United Nations General Assembly resolution ES-10/L.22

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UN General Assembly
Resolution ES‑10/L.22
United Nations General Assembly resolution A ES 10 L 22 vote.png

  Voted in favor
  Voted against
  Abstained
  Not present
Date 21 December 2017
Meeting no. 10th Emergency Special Session (continuation)
Code A/RES/ES‑10/L.22 (Document)
Subject Status of Jerusalem
Voting summary
128 voted for
9 voted against
35 abstained
21 absent
Result Recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void”

United Nations General Assembly resolution ES‑10/L.22 is a emergency session resolution declaring the status of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital as “null and void.”.[1] It was adopted by the 37th Plenary meeting of the tenth emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly[2] during the tenure of the seventy-second session of the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 2017. The draft resolution was drafted by Yemen and Turkey.[3]Though strongly contested by the United States, it passed by 128 votes to nine against with 21 absentees and 35 abstentions.

Background[edit]

On 6 December 2017, US President Donald Trump said that he would recognise the status of Jerusalem as being Israel’s sovereign capital[4] in a departure from previous UNGA resolutions as well prevailing international norms where no state either recognises Jerusalem as a national capital nor has an embassy there. The move prompted protests from states and communities in many parts of the world.[5]

Following the failure of an United Nations Security Council resolution three days earlier, after an U.S. veto, to rescind the recognition by any states of Jerusalem as a national capital, Palestinian UN Ambassador Riyad Mansour said that the General Assembly would vote on a draft resolution calling for Trump’s declaration to be withdrawn. He sought to invoke Resolution 377, known as the “Uniting for Peace” resolution, to circumvent a veto. The resolution states that the General Assembly can call an Emergency Special Session to consider a matter “with a view to making appropriate recommendations to members for collective measures” if the Security Council fails to act.[6]

Campaign[edit]

On 20 December, US President Donald Trump threatened to cut US aid to countries voting against the US’ side.[7] The day before the vote, he said: “Let them vote against us…We don’t care…this isn’t like it used to be where they could vote against you and then you pay them hundreds of millions of dollars. We’re not going to be taken advantage of any longer.”[8]Ambassador Nikki Haley warned her country would remember and “take names” of every country that voted in favour of the resolution.[9][10][11][12] The governments of Turkey and Iran denounced USA’s threats as “anti-democratic” and “blackmail“.[13][14] She had sent to a letter to dozens of member states that warned Trump had asked her to “report back on those countries who voted against us.”[15] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan warned Trump that “he cannot buy Turkey’s democratic will with petty dollars” and “that opposition of other countries will teach the United States a good lesson”.[16][17]

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that Israel rejects this vote before it passes and called the UN “house of lies”.[18]

Canada’s, which was seeking re-negotiations of the NAFTA, Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland‘s spokesman confirmed its intention to abstain from the vote and that the resolution should not have come to the General Assembly.[19]

Content[edit]

The text of the resolution includes the following key statements:[20]

The General Assembly,

  • Bearing in mind the specific status of the Holy City of Jerusalem and, in particular, the need for the protection and preservation of the unique spiritual, religious and cultural dimensions of the City, as foreseen in the relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Stressing that Jerusalem is a final status issue to be resolved through negotiations in line with relevant United Nations resolutions,
  • Expressing in this regard its deep regret at recent decisions concerning the status of Jerusalem,
  • Affirms that any decisions and actions which purport to have altered, the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council, and in this regard, calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem, pursuant to resolution 478 (1980) of the Security Council;
  • Demands that all States comply with Security Council resolutions regarding the Holy City of Jerusalem, and not to recognize any actions or measures contrary to those resolutions;
  • Reiterates its call for the reversal of the negative trends on the ground that are imperiling the two-State solution and for the intensification and acceleration of international and regional efforts and support aimed at achieving, without delay, a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East on the basis of the relevant United Nations resolutions, the Madrid terms of reference, including the principle of land for peace, the Arab Peace Initiative and the Quartet Roadmap and an end to the Israeli occupation that began in 1967.

It concluded in reading that “any decisions and actions, which purport to have altered the character, status or demographic composition of the Holy City of Jerusalem have no legal effect, are null and void and must be rescinded in compliance with relevant resolutions of the Security Council.”[21]

Motion[edit]

The motion was proposed by Yemen and Turkey.[22]

Debate[edit]

In introducing the resolution as Chair of the Arab Group, Yemen’s Amabassador said the US decision was a “blatant violation of the rights of the Palestinian people, as well as those of all Christians and Muslims.” He emphasized that it constituted a “dangerous breach of the Charter of the United Nations and a serious threat to international peace and security, while also undermining the chances for a two‑State solution and fuelling the fires of violence and extremism.”[23]

