Neil Gorsuch

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Neil Gorsuch
Judge Gorsuch official portrait.jpg
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Assumed office
April 10, 2017
Nominated by Donald Trump
Preceded by Antonin Scalia
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit
In office
August 8, 2006 – April 10, 2017
Nominated by George W. Bush
Preceded by David M. Ebel
Succeeded by Vacant
Personal details
Born Neil McGill Gorsuch
August 29, 1967 (age 49)
Denver, Colorado, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Louise Gorsuch
Relations Anne Gorsuch Burford (mother)
Children 2, including Emma and Bindi
Education Columbia University (BA)
Harvard University (JD)
University College, Oxford(DPhil)

Neil McGill Gorsuch (/ˈɡɔːrsʌ/, with equal emphasis on both syllables;[1] born August 29, 1967)[2] is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.[3] President Donald Trump nominated Gorsuch to succeed Antonin Scalia.[4] Gorsuch is a proponent of textualism in statutory interpretation, originalism in interpreting the U.S. Constitution, and is an advocate of natural law philosophy.[5][6][7][8]

Gorsuch clerked for Judge David B. Sentelle on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit from 1991 to 1992, and then for U.S. Supreme Court Justices Byron White and Anthony Kennedy, from 1993 to 1994. From 1995 to 2005, Gorsuch was in private practice with the law firm of Kellogg, Huber, Hansen, Todd, Evans & Figel. Gorsuch was a Deputy Associate Attorney General at the U.S. Department of Justice from 2005 to his appointment to the Tenth Circuit. Gorsuch was nominated to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit by President George W. Bush on May 10, 2006, to replace Judge David M. Ebel, who took senior status in 2006.

He holds a Bachelor of Arts from Columbia University, Juris Doctor from Harvard Law School, and Doctor of Philosophy in Law from University College, Oxford.[9][10]

Early life

Gorsuch is the son of David Gorsuch and Anne Gorsuch Burford (née Anne Irene McGill; 1942–2004), a Colorado statehouse representative, who was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to be the first female Administrator of United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1981.[11][12][13] A fourth-generation Coloradan,[14] Gorsuch was born in Denver, Colorado, where he attended Christ the King, a K-12 Catholic school,[13] and later graduated from Georgetown Preparatory School, a Jesuit school in North Bethesda, Maryland, in 1985.[15][16][13][17]

He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from Columbia University in 1988, where he was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa.[2][11][18] He was also a member of Phi Gamma Delta fraternity.[19] As an undergraduate student, he wrote for the Columbia Daily Spectator student newspaper.[20][21] In 1986, he co-founded the alternative Columbia student newspaper The Fed.[22]

Gorsuch attended Harvard Law School where he graduated cum laude in 1991 with a Juris Doctor.[2][11] He received a Harry S. Truman Scholarship to attend.[23] While at Harvard, Gorsuch was an editor on the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy.[24] He was described as a committed conservative who supported the Gulf War and congressional term limits, on “a campus full of ardent liberals”.[25] Former President Barack Obama was one of Gorsuch’s classmates at Harvard Law.[26][27][28]

He received a Doctor of Philosophy degree in law (legal philosophy) from University College, Oxford in 2004 for research on assisted suicide and euthanasia.[9][2][11] He attended Oxford as a Marshall Scholar and was supervised by acclaimed natural law philosopher John Finnis.[9][6][10] While there, Gorsuch met and married his wife Louise, an Englishwoman and champion equestrienne on Oxford’s riding team.[13]

Career

Clerkships

Gorsuch served as a judicial clerk for Judge David B. Sentelle on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit from 1991 to 1992, and then for U.S. Supreme Court Justices Byron White and Anthony Kennedy from 1993–94.[24][2][29]

Private law practice

Instead of joining an established law firm, Gorsuch decided to join the two-year-old boutique firm Kellogg, Huber, Hansen, Todd, Evans & Figel. Eschewing appellate briefs, he focused on trial work.[13] After winning his first trial as lead attorney, a jury member told Gorsuch he was like Perry Mason.[13] He was an associate in the Washington, D.C., law firm from 1995–97 and a partner from 1998 to 2005.[2][30] Gorsuch’s clients included Colorado billionaire Philip Anschutz.[31]

In 2002, Gorsuch penned an op-ed criticizing the Senate for delaying the nominations of Merrick Garland and John Roberts to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, writing that “the most impressive judicial nominees are grossly mistreated” by the Senate.[32][33]

In 2005, at Kellogg Huber, Gorsuch wrote a brief denouncing class action lawsuits by shareholders. In the case of Dura Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. Broudo, Gorsuch opined that “The free ride to fast riches enjoyed by securities class action attorneys in recent years appeared to hit a speed bump” and that “the problem is that securities fraud litigation imposes an enormous toll on the economy, affecting virtually every public corporation in America at one time or another and costing businesses billions of dollars in settlements every year”.[30]

U.S. Department of Justice

Gorsuch served as Principal Deputy to the Associate Attorney General, Robert McCallum, at the United States Department of Justice from 2005 until 2006.[24][2] During his time at the United States Department of Justice Civil Division, Gorsuch was tasked with all the “terror litigation” arising from the President’s War on Terror, successfully defending the extraordinary rendition of Khalid El-Masri, fighting the disclosure of Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse photographs, and, in November 2005, traveling to inspect the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.[34] Gorsuch helped Attorney General Alberto Gonzales prepare for hearings after the public revelation of NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07), and worked with Senator Lindsey Graham in drafting the provisions in the Detainee Treatment Act which attempted to strip federal courts of jurisdiction over the detainees.[35]

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit

In January 2006, Philip Anschutz recommended Gorsuch’s nomination to Colorado’s U.S. Senator Wayne Allard and White House Counsel Harriet Miers.[31] On May 10, 2006, Gorsuch was nominated by President George W. Bush to the seat on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit vacated by Judge David M. Ebel, who was taking senior status.[11] Like Gorsuch, Ebel was a former clerk of Supreme Court Justice Byron R. White. The American Bar Association‘s Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary unanimously rated him “well qualified” in 2006.[36][37]

Just over two months later, on July 20, 2006, Gorsuch was confirmed by unanimous voice vote in the U.S. Senate.[38][39] Gorsuch was President Bush’s fifth appointment to the Tenth Circuit.[40]

When Gorsuch began his tenure at Denver’s Byron White United States Courthouse, Justice Anthony Kennedy administered the oath of office.[32]

Since taking office, Gorsuch has sent ten of his law clerks on to become Supreme Court clerks, and he is sometimes regarded as a “feeder judge“.[41]

During his time on the Circuit Court, since 2008, Gorsuch has been a Thomson Visiting Professor at the University of Colorado Law School, teaching one course per semester, either ethics or antitrust law.[42][43]

Freedom of religion

Gorsuch advocates a broad definition of religious freedom. In Hobby Lobby Stores v. Sebelius (2013) Gorsuch wrote a concurrence when the en banc circuit found the Affordable Care Act‘s contraceptive mandate on a private business violated the Religious Freedom Restoration Act.[44] That ruling was upheld 5–4 by the Supreme Court in Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. (2014).[45] When a panel of the court denied similar claims under the same act in Little Sisters of the Poor Home for the Aged v. Burwell (2015), Gorsuch joined Judges Harris Hartz, Paul Joseph Kelly Jr., Timothy Tymkovich, and Jerome Holmes in their dissent to the denial of rehearing en banc.[46] That ruling was vacated and remanded to the Tenth Circuit by the per curium Supreme Court in Zubik v. Burwell (2016).[45]

In Pleasant Grove City v. Summum (2007), he joined Judge Michael W. McConnell‘s dissent from the denial of rehearing en banc, taking the view that the government’s display of a donated Ten Commandments monument in a public park did not obligate the government to display other offered monuments.[47] Most of the dissent’s view was subsequently adopted by the Supreme Court, which reversed the judgment of the Tenth Circuit.[45]

Gorsuch has written that “the law […] doesn’t just apply to protect popular religious beliefs: it does perhaps its most important work in protecting unpopular religious beliefs, vindicating this nation’s long-held aspiration to serve as a refuge of religious tolerance”.[48]

Administrative law

Gorsuch has called for reconsideration of Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. (1984), in which the Supreme Court instructed courts to grant deference to federal agencies’ interpretation of ambiguous laws and regulations. In Gutierrez-Brizuela v. Lynch (2016), Gorsuch wrote for a unanimous panel finding that court review was required before an executive agency could reject the circuit court’s interpretation of an immigration law.[49][50]

Alone, Gorsuch added a concurring opinion, criticizing Chevron deference and National Cable & Telecommunications Ass’n v. Brand X Internet Services (2005) as an “abdication of judicial duty”, writing that deference is “more than a little difficult to square with the Constitution of the framers’ design”.[51][52]

In United States v. Hinckley (2008), Gorsuch argued that one possible reading of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act likely violates the nondelegation doctrine.[53]Antonin Scalia and Ruth Bader Ginsberg held the same view in their 2012 dissent of Reynolds v. United States.[54]

Interstate commerce

Gorsuch has been an opponent of the dormant Commerce Clause, which allows state laws to be declared unconstitutional if they too greatly burden interstate commerce. In 2011, Gorsuch joined a unanimous panel finding that the dormant Commerce Clause did not prevent the Oklahoma Water Resources Board from blocking water exports to Texas.[55] That ruling was affirmed by a unanimous Supreme Court in Tarrant Regional Water District v. Herrmann (2013).[56]

In 2013, Gorsuch joined a unanimous panel finding that federal courts could not hear a challenge to Colorado’s internet sales tax.[57] That ruling was reversed by a unanimous Supreme Court in Direct Marketing Ass’n v. Brohl (2015).[56] In 2016, the Tenth Circuit panel rejected the challenger’s dormant commerce clause claim, with Gorsuch writing a concurrence.[58]

In Energy and Environmental Legal Institute v. Joshua Epel (2015), Gorsuch held that Colorado’s mandates for renewable energy did not violate the commerce clause by putting out-of-state coal companies at a disadvantage.[59] Gorsuch wrote that the Colorado renewable energy law “isn’t a price-control statute, it doesn’t link prices paid in Colorado with those paid out of state, and it does not discriminate against out-of-staters”.[60][61]

Campaign finance

In Riddle v. Hickenlooper (2014), Gorsuch joined a unanimous panel of the Tenth Circuit in finding that it was unconstitutional for a Colorado law to set the limit on donations for write-in candidates at half the amount for major party candidates.[62] Gorsuch added a concurrence where he noted that although the standard of review of campaign finance in the United States is unclear, the Colorado law would fail even under intermediate scrutiny.[63]

Civil rights

In Planned Parenthood v. Gary Herbert (2016), Gorsuch wrote for the four dissenting judges when the Tenth Circuit denied a rehearing en banc of a divided panel opinion that had ordered the Utah Governor to resume the organization’s funding, which Herbert had blocked in response to a video controversy.[64][65]

In A.M., on behalf of her minor child, F.M. v. Ann Holmes (2016), the Tenth Circuit considered a case in which a 13-year-old child was arrested for burping and laughing in gym class. The child was handcuffed and arrested based on a New Mexico statute that makes it a misdemeanor to disrupt school activities. The child’s family brought a federal 42 U.S.C. § 1983 (civil rights) action against school officials and the school resource officer who made the arrest, arguing that it was a false arrest that violated the child’s constitutional rights. In a 94-page majority opinion, the Tenth Circuit held that the defendants enjoyed qualified immunity from suit.

