Shapes…points, angles, lines, or curves, are necessary before most things can be constructed and one of the characteristics most symbols have in common is that each is constructed of one or more basic shapes. Through time secular and sacred meaning have been given to these shapes.
The use of shape symbolism is especially popular among the Jewish, Muslim, and Christian religions in which idolatry is strictly forbidden.
The Point or Dot
The beginning of any visual symbol is the dot or point. Before anything else can be created a dot must be made. The self, beginnings, endings, and focus. It is an illustration of the act of creation, because the creation of the dot itself is the act of creating something in a space which previously contained nothing.
- Egyptian: Rarely used in hieroglyphic writing and when they were, they either meant “grains of sand” or “grains of corn”.
Water and rain.
The line is a symbol of boundary and division. A straight line represents infinity because it can continue in either direction indefinitely. A vertical line represents the spiritual world and a horizontal line the temporal world.
The horizontal line represents the path of birth to death, beginning to end, and the dual nature of man…left and right, good and evil, and male and female. The feminine principle.
A vertical line symbolizes man, the body, the spine, self, the tree of life, and the path from earth to heaven…the realm of the spirit. The masculine principle.
Renewal, cycles, and life. Life giving rain, water, water snakes, and abundance. Usually seen as a repetitive pattern…not just one single line.
- Chinese: Clouds and rolling thunder.
- Greek: The Greek key pattern is another version of a meander.
Fertility, birth, death, transformation, growth, the soul, and expansion. Spiritual journey…inner journey to the center of one’s soul or being. Cycles…of time, life, the seasons, ect. The spiral has been one of the most used shapes in religious and magical symbolism. This may be because the spiral occurs often in nature…animal horns, the human ear, snail shells, fern fronds. The spiral represents anything that expands and contracts…the rising and setting Sun, waxing and waning of the Moon, the seasons, and life and death. It symbolizes the movement of consciousness towards the inner understanding of the oneness of the all.
A spiral moving in a clockwise direction represents the focusing and projection of an intention, like a prayer. Associated with water and power. The counter-clockwise moving spiral represents fulfillment of an intention, god’s answer. A loosely wound counter- clockwise spiral was used to represent the large summer sun, and a tightly woven clockwise spiral signified the shrinking winter sun.
- Celtic: The Sun, feminine energy, the continuous creation and dissolution, growth, the endless circle of life, and a doorway to life or death. Reaching the soul and so also God.
- Egyptian: A cow’s womb, an attribute of Meshhenet, the goddess of childbirth.
- European: The walls of the entrances to the ancient megalithic burial chambers are decorated with spirals, most likely symbolizing the journey of the soul into the chamber. the womb of the Goddess where the soul would be reborn.
- Greek: Double spiral represented water or the sea.
- Hopi: Represents the number of rounds a clan or tribe has made as has it journeyed though time toward its ultimate goal, the sacred Center of the World, Tuuwanasavi. The Hopi also drew or carved spirals, known aspotave’yta, to show there was a water source nearby.
Double spirals have been used to symbolize opposing forces, the personification of opposites blending to make a whole, and androgyny. They have also been used to represent the equinoxes, when day and night are of equal length.
- Celtic: Unity of mind, body, and spirit. Life, birth and death. Past, present, and future. The sky, earth, and sea. The interdependence of all existence. The Triple Goddess…mother, maiden, and crone. Known as the spiral of life.
- Christian: The Trinity…Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
God, protection, the sky, home, shelter, the womb, and a tomb.
- Buddhist: The garbha, which means ‘womb’ or ‘container.’ The primordial, creative waters. Associated with the element of water.
- Christian: Heaven.
- Islamic: A bridge between the earthly (linear) world and the divine (circular) realm.