Turkey, who was the co-sponsor of the draft resolution, also spoke as current Chair of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation(OIC).[23] Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said that Trump’s decision was an outrageous assault to all universal values. “The Palestinians have the right to their own state based on 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital. This is the main parameter and only hope for a just and lasting peace in the region. However, the recent decision of a UN Member State to recognise Jerusalem, or Al-Quds, as the capital of Israel, violates international law, including all relevant UN resolutions.”[22]

The General Assembly heard from Palestinian Foreign Minister Riad Al‑Malki, who said that the meeting was “not because of any animosity to the United States of America” but instead the sessions was “called to make the voice of the vast majority of the international community — and that of people around the world — heard on the question of Jerusalem/Al‑Quds Al‑Sharif.” He called the US decision to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and to move its embassy there “an aggressive and dangerous move” which could inflame tensions and lead to a religious war that “has no boundaries.” He added that though the decision would have no impact on the city’s status, it would nevertheless compromise the role of the United States in the Middle East peace process.[23] He urged member states to reject “blackmail and intimidation.”[5]

US Ambassador Nikki Haley then said that her country was “singled out for attack” because of its recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. She added that: “The United States will remember this day in which it was singled out for attack in the General Assembly for the very act of exercising our right as a sovereign nation,” Haley said. We will remember it when we are called upon to once again make the world’s largest contribution to the United Nations, and so many countries come calling on us, as they so often do, to pay even more and to use our influence for their benefit.”[15] She added that: “America will put our embassy in Jerusalem. That is what the American people want us to do, and it is the right thing to do. No vote in the United Nations will make any difference on that…this vote will make a difference in how Americans view the UN.”[22]

Israel’s Ambassador Danny Danon then told the assembly that the vowed that “no General Assembly resolution will ever drive us from Jerusalem.”[4]

Venezuela’s Ambassador, speaking for the Non‑Aligned Movement (NAM), expressed “grave concern about Israel’s ongoing violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including attempts to alter the character, status and demographic composition of the City of Jerusalem. [It was] slso concerned about the decision to relocate the United States embassy [and] warned that such provocative actions would further heighten tensions, with potentially far‑reaching repercussions given the extremely volatile backdrop.[23]

Other speakers included, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Syria, Bangladesh, Cuba, Iran and China.[23]

Malaysia’s Ambassador Datuk Seri Mohammed Shahrul Ikram Yaakob said that, as a member of the OIC and NAM, “Malaysia joins the international community in expressing our deep concern and rejects the decision by the United States to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. It is also an infringement of the Palestinian people’s rights and their right to self determination.” He called for a peaceful two-state solution and that Malaysia is concerned the situation will only feed into the agenda of extremists.”[2]

Other speakers included, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and South Africa. The Permanent Observer for the Holy See, Tomasz Grysa, emphasised that Jerusalem was most sacred to the Abrahamic faiths and a symbol for millions of believers around the world who considered it their “spiritual capital.” Its significance went “beyond the question of borders, a reality that should be considered a priority in every negotiation for a political solution.” The Holy See, he said, called for a “peaceful resolution that would ensure respect for the sacred nature of Jerusalem and its universal value…reiterating that only international guarantee could preserve its unique character and status and provide assurance of dialogue and reconciliation for peace in the region.”[23]

After the motion was passed, more speeches continued with Estonia, who also spoke on behalf of other states. Australia’s Ambassador then explained her country’s government did “not support unilateral action that undermined the peace process [and] it did not believe today’s text would help to bring the parties back to the negotiating table.”[23]

Other speakers included, Paraguay, whose Ambassador said that the country would abstain because “the question of Jerusalem was a matter for the Security Council, as the primary body responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security.”[23] This was followed by El Salvador, Argentina and Romania.[23]

Canada’s Ambassador Marc-Andre Blanchard called the proposal “one-sided”[23] and said: “We are disappointed that this resolution is one sided and does not advance prospects for peace to which we aspire, which is why we have abstained on today’s vote.” He, however, added that Canada wanted to emphasise Jerusalem’s special significance to the Abrahamic religions of Jews, Muslims and Christians. “Denying the connection between Jerusalem and the Jewish, Muslim and Christian faiths undermines the integrity of the site for all. We also reiterate the need to maintain the status quo at Jerusalem’s Holy sites.[19]

Nicaragua’s explained its support of the resolution, as it “rebuffed recent unilateral attempts to modify the character and status of Jerusalem. Such unilateral actions were in blatant violation of resolution 2234 (2016) and others…unilateral actions jeopardised peace and stability in the Middle East and drew the international community further away from a solution.”[23]

Mexico’s Ambassador then explained the abstention and emphasised that convening an emergency session was a disproportionate response. “The United States must become part of the solution, not a stumbling block that would hamper progress…the international community was further than ever from agreement.”[23]