Gorsuch wrote a four-page dissent, arguing that the New Mexico Court of Appeals had “long ago alerted law enforcement” that the statute that the officer relied upon for the child’s arrest does not criminalize noises or diversions that merely disturb order in a classroom.[66][67][68]

Criminal law

In 2009, Gorsuch wrote for a unanimous panel finding that a court may still order criminals to pay restitution even after it missed a statutory deadline.[69] That ruling was affirmed 5–4 by the Supreme Court in Dolan v. United States (2010).[56]

In United States of America v. Miguel Games-Perez (2012), Gorsuch ruled on a case where a felon owned a gun in a jurisdiction where gun ownership by felons is illegal; however, the felon did not know that he was a felon at the time. Gorsuch concurred with the opinion that “The only statutory element separating innocent (even constitutionally protected) gun possession from criminal conduct in §§ 922(g) and 924(a) is a prior felony conviction. So the presumption that the government must prove mens rea here applies with full force.”[70]

In 2013, Gorsuch joined a unanimous panel finding that intent does not need to be proven under a bank fraud statute.[71] That ruling was affirmed by a Supreme Court unanimous in judgment in Loughrin v. United States (2014).[56]

In 2015, Gorsuch wrote a dissent to the denial of rehearing en banc when the Tenth Circuit found that a convicted sex offender had to register with Kansas after he moved to the Philippines.[72] The Tenth Circuit was then reversed by a unanimous Supreme Court in Nichols v. United States (2016).[56]

Death penalty

Gorsuch favors a strict reading of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996.[45] In 2015, he wrote for the court when it permitted Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt to order the execution of Scott Eizember, prompting a thirty-page dissent by Judge Mary Beck Briscoe.[73][74] After Oklahoma botched the execution of Clayton Lockett, Gorsuch joined Briscoe when the court unanimously allowed Attorney General Pruitt to continue using the same lethal injection protocol. That ruling was upheld 5–4 by the Supreme Court in Glossip v. Gross (2015).[75]

List of judicial opinions

During his tenure on the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, Judge Gorsuch has authored 212 published opinions.[76] Some of those are the following opinions:

Nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court

Do you support Gorsuch Confirmation

45% Yes

55% No

Do you support the filibuster Gorsuch ( CNN, TYT)

35, 85 % = 60 % Yes

57, 15 % = 38 % No

8 = 4%

 

After his nomination on January 31, 2017, Neil Gorsuch was confirmed by the Senate on April 7, 2017.[2] Gorsuch, age 49, is the youngest sitting Supreme Court justice since Clarence Thomas.[3] In February 2016, Associate Justice Antonin Scalia of the Supreme Court of the United States died, leaving a vacancy on the highest federal court in the United States. Article II of the U.S. Constitution gives the president the power to nominate justices to the Supreme Court, subject to the “advice and consent” of the United States Senate.[4] Scalia’s seat remained open until the beginning of the Trump administration in January 2017, as the Senate did not consider outgoing President Barack Obama‘s nomination of Merrick Garland, advising that the vacancy should be filled by the newly elected president, either Trump or Hillary Clinton.

On January 31, 2017, President Donald Trump announced his selection of Judge Neil Gorsuch for the vacant position of Associate Justice, and the nomination was transmitted to the Senate on the following day. After hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee, the nomination was sent to full Senate on April 4, 2017. When nominated, Gorsuch was an active judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, to which he had been appointed by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the Senate without opposition. Democrats filibustered the confirmation vote, after which Republicans invoked the “nuclear option“, removing the option to filibuster Supreme Court nominees.[5] On April 7, 2017, the Senate confirmed Gorsuch’s nomination to the Supreme Court with a bipartisan 54–45 vote, with three Democrats joining all the Republicans in attendance. Gorsuch took office in a private ceremony on April 10.

Background[edit]

Death of Justice Antonin Scalia[edit]

In 1986, President Ronald Reagan nominated then D.C. Circuit Judge Antonin Scalia to the Supreme Court to fill the associate justice vacancy caused by the retirement of Chief JusticeBurger and the appointment as Chief Justice of then-Associate Justice William H. Rehnquist. Scalia was unanimously confirmed by the Senate and became a part of the court’s conservative bloc, often supporting originalist and textualist positions.[7]

On February 13, 2016, Justice Scalia was found dead on a Texas ranch.[8][9] Scalia’s death marked only the second time in sixty years that a Supreme Court justice had died in office, the other being Chief Justice Rehnquist in 2005.[10] Scalia’s death was the seventh occasion since 1900 in which a seat on the Supreme Court of the United States was vacant during a year in which a presidential election was set to occur.[11]

One hour after Scalia’s death was confirmed, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY) announced that the Senate would not consider any replacement nominated by President Barack Obama.[12]

Nomination of Judge Merrick Garland[edit]

When Scalia died, President Barack Obama was a member of the Democratic Party, while the Republican Party held a 54–46 seat majority in the Senate.[13] Because of the composition of the Supreme Court at the time of Scalia’s death, and the belief that President Obama could replace Scalia with a much more liberal successor, some believed that an Obama appointee could potentially swing the Court in a liberal direction for many years to come, with potentially far-reaching political consequences.[14] President Obama ultimately nominated Merrick Garland on March 16, 2016. The Republican-controlled Senate refused to consider Garland’s nomination for 293 days, until it expired when the 114th Congress adjourned in January 2017.[15] The defeat of Garland’s nomination left Scalia’s seat vacant when President Trump took office in January 2017. Many Democrats reacted angrily to the Senate’s refusal to consider Garland, with Senator Jeff Merkley (Democrat from Oregon) describing the vacant seat as a “stolen seat.”[16] However, Republicans such as Iowa Senator Chuck Grassley argued that the Senate was within its rights to refuse to consider a nominee until the inauguration of a new president.[17]

Nomination[edit]

Candidates[edit]

During the 2016 presidential campaign, while Garland remained before the Senate, Trump released two lists of potential nominees. On May 18, 2016, Trump released a short list of eleven judges for nomination to the Scalia vacancy.[18]

In September 2016, Trump released a second list of ten possible nominees, this time including three minorities.[19] Both lists were assembled by the Federalist Society and the Heritage Foundation.[20] Leonard Leo of the Federalist Society played a major role in the creation of the second list, which included Gorsuch.[21] After winning the presidential election, Trump and White House Counsel Don McGahn interviewed four individuals for the Supreme Court opening, all of whom had appeared on one of the two previously-released lists.[20] The four individuals were federal appellate judges Thomas Hardiman, William H. Pryor Jr., and Neil Gorsuch, as well as federal district judge Amul Thapar.[20] All four had been appointed to the federal bench by President George W. Bush. While Pryor had been seen by many as the early front-runner due to the backing of Attorney General Jeff Sessions, many evangelicals expressed resistance to him, and the final decision ultimately came down to Gorsuch or Hardiman.[20] Hardiman had the support of Trump’s sister, Judge Maryanne Trump Barry,[20] but Trump instead chose to nominate Gorsuch.[22]

Announcement[edit]

President Trump announced the nomination of Gorsuch on January 31, 2017. The nomination was formally transmitted to the Senate on February 1, 2017.[23] His nomination is now pending before the Senate Judiciary Committee. At age 49, Gorsuch would be the youngest sitting Supreme Court justice since Clarence Thomas. Having clerked for Anthony Kennedy, Gorsuch would also be the first Supreme Court Justice to have previously clerked for a Justice still sitting on the court.[24]

In July 2006, Gorsuch’s nomination to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit had been confirmed in the Senate by a unanimous voice vote.[25] At the time of his nomination to the Supreme Court, Gorsuch was described as solidly conservative, but likely to be confirmed without much difficulty.[26][27][28] Richard Primus of Politico described Gorsuch as “Scalia 2.0” due to ideological similarities,[29] and a report prepared by Lee Epstein, Andrew Martin, and Kevin Quinn predicted that Gorsuch would be a “reliable conservative” similar to Scalia.[30]

Senate consideration[edit]

Committee[edit]

Gorsuch’s nomination was first considered by the Senate Judiciary Committee, which holds hearings on all federal judicial nominations and decides whether or not to send nominations to the full Senate for a final confirmation vote.[31] The committee consists of 11 Republican Senators and 9 Democratic Senators, and is chaired by Republican Chuck Grassley (R-IA). In February 2017, the committee requested the Justice Department to send all documents they had regarding Gorsuch’s work in the George W. Bush administration. As of March 9, 2017, the Justice Department had turned over more than 144,000 pages of documents and, according to a White House spokesman, more than 220,000 pages of documents in total had been sent to the committee.[32] Gorsuch’s confirmation hearings started on March 20, 2017, and lasted four days.[33][34] On April 3, the Judiciary Committee approved Gorsuch by in an 11–9 in a party-line vote.[35][36]

Confirmation hearings[edit]

Judge Gorsuch testifies before the Senate Judiciary Committee on March 20, 2017.

On the first day of hearings, Senators largely used their opening statements to criticize each other, with Ranking Member Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) complaining of the “unprecedented treatment” of Judge Merrick Garland, while Colorado Senator Michael Bennet (D-CO) felt “two wrongs don’t make a right”, and Senator Ted Cruz insisted President Trump’s nomination now carried “super-legitimacy”.[37]

Democratic Senators repeatedly criticized Gorsuch for a case where the Tenth Circuit ruled in favor of a truck driver who had abandoned his trailer in inclement conditions, with Senator Dick Durbin (D-IL) telling Gorsuch the weather was “not as cold as your dissent”.[37] In his own 16-minute opening statement, Gorsuch repeated his belief that a judge who likes all his rulings is “probably a pretty bad judge”, and noted that his large record included many examples where he ruled both for and against disadvantaged groups.[37]

On the second day of hearings Gorsuch responded to questions by committee members. When Chairman Chuck Grassley (R-IA) asked Gorsuch if he would “have any trouble ruling against the president who appointed you”, Gorsuch replied, no, and “that’s a softball”.[38] Senator Cruz used his time to ask Gorsuch about The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, basketball, and mutton busting.[38] When asked by Senator Lindsey Graham (R-SC) how he would have reacted if during his interview at Trump Tower the President had asked him to vote against Roe v. Wade, Gorsuch replied “I would have walked out the door”.[38]

Democratic Senators continued to criticize Gorsuch on his dissent in the case involving a truck driver, with Ranking Member Feinstein asking him “will you be for the little men” and Senator Al Franken (D-MN) telling the judge his position was “absurd”, going on to say “I had a career in identifying absurdity” (in reference to his former career as a comedian).[38]Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) used his time to praise Judge Garland, criticize those policies of President George W. Bush that Gorsuch had defended at the Justice Department, and to ask Gorsuch how he would rule in Washington v. Trump. He refused to comment on active litigation, explained that Justice Department lawyers must defend their client, but did say that Garland is “an outstanding judge” and that Gorsuch always reads his opinions with “special care”.[38]

On the third day of hearings Gorsuch continued to answer questions by committee members. Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) asked Gorsuch if “you think your writings reflect a knee-jerk attitude against common-sense regulations”, to which the judge replied “no”.[39] In response to Senator Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI)’s question of if the judge would be subject to agency capture by big business, Gorsuch replied “nobody will capture me”.[40] Franken laughed out loud after Senator Jeff Flake (R-AZ) asked Gorsuch if he had ever served on a jury; Gorsuch said he had. Flake then asked Gorsuch if he would rather fight “100 duck-sized horses or one horse-size duck”, to which Gorsuch avoided giving a firm answer.[39]

Senator Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) told Gorsuch he employed only “selective originalism”.[clarification needed][40] He replied to a question by Ranking Member Feinstein on the Equal Protection Clause by saying, “no one is looking to return us to horse and buggy days” and that “it matters not a whit that some of the drafters of the Fourteenth Amendment were racists. Because they were. Or sexists, because they were. The law they drafted promises equal protection of the laws to all persons. That’s what they wrote.”[40]

During Wednesday’s hearings, the Supreme Court unanimously reversed the Tenth Circuit in an Individuals with Disabilities Education Act case Gorsuch had not been involved in, although in 2008 he had written for a unanimous panel applying the same circuit precedent.[40] Still, Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer (D-NY) said this demonstrated “a continued, troubling pattern of Judge Gorsuch deciding against everyday Americans – even children who require special assistance at school”.[40]

