side of a ship in the Gulf that was en route to explore for Arctic oil for Shell. At the protest, Phil Radford of Greenpeace called for “President Obama [to] ban all offshore oil drilling and call for an end to the use of oil in our cars by 2030.”[76]

On 16 March 2012, 52 Greenpeace activists from five different countries boarded Fennica and Nordica, multipurposeicebreakers chartered to support Shell’s drilling rigs near Alaska.[100] Around the same time period, a reporter for Fortunemagazine spoke with Edward Itta, an Inupiat Eskimo leader and the former mayor of the North Slope Borough, who expressed that he was conflicted about Shell’s plans in the Arctic, as he was very concerned that an oil spill could destroy the Inupiat Eskimo’s hunting-and-fishing culture, but his borough also received major tax revenue from oil and gas production; additionally, further revenue from energy activity was considered crucial to the future of the living standard in Itta’s community. In terms of safety, Itta identified the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), a precious area for a large number of environmentalists, as a preferred option, explaining: “You can clean up oil so much easier onshore … The risks are not even comparable.”[72]

In July 2012, Greenpeace activists shut down 53 Shell petrol stations in Edinburgh and London in a protest against the company’s plans to drill for oil in the Arctic. Greenpeace’s “Save the Arctic” campaign aims to prevent oil drilling and industrial fishing in the Arctic by declaring the uninhabited area around the North Pole a global sanctuary.[101]

Concerns increased after the Kulluk oil rig ran aground near Kodiak Island in December 2012.[102] An anonymous energy analyst, who worked for a money manager with strong ties to Shell, stated after the accident:

I didn’t expect to see so many things go wrong in their first year, but it shows you how hard it is to do what they want to do. In this business, the name of the game is “time to first cash flow,” and if you can’t get first cash flow for at least 10 years, then it’s going to be awfully hard to earn a decent return on the project.[72]

In response, Shell filed lawsuits to seek injunctions from possible protests, and Benjamin Jealous of the NAACP and Radford argued that the legal action was “trampling American’s rights.”[103] According to Greenpeace, Shell lodged a request with Google to ban video footage of a Greenpeace protest action that occurred at the Shell-sponsored Formula One (F1) Belgian Grand Prix on August 25, 2013, in which “SaveTheArctic.org” banners appear at the winners’ podium ceremony. In the video, the banners rise up automatically—activists controlled their appearance with the use of four radio car antennas—revealing the website URL, alongside an image that consists of half of a polar bear’s head and half of the Shell logo. As of April 5, 2014, the video is available on the “greenpeaceupdate” YouTube channel and has received just over 300,000 views.[104][105]

The company notes that “no one has yet fully determined how to clean up an oil spill in pack ice or broken ice”.[106] Royal Dutch Shell then announced a “pause” in the timeline of the project in early 2013[77] and, in January 2014, the corporation announced the extension of the suspension of its drilling program in the Arctic. A June 2014 interview with the corporation’s new executive vice president of the Arctic indicated that Royal Dutch Shell will continue with its activity in the region.[36][78]

The Secret of the Seven Sisters

all 4 video of the secret of the seven sister are there in the link below

http://revelar777.blogspot.com/search/label/oil

On August 28, 1928, in the Scottish highlands, began the secret story of oil.

Three men had an appointment at Achnacarry Castle – a Dutchman, an American and an Englishman.

The Dutchman was Henry Deterding, a man nicknamed the Napoleon of Oil, having exploited a find in Sumatra. He joined forces with a rich ship owner and painted Shell salesman and together the two men founded Royal Dutch Shell.

The American was Walter C. Teagle and he represents the Standard Oil Company, founded by John D. Rockefeller at the age of 31 – the future Exxon. Oil wells, transport, refining and distribution of oil – everything is controlled by Standard oil.

The Englishman, Sir John Cadman, was the director of the Anglo-Persian oil Company, soon to become BP. On the initiative of a young Winston Churchill, the British government had taken a stake in BP and the Royal Navy switched its fuel from coal to oil. With fuel-hungry ships, planes and tanks, oil became “the blood of every battle”.

The new automobile industry was developing fast, and the Ford T was selling by the million. The world was thirsty for oil, and companies were waging a merciless contest but the competition was making the market unstable.

That August night, the three men decided to stop fighting and to start sharing out the world’s oil. Their vision was that production zones, transport costs, sales prices – everything would be agreed and shared. And so began a great cartel, whose purpose was to dominate the world, by controlling its oil.

Four others soon joined them, and they came to be known as the Seven Sisters – the biggest oil companies in the world.

In the first episode, we travel across the Middle East, through both time and space.

We waged the Iran-Iraq war and I say we waged it, because one country had to be used to destroy the other. As they already benefit from the oil bonanza, and they’re building up financal reserves, from time to time they have to be bled.”– Xavier Houzel, an oil trader

Throughout the region’s modern history, since the discovery of oil, the Seven Sisters have sought to control the balance of power.

They have supported monarchies in Iran and Saudi Arabia, opposed the creation of OPEC, profiting from the Iran-Iraq war, leading to the ultimate destruction of Saddam Hussein and Iraq.

The Seven Sisters were always present, and almost always came out on top.

Since that notorious meeting at Achnacarry Castle on August 28, 1928, they have never ceased to plot, to plan and to scheme.

At the end of the 1960s, the Seven Sisters, the major oil companies, controlled 85 percent of the world’s oil reserves. Today, they control just 10 percent.