Power, protection, creation, reincarnation, unity, wholeness, eternity, harmony, and infinity. Many scholars believe it was most likely man’s first symbol. The circle divides the known from the unknown, God and man, and therefore represents a protected and/or sacred place . Time, perfection, motion, fulfillment, and all cycles: the seasons, life and death, the movement of the planets; the self, eternity, God—“God is a circle whose center is everywhere and circumference is nowhere…”Hermes Trismegistus—, the universe, timelessness, protection, gold or money, and nothing. The circle has been part of our social and spiritual beliefs from the beginning…man has built their homes, hearths, animal pens, wells, villages, and religious and magical sites in circular shapes. Great stone circles can be found around the world. These ancient stone circles were believed to contain the powers of the Earth and many rituals and ceremonies were performed within them.
The circle with the square inside represents the sephirah Chesed.
- Buddhist: An empty circle represents enlightenment, wholeness, and totality.
- Celtic: A magical boundary that can not be crossed.
- Christian: Three overlapping circles represent the Trinity.
- Greek: The ancient Greeks considered the circle the most perfect of all shapes.
- Humanist: God in his perfect form.
- Islamic: The most perfect shape. The divine and spiritual world. The circle dance of the Mevlevi, Whirling Dervishes, was created to follow the circular motion of the universe and all life within it, the motion of the planets around the Sun, and the search for God
- Norse-Germanic: The Sun.
- Pythagorean: Eternity…it’s “centre is everywhere and the circumference nowhere.”
God. Represents the sephirah Binah.
The Sun, the eye of God, and corresponds with the sephirah Kether.
- Alchemic: Gold.
- Christian: Early Christian symbol of the eye of God.
- Huichol: Eye of God…”Ojo de dios”.
- Masonic: Control of passions.
- Native American: Spirit (Chippewa).
Past, present, and future, or any other triplicities.
Crossroads, thunder, power, respect, and growth. The union of opposites. The four directions, elements, ect. The calendar and the four holy days of the year…the equinoxes and solstices. Also known as the Sun cross. The earth. Represents the sephirah Chokmah.
- Alchemic: Copper.
- Astronomical: The Earth.
- Catholic: At the opening of a church the bishop, using blessed water or oil, draws the wheel cross at 12 different places on the church walls.
- Greek: Globe or sphere.
- Nordic: Odin’s cross.
The cosmos. Cycle of life. Cyclical movement of life and death, the stars, the seasons, ect. Reincarnation. Winged wheel is a symbol of progress.
- Celtic: Arianrhod was known as the “Goddess of the Silver Wheel” (the stars).
- Etruscan: The Wheel-goddess was Vortumna, known as “She Who Turns the Year.”
- Heraldry: Fortune.
- Hindu: Law. Dharma, which signifies the underlying order in nature and life (human or other) considered to be in accord with that order. Kali rules the Wheel of Time (Kalacakra), where all the life-breath of the world is fixed “as the spokes of a wheel are held fast in the hub.” The Hindu idea of the universe is shown as a gigantic chariot carrying all gods and creatures on its wheels through an eternal round.
- Judeo-Christian: The Hebrew scriptures refers to the angels of the galaxy gelor “wheels,” whose revolutions mean revelations.
- Roman: Fortuna was the goddess whose constantly turning heavenly wheel marked all the seasons and the fates of men. She ruled the kyklos geneseon, the wheel of rebirth.
Strength in unity.
- Christian: The trinity.
- Shinto: The interconnectedness of the three realms: heaven (the land of gods), earth (the land of man), and the underworld (land of the dead).
Infinity, the future, and the harmonious interaction between the conscious and unconscious. That which has no end. The Magician card of the Tarot…balance of forces.
- Buddhist: Long life and eternity.
- Egyptian: Thoth’s celestial “city of eight.” The destination of souls after death where the soul re-ascends and merges with Osiris and God.
- Hindu: The Yajur Veda (c. 1200-900 BC) states, “if you remove a part from infinity or add a part to infinity, still what remains is infinity.”