The Czech Republic then said that while it supported the European Union position, it had abstained because it “did not believe the draft resolution would contribute to the peace process.”[23]

Armenia said that is position “remained unchanged. The situation should be resolved through negotiations paving the way for lasting peace and security.”[23]

Hungary echoed Armenia’s stance and said it would not comment on the foreign relations of the United States.[23]

Latvia then spoke, before Estonia re-took the floor to say it had also spoken on behalf of Albania, Lithuania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.[23]

Result[edit]

Vote[24] Quantity States
Approve 128 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.
Reject 9 Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Togo, United States.
Abstain 35 Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Haiti, Hungary, Jamaica, Kiribati, Latvia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu.
Absent 21 Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor, El Salvador, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mongolia, Myanmar, Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Zambia.

Reactions[edit]

States

Israel – Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu rejected the result shortly after it was announced in call it “preposterous,” while he also thanked the states that supported “the truth” by not participating in “the theatre of the absurd.” He added that: “Jerusalem is our capital. Always was, always will be…But I do appreciate the fact that a growing number of countries refused to participate in this theatre of the absurd. So I appreciate that, and especially I want to again express our thanks to [US] President (Donald) Trump and Ambassador [Nikki] Haley, for their stalwart defence of Israel and their stalwart defence of the truth.” Defence Minister Avigdor Liberman, reminded Israelis of the longstanding Israeli disdain for such votes. “Let us just remember that this is the same UN about which our first ambassador to the organisation, Abba Eban, once said: ‘If Algeria introduced a resolution declaring that the earth was flat and that Israel had flattened it, it would pass by a vote of 164 to 13 with 26 abstentions’. There is nothing new in what just happened at the UN.” He also praised the US as “the moral beacon shining out of the darkness.” Minister of Strategic Affairs and Public Security Gilad Erdan said: “The historic connection between Israel and Jerusalem is stronger than any vote by the ‘United Nations’ — nations who are united only by their fear and their refusal to recognise the simple truth that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and the Jewish people.”

    • However, opposition Joint List Chairman and MK Ayman Odeh called the vote a wake-up call for Israel: “In the international arena, there still exists a large and definitive majority that believes that the Palestinian people, like all other nations, deserve a place in this world and the right to self-determination. This evening’s vote by the majority of the world’s nations against Trump’s announcement, in spite of the pressure and threats, flies in the face of Trump’s and Netanyahu’s diplomatic policy and is a clear statement by the international community in support of peace and the right of the Palestinians to an independent state, whose capital is East Jerusalem,”[8]
Media

Haaretz‘s Noa Landau, wrote, in citing unnamed diplomatic sourced, that Israel was particularly disappointed with countries like India that have enhanced bilateral relations with it recently. “The main disappointment in Israel was with the countries that have enhanced bilateral relations in recent years, especially those that share a particularly conservative worldview with the Netanyahu government. For example, India – whose Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, visited Israel in July, a tour that was memorable mainly for the pastoral photographs of him and Netanyahu embracing and wading in the waves – voted for the resolution against Israel and the United States.”[8]

Others

At a “Solidarity to Save Jerusalem” rally organised by the Barisan National government in Malaysia, one of the attendees Association of NextGen Christians of Malaysia President Joshua Hong said at the Putra Mosque: “We are here because we feel that the decision made by President Trump on announcing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel is merely a political decision. He added that the decision also hurts Christian and Arabic churches in Palestine and not just the Muslims. “To us as Christians, Jerusalem is a city of peace and after that announcement, we feel there is no more peace.I think it is not right and unjust. We believe we should continue pursuing the sustainable peace solution for Palestine and Israel, rather than just a single nation declaring it just like that.” He claimed that about 50 members of the group turned up in a show of support for the Palestinian people..[2]

Which Countries Have Dictators

 

List of countries, nations and states governed or ruled by a dictatorship, sorted alphabetically. In some cases nations may have multiple ruling bodies or government types, meaning they’re not exclusively countries that are governed by dictatorship. This list of countries that use dictatorship as their form of government contains various bits of information about each nation, such as the official language or currency of the country. If you’re looking for the names of countries with dictatorship governments then you’re in the right place.List items include Zimbabwe, Uzbekistan and many additional items as well.This list answers the questions, “Which countries are ruled by dictatorship?” and “Which countries are governed by dictatorship?”
  1. Belarus,Minsk

    Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Hrodna, Homiel, Mahilyow and Vitsebsk. Over forty percent of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested, and its strongest economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. Until the 20th century, the lands of modern-day Belaru…more

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  2. Cameroon,Yaoundé

    Cameroon, officially the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Middle Africa, in the west Central Africa region. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Cameroon’s coastline lies on the Bight of Bonny, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. The country is often referred to as “Africa in miniature” for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural …more