[hide]Confirmation Hearing Witnesses for Neil Gorsuch
Date Witnesses Role Notes
March 20 Michael Bennet, Senator (D-CO) Introducer, home state senator Testimony.[a]
Cory Gardner, Senator (R-CO) Introducer, home state senator Testimony.[b]
Neal Katyal, Former Acting Solicitor General (May 2010-June 2011) Introducer Testimony.[c]
Neil Gorsuch Nominee Testimony.[d]
March 21
March 22
March 23 Nancy Scott Degan, Chair, American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary Congressional witness Testimony.[e]
Shannon Edwards, Member, American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary Congressional witness
Deanell Reece Tacha, Pepperdine University School of Law Duane And Kelly Roberts Dean And Professor Of Law, U.S. Court Of Appeals Judge (Retired) Republican witness Testimony.[f]
Robert Harlan Henry, President of Oklahoma City University, U.S. Court Of Appeals Judge (Retired) Republican witness
John L. Kane Jr., United States federal judge, United States District Court for the District of Colorado Republican witness
Leah Bressack, former law clerk Republican witness Testimony.[g]
Elisa Massimino, President and CEO, Human Rights First Democratic witness Testimony.[h]
Jameel Jaffer, Executive Director, Columbia University/Knight First Amendment Institute Democratic witness Testimony.[i]
Jeff Perkins Democratic witness Testimony.[j]
Guerino J. Calemine, III, General Counsel, Communication Workers of America Democratic witness Testimony.[k]
Jeff Lamken, Partner, MoloLamken Republican witness Testimony.[l]
Lawrence Solum, Carmack Waterhouse Professor Of Law, Georgetown University Law Center Republican witness Testimony.[m]
Jonathan Turley, J.B. And Maurice C. Shapiro Professor Of Public Interest Law, The George Washington University Law School Republican witness Testimony.[n]
Karen Harned, Executive Director, National Federation Of Independent Business Small Business Legal Center Republican witness Testimony.[o]
Heather McGhee, President, Demos Democratic witness Testimony.[p]
Fatima Goss Graves, Senior Vice President For Program & President-Elect, National Women’s Law Center Democratic witness Testimony.[q]
Patrick Gallagher, Director, Sierra Club Environmental Law Program Democratic witness Testimony.[r]
Eve Hill, Partner, Brown Goldstein Levy Democratic witness Testimony.[s]
Peter Kirsanow, Commissioner, U.S. Commission On Civil Rights; Partner, Benesch, Friedlander, Coplan & Aronoff Republican witness Testimony.[t]
Alice Fisher, Partner, Latham & Watkins Republican witness Testimony.[u]
Hannah Smith, Senior Counsel, Becket Fund Republican witness Testimony.[v]
Timothy Meyer, former law clerk Republican witness Testimony.[w]
Jamil N. Jaffer, former law clerk Republican witness Testimony.[x]
Kristen Clarke, President & CEO, Lawyers Committee For Civil Rights Under Law Democratic witness Testimony.[y]
Sarah Warbelow, Legal Director, Human Rights Campaign Democratic witness Testimony.[z]
Amy Hagstrom Miller, President, CEO, & Founder, Whole Woman’s Health Democratic witness Testimony.[aa]
William Marshall, William Rand Kenan Jr. Distinguished Professor Of Law, University Of North Carolina Democratic witness Testimony.[ab]
Sandy Phillips Democratic witness Testimony.[ac]

Full Senate[edit]

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell

Gorsuch needed to win a simple majority vote of the full Senate to be confirmed, but the opposition could prevent a vote through a filibuster, which required a 60-vote super-majority to be defeated. At the time of the Gorsuch nomination, Republicans held 52 seats in the 100-seat chamber, as well as the potential tie-breaking vote in Vice President Pence.[41] After nominating Gorsuch, President Trump called on the Senate to use the “nuclear option” and abolish the filibuster for Supreme Court appointments if its continued existence would prevent Gorsuch’s confirmation.[42](The nuclear option was used in 2013 to abolish filibusters for all presidential appointments except nominations to the Supreme Court.)

While some Republican Senators such as John McCain (R-AZ) expressed reluctance about abolishing the filibuster for executive appointments, others such as John Cornyn (R-TX) argued that the GOP majority should reserve all options necessary to confirm Gorsuch.[41] Other political commentators have proposed that GOP Senate leadership adopt a strategic use of Standing Rule XIX to avoid the elimination of the filibuster.[43][44]

During the last day of committee hearings, Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) announced from the Senate floor that he would filibuster the nomination.[45] Democratic opposition focused on complaints saying that Scalia’s seat should have been filled by President Obama.[46][47] In addition, Democratic Senators Al Franken (D-MN), Bernie Sanders (D/I-VT), Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), and Kamala Harris (D-CA) criticized aspects of Gorsuch’s record. Senator Jeff Merkley (D-OR) said he would do “anything in his power”—including the power of filibustering—to oppose Gorsuch’s nomination.[48] Other Democratic Senators including Joe Manchin (D-WV),[49] Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND),[50] and Joe Donnelly (D-IN) support Gorsuch.[51]

Nuclear option[edit]

On April 6, 2017, Democrats filibustered (prevented cloture of) the confirmation vote of Gorsuch. The Senate Republicans invoked the so-called “nuclear option” and changed the Senate rules to end fillibusters for Supreme Court nominees. After the change to Senate rules the Senate in a bipartisan vote (Senate Republicans along with Democratic Senators Joe Manchin (D-WV), Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND), Joe Donnelly (D-IN), and Michael Bennet (D-CO)) agreed to cloture. After the change, Gorsuch was confirmed on April 7.[52][53]

Confirmation vote[edit]

File:President Trump Attends the Swearing-In Ceremony of the Honorable Neil Gorsuch.webm

The swearing-in ceremony of Gorsuch on 10 April 2017, attended by President Donald Trump and Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy.

The Senate confirmed Gorsuch on April 7, 2017, by a bipartisan vote of 54–45. All Senate Republicans present, along with Democratic Senators in states that voted heavily for Trump, Manchin (D-WV), Heitkamp (D-ND), and Donnelly (D-IN), voted to confirm Gorsuch.[54] Republican Georgia Senator Johnny Isakson was absent for the vote because he was recovering from back surgery.[55]

State Senator Party Vote
Tennessee Lamar Alexander R Yea
Wisconsin Tammy Baldwin D Nay
Wyoming John Barrasso R Yea
Colorado Michael Bennet D Nay
Connecticut Richard Blumenthal D Nay
Missouri Roy Blunt R Yea
New Jersey Cory Booker D Nay
Arkansas John Boozman R Yea
Ohio Sherrod Brown D Nay
North Carolina Richard Burr R Yea
Washington Maria Cantwell D Nay
West Virginia Shelley Moore Capito R Yea
Maryland Ben Cardin D Nay
Delaware Tom Carper D Nay
Pennsylvania Bob Casey D Nay
Louisiana Bill Cassidy R Yea
Mississippi Thad Cochran R Yea
Maine Susan Collins R Yea
Delaware Chris Coons D Nay
Tennessee Bob Corker R Yea
Texas John Cornyn R Yea
Nevada Catherine Cortez Masto D Nay
Arkansas Tom Cotton R Yea
Idaho Mike Crapo R Yea
Texas Ted Cruz R Yea
Montana Steve Daines R Yea
Indiana Joe Donnelly D Yea
Illinois Tammy Duckworth D Nay
Illinois Dick Durbin D Nay
Wyoming Mike Enzi R Yea
Iowa Joni Ernst R Yea
California Dianne Feinstein D Nay
Nebraska Deb Fischer R Yea
Arizona Jeff Flake R Yea
Minnesota Al Franken D Nay
Colorado Cory Gardner R Yea
New York Kirsten Gillibrand D Nay
South Carolina Lindsey Graham R Yea
Iowa Chuck Grassley R Yea
California Kamala Harris D Nay
New Hampshire Maggie Hassan D Nay
Utah Orrin Hatch R Yea
New Mexico Martin Heinrich D Nay
North Dakota Heidi Heitkamp D Yea
Nevada Dean Heller R Yea
Hawaii Mazie Hirono D Nay
North Dakota John Hoeven R Yea
Oklahoma Jim Inhofe R Yea
Georgia Johnny Isakson R Not Voting
Wisconsin Ron Johnson R Yea
Virginia Tim Kaine D Nay
Louisiana John Neely Kennedy R Yea
Maine Angus King Ind. Nay
Minnesota Amy Klobuchar D Nay
Oklahoma James Lankford R Yea
Vermont Patrick Leahy D Nay
Utah Mike Lee R Yea
West Virginia Joe Manchin D Yea
Massachusetts Ed Markey D Nay
Arizona John McCain R Yea
Missouri Claire McCaskill D Nay
Kentucky Mitch McConnell R Yea
New Jersey Bob Menendez D Nay
Oregon Jeff Merkley D Nay
Kansas Jerry Moran R Yea
Alaska Lisa Murkowski R Yea
Connecticut Chris Murphy D Nay
Washington Patty Murray D Nay
Florida Bill Nelson D Nay
Kentucky Rand Paul R Yea
Georgia David Perdue R Yea
Michigan Gary Peters D Nay
Ohio Rob Portman R Yea
Rhode Island Jack Reed D Nay
Idaho Jim Risch R Yea
Kansas Pat Roberts R Yea
South Dakota Mike Rounds R Yea
Florida Marco Rubio R Yea
Vermont Bernie Sanders Ind. Nay
Nebraska Ben Sasse R Yea
Hawaii Brian Schatz D Nay
New York Chuck Schumer D Nay
South Carolina Tim Scott R Yea
New Hampshire Jeanne Shaheen D Nay
Alabama Richard Shelby R Yea
Michigan Debbie Stabenow D Nay
Alabama Luther Strange R Yea
Alaska Dan Sullivan R Yea
Montana Jon Tester D Nay
South Dakota John Thune R Yea
North Carolina Thom Tillis R Yea
Pennsylvania Pat Toomey R Yea
New Mexico Tom Udall D Nay
Maryland Chris Van Hollen D Nay
Virginia Mark Warner D Nay
Massachusetts Elizabeth Warren D Nay
Rhode Island Sheldon Whitehouse D Nay
Mississippi Roger Wicker R Yea
Oregon Ron Wyden D Nay
Indiana Todd Young R Yea
vote by party[56] D
R
Ind.
3–43
51–0
0–2

Responses from organizations and notable persons[edit]

Protests at the U.S. Supreme Court occurred following Gorsuch’s nomination.

Norm Eisen, who was named by Obama to be Special Counsel for Ethics and Government Reform in the White House and Ambassador to the Czech Republic, has endorsed Gorsuch.[57] Eisen was a classmate of both Gorsuch and Obama at Harvard Law.[57] Neal Katyal, who served as Acting Solicitor General of the United States during the Obama Administration and who is currently a law professor at Georgetown University Law Center, endorsed Gorsuch for approval to the Supreme Court.[58]

The National Rifle Association, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the Second Amendment Foundation and other gun rights groups endorsed Gorsuch,[59][60][61] while Americans for Responsible Solutions, the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence and other gun control proponents have opposed his nomination.[62][63] House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) claimed Gorsuch “comes down on the side of felons over gun safety”. Politifact called her statement misleading and said that Gorsuch’s past rulings do not “demonstrate that he thinks more felons should be allowed guns than what is already permitted under the law”.[64]

The American Civil Liberties Union raised concerns about Gorsuch’s respect for disability rights.[65] The Secular Coalition for America, Freedom from Religion Foundation and Union for Reform Judaism all voiced concerns with Gorsuch’s nomination.[66]

On April 4, 2017, Politico reported that Rebecca Moore Howard, a Syracuse University professor, accused Gorsuch of plagiarism.[67][68][69] Oxford University Emeritus Professor John Finnis, who supervised Gorsuch’s dissertation at Oxford disagreed and stated, “The allegation is entirely without foundation. The book is meticulous in its citation of primary sources. The allegation that the book is guilty of plagiarism because it does not cite secondary sources which draw on those same primary sources is, frankly, absurd.”[67] Abigail Lawlis Kuzma, the supposed victim of the plagiarism and who is Indiana‘s deputy attorney general, has supported Gorsuch by saying, “I have reviewed both passages and do not see an issue here, even though the language is similar. These passages are factual, not analytical in nature, framing both the technical legal and medical circumstances of the ‘Baby/Infant Doe‘ case that occurred in 1982.”[67][68]

Legal philosophy

Gorsuch is a proponent of originalism, the idea that the Constitution should be interpreted as perceived at the time of enactment, and of textualism, the idea that statutes should be interpreted literally, without considering the legislative history and underlying purpose of the law.[5][6][7] An editorial in the National Catholic Register opined that Gorsuch’s judicial decisions lean more toward the natural law philosophy.[90]

Judicial activism

In a 2005 speech at Case Western Reserve University, Gorsuch said that judges should strive

to apply the law as it is, focusing backward, not forward, and looking to text, structure, and history to decide what a reasonable reader at the time of the events in question would have understood the law to be—not to decide cases based on their own moral convictions or the policy consequences they believe might serve society best.[91]

In a 2005 article published by National Review, Gorsuch argued that “American liberals have become addicted to the courtroom, relying on judges and lawyers rather than elected leaders and the ballot box, as the primary means of effecting their social agenda” and that they are “failing to reach out and persuade the public”. Gorsuch wrote that, in doing so, American liberals are circumventing the democratic process on issues like gay marriage, school vouchers, and assisted suicide, and this has led to a compromised judiciary, which is no longer independent. Gorsuch wrote that American liberals’ “overweening addiction” to using the courts for social debate is “bad for the nation and bad for the judiciary”.[92][38]