- Jain: The Jains recognized five types of infinity…the infinite in one and two directions (both one dimensional), the infinite in area (two dimensions), the infinite everywhere (three dimensions), and infinite perpetually (infinite number of dimensions).
- Roman: The word infinity comes from the Latin infinitus, meaning unboundless. Lemniscate comes form the Latin lemniscus, meaning ribbon.
A mathematician confided… That a Möbius band is one-sided, And you’ll get quite a laugh, If you cut one in half, For it stays in one piece when divided.
A mobius strip is a continuous loop with only one side and one edge. Change, regeneration, wonder, new ideas, oddity, and cycles.
Egg, the womb, and a seed. From the Latin ovum meaning “egg”. Also nothing and zero.
Completeness, unity, equality, honor, perfection, and acceptance. No point of the sphere is nearer or farther from the center than any other point on the sphere.
Connection, fertility, and the fusion of opposites. Fish. The joining of God and Goddess. The vesica piscis is the almond shaped area created by two intersecting circles. Mandorla is the Italian word for almond. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the vesica piscis (Latin for “vessel of the fish” or “fish’s bladder”) as “a pointed oval figure, the sides of which are properly parts of two equal circles passing through each other at their centres.” When the vesica piscis is shown horizontally it is a symbol of the birth passage, the womb…the life giving force. The vulva of the goddess. The Divine Feminine. When shown vertically it is a symbol of the eye, the mirror of the soul.
- Astrological: Pisces.
- Christian: Jesus Christ. A medieval hymn calls Jesus “the little fish in the Virgin’s fountain.” The vesica piscis shown vertically, the mandorla forms the shape of a fish. The word “fish” translates into Greek as “ichthys”, which is an acronym for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior.” The early Christians used the fish symbol as a secret code to identify themselves to one another and avoid persecution.
- Pythagorean: The dyad. Theintersection of the divine world with the world of matter and the beginning of creation.
Unity, harmony, completion, wholeness, poetry, healing, creative energy, power, and spirituality. The union and tension of opposites. The sacred androgyne. The embryo enclosed in the uterus. The joining of God and Goddess to create offspring. A mandorla is formed by two circles coming together, overlapping one another, and forming an almond shape in the middle. The grail. The place between…between God or Goddess and individual, life and death, male and female, dreaming and waking, light and darkness, heaven and earth, yin and yang, ect.
- Christian: The coming together of heaven and earth, the divine and human. A bridge between heaven and earth. Mary’s womb. Early Christianswould scratch a circle in the earth and the other added theirs to complete the mandorla as a way of identifying each other. In early Christian art, the Christ child is often shown in a mandorla, superimposed over Mary’s abdomen.
- Roman: Venus.
Strength, warning, strength and all things or concepts of a triple nature. The downward pointing triangle is a feminine symbol, the upward pointing triangle a phallic masculine symbol. Associated with Saturn, the fire element, and black. The number and all trinities. Equilateral triangles symbolize harmony and perfection.
- Alchemic: The heart and fire. The three angles represent the Three Alchemical Principles of Nature…mercury, sulphur, and salt.
- Hindu: A triangle with the point down represents the womb.
Pyramid or Tetrahedron
Inspiration and passion. One of the five Platonic Solids, the tetrahedron has four triangular faces, four vertices, and six edges. The four corners rising and converging at the top symbolize unity. The fire element. The solar plexus chakra. Used for health and manifestation. Red.
- Alchemic: Each face is a triangle which represents fire.
- Golden Dawn: The “pyramid of fire”.
Stability, equality, honesty, justice, shelter and safety, limitation, security, endurance, strength, and permanence. The four sides of the square represent quaternary concepts: the elements—air, fire, water, and earth; the seasons—spring, summer, winter, fall; the motions—linear, vibratory, rotary, mixed; four-letter names of God; the archangels—Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Auriel; the directions—north, south, east, west; ect.
- Buddhist: A square within the circle represents the relationship of the human and divine.
