2018 Commonwealth Games

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
XXI Commonwealth Games
2018 Commonwealth Games.svg

Logo of 2018 Commonwealth Games
Host city Gold CoastQueensland
Country Australia
Motto Share the Dream
Nations participating 71 CommonwealthTeams
Athletes participating 4,426
Events 275 in 19 sports
Opening ceremony 4 April
Closing ceremony 15 April
Officially opened by Charles, Prince of Wales
Officially closed by Edward, Earl of Wessex
Athlete’s Oath Karen Murphy
Queen’s Baton Final Runner Sally Pearson
Main venue Carrara Stadium
Website GC2018.com
<  XX XXII  >

The 2018 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XXI Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Gold Coast 2018, were an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that were held on the Gold CoastQueenslandAustralia, between 4 and 15 April 2018. It was the fifth time Australia had hosted the Commonwealth Games and the first time a major multi-sport event achieved gender equality by having an equal number of events for males and female atheletes.[1]

More than 4,400 athletes from 71 Commonwealth Games Associations took part including Gambia where were readmitted as a Commonwealth Games Federation member on 31 March 2018. With 275 sets of medals, the games featured 19 Commonwealth sports, including beach volleyballpara triathlon and women’s rugby sevens. These sporting events took place at 14 venues in the host city, two venues in Brisbane and one venue each in Cairns and Townsville.[2]

These were the first Commonwealth Games to take place under the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF) presidency of Louise Martin, CBE.[3]The host city Gold Coast was announced at the CGF General Assembly in BasseterreSaint Kitts, on 11 November 2011.[4] Gold Coast became the seventh Oceanian city to host the Commonwealth Games. These were the eighth games to be held in Oceania and Southern Hemisphere.

The host nation Australia topped the medal table for the fourth time in the past five Commonwealth Games, winning the most golds (80) and most medals overall (198). England and India finished second and third respectively.[5]VanuatuCook IslandsSolomon IslandsBritish Virgin Islands and Dominicaeach won their first commonwealth games medals.

Host selection[edit]

Countdown clock at Surfers Paradise

On 22 August 2008, the Premier of QueenslandAnna Bligh, officially launched Gold Coast City’s bid to host the Commonwealth Games in 2018. On 7 April 2009, the ABCreported a land exchange deal between Gold Coast City and State of Queensland for Carrara Stadium. According to Mayor Ron Clarke, the land would aid a potential bid for the 2018 Commonwealth Games. The land exchanged would be used as the site of an aquatics centre. In the same article, Mayor Clarke raised the question of the Australian Federal Government’s commitment to a 2018 Commonwealth Games bid in light of the Government’s support for Australia’s 2018 FIFA World Cup Finals bid.[7]On 16 April 2009, Queensland Premier Anna Bligh told reporters that a successful Commonwealth Games bid by Gold Coast City could help the tourist strip win a role in hosting the World Cup.[8]

“Some of the infrastructure that would be built for the Commonwealth Games will be useful for Gold Coast City to get a World Cup game out of the soccer World Cup if we’re successful as a nation,” she said. However the decision on the venues for the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cups were made eleven months prior to the bid decision for the 2018 Commonwealth Games, so the potential World Cup venues had already been chosen. On 3 June 2009, Gold Coast City was confirmed as Australia’s exclusive bidder vying for the 2018 Commonwealth Games.[9] “Should a bid proceed, Gold Coast City will have the exclusive Australian rights to bid as host city for 2018,” Bligh stated.

“Recently I met with the president and CEO of the Australian Commonwealth Games Association and we agreed to commission a full and comprehensive feasibility study into the potential for the 2018 Commonwealth Games,” she said. “Under the stewardship of Queensland Events new chair, Geoff Dixon, that study is now well advanced.” On 15 March 2010, it was announced that the Queensland Government will provide initial funding of A$11 million for the 2018 Commonwealth Games bid. The Premier of Queensland has indicated the Government’s support for the bid to the Australian Commonwealth Games Association.[10] On 31 March 2010, the Australian Commonwealth Games Association officially launched the bid to host the 2018 Commonwealth Games.[11] In October 2011, Gold Coast City Mayor Ron Clarke stated that the games would provide a strong legacy for the city after the games have ended.[12]

On 31 March 2010, a surprise bid was made for the 2018 Commonwealth Games by the Sri Lankan city of Hambantota. Hambantota was devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and is undergoing a major face lift. The first phase of the Port of Hambantota is nearing completion and it is funded by the government of China. The Mattala International Airport, which is the second international Airport of Sri Lanka is built close to Hambantota. A new Hambantota International Cricket Stadium had also been built, which had hosted matches in the 2011 Cricket World Cup.

On 10 November 2011, the Hambantota bidders claimed they had already secured enough votes to win the hosting rights.[13]However, on 11 November it was officially announced Gold Coast City had won the rights to host the games.[14][15]

2018 Commonwealth Games bidding results
City Country Votes
Gold Coast City Australia Australia 43
Hambantota Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 27

Administration[edit]

In February 2012, Mark Peters was appointed Chief Executive Officer of the Gold Coast City 2018 Commonwealth Games Corporation.[16] The Queensland Government Minister tasked with overseeing the Games was Kate Jones.[17]

Preparation[edit]

Venues[edit]

Concept image for Carrara Stadium and Carrara Sport and Leisure Centre

One of the key technical aspects of Gold Coast City’s successful bid was the fact that the city had 80 percent of the planned venues in place before the bidding deadline. The vast majority of venues were located within 20-minutes driving time of the Athletes Village in Parkwood and were broadly grouped into three areas; Central Gold Coast City, North Gold Coast City and South Gold Coast City. The only competitions held outside of Gold Coast City were track cycling and the preliminary rounds of Basketball which were held in Brisbane and Cairns or Townsvillerespectively, along with the shooting which was held in neighbouring Belmont.[18]

Athletes village[edit]

2018 Commonwealth Games Village

The 2018 Commonwealth Games Athletes Village provided accommodation and services to 6600 athletes and officials in 1252 permanent dwellings: 1170 one and two bedroom apartments and 82 three bedroom townhouses at Southport, Gold Coast.[19]

Queen’s baton relay[edit]

Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games Baton

The Gold Coast 2018 Queen’s Baton Relay was launched on Commonwealth Day, 13 March 2017, on the historic forecourt at Buckingham Palace, signalling the official countdown to the start of the Games. Accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh and Prince Edward The Earl of Wessex, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II heralded the start of the relay by placing her ‘message to the Commonwealth and its athletes’ into the distinctive loop-design Queen’s Baton which then set off on its journey around the globe. It traveled for 388 days, spending time in every nation and territory of the Commonwealth. The Gold Coast 2018 Queen’s Baton Relay was the longest in Commonwealth Games history. Covering 230,000 km over 388 days, the baton made its way through the six Commonwealth regions of Africa, the Americas, the Caribbean, Europe, Asia and Oceania.

The baton landed on Australian soil in December 2017 and then spent 100 days travelling through Australia, finishing its journey at the Opening Ceremony on 4 April 2018, where the message was removed from the Baton and read aloud by Charles, Prince of Wales.[20]

Transport[edit]

Gold Coast light rail extension at Helensvale

The Gold Coast light rail system, connected a number of the key games venues including the Gold Coast City Aquatic Centre, Broadwater Parklands and the Gold Coast Convention & Exhibition Centre with the major accommodation centres of Surfers Paradise and Broadbeach and the Athletes Village at Parklands. An extension to the system was announced in October 2015, connecting the then current terminus at Gold Coast University Hospital to the railway line to Brisbane at Helensvale. The extension opened in December 2017, in time for the games.[21]

Anti-doping[edit]

The Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority conducted an anti-doping drive in the months prior to the games, covering around 2500 tests of Australian athletes, as well as 500 tests against international athletes. Three Australians failed drug tests in this process, along with around 20 international athletes, subject to appeal. The Commonwealth Games Federation conducted in-competition testing and, matching protocol at the Olympic Games, launched a sample storage initiative to allow for future testing of samples up to ten years later, should detection technology improve.[22]

Participating teams[edit]

There were 71 nations competing at 2018 Commonwealth Games.[23] Maldives were scheduled to participate, but in October 2016 they withdrew from the Commonwealth.[24] The Gambia returned to the Commonwealth Games after being readmitted as a Commonwealth Games Federation member on 31 March 2018.[25]

Nations expected to compete at the 2018 Commonwealth Games in Gold Coast

[hide]Participating Commonwealth Games Associations: country name (number of participants)