States’ rights and federalism

Gorsuch was described by Justin Marceau, a professor at the University of Denver‘s Sturm College of Law, as “a predictably socially conservative judge who tends to favor state power over federal power”. Marceau added that the issue of states’ rights is important since federal laws have been used to reel in “rogue” state laws in civil rights cases.[93]

Assisted suicide

In July 2006, Gorsuch’s book, The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia, was published by Princeton University Press.[94][95] It was developed from his doctoral thesis.[96][9]

In the book, Gorsuch makes clear his personal opposition to euthanasia and assisted suicide, arguing that America should “retain existing law [banning assisted suicide and euthanasia] on the basis that human life is fundamentally and inherently valuable, and that the intentional taking of human life by private persons is always wrong.”[95][48][97]

On April 4, 2017, Politico reported that Rebecca Moore Howard, a Syracuse University professor, accused Gorsuch of plagiarism.[98][99][100] Oxford University Emeritus Professor John Finnis, who supervised Gorsuch’s dissertation at Oxford disagreed and stated, “The allegation is entirely without foundation. The book is meticulous in its citation of primary sources. The allegation that the book is guilty of plagiarism because it does not cite secondary sources which draw on those same primary sources is, frankly, absurd.”[98] Abigail Lawlis Kuzma, the supposed victim of the plagiarism and who is Indiana‘s deputy attorney general, has supported Gorsuch by saying, “I have reviewed both passages and do not see an issue here, even though the language is similar. These passages are factual, not analytical in nature, framing both the technical legal and medical circumstances of the ‘Baby/Infant Doe’ case that occurred in 1982.”[98][99]

Personal life

Gorsuch and his wife, Louise, who is British, met at Oxford. They live in Boulder, Colorado and have two daughters, Emma and Belinda.[101][43][17]

Gorsuch has timeshare ownership of a cabin on the headwaters of the Colorado River outside Granby, Colorado with associates of Philip Anschutz.[31] He enjoys the outdoors and fly fishing and on at least one occasion went fly fishing with Justice Scalia.[14][102] He raises horses, chickens, and goats, and often arranges ski trips with colleagues and friends.[45]

He is the author of two books. His first book, The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia, was published by Princeton University Press in July 2006.[103] He is a co-author of The Law of Judicial Precedent, published by Thomson West in 2016.[30]

Religion

Neil and his siblings, brother J.J. and sister Stephanie, were raised as Roman Catholics and attended weekly Mass. Neil Gorsuch later attended Georgetown Preparatory School, a Jesuit school in North Bethesda, Maryland, from which he graduated in 1985.[15][16][13][17]

Gorsuch’s wife, Louise, is British-born and the two met while Neil was studying at Oxford. When the couple returned to the United States they started attending an Episcopal parish in Vienna, Virginia. Gorsuch currently attends St. John’s Episcopal Church in Boulder. If Gorsuch considers himself Protestant, his confirmation would make him the first Protestant to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court since the retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens.[104][4][105] Gorsuch has not publicly stated if he considers himself a Catholic who attends a Protestant church, or if he has fully converted to Protestantism, but “according to church records, the Gorsuches were members of Holy Comforter”, an Episcopal church.[106]

Awards and honors

Gorsuch is the recipient of the Edward J. Randolph Award for outstanding service to the Department of Justice, and of the Harry S. Truman Foundation’s Stevens Award for outstanding public service in the field of law.[43]

Which Cruz Was Photographed With Lee Harvey Oswald? A Manufactured Distraction?

(excerpt: Twilight Language)

In the most bizarre of weird Presidential election races ever, another strange twist just occurred this week.
 
The National Enquirer, a tabloid with a tabloid mentality, has published for May 2, 2016, a “World Exclusive Investigation” in which they have tied a famed incident running up to the John F. Kennedy assassination to Ted Cruz.
The claim is that Ted Cruz’s father, Rafael Cruz, was photographed with Lee Harvey Oswald in New Orleans.
It is as if this story is being floated to get these rumors out there to overturn them, or make them part of the fringe. Most conservative and rightwing blogs are taking the National Enquirer story with tongue firmly in cheek.

Rumors of a link between Rafael Cruz and Lee Harvey Oswald first surfaced in the blogosphere in April 2016. The photo shows Lee Harvey Oswald handling out “Fair Play” leaflets, and a man standing nearby in the background has a passing resemblance to a young Rafael Cruz….Given lack of any proof besides a passing resemblence between the man in the photo and Rafael Cruz, we’re calling this one “unproven.” [See here, for more.]

But is a deeper truth being hidden? Some feel that’s what may be happening here.
What might be the realities being revealed in the midst of this supposedly “tabloid news”?

Cuban Rafael Cruz, a pro-Batista, CIA connected Cuban in exile met his wife in New Orleans (home of Oswald, Guy Bannister, David Ferry, Clay Shaw and the great Jim Garrison). New Orleans was ground zero for the CIA’s Cuban manned “Operation Mongoose”, the Bay of Pigs and as we all know, the JFK Assassination. Anyone familiar with the assassination and the works of Mark Lane, Jim Garrison, Jim Marrs and David Lifton…and many more will be stunned by this troubling information.

It also seems that Cuban Rafael Cruz was also in Dallas, or nearby, the day of John Kennedy was assassinated.

Rafael Cruz fled to Canada shortly after Kennedy’s assassination to work in the “oil business”. The oil business? Like Zapata Oil, the CIA front company run by George Herbert Walker Bush? Yeah, that oil business.

Rafael Cruz returned to the United States after Nixon had been elected and the Bay of Pigs/JFK Assassination was put to rest for a while. He returned illegally to the United States with his son Rafael Eduardo “Ted” Cruz.

Ted Cruz got connections into Princeton and Harvard and went to work directly for the Bush Family where he met his wife, Heidi Cruz, who was also working for the Bush Family.

So how was it that Ted Cruz got right into the Bush Family Cabal so easily? His father, Rafael had favors to be paid back. Allen Dulles is long dead, but George Herbert Walker is still alive…and GHB knows Ted Cruz very, very well.

Any surprise why Neil Bush is in Ted Cruz’s executive campaign inner circle? ~ David Zephyr

Though many wish to ignore the source that produced a wider reading on these claims, it is not theNational Enquirer, but Wayne Madsen out front with this story in his April 6, 2016 article,  “Was the father of presidential hopeful Cruz involved in the JFK assassination?

Rafael Cruz, Ted’s father
What’s the normal background info for the photos?

On May 26, 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald wrote to the New York City headquarters of the pro-Castro Fair Play for Cuba Committee, proposing to rent “a small office at my own expense for the purpose of forming a FPCC branch here in New Orleans.” Three days later, the FPCC responded to Oswald’s letter advising against opening a New Orleans office “at least not … at the very beginning.” In a follow-up letter, Oswald replied, “Against your advice, I have decided to take an office from the very beginning.”
On May 29, Oswald ordered the following items from a local printer: 500 application forms, 300 membership cards, and 1,000 leaflets with the heading, “Hands Off Cuba.” According to Lee Oswald’s wife Marina, Lee told her to sign the name “A.J. Hidell” as chapter president on his membership card.
On August 5 and 6, according to anti-Castro militant Carlos Bringuier, Oswald visited him at a store he owned in New Orleans. Bringuier was the New Orleans delegate for the anti-Castro organization Directorio Revolucionario Estudantil (DRE). Bringuier would later tell the Warren Commission that he believed Oswald’s visits were an attempt by Oswald to infiltrate his group. On August 9, Oswald turned up in downtown New Orleans handing out pro-Castro leaflets. Bringuier confronted Oswald, claiming he was tipped off about Oswald’s leafleting by a friend. A scuffle ensued and Oswald, Bringuier, and two of Bringuier’s friends were arrested for disturbing the peace. Prior to leaving the police station, Oswald requested to speak with an FBI agent. Oswald stated that he was a member of the New Orleans branch of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee which he claimed had 35 members and was led by A. J. Hidell. In fact, Oswald was the branch’s only member and it had never been chartered by the national organization.
A week later, on August 16, Oswald again passed out Fair Play for Cuba leaflets with two hired helpers, this time in front of the International Trade Mart. The incident was filmed by WDSU, a local TV station. The next day, Oswald was interviewed by WDSU radio commentator William Stuckey, who probed Oswald’s background. A few days later, Oswald accepted Stuckey’s invitation to take part in a radio debate with Carlos Bringuier and Bringuier’s associate Edward Scannell Butler, head of the right-wing Information Council of the Americas (INCA). Source.

But was it the right Cruz?

On August 9, 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested on Canal Street in New Orleans and charged with disturbing the peace. The arrest was the result of a confrontation with anti-Castro Cuban exile Carlos Bringuier and two of his associates, Miguel Cruz and Celso Hernandez. Oswald was handing out pro-Castro leaflets when Bringuier, Hernandez and Cruz approached him. When Hernandez tried to take the leaflets from Oswald, a shouting match began; the New Orleans police then intervened, arresting all four individuals. Source.

Miguel Cruz was a Carlos Bringuier associate. The Cruz photographed is one of the people that Oswald “hired,” correct? Was he Rafael Cruz? What Cruz is who?

Oswald was the “president” and only member in New Orleans, with the address as “544 Camp Street, New Orleans, La.” This was directly across from Lafayette Square, New Orleans, the center of the intelligence network in the city.

The Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC) was organized by Robert Bruce Taber in 1960. It was an activist group set up in New York in April 1960, not New Orleans or even Florida.

The FPCC’s purpose was to provide grassroots support for the Cuban Revolution against attacks by the United States government, once Fidel Castro began openly admitting his commitment to Marxism and began the expropriation and nationalization of Cuban assets belonging to U.S. corporations. The FPCC opposed the Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961, the imposition of the United States embargo against Cuba, and was sympathetic to the Cuban view during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.
Subsidiary Fair Play for Cuba groups were set up throughout the United States and Canada. Among its twenty-nine early notable supporters were William Appleman Williams, Norman Mailer, Truman Capote, James Baldwin, Jean-Paul Sartre, Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Waldo Frank, Alan Sagner and Carleton Beals.
The Fair Play for Cuba Committee has been the subject of much speculation. It was accused by some of being a Soviet front, with little real support outside of a few dedicated American communists. However, it seems to have been connected to the Trotskyist Socialist Workers’ Party.
The FPCC achieved notoriety through the activities of Lee Harvey Oswald in New Orleans. Oswald would later be accused of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
Vincent T. Lee shut down the national Fair Play for Cuba Committee in December 1963 when its landlord evicted the group from its national office; the notoriety accorded to it, following the Kennedy assassination, made it impossible for the committee to continue its work. The group continued to exist in Canada and still published several pamphlets until late 1964. Source.

What is the real history of Rafael Cruz, his travels, and his links to Cuba & the CIA?
+++

Tabloid Prez 2016

The tabloids seem to be competing with each other for most comedic but biting politically-related headlines during this presidential cycle. Whereas the traditional definition of tabloid journalism is of a style of journalism that tends to emphasize topics such as sensational crime stories, astrology, ufology, celebrity gossip, sports scandals, and junk food news, the current media have loved mostly the Trump, as their source. The following examples reflect what political news has become during the race for the White House for 2016.

The UK newspapers have gotten involved.
But the American press has been routinely editorial in their headlines.
Some critiques of Trump have been fact-based, but of little effect.
Ted Cruz has not been immune.
Of course, in the past, the tabloids have been the source of political commentary of the alien kind. I have not seen that this cycle, yet.

Ted Cruz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ted Cruz
Ted Cruz, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
United States Senator
from Texas
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 3, 2013
Serving with John Cornyn
Preceded by Kay Bailey Hutchison
Solicitor General of Texas
In office
January 9, 2003 – May 12, 2008
Governor Rick Perry
Preceded by Julie Parsley
Succeeded by James Ho
Personal details
Born Rafael Edward Cruz
December 22, 1970 (age 44)
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Heidi Nelson (m. 2001)
Children 2
Alma mater Princeton University (A.B., 1992)
Harvard Law School (J.D., 1995)
Religion Christianity (Southern Baptist)[1]
Website Senate website
Campaign website

Rafael EdwardTedCruz[2] (born December 22, 1970) is the junior United States Senator from Texas. A Republican, he was elected senator in 2012 and is the first Hispanic or Cuban American to serve as a U.S. Senator from Texas.[3][1][4] He is the chairman of the subcommittee on the Oversight, Agency Action, Federal Rights and Federal Courts, U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee.[5] He is also the chairman of the United States Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Space, Science and Competitiveness, U.S. Senate Commerce Committee. On March 23, 2015, Cruz announced he would run for the Republican Party nomination in the 2016 U.S. Presidential election at Liberty University.