- Christian: In Christian art, the square is frequently found as a nimbus (halo), symbolizing a saintly person who was still living at the time the artwork was created.
- Islamic: The earth and material world.
- Qaballah: Chesed, the fourth Sephirah.
Cube or Hexahedron
Stability. One of the five Platonic Solids, the hexahedron has six square faces, eight vertices, and twelve edges. Truth, knowledge, perfection, completion, eternity, and stability. The earth element. The root chakra. Used for grounding. Green and black.
- Greek: Kingship and stability.
The cross is one of the oldest symbols in the world. It is a universal symbol of life giving power of the Sun, eternity, infinity, immortality, transformation, and movement. The vertical line of the cross is symbolic of the intellect, the active, the male principle, and the spiritual dimension. The horizontal line of the cross symbolizes intuition, the passive, the feminine principle, and the earthly dimension. The center of the cross is the place where heaven and Earth meet, where man and God co-exist. Since the cross contains the four directions radiating from the center it is associated with the number four, and is also used to symbolize the four directions, elements, winds, seasons, phases of the Moon, ect.
Equilateral crosses symbolize balance, twins and couples, and the union of opposites.
- Celtic: The four roads of the four corners of the earth…the predecessors of latitude and longitude. The center of the cross represented center of the world body, the summit of the world mountain, and “X marks the spot”.
- Chinese: The Earth, Heaven and Earth joined, time and space, and the umbilical cord of the universe.
- Christian: The crucifixion and resurrection of Christ, eternal life, redemption, love, blessing, compassion, and faith.
- Egyptian: The tau cross symbolized life. The ankh was a symbol of resurrection, eternal life, and fertility in Egypt. Egyptian art shows the gods and goddesses holding an ankh to a person’s head or lips which symbolized the giving of life. The oval on top of the ankh represents the rising Sun, the crossbar represents the horizon, and the vertical line below the crossbar represents the Sun’s path…the light of the Sun shining down on the Nile. It was a symbol of the life-giving powers of the Nile. The crossbar symbolized the east and west, life and death, and the sunrise and sunset. As an amulet it was believed to bestow on the wearer long life, power, wisdom, and prosperity.
- Greek: The four elements of creation.
Life, the microcosm, truth, transfiguration, perfection, protection, wholeness, health, good fortune, and mystery. Also known as the Star of Knowledge, Pentalpha, Pentacle, Witch’s Cross, Wizard’s Star, Endless Knot, and Goblin’s Cross. Although its origins are uncertain, it can be found in ancient art and ruins all over the world, including China, India, and many countries in North and South America and Africa. The earliest known record of the pentagram can be traced back to ancient Mesopotamia, approximately 3500 B.C., where it was used as a protective symbol on tools, cooking pots, ect. It was not considered an evil or Satanic symbol until the Inquisition, during the purge of witch’s. The pentagram has long been a symbol of man, and is associated with the number 5, and the planets Venus and Mars.
Each of the points of a pentagram has its own meanings: the head corresponds to the element of spirit, the color white, the middle finger, the sense of sight, man, and the Archangel Raphael; the left arm corresponds to the air, yellow, the little finger, intellect and imagination, smell, plant life, and the Archangel Gabriel; the right arm corresponds to water, blue, intuition, emotion, the index finger, taste, fish, and the Archangel Michael; the left leg corresponds to the Earth, black, the thumb, touch, crystals, the material world, the Archangel Sandalphon; and the right leg corresponds to fire, red, the ring finger, hearing, animal life, and the Archangel Haniel, life’s energy. The five points are also associated with the five virtues of knights: chivalry, courtesy, generosity, chastity, and piety.
A double pentagram represents the goddess in her five phases of a woman’s life: birth, menarche, maternity, menopause, and death.
- Alchemic: The four elements…flatus, ignus, aqua, and terra…superseded by divine energy, symbolized creation…Fiat Lux, or, “let there be light.”