Number of athletes by team[edit]

Calendar[edit]

OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events CC Closing ceremony
April 4
Wed
5
Thu
6
Fri
7
Sat
8
Sun
9
Mon
10
Tue
11
Wed
12
Thu
13
Fri
14
Sat
15
Sun
Events
Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Aquatics Diving pictogram.svg Diving 3 2 3 2 10
Swimming pictogram.svgSwimming 7 9 8 8 9 9 50
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 5 6 8 7 10 9 9 4 58
Badminton pictogram.svg Badminton 1 5 6
Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball 1 1 2
Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg Beach volleyball 2 2
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 16 16
Cycling
Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svgMountain biking 2 2
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg Road cycling 2 2 4
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg Track cycling 6 4 6 4 20
Gymnastics
Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svgArtistic 1 1 2 5 5 14
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svgRhythmic 1 1 4 6
Field hockey pictogram.svg Hockey 2 2
Lawn bowls pictogram.svg Lawn bowls 2 2 1 2 3 10
Netball pictogram.svg Netball 1 1
Powerlifting pictogram (Paralympics).svg Powerlifting 4 4
Rugby union pictogram.svg Rugby sevens 2 2
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 19
Squash pictogram.svg Squash 2 1 2 5
Table tennis pictogram.svg Table tennis 1 1 1 4 2 9
Triathlon pictogram.svg Triathlon 2 3 5
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 3 3 3 3 4 16
Wrestling pictogram.svg Wrestling 4 4 4 12
Daily medal events 19 17 22 31 33 26 15 24 27 44 17 275
Cumulative total 19 36 58 89 122 148 163 187 214 258 275
April 4th
Wed
5th
Thu
6th
Fri
7th
Sat
8th
Sun
9th
Mon
10th
Tue
11th
Wed
12th
Thu
13th
Fri
14th
Sat
15th
Sun
Total events

Sports[edit]

The regulations stated that from the 26 approved sports administered by Commonwealth Governing Bodies, a minimum of ten core sports and maximum of seventeen sports must be included in any Commonwealth Games schedule. The approved sports included the 10 core sports: athleticsbadmintonboxinghockeylawn bowlsnetball (for women), rugby sevenssquashswimming and weightlifting. Integrated disabled competitions were also scheduled for the Games in nine sports: swimming, athletics, cycling, table tennis, powerlifting and lawn bowls. Along with these events for the first time EAD events in triathlon were held, with the medals added to the final tally for each nation. A record 38 para events were contested at these games.[26] On 8 March 2016, beach volleyball was announced as the 18th sport.[27]

The program was broadly similar to that of the 2014 Commonwealth Games, with the major changes being the dropping of judo, the reintroduction of basketball, the debut of women’s rugby sevens and beach volleyball.[28]

On 7 October 2016, it was announced seven new events for women were added to the sport program, meaning there are an equal number of events for men and women. This marks the first time in history that a major multi-sport event has equality in terms of events. In total 275 events in 18 sports are being contested.[29][30]

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each sport.

Opening ceremony[edit]

The opening ceremony was held at Carrara Stadium in the Gold Coast, Australia, between 20:00 and 22:40 AEST, on 4 April 2018. Tickets for the ceremony started at 100 Australian dollars with half price tickets available for children.[31] The Head of the Commonwealth, Queen Elizabeth II, was represented by her son, Charles, Prince of Wales.[32]

Parade of Nations[edit]

Following tradition, the host of the previous gamesScotland entered first, followed by the rest of the European countries competing.[33] Following this, all countries paraded in alphabetical order from their respective regions. After the European countries entered, countries from Africa, the Americas, Asia, the Caribbean, and lastly Oceania marched in. The host nation of Australia entered last. Each nation was preceded by a placard bearer carrying a sign with the country’s name.

Closing ceremony[edit]

The closing ceremony was held at Carrara Stadium and was produced by Jack Morton Worldwide at a cost of AU$30 million. Australian pop stars Guy SebastianSamantha JadeDami Im and The Veronicas were among the performers along with children’s entertainers, The Wiggles.[34]

Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, declared the Games closed and passed the Commonwealth Games flag to Birmingham, England which will host the 2022 Games.[35]

The organising committee decided to bring in the athletes before the start of the ceremony. This caused an uproar on social media as, contrary to public expectations, none of the athletes were shown entering the stadium during the ceremony. Broadcast rights holders Channel 7 complained on air about the decision and concluded that, “it hasn’t really lived up to expectations”. Many spectators and athletes left during the ceremony, resulting in a half-empty stadium for much of the event.[36] Following this, the ABC claimed that Channel 7 was briefed on the closing ceremony schedule,[37] a claim which Channel 7 later refuted.[38]

Medal table[edit]

Only the top ten successful nations are displayed here.

The ranking in this table is consistent with International Olympic Committee convention in its published medal tables. By default, the table is ordered by the number of gold medals the athletes from a nation have won (in this context, a “nation” is an entity represented by a Commonwealth Games Association). The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If nations are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically by their three-letter country code. Australia tops the medal table rank with 80 gold, second England with 45 gold and third India with 26 gold.

Key

*   Host nation (Australia)

2018 Commonwealth Games medal table
Rank CGA Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Australia (AUS)* 80 59 59 198
2  England (ENG) 45 45 46 136
3  India (IND) 26 20 20 66
4  Canada (CAN) 15 40 27 82
5  New Zealand (NZL) 15 16 15 46
6  South Africa (RSA) 13 11 13 37
7  Wales (WAL) 10 12 14 36
8  Scotland (SCO) 9 13 22 44
9  Nigeria (NGR) 9 9 6 24
10  Cyprus (CYP) 8 1 5 14
Total (43 CGAs) 275 276 289 840

Marketing[edit]

Borobi

Motto[edit]

The official motto for the 2018 Commonwealth Games was “Share the Dream”. It was chosen to highlight the dreams and experience at the games that were shared by participants of the games, ranging from athletes to volunteers and the host country Australia to the world including the Commonwealth nations.[39]

Emblem[edit]

The emblem of the 2018 Commonwealth Games was a silhouette of the skyline and landscape of Gold Coast, the host city of the games.[40]

Mascot[edit]

Borobi was named as the mascot of the 2018 Commonwealth Games in 2016. Borobi is a blue koala, with indigenous markings on its body. The term “borobi” means koala in the Yugambeh language, spoken by the indigenous Yugambeh peopleof the Gold Coast and surrounding areas.[41]

Medals[edit]

At a charity gala held on 4 November 2017, the medals for the games were officially unveiled. Australian Indigenous artist Delvene Cockatoo-Collins designed the medals, while they were produced by the Royal Australian Mint. The design of the medals was inspired by the coastline of Gold Coast along with Indigenous culture.[42] Furthermore, Cockatoo-Collins mentioned, “the medal design represents soft sand lines which shift with every tide and wave, also symbolic of athletic achievement, The continual change of tide represents the evolution in athletes who are making their mark, Records are made and special moments of elation are celebrated”. Approximately 1,500 medals were created to be distributed to the medallists and each measures approximately 63 millimetres in diameter. The medals weigh between 138 and 163 grams.[43]

United Nations General Assembly resolution ES-10/L.22

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
UN General Assembly
Resolution ES‑10/L.22
United Nations General Assembly resolution A ES 10 L 22 vote.png

  Voted in favor
  Voted against
  Abstained
  Not present
Date 21 December 2017
Meeting no. 10th Emergency Special Session (continuation)
Code A/RES/ES‑10/L.22 (Document)
Subject Status of Jerusalem
Voting summary
128 voted for
9 voted against
35 abstained
21 absent
Result Recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void”

United Nations General Assembly resolution ES‑10/L.22 is a emergency session resolution declaring the status of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void.”.[1] It was adopted by the 37th Plenary meeting of the tenth emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly[2] during the tenure of the seventy-second session of the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 2017. The draft resolution was drafted by Yemen and Turkey.[3]Though strongly contested by the United States, it passed by 128 votes to nine against with 21 absentees and 35 abstentions.