Between 1999 and 2003, Cruz was the director of the Office of Policy Planning at the Federal Trade Commission, an associate deputy attorney general at the United States Department of Justice, and domestic policy advisor to U.S. President George W. Bushon the 2000 Bush-Cheney campaign. He served as Solicitor General of Texas from 2003 to May 2008, after being appointed byTexas Attorney General Greg Abbott.[6] He was the first Hispanic,[4][7] the youngest[4][8] and the longest-serving solicitor general in Texas history.[9] Cruz was also an adjunct professor of law at the University of Texas School of Law in Austin, from 2004 to 2009.[10][11] While there, he taught U.S. Supreme Court litigation.[10] Cruz is one of three Senators of Cuban descent.[12]

Cruz was the Republican nominee for the Senate seat vacated by fellow Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison.[13] On July 31, 2012, he defeated Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst in the Republican primary runoff, 57%–43%.[14] Cruz defeated former state Representative Paul Sadler in the general election on November 6, 2012. He prevailed 56%–41% over Sadler.[14][15] Cruz openly identifies with the Tea Party movement and has been endorsed by the Republican Liberty Caucus.[16] On November 14, 2012, Cruz was appointed vice-chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee.[17]

Early life and ancestry

Cruz was born on December 22, 1970,[6][15] in Calgary, Alberta, Canada,[6][18] where his parents, Eleanor Elizabeth Darragh Wilson[19][20][21] and Rafael Bienvenido Cruz,[19] were working in the oil business.[22][23] His parents owned a seismic-data processing firm for oil drillers.[19][24]

Cruz’s ancestry is Spanish (Canarian) on his father’s side and Irish and Italian on his mother’s side.[25] His father left Cuba in 1957 to attend the University of Texas at Austin, becoming a naturalized U.S. citizen in 2005.[19][26][27][28] His mother earned an undergraduate degree in mathematics from Rice University in the 1950s.[citation needed]

Education

Cruz attended high school at Faith West Academy in Katy, Texas,[29] and later graduated from Second Baptist High School in Houston as valedictorian in 1988.[26][30][31] During high school, Cruz participated in a Houston-based group called the Free Market Education Foundation where he learned about free-market economic philosophers such asMilton Friedman, Friedrich Hayek, Frédéric Bastiat and Ludwig von Mises.[32] The program was run by Rolland Storey and Cruz entered the program at the age of 13.[24]

Cruz graduated cum laude from Princeton University with a Bachelor of Arts in Public Policy[33] from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs in 1992.[4][6]While at Princeton, he competed for the American Whig-Cliosophic Society‘s Debate Panel and won the top speaker award at both the 1992 U.S. National Debating Championship and the 1992 North American Debating Championship.[34] In 1992, he was named U.S. National Speaker of the Year, as well as Team of the Year, with his debate partner, David Panton.[34] Cruz and Panton represented Harvard Law School at the 1995 World Debating Championship, making it to the semi-finals, where they lost to a team from Australia.[35][36][37] Princeton’s debate team later named their annual novice championship after Cruz.[37]

Cruz’s senior thesis on the separation of powers, titled “Clipping the Wings of Angels,” draws its inspiration from a passage attributed to President James Madison: “If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.” Cruz argued that the drafters of the Constitution intended to protect the rights of their constituents, and that the last two items in the Bill of Rights offer an explicit stop against an all-powerful state. Cruz wrote: “They simply do so from different directions. The Tenthstops new powers, and the Ninth fortifies all other rights, or non-powers.”[38][39]

After graduating from Princeton, Cruz attended Harvard Law School, graduating magna cum laude in 1995 with a Juris Doctor degree.[6][40] While at Harvard Law, he was a primary editor of the Harvard Law Review, and executive editor of the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, and a founding editor of the Harvard Latino Law Review.[4]Referring to Cruz’s time as a student at Harvard Law, Professor Alan Dershowitz said, “Cruz was off-the-charts brilliant.”[41][42] At Harvard Law, Cruz was a John M. Olin Fellow in Law and Economics.[10]

Cruz currently serves on the Board of Advisors of the Texas Review of Law and Politics.[10][43]

Legal career

Clerkships

Ted Cruz speaking in Nashua, New Hampshire.

Cruz served as a law clerk to J. Michael Luttig of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in 1995[7][10] and William Rehnquist,Chief Justice of the United States in 1996.[6] Cruz was the first Hispanic to clerk for a Chief Justice of the United States.[44]

Private practice

After Cruz finished his clerkships, he took a position with Cooper, Carvin & Rosenthal, now known as Cooper & Kirk, LLC, from 1997 to 1998.[45]While with the firm, Cruz worked on matters relating to the National Rifle Association, and helped prepare testimony for the impeachment proceedings against President Clinton.[46] Cruz also served as private counsel for Congressman John Boehner during Boehner’s lawsuit against Congressman Jim McDermott for releasing a tape recording of a Boehner telephone conversation.[47]

Bush Administration

Cruz joined the George W. Bush presidential campaign in 1999 as a domestic policy adviser, advising then-Governor George W. Bush on a wide range of policy and legal matters, including civil justice, criminal justice, constitutional law, immigration, and government reform.[45]

Cruz assisted in assembling the Bush legal team, devising strategy, and drafting pleadings for filing with the Supreme Court of Florida and U.S. Supreme Court, the specific case being Bush v. Gore, during the 2000 Florida presidential recounts, leading to two successful decisions for the Bush team.[10][48] Cruz recruited future Chief Justice John Roberts and noted attorney Mike Carvin to the Bush legal team.[46]

After President Bush took office, Cruz served as an associate deputy attorney general in the U.S. Justice Department[6][48] and as the director of policy planning at the U.S. Federal Trade Commission.[6][41][48]

Texas Solicitor General

Appointed to the office of Solicitor General of Texas by Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott,[7][49] Cruz served in that position from 2003 to 2008.[10][32] The office had been established in 1999 to handle appeals involving the state, but Abbott hired Cruz with the idea that Cruz would take a “leadership role in the United States in articulating a vision ofstrict construction.” As Solicitor General, Cruz argued before the Supreme Court nine times, winning five cases and losing four.[46]

Cruz has authored 70 United States Supreme Court briefs and presented 43 oral arguments, including nine before the United States Supreme Court.[7][41][50] Cruz’s record of having argued before the Supreme Court nine times is more than any practicing lawyer in Texas or any current member of Congress.[51] Cruz has commented on his nine cases in front of the U.S. Supreme Court: “We ended up year after year arguing some of the biggest cases in the country. There was a degree of serendipity in that, but there was also a concerted effort to seek out and lead conservative fights.”[51]

In 2003, while Cruz was Texas solicitor general, the Texas Attorney General’s office declined to defend Texas’ sodomy law in Lawrence v. Texas, where the U.S. Supreme Court decided that state laws banning homosexual sex as illegal sodomy were unconstitutional.[52]

In the landmark case of District of Columbia v. Heller, Cruz drafted the amicus brief signed by the attorneys general of 31 states, which said that the D.C. handgun ban should be struck down as infringing upon the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms.[50][53] Cruz also presented oral argument for the amici states in the companion case to Hellerbefore the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.[50][54]

In addition to his success in Heller, Cruz successfully defended the constitutionality of the Ten Commandments monument on the Texas State Capitol grounds before the Fifth Circuit and the U.S. Supreme Court, winning 5–4 in Van Orden v. Perry.[10][41][50]

In 2004, Cruz was involved in the high-profile case, Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow,[10][41] in which he wrote a U.S. Supreme Court brief on behalf of all 50 states.[55]The Supreme Court upheld the position of Cruz’s brief.

Cruz served as lead counsel for the state and successfully defended the multiple litigation challenges to the 2003 Texas congressional redistricting plan in state and federal district courts and before the U.S. Supreme Court, which was decided 5–4 in his favor in League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry.[10][56]

Cruz also successfully defended, in Medellin v. Texas, the State of Texas against an attempt to re-open the cases of 51 Mexican nationals, all of whom were convicted of murder in the United States and were on death row.[7][10][41][50] With the support of the George W. Bush Administration, the petitioners argued that the United States had violated theVienna Convention on Consular Relations by failing to notify the convicted nationals of their opportunity to receive legal aid from the Mexican consulate.[46][57] They based their case on a decision of the International Court of Justice in the Avena case which ruled that by failing to allow access to the Mexican consulate, the US had breached its obligations under the Convention.[58] Texas won the case in a 6–3 decision, the Supreme Court holding that ICJ decisions were not binding in domestic law and that the President had no power to enforce them.[46][57]

Cruz has been named by American Lawyer magazine as one of the 50 Best Litigators under 45 in America,[49][59] by The National Law Journal as one of the 50 Most Influential Minority Lawyers in America,[60][61] and by Texas Lawyer as one of the 25 Greatest Texas Lawyers of the Past Quarter Century.[62][63]

Private practice

After leaving the Solicitor General position in 2008, Cruz worked in a private law firm in Houston, Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP, often representing corporate clients, until he was sworn in as U.S. Senator from Texas in 2013.[10][38][64] At Morgan Lewis, he led the firm’s U.S. Supreme Court and national appellate litigation practice.[64] In 2009 and 2010, he formed and then abandoned a bid for state attorney general when the incumbent Attorney General Greg Abbott, who hired Cruz as Solicitor General, decided to run for re-election.[26]

U.S. Senate

2012 election

Cruz speaking to the Values Voters Summit in October 2011

Cruz’s victory in the Republican primary was described by the Washington Post as “the biggest upset of 2012 . . . a true grassroots victory against very long odds.”[65] On January 19, 2011, after U.S. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison said she would not seek reelection, Cruz announced his candidacy via a blogger conference call.[13] In the Republican senatorial primary, Cruz ran against sitting Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst. Cruz was endorsed first by former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin[66] and then by the Club for Growth, a fiscally conservative political action committee;[67] Erick Erickson, editor of prominent conservative blog RedState;[68] the FreedomWorks for America super PAC;[69] nationally syndicated radio host Mark Levin;[70] former Attorney General Edwin Meese;[48] Tea Party Express;[71]Young Conservatives of Texas;[72] and U.S. Senators Tom Coburn,[73] Jim DeMint,[74] Mike Lee,[75] Rand Paul[76] and Pat Toomey.[77] He was also endorsed by former Texas Congressman Ron Paul,[78] George P. Bush,[48] and former U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania Rick Santorum.[79]

Cruz won the runoff for the Republican nomination with a 14-point margin over Dewhurst.[80] Cruz defeated Dewhurst despite being outspent by Dewhurst who held a statewide elected office.[81] Dewhurst spent $19 million and Cruz only spent $7 million.[81] Dewhurst raised over $30 million and outspent Cruz at a ratio of nearly 3-to-1.[82]

In the November 6 general election, Cruz faced Democrat Paul Sadler, an attorney and a former state representative from Henderson, in east Texas. Cruz won with 4.5 million votes (56.4%) to Sadler’s 3.2 million (40.6%). Two minor candidates garnered the remaining 3% of the vote.[14] According to a poll by Cruz’s pollster Wilson Perkins Allen Opinion Research, Cruz received 40% of the Hispanic vote, vs. 60% for Sandler, outperforming Republican Presidential candidate Mitt Romney with the Hispanic vote by 6 points.[83][84]

After Time magazine reported on a potential violation of ethics rules by failing to publicly disclose his financial relationship with Caribbean Equity Partners Investment Holdings during the 2012 campaign, Cruz called his failure to disclose these connections an inadvertent omission.[85]

Legislation

Cruz giving a speech to the Montgomery County Republican Party meeting held in Conroe, Texas, on August 19, 2013

Cruz has sponsored 25 bills of his own, including:[86]