New hunting grounds are therefore required, and the Sisters have turned their gaze towards Africa. With peak oil, wars in the Middle East, and the rise in crude prices, Africa is the oil companies’ new battleground.

“Everybody thought there could be oil in Sudan but nobody knew anything. It was revealed through exploration by the American company Chevron, towards the end of the 70s. And that was the beginning of the second civil war, which went on until 2002. It lasted for 19 years and cost a million and a half lives and the oil business was at the heart of it.– Gerard Prunier, a historian

But the real story, the secret story of oil, begins far from Africa.

In their bid to dominate Africa, the Sisters installed a king in Libya, a dictator in Gabon, fought the nationalisation of oil resources in Algeria, and through corruption, war and assassinations, brought Nigeria to its knees.

Oil may be flowing into the holds of huge tankers, but in Lagos, petrol shortages are chronic.

The country’s four refineries are obsolete and the continent’s main oil exporter is forced to import refined petrol – a paradox that reaps fortunes for a handful of oil companies.

Encouraged by the companies, corruption has become a system of government – some $50bn are estimated to have ‘disappeared’ out of the $350bn received since independence.

But new players have now joined the great oil game.

China, with its growing appetite for energy, has found new friends in Sudan, and the Chinese builders have moved in. Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir is proud of his co-operation with China – a dam on the Nile, roads, and stadiums.

In order to export 500,000 barrels of oil a day from the oil fields in the South – China financed and built the Heglig pipeline connected to Port Sudan – now South Sudan’s precious oil is shipped through North Sudan to Chinese ports.

In a bid to secure oil supplies out of Libya, the US, the UK and the Seven Sisters made peace with the once shunned Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, until he was killed during the Libyan uprising of 2011, but the flow of Libyan oil remains uninterrupted.

In need of funds for rebuilding, Libya is now back to pumping more than a million barrels of oil per day. And the Sisters are happy to oblige.

In the Caucasus, the US and Russia are vying for control of the region. The great oil game is in full swing. Whoever controls the Caucasus and its roads, controls the transport of oil from the Caspian Sea.

Tbilisi, Erevan and Baku – the three capitals of the Caucasus. The oil from Baku in Azerbaijan is a strategic priority
for all the major companies.

From the fortunes of the Nobel family to the Russian revolution, to World War II, oil from the Caucasus and the Caspian has played a central role. Lenin fixated on conquering the Azeri capital Baku for its oil, as did Stalin and Hitler.

On his birthday in 1941, Adolf Hitler received a chocolate and cream birthday cake, representing a map. He chose the slice with Baku on it.

On June 22nd 1941, the armies of the Third Reich invaded Russia. The crucial battle of Stalingrad was the key to the road to the Caucasus and Baku’s oil, and would decide the outcome of the war.

Stalin told his troops: “Fighting for one’s oil is fighting for one’s freedom.”

After World War II, President Nikita Krushchev would build the Soviet empire and its Red Army with revenues from the USSR’s new-found oil reserves.

Decades later, oil would bring that empire to its knees, when Saudi Arabia and the US would conspire to open up the oil taps, flood the markets, and bring the price of oil down to $13 per barrel. Russian oligarchs would take up the oil mantle, only to be put in their place by their president, Vladimir Putin, who knows that oil is power.

The US and Putin‘s Russia would prop up despots, and exploit regional conflicts to maintain a grip on the oil fields of the Caucusus and the Caspian.

But they would not have counted on the rise of a new, strong and hungry China, with an almost limitless appetite for oil and energy. Today, the US, Russia and China contest the control of the former USSR’s fossil fuel reserves, and the supply routes. A three-handed match, with the world as spectators, between three ferocious beasts – The American eagle, the Russian bear, and the Chinese dragon.

Peak oil – the point in time at which the highest rate of oil extraction has been reached, and after which world production will start decline. Many geologists and the International Energy Agency say the world’s crude oil output reached its peak in 2006.

But while there may be less oil coming out of the ground, the demand for it is definitely on the rise.

The final episode of this series explores what happens when oil becomes more and more inaccessible, while at the same time, new powers like China and India try to fulfill their growing energy needs.

And countries like Iran, while suffering international sanctions, have welcomed these new oil buyers, who put business ahead of lectures on human rights and nuclear ambitions.

At the same time, oil-producing countries have had enough with the Seven Sisters controlling their oil assets. Nationalisation of oil reserves around the world has ushered in a new generation of oil companies all vying for a slice of the oil pie.

These are the new Seven Sisters.

Saudi Arabia’s Saudi Aramco, the largest and most sophisticated oil company in the world;

Russia’s Gazprom, a company that Russia’s President Vladimir Putin wrested away from the oligarchs;

The China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), which, along with its subsidiary, Petrochina, is the world’s secnd largest company in terms of market value;

The National Iranian Oil Company, which has a monopoly on exploration, extraction, transportation and exportation of crude oil in Iran – OPEC’s second largest oil producer after Saudi Arabia;

Venezuela’s PDVSA, a company the late president Hugo Chavez dismantled and rebuilt into his country’s economic engine and part of his diplomatic arsenal;

Brazil’s Petrobras, a leader in deep water oil production, that pumps out 2 million barrels of crude oil a day;

Malaysia’s Petronas – Asia’s most profitable company in 2012.

Mainly state-owned, the new Seven Sisters control a third of the world’s oil and gas production, and more than a third of the world’s reserves. The old Seven Sisters, by comparison, produce a tenth of the world’s oil, and control only three percent of the reserves.

The balance has shifted.