Background[edit]

On 6 December 2017, US President Donald Trump said that he would recognise the status of Jerusalem as being Israel’s sovereign capital[4] in a departure from previous UNGA resolutions as well prevailing international norms where no state either recognises Jerusalem as a national capital nor has an embassy there. The move prompted protests from states and communities in many parts of the world.[5]

Following the failure of an United Nations Security Council resolution three days earlier, after an U.S. veto, to rescind the recognition by any states of Jerusalem as a national capital, Palestinian UN Ambassador Riyad Mansour said that the General Assembly would vote on a draft resolution calling for Trump’s declaration to be withdrawn. He sought to invoke Resolution 377, known as the “Uniting for Peace” resolution, to circumvent a veto. The resolution states that the General Assembly can call an Emergency Special Session to consider a matter “with a view to making appropriate recommendations to members for collective measures” if the Security Council fails to act.[6]

Campaign[edit]

On 20 December, US President Donald Trump threatened to cut US aid to countries voting against the US’ side.[7] The day before the vote, he said: “Let them vote against us…We don’t care…this isn’t like it used to be where they could vote against you and then you pay them hundreds of millions of dollars. We’re not going to be taken advantage of any longer.”[8]Ambassador Nikki Haley warned her country would remember and “take names” of every country that voted in favour of the resolution.[9][10][11][12] The governments of Turkey and Iran denounced USA’s threats as “anti-democratic” and “blackmail“.[13][14] She had sent to a letter to dozens of member states that warned Trump had asked her to “report back on those countries who voted against us.”[15] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan warned Trump that “he cannot buy Turkey’s democratic will with petty dollars” and “that opposition of other countries will teach the United States a good lesson”.[16][17]

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that Israel rejects this vote before it passes and called the UN “house of lies”.[18]

Canada’s, which was seeking re-negotiations of the NAFTA, Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland‘s spokesman confirmed its intention to abstain from the vote and that the resolution should not have come to the General Assembly.[19]

Content[edit]

The text of the resolution includes the following key statements:[20]

The General Assembly,

  • Bearing in mind the specific status of the Holy City of Jerusalem and, in particular, the need for the protection and preservation of the unique spiritual, religious and cultural dimensions of the City, as foreseen in the relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Stressing that Jerusalem is a final status issue to be resolved through negotiations in line with relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Expressing in this regard its deep regret at recent decisions concerning the status of Jerusalem,
  • Affirms that any decisions and actions which purport to have altered, the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council, and in this regard, calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem, pursuant to resolution 478 (1980) of the Security Council;
  • Demands that all States comply with Security Council resolutions regarding the Holy City of Jerusalem, and not to recognize any actions or measures contrary to those resolutions;
  • Reiterates its call for the reversal of the negative trends on the ground that are imperiling the two-State solution and for the intensification and acceleration of international and regional efforts and support aimed at achieving, without delay, a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East on the basis of the relevant United Nations resolutions, the Madrid terms of reference, including the principle of land for peace, the Arab Peace Initiative and the Quartet Roadmap and an end to the Israeli occupation that began in 1967.

It concluded in reading that “any decisions and actions, which purport to have altered the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council.”[21]

Motion[edit]

The motion was proposed by Yemen and Turkey.[22]

Debate[edit]

In introducing the resolution as Chair of the Arab Group, Yemen’s Amabassador said the US decision was a “blatant violation of the rights of the Palestinian people, as well as those of all Christians and Muslims.” He emphasized that it constituted a “dangerous breach of the Charter of the United Nations and a serious threat to international peace and security, while also undermining the chances for a two‑State solution and fuelling the fires of violence and extremism.”[23]

Turkey, who was the co-sponsor of the draft resolution, also spoke as current Chair of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation(OIC).[23] Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said that Trump’s decision was an outrageous assault to all universal values. “The Palestinians have the right to their own state based on 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital. This is the main parameter and only hope for a just and lasting peace in the region. However, the recent decision of a UN Member State to recognise Jerusalem, or Al-Quds, as the capital of Israel, violates international law, including all relevant UN resolutions.”[22]

The General Assembly heard from Palestinian Foreign Minister Riad Al‑Malki, who said that the meeting was “not because of any animosity to the United States of America” but instead the sessions was “called to make the voice of the vast majority of the international community — and that of people around the world — heard on the question of Jerusalem/Al‑Quds Al‑Sharif.” He called the US decision to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and to move its embassy there “an aggressive and dangerous move” which could inflame tensions and lead to a religious war that “has no boundaries.” He added that though the decision would have no impact on the city’s status, it would nevertheless compromise the role of the United States in the Middle East peace process.[23] He urged member states to reject “blackmail and intimidation.”[5]

US Ambassador Nikki Haley then said that her country was “singled out for attack” because of its recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. She added that: “The United States will remember this day in which it was singled out for attack in the General Assembly for the very act of exercising our right as a sovereign nation,” Haley said. We will remember it when we are called upon to once again make the world’s largest contribution to the United Nations, and so many countries come calling on us, as they so often do, to pay even more and to use our influence for their benefit.”[15] She added that: “America will put our embassy in Jerusalem. That is what the American people want us to do, and it is the right thing to do. No vote in the United Nations will make any difference on that…this vote will make a difference in how Americans view the UN.”[22]

Israel’s Ambassador Danny Danon then told the assembly that the vowed that “no General Assembly resolution will ever drive us from Jerusalem.”[4]

Venezuela’s Ambassador, speaking for the Non‑Aligned Movement (NAM), expressed “grave concern about Israel’s ongoing violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including attempts to alter the character, status and demographic composition of the City of Jerusalem. [It was] slso concerned about the decision to relocate the United States embassy [and] warned that such provocative actions would further heighten tensions, with potentially far‑reaching repercussions given the extremely volatile backdrop.[23]

Other speakers included, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Syria, Bangladesh, Cuba, Iran and China.[23]

Malaysia’s Ambassador Datuk Seri Mohammed Shahrul Ikram Yaakob said that, as a member of the OIC and NAM, “Malaysia joins the international community in expressing our deep concern and rejects the decision by the United States to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. It is also an infringement of the Palestinian people’s rights and their right to self determination.” He called for a peaceful two-state solution and that Malaysia is concerned the situation will only feed into the agenda of extremists.”[2]

Other speakers included, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and South Africa. The Permanent Observer for the Holy See, Tomasz Grysa, emphasised that Jerusalem was most sacred to the Abrahamic faiths and a symbol for millions of believers around the world who considered it their “spiritual capital.” Its significance went “beyond the question of borders, a reality that should be considered a priority in every negotiation for a political solution.” The Holy See, he said, called for a “peaceful resolution that would ensure respect for the sacred nature of Jerusalem and its universal value…reiterating that only international guarantee could preserve its unique character and status and provide assurance of dialogue and reconciliation for peace in the region.”[23]

After the motion was passed, more speeches continued with Estonia, who also spoke on behalf of other states. Australia’s Ambassador then explained her country’s government did “not support unilateral action that undermined the peace process [and] it did not believe today’s text would help to bring the parties back to the negotiating table.”[23]

Other speakers included, Paraguay, whose Ambassador said that the country would abstain because “the question of Jerusalem was a matter for the Security Council, as the primary body responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security.”[23] This was followed by El Salvador, Argentina and Romania.[23]

Canada’s Ambassador Marc-Andre Blanchard called the proposal “one-sided”[23] and said: “We are disappointed that this resolution is one sided and does not advance prospects for peace to which we aspire, which is why we have abstained on today’s vote.” He, however, added that Canada wanted to emphasise Jerusalem’s special significance to the Abrahamic religions of Jews, Muslims and Christians. “Denying the connection between Jerusalem and the Jewish, Muslim and Christian faiths undermines the integrity of the site for all. We also reiterate the need to maintain the status quo at Jerusalem’s Holy sites.[19]

Nicaragua’s explained its support of the resolution, as it “rebuffed recent unilateral attempts to modify the character and status of Jerusalem. Such unilateral actions were in blatant violation of resolution 2234 (2016) and others…unilateral actions jeopardised peace and stability in the Middle East and drew the international community further away from a solution.”[23]

Mexico’s Ambassador then explained the abstention and emphasised that convening an emergency session was a disproportionate response. “The United States must become part of the solution, not a stumbling block that would hamper progress…the international community was further than ever from agreement.”[23]

The Czech Republic then said that while it supported the European Union position, it had abstained because it “did not believe the draft resolution would contribute to the peace process.”[23]

Armenia said that is position “remained unchanged. The situation should be resolved through negotiations paving the way for lasting peace and security.”[23]

Hungary echoed Armenia’s stance and said it would not comment on the foreign relations of the United States.[23]

Latvia then spoke, before Estonia re-took the floor to say it had also spoken on behalf of Albania, Lithuania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.[23]

Result[edit]

Vote[24] Quantity States
Approve 128 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.
Reject 9 Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Togo, United States.
Abstain 35 Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Haiti, Hungary, Jamaica, Kiribati, Latvia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu.
Absent 21 Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor, El Salvador, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mongolia, Myanmar, Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Zambia.