  • S.177, a bill to repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the health-care related provisions of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, introduced January 29, 2013
  • S.505, a bill to prohibit the use of drones to kill citizens of the United States within the United States, introduced March 7, 2013
  • S.729 and S. 730, bills to investigate and prosecute felons and fugitives who illegally purchase firearms, and to prevent criminals from obtaining firearms through straw purchases and trafficking, introduced March 15, 2013
  • S.1336, a bill to permit States to require proof of citizenship for registering to vote in federal elections, introduced July 17, 2013
  • S.2170, a bill to increase coal, natural gas, and crude oil exports, to approve the construction of the Keystone XL Pipeline, to expand oil drilling offshore, onshore, in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, and in Indian reservations, to give states the sole power of regulating hydraulic fracturing, to repeal the Renewable Fuel Standard, to prohibit the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from regulating greenhouse gases, to require the EPA to assess how new regulations will affect employment, and to earmark natural resource revenue to paying off the federal government’s debt, introduced March 27, 2014
  • S.2415, a bill to amend the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 to eliminate all limits on direct campaign contributions to candidates for public office, introduced June 3, 2014

Senate bill 2195

Main article: Public Law 113-100

On April 1, 2014, Cruz introduced Senate bill 2195, a bill that would allow the President of the United States to deny visas to any ambassador to the United Nations who has been found to have been engaged in espionage activities or a terrorist activity against the United States or its allies and may pose a threat to U.S. national security interests.[87] The bill was written in response to Iran‘s choice of Hamid Aboutalebi as their ambassador.[88] Aboutalebi was involved in the Iran hostage crisis, in which of a number of American diplomats from the US embassy in Tehran were held captive in 1979.[88][89][90]

Under the headline “A bipartisan message to Iran”, Cruz thanked President Barack Obama for signing S 2195 into law. The letter, published in the magazine Politico on April 18, 2014, starts with “Thanks to President Obama for joining a unanimous Congress and signing S 2195 into law”. Cruz also thanked senators from both political parties for “swiftly passing this legislation and sending it to the White House.”[91][92][93]

Committee assignments

According to transcripts as reported by Politico, in his first two years in the Senate, Cruz attended 17 of 50 public Armed Services Committee hearings, 3 of 25 Commerce Committee hearings, 4 of the 12 Judiciary Committee hearings, and missed 21 of 135 roll call votes during the first three months of 2015.[94]

Political positions

Climate change

In January 2015, Cruz voted in the U.S. Senate that global warming is real, but not man-made, rejecting an amendment stating that human activity significantly contributes to climate change.[95]

In a March 2015 Texas Tribune interview, Cruz questioned the credibility of environmental advocates concerned about the issue of global warming by saying, “On the global warming alarmists, anyone who actually points to the evidence that disproves their apocalyptical claims, they don’t engage in reasoned debate. What do they do? They scream, ‘You’re a denier.’ They brand you a heretic. Today, the global warming alarmists are the equivalent of the flat-earthers”.[96]

Cruz has stated that satellite data shows no global warming in the past 17 years, based on a range of data that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change views as indicative of a short term trend (1998 was a particularly warm year), to deny the longer term warming trend of 360 consecutive months above the 20th century average.[97][98][99][100]

Economy

Since being elected, Cruz has characterized the economic policies of the Obama Administration as being misguided.[101] Chiding the GOP over its 2012 electoral losses, he stated that “Republicans are and should be the party of the 47 percent”[102] and has also noted that the words “growth and opportunity” ought to be tattooed on every Republican’s hand.[103]

In February 2014, Cruz opposed an unconditional increase in the debt limit.[104] He said that Republican politicians feared the truth and “they wanted to be able to tell what they view as their foolish, gullible constituents back home they didn’t do it.”[105]

Education

Cruz is a proponent of school choice.[106]

Energy policy

At a Heritage Foundation policy summit in February 2014, Cruz said that energy policy should be a key issue, stating “As much as we need to approve the Keystone pipeline, we need to think far broader than that.”[107] He pushed legislation to lift the 1970 ban on crude oil exports, and abolish the ethanol mandate.[108] Cruz received more than US$1 million in campaign donations from the oil and gas industry since 2011.[108]

Cruz was an original co-sponsor of the Keystone XL Pipeline Act, Senate Bill 1 of the 114th Congress,[109] and on January 29, 2015, voted for its passage.[110] It passed the Senate 62-36, the goal of the bill was to approve the construction of the transnational pipeline.[111] Cruz wants Congress to approve the exportation of U.S. natural gas to World Trade Organization countries.[112][113]

Environmental protection

Cruz advocates for “volunteer conservation”, and criticized efforts by the federal government’s Environmental Protection Agency to expand regulatory oversight on water use by attempting “to turn irrigation ditches into lakes and rivers and oceans”.[114]

Foreign affairs

Cruz speaking at the May 2015 Citizens United Freedom Summit

On foreign policy, Cruz has said that he is “somewhere in between” Rand Paul‘s “basically … isolationist” position and John McCain‘s active interventionism.[115]

In April 2015, Cruz filed an amendment to a bill introduced by Tennessee Senator Bob Corker, the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015, which would require affirmative Congressional approval of any Iranian nuclear deal before sanctions relief can occur.[116]

In 2004, Cruz criticized Democratic Presidential candidate John Kerry for being “against defending American values, against standing up to our enemies, and, in effect, for appeasing totalitarian despots.”[117] Cruz helped defeat efforts to ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, arguing that the treaty infringed on US sovereignty.[46]

In 2013, Cruz stated that America had no “dog in the fight” during the Syrian civil war and stated that America’s armed forces should not serve as “al-Qaeda‘s air force”.[118] In 2014, Cruz criticized the Obama administration: “The president’s foreign policy team utterly missed the threat ofISIS, indeed, was working to arm Syrian rebels that were fighting side by side with ISIS”, calling ISIS “the face of evil”.[119] Cruz has called for bombing ISIS, but is doubtful that the United States “can tell the good guys from the bad guys” in a plan to arm “moderate” rebels, and the plan to defeat ISIS should not be “laden with impractical contingencies, such as resolving the Syrian civil war.”[120]

In 2014, Cruz spoke at an event held by the group In Defense of Christians (IDC). He was booed by the group after making statements considered pro-Israel. Cruz left the stage after telling the audience, “Those who hate Israel hate America. Those who hate Jews hate Christians. If those in this room will not recognize that, then my heart weeps. If you hate the Jewish people you are not reflecting the teachings of Christ. And the very same people who persecute and murder Christians right now, who crucify Christians, who behead children, are the very same people who target Jews for their faith, for the same reason”.[121] Some commentators believe there is a divide in the conservative movement between those who sided with Cruz and Israel, and those who sided withMiddle Eastern Christians and some arguing that Cruz’s comments were out-of-bounds.[122] Others who criticized Cruz included Mollie Hemingway and Ross Douthat.[123] Cruz apologized for questioning the motives of his critics and said that all should be united in speaking out against persecution of religious minorities.[124]

Gun rights

Cruz is a gun-rights supporter.[125] On March 25, 2013, an announcement was made by Cruz and U.S. Senators Rand Paul and Mike Lee threatening to filibuster any legislation that would entail gun control, such as the Manchin-Toomey Amendment, which would require additional background checks on sales at gun shows.[126] On April 17, 2013, Cruz voted against the Manchin-Toomey Amendment.[127] Republicans successfully filibustered the amendment by a vote of 54–46, as 60 votes were needed for cloture.[128]

In April 2015, Cruz stated “what I have been pressing is the Armed Services Committee” to hold hearings on whether service members should be allowed to carry concealed firearms on military bases.[129] He believes that service members should be better equipped to protect themselves from incidents like the Navy Yard and Fort Hood mass shootings.[129] He further added, “”I think it’s very important to have a public discussion about why we’re denying our soldiers the ability to exercise their Second Amendment rights“.[129]

Health care

Cruz is a strong critic of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which he usually refers to as “Obamacare”. He has sponsored legislation that would repeal the health care reform law and its amendments in the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.

After the launch of the HealthCare.gov website, with which there were significant implementation problems,[130] Cruz stated, “Obamacare is a disaster. You have the well-publicized problems with the website. It just isn’t working.”[130] He called for Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius to resign.[130]

In 2014, some claim Cruz unintentionally gave majority leader Harry Reid the procedural opening he needed to allow a Senate vote to confirm Vivek Murthy, who had raised concerns about the health effects of gun ownership, to be United States Surgeon General,[131] though it has been reported Reid intended to push through the remaining confirmations of President Obama’s nominees regardless.[132]

In the summer of 2013, Cruz started a “nationwide tour” sponsored by The Heritage Foundation to promote a congressional effort to defund the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, arguing that Republicans should unite in upcoming Continuing Resolution negotiations to defund Obamacare and with regard to a potential government shutdown Cruz downplayed worries of the political risk to Republicans by citing the results of the 1996 midterm elections.[133][134]

On September 24, 2013, Cruz began a speech on the floor of the Senate regarding the Affordable Care Act relative to a continuing resolution designed to fund the government and avert a government shutdown.[135][136] Cruz promised to keep speaking until he was “no longer able to stand”.[137] Cruz yielded the floor at noon the following day for the start of the proceeding legislative session after twenty-one hours nineteen minutes.[138] His speech was the fourth-longest in United States Senate history.[139] Following Cruz’s speech, the Senate voted 100–0 regarding a “procedural hurdle toward passing a stopgap funding bill to avert a government shutdown”.[140] Cruz was joined by 18 Republican senators in his effort to prevent stripping out a clause that would have defunded the Affordable Care Act by voting against the cloture motion, leaving the effort 21 votes short of the required number to deny cloture.[141]

Cruz is cited in the press as having been a major force behind the U.S. government shutdown in 2013.[142][143] Cruz delivered a message on October 11, 2013 to fellow Republicans against accepting Obamacare and, describing it as a “train wreck”, claimed the American people remain “energized” around the goal of gutting the law.[144] Cruz stated Obamacare is causing “enormous harm” to the economy.[144] Republican strategist Mike Murphy stated: “Cruz is trying to start a wave of Salem witch trials in the G.O.P. on the shutdown and Obamacare, and that fear is impacting some people’s calculations on 2016.”[143] Cruz said that he “didn’t threaten to shut down the government” and blamed the shutdown on President Barack Obama and Senate Majority Leader Harry M. Reid.[145]

The Houston Chronicle, which had endorsed Cruz in the general election, regretted that he had not lived up to the standard set by the previous U.S. Senator from Texas, Kay Bailey Hutchison.[146][147] After a deal was made to end the shutdown and extend the debt-ceiling deadline, Senate Republican leader Mitch McConnell called Cruz’s actions “not a smart play” and a “tactical error”,[148] and Cruz stated: “I would do anything, and I will continue to do anything I can, to stop the train wreck that is Obamacare. The test that matters… is are we doing anything for all the people that are getting hurt from Obamacare?”[149] In March 2015, Cruz announced his wife would be taking an unpaid leave of absence and would no longer have access to health insurance through her employer, so they purchased private insurance rather than enter the health care exchange.[150]

Internet regulation

Cruz opposes net neutrality arguing that the Internet economy has flourished in the United States simply because it has remained largely free from government regulation.[151] He believes regulating the Internet will stifle online innovation and create monopolies.[152] He has expressed support for stripping the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of its power under Section 706 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996,[151] and opposes reclassifying internet service providers as common carriers under Title II of theCommunications Act of 1934.[153]

Minimum wage

In 2015, Cruz opposed President Obama’s plan to raise the federal minimum wage to $10.10 per hour, stating that he believes it would cause large scale job loss.[154] When discussing whether or not to have a minimum wage in general, Cruz stated “I think the minimum wage consistently hurts the most vulnerable.”[154]

National Security Agency

Cruz has raised concerns that the National Security Agency has not been effective in its surveillance of potential terrorists while intruding needlessly into the lives of ordinary Americans.[155]

Social issues

Cruz is pro-life. The only exception to his pro-life views is “when a pregnancy endangers the mother’s life”.[156][157]

Cruz supports legally defined marriage as only “between one man and one woman,”[158] but believes that the legality of same-sex marriage should be left to each state to decide.[159] On February 10, 2015, Cruz re-introduced the State Marriage Defense Act.[160] Cruz opposes participation in gay pride marches, criticizing Dallas’ Republican mayor Tom Leppert, stating “When a mayor of a city chooses twice to march in a parade celebrating gay pride that’s a statement and it’s not a statement I agree with.”[161] He voted against reauthorizing the Violence Against Women Act, which included provisions to extend protection to lesbians, gays, immigrants, and Native Americans.[161] In a speech in Waukee, Iowa, Cruz said that “[t]here is a liberal fascism that is dedicated to going after believing Christians who follow the biblical teaching on marriage.”[162]

Cruz opposes the legalization of marijuana, but believes it should be decided at the state level.[163]

Taxes

Cruz advocates the abolition of the IRS, and implementing a flat tax “where the average American can fill out taxes on a postcard”.[164] He opposes the Marketplace Fairness Act, saying that it imposes a burdensome tax that will hurt competition by creating additional costs for internet-based businesses.[165]

Water

Cruz voted against the Water Resources Development Act of 2013, that would have created the National Endowment for the Oceans and authorize more than $26 billion in projects to be built by the Army Corps of Engineers, at least $16 billion of which will come from federal taxpayers.[166][167] Cruz voted against the bill because it neglected “to reduce a substantial backlog of projects, to the detriment of projects with national implications, such as the Sabine-Neches Waterway“.[168] Cruz stated that the Corps’ responsibilities were expanded without providing adequate measures for state participation.[168] Proponents of the bill argued that it would provide steady funding to support research and restoration projects, funded primarily by dedicating 12.5% of revenues from offshore energy development, including oil, gas, and renewable energy, through offshore lease sales and production based royalty payments, distributed through a competitive grant program.[169]

Presidential campaign

Senator Cruz speaking at the 2014 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in National Harbor, Maryland.