- Babylonian: Protection. Found in ancient Babylonian drawings, where it represents the pattern the planet Venus makes on its travels, and is therefore a secret symbol of the Goddess Ishtar.
- Celtic: The pentagram was known as the witch’s foot, represented the Morrigan, and was believed to be strong protection from evil. The upright pentagram was a symbol of summer and an inverted pentagram a symbol of winter. The pentagram represented the five virtues of a knight: generosity, courtesy, chastity, chivalry, and godliness. The Druids, Celtic holy men and women, wore a pentagram on their sandals as a symbol of God. The first mention of a pentagram in English appearedIn the legend of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (1380 ), stanzas 27-28 where Gawain carries a shield “…shining gules, With the Pentangle in pure gold depicted thereon…”
It is a symbol which Solomon conceived once
To betoken holy truth, by its intrinsic right,
For it is a figure which has five points,
And each line overlaps and is locked with another;
And it is endless everywhere, and the English call it,
In all the land, I hear, the Endless Knot.
- Christian: The five wounds of Christ, creation, and truth. It was used by the early popes as a sigil and by the early Christians as a symbol of Epiphany. It is said that the “sign of the cross” was adapted from the pagan practice of invoking the pentagram for protection.
- Druid: The Godhead.
- Egyptian: Underground womb. The pentagram had the phonetic value ofdwA (dwa) and represented the word praise
- German: Called adruttenfuss, which originally meant “druid’s foot”, but over time has become corrupted to mean ‘witch’s foot’.
- Gnostic: The mysteries of night. Called “the blazing star”.
- Greek: Perfection. Called the Pentalpha because, geometrically, it is formed of five A’s. Pythagoras saw it as a bridge between the heavens and the Earth, a way to join man with god. Followers of Pythagoras called ithugieia, meaning health. They placed the Greek letters U,G,I,EI, and A on the pentagram counterclockwise from the top, spelling out hugieia. Pentagram comes from the Greek word πεντάγραμμον (pentagrammon), a noun form of πεντάγραμμος (pentagrammos), πεντέγραμμος (pentegrammos) a word meaning “five-lined” or “five lines”.
- Judaic: Used by ancient Jews, along with the Star of David, to symbolize life, humankind, truth, and wisdom. The five books of the Torah: 1) Genesis (בראשית,Bereshit: “In the beginning…”), 2) Exodus (שמות, Shemot: “Names”), 3) Leviticus (ויקרא, Vayyiqra: “And he called…”), 4) Numbers (במדבר, Bamidbar: “In the desert/wilderness…”), and 5) Deuteronomy (דברים, Devarim: “Words”, “Discourses”, or “Things”). Sometimes it is called the “Seal of Solomon”, as is the “Star of David.
- Kaballah: Geburah, the fifth sephirah.
- Masonic: In medieval times freemasons regarded the pentragram as a symbol of widsom.
- Mesopotamian: Royalty. Used in royal inscriptions representing imperial power extending out to ‘the four corners of the world’.
- Pythagorean: Perfection and a human being. Seen as a perfect shape because it embodied the natural harmony of the universe that could be expressed mathematically. The Pythagoreans called the pentagram ύγιειαHugieia (“health”). The five points were also used to represent the five elements: ύδωρ, Hudor, water; Γαια, Gaia earth; ίδέα, Idea or ίερόν, Hieron “a divine thing” έιλή, Heile, heat (fire); and άήρ, Aer, air. The five elements that make up man: fire, water, air, earth, and psyche…(energy, fluid, breath, matter, and mind; liquid, gas, solid, plasma and aethyr).
The womb, defense, preservation, and resistance.