Reactions[edit]

States

Israel – Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu rejected the result shortly after it was announced in call it “preposterous,” while he also thanked the states that supported “the truth” by not participating in “the theatre of the absurd.” He added that: “Jerusalem is our capital. Always was, always will be…But I do appreciate the fact that a growing number of countries refused to participate in this theatre of the absurd. So I appreciate that, and especially I want to again express our thanks to [US] President (Donald) Trump and Ambassador [Nikki] Haley, for their stalwart defence of Israel and their stalwart defence of the truth.” Defence Minister Avigdor Liberman, reminded Israelis of the longstanding Israeli disdain for such votes. “Let us just remember that this is the same UN about which our first ambassador to the organisation, Abba Eban, once said: ‘If Algeria introduced a resolution declaring that the earth was flat and that Israel had flattened it, it would pass by a vote of 164 to 13 with 26 abstentions’. There is nothing new in what just happened at the UN.” He also praised the US as “the moral beacon shining out of the darkness.” Minister of Strategic Affairs and Public Security Gilad Erdan said: “The historic connection between Israel and Jerusalem is stronger than any vote by the ‘United Nations’ — nations who are united only by their fear and their refusal to recognise the simple truth that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and the Jewish people.”

    • However, opposition Joint List Chairman and MK Ayman Odeh called the vote a wake-up call for Israel: “In the international arena, there still exists a large and definitive majority that believes that the Palestinian people, like all other nations, deserve a place in this world and the right to self-determination. This evening’s vote by the majority of the world’s nations against Trump’s announcement, in spite of the pressure and threats, flies in the face of Trump’s and Netanyahu’s diplomatic policy and is a clear statement by the international community in support of peace and the right of the Palestinians to an independent state, whose capital is East Jerusalem,”[8]
Media

Haaretz‘s Noa Landau, wrote, in citing unnamed diplomatic sourced, that Israel was particularly disappointed with countries like India that have enhanced bilateral relations with it recently. “The main disappointment in Israel was with the countries that have enhanced bilateral relations in recent years, especially those that share a particularly conservative worldview with the Netanyahu government. For example, India – whose Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, visited Israel in July, a tour that was memorable mainly for the pastoral photographs of him and Netanyahu embracing and wading in the waves – voted for the resolution against Israel and the United States.”[8]

Others

At a “Solidarity to Save Jerusalem” rally organised by the Barisan National government in Malaysia, one of the attendees Association of NextGen Christians of Malaysia President Joshua Hong said at the Putra Mosque: “We are here because we feel that the decision made by President Trump on announcing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel is merely a political decision. He added that the decision also hurts Christian and Arabic churches in Palestine and not just the Muslims. “To us as Christians, Jerusalem is a city of peace and after that announcement, we feel there is no more peace.I think it is not right and unjust. We believe we should continue pursuing the sustainable peace solution for Palestine and Israel, rather than just a single nation declaring it just like that.” He claimed that about 50 members of the group turned up in a show of support for the Palestinian people..[2]

Compulsory voting

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Compulsory voting, enforced.
Compulsory voting, not enforced.
Compulsory voting, enforced (only men).
Compulsory voting, not enforced (only men).
Historical: the country had compulsory voting in the past.

ContentsCompulsory voting is a system in which electors are obliged to vote in elections or attend a polling place on voting day. If an eligible voter does not attend a polling place, he or she may be subject to punitive measures such as fines or community service. As of August 2013, 22 countries were recorded as having laws for compulsory voting and 11 of these 22 countries as enforcing these laws in practice.

History[edit]

Athenian democracy held that it was every citizen‘s duty to participate in decision making, but attendance at the assembly was voluntary. Sometimes there was some form of social opprobrium to those not participating. For example, Aristophanes‘s comedy Acharnians 17–22, in the 5th century BC, shows public slaves herding citizens from the agora into the assembly meeting place (pnyx) with a red-stained rope. Those with red on their clothes were fined.[2] This usually happened if fewer than 6,000 people were in attendance, and more were needed for the assembly to continue.

Arguments for[edit]

Supporters of compulsory voting generally look upon voter participation as a civic duty, similar to taxation, jury duty, compulsory education or military service; one of the ‘duties to community’ mentioned in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[3] They believe that by introducing an obligation to vote, it helps to overcome the occasional inconvenience that voting imposes on an individual in order to produce governments with more stability, legitimacy and a genuine mandate to govern, which in turn benefits that individual even if their preferred candidate or party isn’t elected into power.

Compulsory voting systems can confer a high degree of political legitimacybecause they result in high voter turnout.[4] The victorious candidate represents a majority of the population, not just the politically motivated individuals who would vote without compulsion.[5]

Compulsory voting also prevents disenfranchisement of the socially disadvantaged. In a similar way that the secret ballot is designed to prevent interference with the votes actually cast, compelling voters to the polls for an election reduces the impact that external factors may have on an individual’s capacity to vote such as the weather, transport, or restrictive employers. If everybody must vote, restrictions on voting are easily identified and steps are taken to remove them. Countries with compulsory voting generally hold elections on a Saturday or Sunday to ensure that working people can fulfill their duty to cast their vote. Postal and pre-poll voting is provided to people who cannot vote on polling day, and mobile voting booths may also be taken to old age homes, hospitals and remote communities to cater for immobilized citizens.

If voters do not want to support any given choice, they may cast spoilt votes or blank votes. According to compulsory voting supporters, this is preferred to not voting at all because it ensures there is no possibility that the person has been intimidated or prevented from voting should they wish. In certain jurisdictions, voters have the option to vote none of the above if they do not support any of the candidates to indicate clear dissatisfaction with the candidate list rather than simple apathy at the whole process.

Another perceived benefit of the large turnout produced by compulsory voting is that it becomes more difficult for extremist or special interest groups to get themselves into power or to influence mainstream candidates. Under a non-compulsory voting system, if fewer people vote then it is easier for lobby groups to motivate a small section of the people to the polls and influence the outcome of the political process. The outcome of an election where voting is compulsory reflects more of the will of the people (Who do I want to lead the country?) rather than reflecting who was more able to convince people to take time out of their day to cast a vote (Do I even want to vote today?).

Other advantages to compulsory voting are the stimulation of broader interest politics, as a sort of civil education and political stimulation, which creates a better informed population. Also, since campaign funds are not needed to goad voters to the polls, the role of money in politics decreases. High levels of participation decreases the risk of political instability created by crises or charismatic but sectionally focused demagogues.[5]

There is also a correlation between compulsory voting, when enforced strictly, and improved income distribution, as measured by the Gini coefficient and the bottom income quintiles of the population.[6]

Arguments against[edit]

Voting may be seen as a civic right rather than a civic duty. While citizens may exercise their civil rights (free speech, right to an attorney, etc.) they are not compelled to. Furthermore, compulsory voting may infringe other rights. For example,Jehovah’s Witnesses and most Christadelphians believe that they should not participate in political events. Forcing them to vote ostensibly denies them their freedom of religious practice. In some countries with compulsory voting, Jehovah’s Witnesses and others may be excused on these grounds. If however they are forced to go to the polling place, they can still use a blank or invalid vote.

Similarly, compulsory voting may be seen as an infringement of Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which guarantees freedom of political opinion and thus the right of citizens to believe in a political system other than a democratic one, such as an absolute monarchy. However, it may also be argued that citizens may legitimately be required to vote since the right to believe in a different political system does not conflict with the obligation to conform with legal requirements of the system in place.

Another argument against compulsory voting, prevalent among legal scholars in the United States, is that it is essentially a compelled speech act, which violates freedom of speech because the freedom to speak necessarily includes the freedomnot to speak.[7]

Some do not support the idea of voters being compelled to vote for candidates they have no interest in or knowledge of. Others may be well-informed, but have no preference for any particular candidate, or may have no wish to give support to the incumbent political system. In compulsory voting areas, such people often vote at random simply to fulfill legal requirements: the so-called donkey vote may account for 1–2% of votes in these systems[citation needed], which may affect the electoral process. Similarly, citizens may vote with a complete absence of knowledge of any of the candidates or deliberately skew their ballot to slow the polling process or disrupt the election.