Commentators have expressed their opinion that Cruz would run for President in 2016.[170][171][172] On March 14, 2013, Cruz gave the keynote speech at the 2013 Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington DC.[173] He came in tied for 7th place in the 2013 CPAC straw poll on March 16, winning 4% of the votes cast.[174] In October 2013, Cruz won the Values Voter Summit Presidential straw poll with 42% of the vote.[175] Cruz came in first place in the two most recent Presidential straw polls conducted in 2014 with 30.33% of the vote at the Republican Leadership Conference[176] and 43% of the vote at the Republican Party of Texas state convention.[177]

Cruz did speaking events in the summer of 2013 across Iowa, New Hampshire and South Carolina, early primary states, leading to speculation that he was laying the groundwork for a run for President in 2016.[178] Legal analyst Jeffrey Toobin describes Cruz as the first potential Presidential candidate to emphasize originalism as a major national issue.[46]

Since Cruz was born in Canada, commentators for the Austin American-Statesman[179] and the Los Angeles Times,[180] have speculated about Cruz’s legal status as a natural-born citizen. Because he was a U.S. citizen at birth (his mother was a U.S. citizen who lived in the U.S. for more than 10 years as outlined by the Nationality Act of 1940), most commentators believe Cruz is eligible to serve as President of the United States.[18][181][182][183]

Despite many legal experts opinions to the contrary, conservative legal activist Larry Klayman, Orly Taitz, one of the leading proponents of the “birther” movement during Obama’s presidency, Joseph Farah of World Net Daily, and Donald Trump, have stated that Cruz is not a natural born citizen and thus not eligible to run for president.[184]

On April 12, 2014, Cruz spoke at the Freedom Summit, an event organized by Americans for Prosperity, and Citizens United.[185] The event was attended by several potential presidential candidates.[186] In his speech, Cruz mentioned that Latinos, young people and single mothers, are the people most affected by the recession, and that the Republican Party should make outreach efforts to these constituents. He also said that the words “growth and opportunity” should be tattooed on the hands of every Republican politician.[185]

On March 23, 2015, Cruz announced on his Twitter page: “I’m running for President and I hope to earn your support!”[187] He was the first announced major Republican presidential candidate for the 2016 campaign.[188][189]

HarperCollins published Cruz’s book A Time for Truth: Reigniting the Promise of America on June 30, 2015.[190] The book reached the bestseller list of several organizations in its first week of release.[191][192]

Personal life

Cruz with his wife Heidi at a rally in Houston, March 2015

Cruz married Heidi Nelson in 2001.[193] The couple has two daughters:[194] Caroline (born 2008) and Catherine (born 2011). Cruz met his wife while working on the George W. Bush presidential campaign of 2000. She is currently taking leave from her position as head of the Southwest Region in the Investment Management Division of Goldman, Sachs & Co. and previously worked in the White House for Condoleezza Rice and in New York as an investment banker.[195]

Cruz has said, “I’m Cuban, Irish, and Italian, and yet somehow I ended up Southern Baptist.”[1]

When he was a child, Cruz’s mother told him that she would have to make an affirmative act to claim Canadian citizenship for him, so his family assumed that he did not hold Canadian citizenship.[196] In August 2013, after the Dallas Morning News pointed out that Cruz had dual Canadian-American citizenship,[183] he applied to formally renounce his Canadian citizenship and ceased being a citizen of Canada on May 14, 2014.[196][197]

Accolades

Rick Manning of Americans for Limited Government in The Hill, on December 27, 2013, named Cruz “2013 Person of the Year.”[198] Manning stated that “of course, Cruz made his biggest mark when he and fellow freshman Sen. Mike Lee (R-Utah) led a last-ditch national grassroots effort to defundObamaCare before the law went into effect fully. Imagine how many Senate Democrats wish right now that they had heeded Cruz’s entreaties and agreed to delaying or defunding it for one year. Now, they are stuck with the law and all its consequences.”[198]

Cruz was also named “2013 Man of the Year” by TheBlaze,[199] FrontPage Magazine[200] and The American Spectator,[201] “2013 Conservative of the Year” by Townhall.com,[202]“2013 Statesman of the Year” by the Republican Party of Sarasota County, Florida[203][204] and was a finalist in both “2013 Texan of the Year” by The Dallas Morning News[205]and a “2013 Person of the Year” finalist by Time.[206]

Electoral history

2012 Republican primary
Republican primary results, May 29, 2012[14]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican David Dewhurst 624,170 44.6
Republican Ted Cruz 479,079 34.2
Republican Tom Leppert 186,675 13.3
Republican Craig James 50,211 3.6
Republican Glenn Addison 22,888 1.6
Republican Lela Pittenger 18,028 1.3
Republican Ben Gambini 7,193 0.5
Republican Curt Cleaver 6,649 0.5
Republican Joe Argis 4,558 0.3
Total votes 1,399,451 100
2012 Republican primary runoff
Republican runoff results, July 31, 2012[14]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ted Cruz 631,316 56.8
Republican David Dewhurst 480,165 43.2
Total votes 1,111,481 100
2012 General Election
General Election, November 6, 2012[14]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ted Cruz 4,469,843 56.45
Democratic Paul Sadler 3,194,927 40.62
Libertarian John Jay Myers 162,354 2.06
Green David Collins 67,404 0.85
Total votes 7,864,822 100

See also

Year in review 2014

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2014 (MMXIV) is the current year, and is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar(dominical letter E), the 2014th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 14th year of the 3rd millennium, the 14th year of the 21st century, and the 5th year of the 2010s decade.

By the United Nations, 2014 is designated the:

 Horus of the horizon 2014
stuff that happen in 2014
Islamic terror attack

Global search

1.Robin Williams

2.World Cup

3.Ebola

4.Malaysia Airlines

5.ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

6.Flappy Bird

7.Conchita Wurst

8.ISIS

9.Frozen

10.Sochi Olympics

Global news

1.Ebola

2.ISIS

3.Malaysia Airlines

4.Crimea / Ukraine

5.Ferguson

6.Gaza and Israel

7.Scotish Referendum

8.Oscar Pistorius trial

US

1 Robin Williams

2.World Cup

3.Ebola

4.Malaysia Airlines

5.Flappy Bird

6.ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

7.ISIS

8.Ferguson

9.Frozen

10.Ukraine

 Natural Disaster

1.Hurricane Arthur

2.Chile Earthquake

3.Napa Earthquake

4.Hurricane Iselle

5.Oso Mudslide

6.Hurricane Odile

7.Arkansas Tornado

8.Hurricane Julio

9.Alaska Earthquake

10.Hurricane Ana

 People

1.Jennifer Lawrence

2.Kim Kardashian

3.Tracy Morgan

4.Ray Rice

5.Tony Stewart

6.Iggy Azalea

7.Donald Sterling

8.Adrian Peterson

9.Rene Zellweger

10.Jared Leto

 Pregnancies

1.Mila Kunis

2.Ciara

3.Kourtney Kardashian

4.Kate Middleton

5.Kerry Washington

6.Carrie Underwood

7.Scarlett Johansson

8.Hayden Panettiere

9.Blake Lively

10.Eva Mendes

 Losses of 2014

1.Robin Williams

2.Joan Rivers

3.Philip Seymour Hoffman

4.Maya Angelou

5.Jan Hooks

6.Harold Ramis

7.Shirley Temple

8.Lauren Bacall

9.Mickey Rooney

10.James Avery

University & Colleague

1Università degli Studi eCampus

The eCampus University, often simply abbreviated as “Uniecampus” is a private university founded in 2006 in Novedrate, Italy.

#170 most searched

2University of Mississippi

The University of Mississippi is a public, coeducational research university in Oxford, Mississippi, United States.

#28 most searched

3California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona is a public polytechnic university located in Pomona, California, United States.

#183 most searched

4Mississippi State University

The Mississippi State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, commonly known as Mississippi State University, is…Wikipedia

#104 most searched

5Florida State University

The Florida State University is a space-grant and sea-grant public research university located in the state capital city…Wikipedia

#8 most searched

6Indiana University Bloomington

Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university located in Bloomington, Indiana, United States.

#37 most searched

7Tidewater Community College

Tidewater Community College, also known as “TCC,” is a two-year higher education institution in South Hampton Roads with…Wikipedia

#190 most searched

8Louisiana State University

Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College is a public coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana…Wikipedia

#19 most searched

9University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut is a public research university in the U.S. state of Connecticut.

#34 most searched

10Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University is a public, state-related research university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

#1 most searched

Scientist

1Stephen Wolfram

Stephen Wolfram is a scientist and technologist known for his contributions to theoretical physics, for his pioneering.

#2 most searched

2Haruko Obokata

Haruko Obokata is a Japanese stem-cell biologist and the Research Unit Leader of the Laboratory for Cellular Reprogramming.

#117 most searched

3Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research.

#3 most searched

4Dorothy Hodgkin

Dorothy Mary Hodgkin, OM, FRS, known professionally as Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin or simply Dorothy Hodgkin, was a British…Wikipedia

#59 most searched

5Mary Anning

Mary Anning was a British fossil collector, dealer, and palaeontologist who became known around the world for important.

#61 most searched

6Percy Lavon Julian

Percy Lavon Julian was an American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants.

#56 most searched

7John Eleuthère du Pont

John Eleuthère du Pont was a convicted murderer, an American multimillionaire, and member of the prominent du Pont family.

#60 most searched

8Peter Higgs

Peter Ware Higgs CH FRS FRSE is a British theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize laureate and emeritus professor at the.

#58 most searched

9Jonas Salk

Jonas Edward Salk was an American medical researcher and virologist. He discovered and developed the first successful.

#26 most searched

10Dian Fossey

Dian Fossey was an American zoologist, primatologist, and anthropologist who undertook an extensive study of gorilla groups.

#41 most searched

 Actors

1.Jared Leto

2.Matthew McConaughey

3.Macaulay Culkin

4.Chris Pratt

5.Theo James

6.Ansel Elgort

7.Jamie Dornan

8.Alfonso Ribeiro

9.James McAvoy

10.Laurence Fishburne

 Actresses

1.Jennifer Lawrence

2.Renee Zellweger

3.Betty White

4.Ellen Page

5.Kim Novak

6.Margot Robbie

7.Jacqueline Bisset

8.Lena Dunham

9.Melanie Griffith

10.Lea Thompson

 Athletes

1.Ray Rice

2.Adrian Peterson

3.Richard Sherman

4.Paul George

5.Carmelo Anthony

6.Derek Jeter

7.Johnny Manziel

8.Russell Wilson

9.Tony Gwynn

10.Tim Howard

 Politicians

1.Barack Obama

2.Chris Christie

3.Rand Paul

4.Rick Perry

5.Ted Cruz

6.Joe Biden

7.Elizabeth Warren

8.Scott Walker

9.Paul Ryan

10.Harry Reid

Us Governor

1Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-born American actor, filmmaker, activist, businessman, investor, writer,.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Chris Christie

Christopher James “Chris” Christie is the 55th Governor of New Jersey and a leading member of the Republican Party.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

3Rick Perry

James Richard “Rick” Perry is an American politician who is the 47th and current Governor of Texas.

+2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

10 years in top 10

4Jesse Ventura

James George Janos, better known by his stage name, Jesse Ventura, is an American politician, actor, author, naval veteran..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

5Andrew Cuomo

Andrew Mark Cuomo is an American politician who is the 56th and current Governor of New York.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

6Scott Walker

Scott Kevin Walker is an American Republican Party politician who is the 45th Governor of Wisconsin.