Unity, balance, harmony, community, wisdom, and wholeness. The union of opposites…the yin-yang of western civilization. Sacred marriage of masculine and feminine energies. A symbol of the macrocosm and of the relationship between the macrocosm and the microcosm. The upward-pointing triangle represents the yearning to return to the Divine, the downward-pointing triangle represents the descent of the Divine into matter, and where the two meet is a union of beauty and harmony…a divine balance. The downward pointing triangle represents female sexuality and the upward pointing triangle male sexuality. Also known as the Star of David and Seal of Solomon, the hexagram is another symbol that has been used since ancient times. Long before it became the symbol of Judaism it was a symbol of the joining and the balance of opposites. It was also considered a powerful good luck amulet.
The hexagram is composed of two interlaced triangles, one pointed upward and the other pointing downward. The upward triangle, associated with the element of fire and masculine energy, combines with the downward triangle, which is associated with the element of water and feminine energy. The base of each triangle intersects just under the peak of the other and forms the symbols of the air and earth elements. Each of the points of the hexagram has several meanings, including but not limited to: the first point corresponds to the color yellow, vibratory motion, the sense of sight, the head, the apple tree, and the music of a trumpet; the second point corresponds to red, linear motion, hearing, the right leg, the yew tree, and the drum; the third point corresponds to green, circular motion, taste, the left arm, the birch tree, and the guitar; the fourth point corresponds to orange, linear motion, smell, the right arm, the oak tree, and the organ; the fifth point corresponds to blue, circular motion, touch, the left leg, the elm tree, and the bass; and the sixth point corresponds to purple, vibratory motion, motion (sense), the sexual organs, the willow tree, and the violin.
There are five other forms of the hexagram used in magic. The first is the unicursal, so-named because it can be made with a single unbroken line. The second type is two triangles superimposed on each other, both in an upward position, and the top of one slightly higher than the other. The third type is the upside down version of the second type. In the fourth form one triangle is pointed upward and the other downward with their bases touching. The fifth form has one triangle pointing upward and the other inverted on its tip.
- Alchemic: The union of water and heat in perfect harmony. Medieval Alchemists called the hexagram the “Philosopher’s stone,” and added a tiny dot on the upper right hand point to represent the presence of God and guidance of the Divine Spirit.
- Buddhism: In Tibetan Buddhism, man’s position between the Earth and the sky. In Tibetan it is called the origin of phenomenon (chos-kyi ‘byung-gnas).
- Christian Kabbalah: The divine union of male and female energy, the male is represented by the upper triangle (referred to as the “blade”) and the female by the lower one (referred to as the “chalice”).
- Egyptian: Time, eternity, and never-ending cycles.
- Hindu: Creation…the union of Shiva, the masculine, and the upward pointing triangle, and Shakti, the feminine, the downward pointing triangle. The union of the two triangles represents Creation, which occurs through the divine union of male and female. The two triangles are calledOm and Hrim in Sanskrit, and symbolize man’s position between earth and the sky. Kartikeya, the six-faced child of Shiva and Shakti. The Nara-Narayana, the perfect meditative state of balance achieved between God and man. If this state is maintained it will result in Nirvana (release from the bounds of the earthly world and its material trappings). A sign of Vishnu.
- The upward pointing triangle symbolizes all that is good in the universe and the downward triangle symbolizes all that is evil in the universe.
- Islamic: This symbol is known in Arabic as نجمة داوود, Najmat Dawuud(Star of David).
- Judaic: A symbol of Judaism and Jewish identity. The Magen David,Shield of David. Also known as the Seal of Solomon, the magical signet ring King Solomon used to control spirits and demons. The Star of David inspired victory and was painted on the shields of early Jewish warriors. The Kabbalah states the Ark of the Covenant contains, besides the tablets of the 10 commandments, a hexagram representing the intimate embrace of a man and a woman.
- Mormon: The tribes of Israel, friendship, and the Mormon’s kinship with the Jewish people.
Perfection, balance, strength, warmth, and nurturing. It is the shape bees choose to make their honeycombs in.
- Kaballah: Tiphareth, the sixth sephirah.