Low voter participation in a voluntary election may not be the result of political apathy. It may be simply an expression of the citizenry’s political will, indicating satisfaction with the political establishment in an electorate.[citation needed]

The Australian system of preferential voting means a person’s vote usually ends up favouring one of the two main political parties, even though the voter may not wish to advantage either. Former Australian opposition leader Mark Latham urged Australians to lodge blank votes for the 2010 election. He stated the government should not force citizens to vote or threaten them with a fine.[8] At the 2013 federal election, despite the threat of a non-voting fine of up to $170,[9] there was a turnout of only 92%,[10] of whom 6% lodged either informal or blank ballot papers.[11] In the corresponding Senate election, contested by over 50 groups,[12] legitimate manipulation of the group voting tickets and single transferable vote routing resulted in the election of one senator, Ricky Muir of the Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party, who had initially received only 0.5% of first-preference support.[13] The system was accused of undermining the entitlement of voters “to be able to make real choices, not forced ones—and to know who they really are voting for.”[14]

By countries[edit]

Historical[edit]

  • Austria – introduced in 1924 and exercised during 1925 presidential elections
  • Chile – removed from the Constitution and replaced with voluntary voting in 2009; voluntary voting was regulated and put into practice in 2012; all eligible citizens over 17 are automatically enrolled (only those over 18 on election day may vote; although the act of voting itself is voluntary, polling officer duties are not if chosen by a commission for the job)[15]
  • Fiji – Abolished in 2014 [16]
  • Italy – Introduced in 1945, abolished in 1993.
  • Netherlands – introduced 1917 along with universal suffrage, abolished in 1967.
  • Spain – 1907–1923, but not enforced
  • US State of Georgia in 1777 (10 years before the adoption of the federal Constitution of 1787):

    Every person absenting himself from an election, and shall neglect to give in his or their ballot at such election, shall be subject to a penalty not exceeding five pounds; the mode of recovery and also the appropriation thereof, to be pointed out and directed by act of the legislature: Provided, nevertheless, That a reasonable excuse shall be admitted.

    Constitution of Georgia, 5 February 1777, Article XII [17]

This provision was omitted from the revised Georgia constitution of 1789.[citation needed]

Present day[edit]

As of August 2013, 22 countries were recorded as having compulsory voting.[1] Of these, only 10 countries (and one Swiss canton) enforce it. Of the 30 member states of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 10 had forms of compulsory voting.[19]

Enforced[edit]

These are the 11 countries that enforce compulsory voting:

  • Argentina – Introduced in 1912.[20] Compulsory for citizens between 18 and 70 years old, non-compulsory for those older than 70 and between 16 and 18. (However in primaries, citizens under 70 may refuse to vote, if they formally express their decision to the electoral authorities, at least 48 hours before the election. This is valid only for the subsequent primary, and needs to be repeated each time the voter wishes not to participate.)
  • Australia – Introduced in 1924.[20] Compulsory for federal and state elections for citizens 18 years of age and above. The requirement is for the person to enroll, attend a polling station and have their name marked off the electoral roll as attending, receive a ballot paper and take it to an individual voting booth, mark it, fold the ballot paper and place it in the ballot box. The act does not explicitly state that a choice must be made, it only states that the ballot paper be ‘marked’. According to the act how a person marks the paper is completely up to the individual. In some states, local council elections are also compulsory.[21] At the 2010 Tasmanian state election, with a turnout of 335,353 voters, about 6,000 people were fined $26 for not voting, and about 2,000 paid the fine.[22]
  • Brazil[23] – Compulsory for literate citizens between 18 and 70 years old. Non-compulsory for Brazilian Youth age 16-17 or over 70 or illiterate citizens of any age. A justification form for not voting can be filled at election centers and post offices.
  • Cyprus – Introduced in 1960.[20]
  • Ecuador – Introduced in 1936.[20] Compulsory for citizens between 18 and 65 years old; non-compulsory for citizens aged 16–18, illiterate people, and those older than 65.
  • Liechtenstein
  • Luxembourg – Voluntary for those over 70.
  • Nauru – Introduced in 1965.[20]
  • Peru[24] – Introduced in 1933.[20] Compulsory for citizens between 18 and 70 years old, non-compulsory for those older than 70.
  • Singapore – Compulsory for citizens above 21 years old on 1 January of the year of election
  • Uruguay – Introduced in 1934, but not put into practice until 1970.[20]
  • Schaffhausen canton in Switzerland has compulsory voting – Introduced to Switzerland in 1904, but abolished in all other cantons by 1974.[20]

Not enforced[edit]

Countries that have compulsory voting on the law books but do not enforce it:

Measures to encourage voting[edit]

Although voting in a country may be compulsory, penalties for failing to vote are not always strictly enforced. In Australiaand Brazil, providing a legitimate reason for not voting (such as being sick or outside the country) is accepted. In Argentina, those who were ill on voting day are excused by requesting a doctor to prove their condition; those over 500 km (310 mi) away from their voting place are also excused by asking for a certificate at a police station near where they are. Belgianvoters can vote in an embassy if they are abroad or can empower another voter to cast the vote in their name; the voter must give a “permission to vote” and carry a copy of the eID card and their own on the actual elections.

States that sanction nonvoters with fines generally impose small or nominal penalties. However, penalties for failing to vote are not limited to fines and legal sanctions. Belgian voters who repeatedly fail to vote in elections may be subject todisenfranchisement. Singapore voters who fail to vote in a general election or presidential election will be subjected to disenfranchisement until a valid reason is given or a fine is paid. Goods and services provided by public offices may be denied to those failing to vote in Peru and Greece. In Brazil, people who fail to vote in an election are barred from obtaining a passport and subject to other restrictions until settling their situation before an electoral court or after they have voted in the two most recent elections. If a Bolivian voter fails to participate in an election, the person may be denied withdrawal of the salary from the bank for three months.[28][33]

Year in review 2014

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2014 (MMXIV) is the current year, and is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar(dominical letter E), the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium, the 14th year of the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

By the United Nations, 2014 is designated the:

 Horus of the horizon 2014
stuff that happen in 2014
Islamic terror attack

Global search

1.Robin Williams

2.World Cup

3.Ebola

4.Malaysia Airlines

5.ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

6.Flappy Bird

7.Conchita Wurst

8.ISIS

9.Frozen

10.Sochi Olympics

Global news

1.Ebola

2.ISIS

3.Malaysia Airlines

4.Crimea / Ukraine

5.Ferguson

6.Gaza and Israel

7.Scotish Referendum

8.Oscar Pistorius trial

US

1 Robin Williams

2.World Cup

3.Ebola

4.Malaysia Airlines

5.Flappy Bird

6.ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

7.ISIS

8.Ferguson

9.Frozen

10.Ukraine

 Natural Disaster

1.Hurricane Arthur

2.Chile Earthquake

3.Napa Earthquake

4.Hurricane Iselle

5.Oso Mudslide

6.Hurricane Odile

7.Arkansas Tornado

8.Hurricane Julio

9.Alaska Earthquake

10.Hurricane Ana

 People

1.Jennifer Lawrence

2.Kim Kardashian

3.Tracy Morgan

4.Ray Rice

5.Tony Stewart

6.Iggy Azalea

7.Donald Sterling

8.Adrian Peterson

9.Rene Zellweger

10.Jared Leto

 Pregnancies

1.Mila Kunis

2.Ciara

3.Kourtney Kardashian

4.Kate Middleton

5.Kerry Washington

6.Carrie Underwood

7.Scarlett Johansson

8.Hayden Panettiere

9.Blake Lively

10.Eva Mendes

 Losses of 2014

1.Robin Williams

2.Joan Rivers

3.Philip Seymour Hoffman

4.Maya Angelou

5.Jan Hooks

6.Harold Ramis

7.Shirley Temple

8.Lauren Bacall

9.Mickey Rooney

10.James Avery

University & Colleague

1Università degli Studi eCampus

The eCampus University, often simply abbreviated as “Uniecampus” is a private university founded in 2006 in Novedrate, Italy.