+5 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

7Rick Scott

Richard Lynn “Rick” Scott is an American businessman and politician who has been the 45th Governor of Florida since 2011.

+5 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

8Jeb Bush

John Ellis “Jeb” Bush served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007. He is the second son of former President George H.

+8 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Bob McDonnell

Robert Francis “Bob” McDonnell is a former American politician. He was the 71st Governor of Virginia.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

10Jerry Brown

Edmund Gerald “Jerry” Brown, Jr. is an American politician who currently serves as the 39th Governor of California since..

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

11Charlie Crist

Charles Joseph “Charlie” Crist, Jr. is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th Governor of Florida from 2007 to 2011.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

12Mike Huckabee

Michael Dale “Mike” Huckabee is an American politician who served as the 44th Governor of Arkansas..

-2 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

6 years in top 10

13Kathleen Sebelius

Kathleen Sebelius is an American politician who served as the 21st United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.

-6 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

14Bobby Jindal

Piyush “Bobby” Jindal is an American politician who is the 55th and current Governor of Louisiana and the Vice Chairman.

+4 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

15George Wallace

George Corley Wallace, Jr. was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive..

+2 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

16Pat Quinn

Patrick Joseph “Pat” Quinn III is an American politician who is the 41st and current Governor of Illinois.

New in chart

17Mark Warner

Mark Robert Warner is an American politician and the senior United States Senator from Virginia, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

2 years in top 10

18Jan Brewer

Janice Kay “Jan” Brewer is the 22nd Governor of the U.S. state of Arizona, in office since 2009.

New in chart

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

19Huey Long

Huey Pierce Long, Jr., nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana.

New in chart

20Tom Corbett

Thomas Wingett “Tom” Corbett, Jr. is an American politician who is the 46th and current Governor of Pennsylvania.

New in chart

Books

1.Boy, Snow, Bird

2.Blood Will Out

3.Savage Harvest: A Tale of Cannibals. Colonialism and Michael Rockefeller’s Tragic Quest for Primitive Art

4.City of Heavenly Fire

5.Flash Boys

6.The Invention of Wings

7.All the Light We Cannot See

8.Words of Radiance

9.Yes Please

10.Capital in the Twenty First Century

 TV Shows

1.Game of Thrones

2.True Detective

3.Orange is the New Black

4.The Following

5.American Horror Story

6.Gotham

7.South Park

8.House of Cards

9.Outlander

10.The 100

Movie trailer

1.Gone Girl trailer

2.Interstellar trailer

3.Divergent trailer

4.Frozen trailer

5.The Lego Movie trailer

6.The Avengers 2 trailer

7.Godzilla trailer

8.The Hunger Games: Mockingjay Part 1 trailer

9.Annabelle trailer

10.Maleficent trailer

Movie

1.Frozen

2.Interstellar

3.Divergent

4.Gone Girl

5.Lone Survivor

6.Godzilla

7.22 Jump Street

8.Big Hero 6

9.Annabelle

10.Maleficent

Music Artist

1.Iggy Azalea

2.Lorde

3.Sam Smith

4.Meghan Trainor

5.Solange Knowles

6.Nicki Minaj

7.Weird Al

8.Sia

9.Daft Punk

10.Taylor Swift

 Song lyrics

1.Say Something lyrics

2.Anaconda lyrics

3.Fancy lyrics

4.Happy lyrics

5.Blank Space lyrics

6.Royals lyrics

7.Dark Horse lyrics

8.Bang Bang lyrics

9.Counting Stars lyrics

10.Wrecking Ball lyrics

 Music festivals

1.Coachella

2.Mysteryland

3.Boston Calling

4.Hard Summer

5.Electric Forest

6.Firefly Music Festival

7.Austin City Limits

8.South by Southwest

9.Outside Lands

10.Fun Fun Fun Fest

 Beers

1.Budweiser

2.Corona

3.Keystone

4.Miller

5.Blue Moon

6.Coors

7.Bud Light

8.PBR

9.Modelo

10.Sierra Nevada

 Video Games

1.Destiny

2.Titanfall

3.Watch Dogs

4.ArcheAge

5.Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare

6.Madden 15

7.Mario Kart 8

8.Dragon Age Inquisition

9.Battlefield Hardline

10.League of Angels

Cars

1.Ford

2.Jeep

3.Dodge

4.Toyota

5.General Motors

6.Subaru

7.Honda

8.Nissan

9.BMW

10.Tesla

Countries

1Ukraine

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the largest country entirely within Europe…Wikipedia

#18 most searched

2Korea

Korea, called Hanguk in South Korea and Joseon in North Korea, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct…Wikipedia

#36 most searched

3Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its..

#22 most searched

4Indonesia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia and Oceania..

#30 most searched

5Iraq

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia that borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east,.

#35 most searched

6Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#17 most searched

7Qatar

Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign Arab country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar.

#69 most searched

8Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea..

#15 most searched

9Bermuda

Bermuda, also referred to in legal documents as the Bermudas or Somers Isles, is a British Overseas Territory in the North.

#59 most searched

10Palestine

Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

#109 most searched

Cities

1Sochi

Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia..

#152 most searched

2Sonoma

Sonoma is a historically significant city in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, United States, surrounding its.

#135 most searched

3Manchester

Manchester is a city in Greater Manchester with a population of 514,417 in 2013; it lies within the United Kingdom’s second..

#124 most searched

4Kansas City

Kansas City or K.C. is the most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Missouri.

#35 most searched

5Hong Kong

Hong Kong, alternatively known as H.K. in short form, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the.

#79 most searched

6Cleveland

Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state…Wikipedia

#28 most searched

7Green Bay

Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the State of Wisconsin, located at the head of Green Bay,

#73 most searched

8Saint Paul

Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the state of Minnesota. As of 2013, the city’s estimated population was 294,873..

#128 most searched

9Dallas

Dallas is a major city in Texas and is one of the two urban centers of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the…Wikipedia

#5 most searched

10Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

#114 most searched

Energy Company

1Duke Energy

Duke Energy, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is the largest electric power holding company in the United States..

+1 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

9 years in top 10

2Chevron

Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. Headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active…Wikipedia

+3 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3National Grid plc

National Grid plc is a British multinational electricity and gas utility company headquartered in London, United Kingdom…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

4BP

BP plc, sometimes referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company…Wikipedia

-3 since last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Florida Power & Light

Florida Power & Light Company, the principal subsidiary of NextEra Energy Inc., commonly referred to by its initials, FPL…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

7Xcel Energy

Xcel Energy Inc. is a utility holding company based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, serving more than 3.3 million electric…Wikipedia

+1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

8ExxonMobil

Exxon Mobil Corp., or ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas, United States…Wikipedia

-2 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

9Public Service Enterprise Group

Public Service Enterprise Group, founded as the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and later renamed Public Service…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

10Consolidated Edison

Consolidated Edison, Inc., commonly known as Con Edison or Con Ed, is one of the largest investor-owned energy companies..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

Financial company

1Wells Fargo

Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational banking and financial services holding company which is headquartered..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Bank of America

Bank of America is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Chase

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase, is a national bank that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

4Capital One

Capital One Financial Corporation is a U.S.-based bank holding company specializing in credit cards, home loans, auto..

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #4 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5American Express

The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Citibank

Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational Citigroup.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7PNC Financial Services

PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. is an American financial services corporation, with assets of approximately $271.2 billion.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

8USAA

The United Services Automobile Association is a Texas-based Fortune 500 diversified financial services group of companies.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

5 years in top 10

9Fidelity Investments

FMR LLC or Fidelity Investments is an American multinational financial services corporation…Wikipedia

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #9 (yearly)

7 years in top 10

10State Farm Insurance

State Farm is a group of insurance and financial services companies in the United States. The company also has operations in Canada.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

3 years in top 10

Retail company

1Amazon.com

Amazon.com, Inc. is an American international electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, United States.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

2Walmart

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., branded as Walmart, is an American multinational retail corporation that operates chains of large.

Same rank as last year

Peaked at #1 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

3Target Corporation

Target Corporation is an American retailing company, founded in 1902 and headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

New in chart

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

4The Home Depot

The Home Depot is an American retailer of home improvement and construction products and services.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #3 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

5Best Buy

Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics corporation headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #2 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

6Lowe’s

Lowe’s is an American chain of retail home improvement and appliance stores that has retail stores in the United States,.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #5 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

7Costco

Costco Wholesale Corporation is an American membership-only warehouse club that provides a wide selection of merchandise.

-1 since last year

Peaked at #6 (yearly)

8 years in top 10

8Walgreens

The Walgreen Company is the largest drug retailing chain in the United States. As of May 31, 2014, the company operated.

+2 since last year

Peaked at #8 (yearly)

4 years in top 10

9J. C. Penney

  1. C. Penney Company Inc., known as JCPenney, is a chain of American mid-range department stores based in Plano, Texas..

-1 since last year

Peaked at #7 (yearly)

11 years in top 10

10Toys “R” Us

Toys “R” Us, Inc. is an American toy and juvenile-products retailer founded in 1948 and headquartered in Wayne, New Jersey…Wikipedia

New in chart

Peaked at #10 (yearly)

1 year in top 10

Medicine

1Advil

Advil is a brand of ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Advil is manufactured by Pfizer and has been on the market since 1984.

#53 most searched

2Tylenol

Tylenol is an American brand of drugs advertised for reducing pain, reducing fever, and relieving the symptoms of allergies.

#7 most searched

3Triamcinolone acetonide

Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various skin conditions, to relieve the discomfort of.

#122 most searched

4Anxiolytic

An anxiolytic is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents…Wikipedia

#131 most searched

5Adderall

Adderall is a psychostimulant pharmaceutical drug of the phenethylamine class used in the treatment of attention deficit.

#2 most searched

6Cortisone

Cortisone is a 21-carbon steroid hormone. It is one of the main hormones released by the adrenal gland in response to stress..

#72 most searched

7Tums

Tums is an antacid made of sucrose and calcium carbonate manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

#133 most searched

8Gabapentin

Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant and analgesic drug. It was originally developed to treat epilepsy, and is currently also..

#14 most searched

9Triamcinolone

Triamcinolone is a long-acting synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.

#70 most searched

10Insulin

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

#37 most searched

Animals

1Pig

A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates.

#10 most searched

2Bear

Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds.

#6 most searched

3Ape

Apes are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid catarrhine primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia and distinguished.

#64 most searched

4Pony

A pony is a small horse. Depending on context, a pony may be a horse that is under an approximate or exact height at the.

#42 most searched

5Eagle

Eagle is a common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae; it belongs to several groups of genera.

#32 most searched

6Lion

The lion is one of the five big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae.

#11 most searched

7Turkey

The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.

#12 most searched

8Dolphin

Dolphins are cetacean mammals closely related to whales and porpoises. There are almost forty species of dolphin in 17 genera.

#29 most searched

9Duck

Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese.

#16 most searched

10Bison

Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and four extinct species are recognized.

#131 most searched

Chemical weapon

1Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen.

#4 most searched

2Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, less reactive than its.

#19 most searched

3Lithium

Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali.

#22 most searched

4Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series.

#3 most searched

5Carbon

Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is.

#5 most searched

6Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a bright yellow dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal.

#1 most searched

7Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal and.

#9 most searched

8Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It is the lightest pnictogen and at room temperature,

#16 most searched

9Krypton

Krypton is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 elements.

#49 most searched

10Thorium

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only.

#46 most searched

Space object

1Moon

The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. Although not the largest natural satellite in the Solar System, it is, among.

#1 most searched

267P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko, officially designated 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko and sometimes shortened to 67P/C-G, is a.

#35 most searched

3Io

Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter. It is the fourth-largest moon and has the highest…Wikipedia

#15 most searched

4Ceres

Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

#16 most searched

5Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fourth-largest planet by diameter.

#10 most searched

6Europa

Europa, is the sixth-closest moon of the planet Jupiter, and the smallest of its four Galilean satellites, but still the.

#13 most searched

7Alpha Lupi

Alpha Lupi is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Lupus. According to the Bortle Dark-Sky Scale, the.

#61 most searched

8Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

#4 most searched

9Pluto

Pluto is the largest object in the Kuiper belt, and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun.

#8 most searched

10Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has no natural satellite.

#5 most searched

Events

January

February

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October

November

December[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 2014
Further information: Category:2014 deaths
Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

In fiction