Balance, energy, and health. The heptagram is also known as the Star of Venus, the Witch’s Star, and Star of the Astrologer’s. The heptagram is used in magic to link the powers of the planets to the Earth. The acute heptagram is also known as the Elven Star or the Fairy Star. It is a symbol of magickal power and wiccan religions. An obtuse heptagram is known as the Seal or Star of Babylon. Each point of an acute hexagram corresponds to a day of the week and a planet. The bottom left point Sunday and the Sun, the topmost point Monday and the Moon, the bottom right point Tuesday and Mars, the left above point Wednesday and Mercury, the right below point Thursday and Jupiter, the left below point Friday and Venus, and the right above point Saturday and Saturn.
- Christian: The seven days of creation.
Symbolic of the love inside…the love we hold, deep religious belief, infatuation, a restrained feeling, and the forming of God in our own image. Associated with Venus and Neptune.
- Kaballah: Netzach, the seventh sephirah.
Protection, spiritual enlightenment, resurrection, rebirth, infinity, and abundance. Balance between spirit and matter, the inner and outer bodies, and male and female. The octagram has been associated with the Star of the Magi, and is a symbol of hope and communication. Associated with Venus.
There are two forms of octagram: the unicursal octagram is made with one continuous line, it is a symbol of harmony, knowledge, the future, and the natural world; and the bicursal octagram which is made with two squares, symbolizing conflict and separation.
- Egyptian: The Ogdoad, which was 4 pairs of gods, each pair representing the male and female parts of a different aspect of chaos out of which the cosmos was created. These gods were Nun and Nunet (primeval water), Kek and Keket (darkness), Heh and Hehet (infinity) and Amun and Amaunet (hiddenness). The gods were shown as men with the heads of frogs, the goddesses as women with heads of snakes.
- Gnostic: Creation.
- Nordic: Protection.
Individuality, intellect, intuition, and regeneration.
Balance and expansion. One of the five Platonic Solids, eight triangular faces, six vertices, and twelve edges. The air element. The heart and throat chakra. Used for spiritual development and manifesting peace and love. Yellow.
Represents completion, stability, fulfillment, attainment, intuition, creativity, kundalini power, and the power of dreams and illusions. The points are associated with all groups of nine, for example: the nine internal and external senses…memory, meditation, imagination, common sense, hearing, smell, sight, taste, and touch; and the nine muses. Calliope-poetry, Clio-history, Melpomene-tragedy, Euterpe-music, Terpsichore-dancing, Urania-astronomy, Thalia-comedy, Polyhymnia-eloquence.
- Christian: The fruits of the Spirit (Latin and English): charitas/love, gaudium/joy, pax/peace, longanimitas/patience, benignitas/kindness, bonitus/goodness, fides/faithfulness, mansuetudo/gentleness and continentia/self-control.
- Egyptian: The ennead is a group of nine deities, most often used in Egyptian Mythology. There were many enneads in ancient Egypt, the most important one was the Greater Ennead. This group consisted of Atum, who was the first god, his children, Tefnut and Shu, and their children, Nuit, Geb, Isis and Osiris.
- Hindu: The Universe.
- Taoism: The nine Taoist kanji (psychic centers), which are similar to the Hindu chakras: Chu (“pillar”) at the base of the spine, Shen (“body”) at the genitals, Kai (“open”) at the Hara point (two inches below the navel), Tai (“belt”) at the navel, Sha (“to die”) at the solar plexus, Jen (“man”) at the throat, Tung (“understand”) at the third-eye, Hua (“flower”) at the top of the head, and Tao (“path” or “way”) in the aura.
Divine creation. One of the five Platonic Solids, twelve pentagonal faces, twenty vertices, and thirty edges. The Universe. Associated with the Higher Self. Used for focus and meditation. Gold.
Movement and change. One of the five Platonic Solids, twenty triangular faces, twelve vertices, and thirty edges. The water element. The sacral chakra. Transformation, sexuality, and accessing the emotions. Blue.