#170 most searched

2University of Mississippi

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3California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

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4Mississippi State University

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5Florida State University

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6Indiana University Bloomington

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7Tidewater Community College

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8Louisiana State University

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9University of Connecticut

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10Pennsylvania State University

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Scientist

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2Haruko Obokata

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3Stephen Hawking

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9Jonas Salk

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1.Jared Leto

2.Matthew McConaughey

3.Macaulay Culkin

4.Chris Pratt

5.Theo James

6.Ansel Elgort

7.Jamie Dornan

8.Alfonso Ribeiro

9.James McAvoy

10.Laurence Fishburne

 Actresses

1.Jennifer Lawrence

2.Renee Zellweger

3.Betty White

4.Ellen Page

5.Kim Novak

6.Margot Robbie

7.Jacqueline Bisset

8.Lena Dunham

9.Melanie Griffith

10.Lea Thompson

 Athletes

1.Ray Rice

2.Adrian Peterson

3.Richard Sherman

4.Paul George

5.Carmelo Anthony

6.Derek Jeter

7.Johnny Manziel

8.Russell Wilson

9.Tony Gwynn

10.Tim Howard

 Politicians

1.Barack Obama

2.Chris Christie

3.Rand Paul

4.Rick Perry

5.Ted Cruz

6.Joe Biden

7.Elizabeth Warren

8.Scott Walker

9.Paul Ryan

10.Harry Reid

Us Governor

1Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-born American actor, filmmaker, activist, businessman, investor, writer,.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Chris Christie

Christopher James “Chris” Christie is the 55th Governor of New Jersey and a leading member of the Republican Party.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

3Rick Perry

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+2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

4Jesse Ventura

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-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

5Andrew Cuomo

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-1 since last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

6Scott Walker

Scott Kevin Walker is an American Republican Party politician who is the 45th Governor of Wisconsin.

+5 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

7Rick Scott

Richard Lynn “Rick” Scott is an American businessman and politician who has been the 45th Governor of Florida since 2011.

+5 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

8Jeb Bush

John Ellis “Jeb” Bush served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007. He is the second son of former President George H.

+8 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Bob McDonnell

Robert Francis “Bob” McDonnell is a former American politician. He was the 71st Governor of Virginia.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

10Jerry Brown

Edmund Gerald “Jerry” Brown, Jr. is an American politician who currently serves as the 39th Governor of California since..

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

11Charlie Crist

Charles Joseph “Charlie” Crist, Jr. is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th Governor of Florida from 2007 to 2011.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

12Mike Huckabee

Michael Dale “Mike” Huckabee is an American politician who served as the 44th Governor of Arkansas..

-2 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

13Kathleen Sebelius

Kathleen Sebelius is an American politician who served as the 21st United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.

-6 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

14Bobby Jindal

Piyush “Bobby” Jindal is an American politician who is the 55th and current Governor of Louisiana and the Vice Chairman.

+4 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

15George Wallace

George Corley Wallace, Jr. was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive..

+2 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

16Pat Quinn

Patrick Joseph “Pat” Quinn III is an American politician who is the 41st and current Governor of Illinois.

New in chart

17Mark Warner

Mark Robert Warner is an American politician and the senior United States Senator from Virginia, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

18Jan Brewer

Janice Kay “Jan” Brewer is the 22nd Governor of the U.S. state of Arizona, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

19Huey Long

Huey Pierce Long, Jr., nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana.

New in chart

20Tom Corbett

Thomas Wingett “Tom” Corbett, Jr. is an American politician who is the 46th and current Governor of Pennsylvania.

New in chart

Books

1.Boy, Snow, Bird

2.Blood Will Out

3.Savage Harvest: A Tale of Cannibals. Colonialism and Michael Rockefeller’s Tragic Quest for Primitive Art

4.City of Heavenly Fire

5.Flash Boys

6.The Invention of Wings

7.All the Light We Cannot See

8.Words of Radiance

9.Yes Please

10.Capital in the Twenty First Century

 TV Shows

1.Game of Thrones

2.True Detective

3.Orange is the New Black

4.The Following

5.American Horror Story

6.Gotham

7.South Park

8.House of Cards

9.Outlander

10.The 100

Movie trailer

1.Gone Girl trailer

2.Interstellar trailer

3.Divergent trailer

4.Frozen trailer

5.The Lego Movie trailer

6.The Avengers 2 trailer

7.Godzilla trailer

8.The Hunger Games: Mockingjay Part 1 trailer

9.Annabelle trailer

10.Maleficent trailer

Movie

1.Frozen

2.Interstellar

3.Divergent

4.Gone Girl

5.Lone Survivor

6.Godzilla

7.22 Jump Street

8.Big Hero 6

9.Annabelle

10.Maleficent

Music Artist

1.Iggy Azalea

2.Lorde

3.Sam Smith

4.Meghan Trainor

5.Solange Knowles

6.Nicki Minaj

7.Weird Al

8.Sia

9.Daft Punk

10.Taylor Swift

 Song lyrics

1.Say Something lyrics

2.Anaconda lyrics

3.Fancy lyrics

4.Happy lyrics

5.Blank Space lyrics

6.Royals lyrics

7.Dark Horse lyrics

8.Bang Bang lyrics

9.Counting Stars lyrics

10.Wrecking Ball lyrics

 Music festivals

1.Coachella

2.Mysteryland

3.Boston Calling

4.Hard Summer

5.Electric Forest

6.Firefly Music Festival

7.Austin City Limits

8.South by Southwest

9.Outside Lands

10.Fun Fun Fun Fest

 Beers

1.Budweiser

2.Corona

3.Keystone

4.Miller

5.Blue Moon

6.Coors

7.Bud Light

8.PBR

9.Modelo

10.Sierra Nevada

 Video Games

1.Destiny

2.Titanfall

3.Watch Dogs

4.ArcheAge

5.Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare

6.Madden 15

7.Mario Kart 8

8.Dragon Age Inquisition

9.Battlefield Hardline

10.League of Angels

Cars

1.Ford

2.Jeep

3.Dodge

4.Toyota

5.General Motors

6.Subaru

7.Honda

8.Nissan

9.BMW

10.Tesla

Countries

1Ukraine

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#18 most searched

2Korea

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#36 most searched

3Nigeria

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#22 most searched

4Indonesia

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#30 most searched

5Iraq

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia that borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east,.

#35 most searched

6Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#17 most searched

7Qatar

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#69 most searched

8Israel

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#15 most searched

9Bermuda

Bermuda, also referred to in legal documents as the Bermudas or Somers Isles, is a British Overseas Territory in the North.

#59 most searched

10Palestine

Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

#109 most searched

Cities

1Sochi

Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia..

#152 most searched

2Sonoma

Sonoma is a historically significant city in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, United States, surrounding its.

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3Manchester

Manchester is a city in Greater Manchester with a population of 514,417 in 2013; it lies within the United Kingdom’s second..

#124 most searched

4Kansas City

Kansas City or K.C. is the most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Missouri.

#35 most searched

5Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#79 most searched

6Cleveland

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#28 most searched

7Green Bay

Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the State of Wisconsin, located at the head of Green Bay,

#73 most searched

8Saint Paul

Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the state of Minnesota. As of 2013, the city’s estimated population was 294,873..

#128 most searched

9Dallas

Dallas is a major city in Texas and is one of the two urban centers of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the…Wikipedia

#5 most searched

10Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

#114 most searched

Energy Company

1Duke Energy

Duke Energy, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is the largest electric power holding company in the United States..

+1 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

9 years in top 10

2Chevron

Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. Headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active…Wikipedia

+3 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3National Grid plc

National Grid plc is a British multinational electricity and gas utility company headquartered in London, United Kingdom…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

4BP

BP plc, sometimes referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company…Wikipedia

-3 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Florida Power & Light

Florida Power & Light Company, the principal subsidiary of NextEra Energy Inc., commonly referred to by its initials, FPL…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

7Xcel Energy

Xcel Energy Inc. is a utility holding company based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, serving more than 3.3 million electric…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

8ExxonMobil

Exxon Mobil Corp., or ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas, United States…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

9Public Service Enterprise Group

Public Service Enterprise Group, founded as the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and later renamed Public Service…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

10Consolidated Edison

Consolidated Edison, Inc., commonly known as Con Edison or Con Ed, is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

Financial company

1Wells Fargo

Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational banking and financial services holding company which is headquartered..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Bank of America

Bank of America is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Chase

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase, is a national bank that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

4Capital One

Capital One Financial Corporation is a U.S.-based bank holding company specializing in credit cards, home loans, auto..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5American Express

The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Citibank

Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational Citigroup.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7PNC Financial Services

PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. is an American financial services corporation, with assets of approximately $271.2 billion.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

8USAA

The United Services Automobile Association is a Texas-based Fortune 500 diversified financial services group of companies.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Fidelity Investments

FMR LLC or Fidelity Investments is an American multinational financial services corporation…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

10State Farm Insurance

State Farm is a group of insurance and financial services companies in the United States. The company also has operations in Canada.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

Retail company

1Amazon.com

Amazon.com, Inc. is an American international electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, United States.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Walmart

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., branded as Walmart, is an American multinational retail corporation that operates chains of large.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Target Corporation

Target Corporation is an American retailing company, founded in 1902 and headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

New in chart

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

4The Home Depot

The Home Depot is an American retailer of home improvement and construction products and services.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Best Buy

Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics corporation headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Lowe’s

Lowe’s is an American chain of retail home improvement and appliance stores that has retail stores in the United States,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7Costco

Costco Wholesale Corporation is an American membership-only warehouse club that provides a wide selection of merchandise.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

8Walgreens

The Walgreen Company is the largest drug retailing chain in the United States. As of May 31, 2014, the company operated.

+2 since last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

9J. C. Penney

  1. C. Penney Company Inc., known as JCPenney, is a chain of American mid-range department stores based in Plano, Texas..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

10Toys “R” Us

Toys “R” Us, Inc. is an American toy and juvenile-products retailer founded in 1948 and headquartered in Wayne, New Jersey…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

Medicine

1Advil

Advil is a brand of ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Advil is manufactured by Pfizer and has been on the market since 1984.

#53 most searched

2Tylenol

Tylenol is an American brand of drugs advertised for reducing pain, reducing fever, and relieving the symptoms of allergies.

#7 most searched

3Triamcinolone acetonide

Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various skin conditions, to relieve the discomfort of.

#122 most searched

4Anxiolytic

An anxiolytic is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents…Wikipedia

#131 most searched

5Adderall

Adderall is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention deficit.

#2 most searched

6Cortisone

Cortisone is a 21-carbon steroid hormone. It is one of the main hormones released by the adrenal gland in response to stress..

#72 most searched

7Tums

Tums is an antacid made of sucrose and calcium carbonate manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

#133 most searched

8Gabapentin

Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant and analgesic drug. It was originally developed to treat epilepsy, and is currently also..

#14 most searched

9Triamcinolone

Triamcinolone is a long-acting synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.

#70 most searched

10Insulin

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

#37 most searched

Animals

1Pig

A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates.

#10 most searched

2Bear

Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds.

#6 most searched

3Ape

Apes are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid catarrhine primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia and distinguished.

#64 most searched

4Pony

A pony is a small horse. Depending on context, a pony may be a horse that is under an approximate or exact height at the.

#42 most searched

5Eagle

Eagle is a common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae; it belongs to several groups of genera.

#32 most searched

6Lion

The lion is one of the five big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae.

#11 most searched

7Turkey

The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.

#12 most searched

8Dolphin

Dolphins are cetacean mammals closely related to whales and porpoises. There are almost forty species of dolphin in 17 genera.

#29 most searched

9Duck

Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese.

#16 most searched

10Bison

Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and four extinct species are recognized.

#131 most searched

Chemical weapon

1Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen.

#4 most searched

2Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, less reactive than its.

#19 most searched

3Lithium

Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali.

#22 most searched

4Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series.

#3 most searched

5Carbon

Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is.

#5 most searched

6Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a bright yellow dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal.

#1 most searched

7Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal and.

#9 most searched

8Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It is the lightest pnictogen and at room temperature,

#16 most searched

9Krypton

Krypton is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 elements.

#49 most searched

10Thorium

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only.

#46 most searched

Space object

1Moon

The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. Although not the largest natural satellite in the Solar System, it is, among.

#1 most searched

267P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko, officially designated 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko and sometimes shortened to 67P/C-G, is a.

#35 most searched

3Io

Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter. It is the fourth-largest moon and has the highest…Wikipedia

#15 most searched

4Ceres

Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

#16 most searched

5Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fourth-largest planet by diameter.

#10 most searched

6Europa

Europa, is the sixth-closest moon of the planet Jupiter, and the smallest of its four Galilean satellites, but still the.

#13 most searched

7Alpha Lupi

Alpha Lupi is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Lupus. According to the Bortle Dark-Sky Scale, the.

#61 most searched

8Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

#4 most searched

9Pluto

Pluto is the largest object in the Kuiper belt, and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun.

#8 most searched

10Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has no natural satellite.

#5 most searched

Events

January

February

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October

November

December[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 2014
Further information: Category:2014 deaths
Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

In fiction

Search For Disappeared Air Asia Flight Suspended: Summary Of The Facts So Far

About 12 hours after AirAsia flight QZ8501 with 162 people on board disappeared and lost all contact with Jakarta air traffic control at 6:17 am local time (11:17 pm GMT Saturday), the aircraft searching for any clue of what may happened to the second unexplained disappearance of an airplane flying in the region, have been called off due to nightfall even as ships will continue their search through the night. As Sky News reported, “Rescuers scouring the Java Sea have halted their search because it is getting dark, Indonesia’s transport ministry said.  Hadi Mustofa said: “We ended at 5:30 pm (1030 GMT) because it was getting dark. The weather was also not too good as it was getting really cloudy. “Tomorrow we will begin at 7 am, or even earlier than that if the weather is good.”

For those who missed the coverage last night, here is what is known so far, via Reuters:

Indonesia AirAsia Flight QZ8501, an Airbus 320-200 carrying 155 passengers and seven crew, lost contact with Jakarta air traffic control at 6:17 a.m. (2317 GMT on Saturday). No distress signal had been sent, said Joko Muryo Atmodjo, an Indonesian transport ministry official.

 

On board were 155 Indonesians, three South Koreans and one each from Singapore, Malaysia and Britain, plus a French pilot, the airline said in a statement, correcting earlier information. Tatang Kurniadi, head of Indonesia’s National Committee of Safety Transportation, expressed hope of locating the aircraft quickly and said it was too early to detect any of the so-called electronic pings from its black box recorder.

 

“We are using our capacity to search on sea and land. Hopefully we can find the location of the plane as soon as possible,” he told a news conference.”What I need to emphasize is until now, we have not found out how the plane fell or what kind of emergency it was.”

 

Indonesia AirAsia is 49 percent owned by Malaysia-based budget carrier AirAsia (AIRA.KL), which has had a clean safety record since it began operating 13 years ago. The AirAsia group also has affiliates in Thailand, the Philippines and India. The aircraft had accumulated approximately 23,000 flight hours in some 13,600 flights, according to Airbus (AIR.PA).

 

The pilots of QZ8501 “was requesting deviation due to en-route weather before communication with the aircraft was lost,” the airline said in a statement. Singapore, Malaysia, Britain, South Korea and Australia offered to help in the search and any investigation. Malaysia said it was sending vessels and a C130 aircraft while Singapore had also sent a C130. Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott said a P3 Orion aircraft was on standby if needed.

The suggested location of the disappearance is shown in the map below: Flight QZ8501 was between Tanjung Pandan on Indonesia’s Belitung island and Pontianak, in West Kalimantan province on Borneo – almost halfway between Surabaya and Singapore – when it went missing. There was bad weather over Belitung at the time and the aircraft had been flying at 32,000 feet before asking to fly at 38,000 feet to avoid clouds.

 

While AirAsia chief Tony Fernandes said it is too early to say what happened to flight QZ8501 and every assistance must be given to the search and rescue effort some are thanking their lucky stars they avoided it in the last moment:

A man named Purnomo told TVOne in Surabaya of a lucky escape. “I should have been on the flight,” he said. “We, seven people, had planned to go to Singapore for vacation but this morning I had an emergency. I had my passport in hand.”

 

Tony Fernandes, chief of Malaysia’s AirAsia, said he was heading to Surabaya. “My only thoughts are with the passengers and my crew. We put our hope in the SAR (search and rescue) operation and thank the Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysian governments,” he said on Twitter.

Others were not so lucky:

Louise Sidharta was at Singapore’s Changi Airport waiting for her fiancée to return from a family holiday. “It was supposed to be their last vacation before we got married,” she said.

Some other known facts: the pilot of the missing plane had 20,000 hours of flying experience – 7,000 of which were with AirAsia. It has yet to be revealed if like the pilot of missing flight MH-370 he too had a flight simulator at home on which he was training landing at unexpected venues. As a reminder, 9 months later there is still no trace of the missing MH-370, which as we reported recently, a former airline CEO shocking claimed it was shot down by the US.

Below is the plane’s full Flight Dispatch Release courtesy of Aviation Safety.

And the flight’s Load and Trim Sheet:

 

That largely covers the facts. And now the unconfirmed speculation begins. According to a report in the Malaysian Insider, a family member claims receiving text message missing plane safe citing Indonesian news portal Detik.com

It reported from Surabaya that a family of a missing passenger received a glimmer of hope via a Blackberry Messenger (BBM) text. The portal quoted Intan, the sister of passenger Martinus Djomy as saying: “Kabarnya mendarat darurat di Belitung Timur, semua selamat. Tapi kita tetap butuh kepastian.”

 

(We got word that that the plane made an emergency landing in Belitung Timur, everyone is safe. But we still need to be sure.)

 

Intan said she learned about this from a friend who sent her the text message via BBM. Her brother Martinus was travelling to Singapore with his wife, child and babysitter.

 

Detik.com reported that the piece of information was passed on to the authorities at the crisis centre in Juanda. The news portal added that unfortunately, there remains no confirmation from relevant authorities whether the information was accurate or otherwise.

 

In a separate story, Detik.com also quoted Nasional Search and Rescue Agency (Basarnas) Jakarta chief Sutrisno as saying that the agency’s radar did not detect the flight’s Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT).

 

He said the ELT would go off if there was impact or if the plane had gone under water.

 

“If the plane landed smoothly on water, it wouldn’t have gone off, unless the device was not working. It didn’t go off so Basarnas doesn’t know its position now,” Detik quoted him as saying.

According to a separate and largely contradictory report from IBT, a loud bang was reportedly heard by fishermen over Belitung Island at around 07:00 to 08:00 in the morning, Indonesian news website Bangka Tribun News reported.

“There are fishermen who heard the explosion, but not yet certain. Its location is near the island of Jackfruit,” a member of Tagana Beltm told the website.

 

The flight was reportedly over the Java Sea between Kalimantan and Java islands when it lost contact.

 

However, the fishermen could not ascertain the source of the explosion and assumed that the bang came from within a five-mile radius between Coconut Island and Bird Bath Beach, Damar. Belitung is an island on the east coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, in the Java Sea.

 

The fishermen who were at sea engaged in their regular fishing activities near Coconut Island also claim that the explosion was quite powerful.

Considering the numerous unconfirmed reports that sprung up in the aftermath of the MH-370 disappearance, this is only the beginning.

More on the missing flight as we see it.

Average:

List of Banks owned by the Rothschild Family

“Give me control over a nations currency, and I care not who makes its laws” – Baron M.A. Rothschild

rothcrest

ROTHSCHILD OWNED BANKS:
Afghanistan, Bank of Afghanistan,
Albania, Bank of Albania,
Algeria, Bank of Algeria,
Argentina, Central Bank of Argentina,
Armenia, Central Bank of Armenia,
Aruba, Central Bank of Aruba,
Australia, Reserve Bank of Australia,
Austria, Austrian National Bank,
Azerbaijan, Central Bank of Azerbaijan Republic,
Bahamas, Central Bank of The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Central Bank of Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bank,
Barbados, Central Bank of Barbados,
Belarus, National Bank of the Republic of Belarus,
Belgium, National Bank of Belgium,
Belize, Central Bank of Belize,
Benin, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Bermuda, Bermuda Monetary Authority,
Bhutan, Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan,
Bolivia, Central Bank of Bolivia,
Bosnia, Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Bank of Botswana,
Brazil, Central Bank of Brazil,
Bulgaria, Bulgarian National Bank,
Burkina Faso, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Burundi, Bank of the Republic of Burundi,
Cambodia, National Bank of Cambodia,
Came Roon, Bank of Central African States,
Canada, Bank of Canada – Banque du Canada,
Cayman Islands, Cayman Islands Monetary Authority,
Central African Republic, Bank of Central African States,
Chad, Bank of Central African States,
Chile, Central Bank of Chile,

China, The People’s Bank of China,

Colombia, Bank of the Republic,
Comoros, Central Bank of Comoros,
Congo, Bank of Central African States,
Costa Rica, Central Bank of Costa Rica,
Côte d’Ivoire, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Croatia, Croatian National Bank,
Cuba, Central Bank of Cuba,
Cyprus, Central Bank of Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Czech National Bank,
Denmark, National Bank of Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Central Bank of the Dominican Republic,
East Caribbean area, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank,
Ecuador, Central Bank of Ecuador,
Egypt, Central Bank of Egypt ,
El Salvador, Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Bank of Central African States,
Estonia, Bank of Estonia,
Ethiopia, National Bank of Ethiopia,
European Union, European Central Bank,

money-world-

Fiji, Reserve Bank of Fiji,
Finland, Bank of Finland,
France, Bank of France,
Gabon, Bank of Central African States,
The Gambia, Central Bank of The Gambia,
Georgia, National Bank of Georgia,
Germany, Deutsche Bundesbank,
Ghana, Bank of Ghana,
Greece, Bank of Greece,
Guatemala, Bank of Guatemala,

Guinea Bissau, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Guyana, Bank of Guyana,
Haiti, Central Bank of Haiti ,
Honduras, Central Bank of Honduras,
Hong Kong, Hong Kong Monetary Authority,
Hungary, Magyar Nemzeti Bank,
Iceland, Central Bank of Iceland,
India, Reserve Bank of India,
Indonesia, Bank Indonesia,
Iran, The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran,

Iraq, Central Bank of Iraq,

Ireland, Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland,
Israel, Bank of Israel,
Italy, Bank of Italy,
Jamaica, Bank of Jamaica,
Japan, Bank of Japan,
Jordan, Central Bank of Jordan,
Kazakhstan, National Bank of Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Central Bank of Kenya,
Korea, Bank of Korea,
Kuwait, Central Bank of Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic,
Latvia, Bank of Latvia,
Lebanon, Central Bank of Lebanon,
Lesotho, Central Bank of Lesotho,

Libya, Central Bank of Libya,

us-homeland-security-seal-plaque_m-747261

Uruguay, Central Bank of Uruguay,
Lithuania, Bank of Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Central Bank of Luxembourg,
Macao, Monetary Authority of Macao,
Macedonia, National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia,
Madagascar, Central Bank of Madagascar,
Malawi, Reserve Bank of Malawi,
Malaysia, Central Bank of Malaysia,
Mali, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Malta, Central Bank of Malta,
Mauritius, Bank of Mauritius,
Mexico, Bank of Mexico,
Moldova, National Bank of Moldova,
Mongolia, Bank of Mongolia,
Montenegro, Central Bank of Montenegro,
Morocco, Bank of Morocco,
Mozambique, Bank of Mozambique,
Namibia, Bank of Namibia,
Nepal, Central Bank of Nepal,
Netherlands, Netherlands Bank,
Netherlands Antilles, Bank of the Netherlands Antilles,
New Zealand, Reserve Bank of New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Central Bank of Nicaragua,
Niger, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria,
Norway, Central Bank of Norway,
Oman, Central Bank of Oman,
Pakistan, State Bank of Pakistan,
Papua New Guinea, Bank of Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Central Bank of Paraguay,
Peru, Central Reserve Bank of Peru,
Philip Pines, Bangko Sentralng Pilipinas,
Poland, National Bank of Poland,
Portugal, Bank of Portugal,
Qatar, Qatar Central Bank,
Romania, National Bank of Romania,
Russia, Central Bank of Russia,

Rwanda, National Bank of Rwanda,
San Marino, Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino,
Samoa, Central Bank of Samoa,
Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency,

Senegal, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Serbia, National Bank of Serbia,
Seychelles, Central Bank of Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Bank of Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Monetary Authority of Singapore,
Slovakia, National Bank of Slovakia,
Slovenia, Bank of Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Central Bank of Solomon Islands,
South Africa, South African Reserve Bank,
Spain, Bank of Spain,
Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Bank of Sudan,
Surinam, Central Bank of Suriname,
Swaziland, The Central Bank of Swaziland,
Sweden, Sveriges Riksbank,
Switzerland, Swiss National Bank,

Tajikistan, National Bank of Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Bank of Tanzania,
Thailand, Bank of Thailand,
Togo, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Tonga, National Reserve Bank of Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Central Bank of Tunisia,
Turkey, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey,

Uganda, Bank of Uganda,
Ukraine, National Bank of Ukraine,
United Arab Emirates, Central Bank of United Arab Emirates,

United Kingdom, Bank of England,

United States, Federal Reserve, Federal Reserve Bank of New York,

US-FederalReserveSystem-Seal_svg_

Vanuatu, Reserve Bank of Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Central Bank of Venezuela,

Vietnam, The State Bank of Vietnam,
Yemen, Central Bank of Yemen,
Zambia, Bank of Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe,
Bank For International Settlements, (BIS),