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  3. Chad,N’Djamena

    Chad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Middle Africa, in the area of northeast Central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Chad is divided into multiple regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the larges…more

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  4. China,Beijing

    China, officially the People’s Republic of China, is a sovereign state located in East Asia. It is the world’s most populous country, with a population of over 1.35 billion. The PRC is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions. The PRC also claims Taiwan – w…more

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  5. Cuba,Havana

    Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is an island country in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba comprises the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the capital of Cuba and its largest city. The second largest city is Santiago de Cuba. To the north of Cuba lies the United States and the Bahamas are to the northeast, Mexico is to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are to the south, and Haiti and the Dominican Republic are to the southeast. The isl…more

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  6. Egypt,Cairo

    Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Most of its territory of 1,010,000 square kilometers lies within the Nile Valley of North Africa and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west. With over 84 million inhabitants, Egypt …more

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  7. Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, is a small country located in Central Africa, with an area of 28,000 square kilometres. It has two parts, an insular and a mainland region. The insular region consists of the islands of Bioko in the Gulf of Guinea and Annobón, a small volcanic island south of the equator. Bioko island is the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea and is the site of the country’s capital, Malabo. The island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located…more

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  8. Eritrea,Asmara

    Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. Eritrea is the Italian form of the Greek name Ἐρυθραία, meaning “red [land]”. With its capital at Asmara, it is bordered by Sudan to the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the east. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea, across from Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km², and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and sev…more

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  9. Ethiopia,Addis Ababa

    Ethiopia, officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea to the north and northeast, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With over 93,000,000 inhabitants, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world, and the second-most populated nation on the African continent. It occupies a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres, and its capital a…more

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  10. Iran,Tehran

    Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran since 1980, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered on the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, with Kazakhstan and Russia across the Caspian Sea; on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; on the west by Iraq; and on the northwest by Turkey. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km², it is the second-largest nation in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the w…more

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  11. Kazakhstan,Astana

    Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a contiguous transcontinental country in Central Asia, with its smaller part west of the Ural River in Eastern Europe. Kazakhstan is the world’s largest landlocked country by land area and the ninth largest country in the world; its territory of 2,727,300 square kilometres is larger than Western Europe. It has borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea. The terrain of…more

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  12. Libya,Tripoli

    Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the 17th largest country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is home to 1.7 million of Liby…more

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  13. Madagascar,Antananarivo

    Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar, as well as numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from India around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversi…more

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  14. Myanmar,Naypyidaw

    Burma, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, commonly shortened to Myanmar, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by China, Thailand, India, Laos and Bangladesh. One third of Burma’s total perimeter of 1,930 kilometres forms an uninterrupted coastline along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Burma’s population of over 60 million makes it the world’s 24th most populous country and, at 676,578 square kilometres, it is the world’s 40th largest country and the second largest…more

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  15. North Korea,Pyongyang

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    Rwanda,Kigali

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    Sudan,Khartoum

    Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan is a country in the Nile Valley of North Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. The Nile River divides the country into eastern and western halves. Its predominant religion is Islam. Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab World until 2011, when South Sudan separated into an i…more

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    Syria,Damascus

    Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Arab Alawites, Arab Sunnis, Arab Christians, Armenians, Assyrians, Druze, Kurds and Turks. Arab Sunnis make up the majority of the population. In English, the name…more

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    19

    Tunisia,Tunis

    Tunisia Arabic: الجمهورية التونسية‎ al-Jumhūriyyah at-Tūnisiyyah; French: République tunisienne), is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is the smallest country in North Africa by land area and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia is the northernmost country in Africa, with the northernmost point on the African continent, Ras ben Sakka. Tunisia contains the eastern streamers of the Atlas Mountains, whi…more

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    Turkmenistan,Ashgabat

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    Uzbekistan,Tashkent

    Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia. Between 1924 and 1991, it was part of the Soviet Union. Once part of the Persian Samanid and later Timurid empires, the region which today includes the Republic of Uzbekistan was conquered in the early 16th century by nomads who spoke an Eastern Turkic language. This region was subsequently incorporated into the Russian Empire in the 19th century, and in 1924 it became a boundaried constituent republic of …more

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    22

    Vietnam,Hanoi

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    23

    Zimbabwe,Harare

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List of Banks owned by the Rothschild Family

“Give me control over a nations currency, and I care not who makes its laws” – Baron M.A. Rothschild

rothcrest

ROTHSCHILD OWNED BANKS:
Afghanistan, Bank of Afghanistan,
Albania, Bank of Albania,
Algeria, Bank of Algeria,
Argentina, Central Bank of Argentina,
Armenia, Central Bank of Armenia,
Aruba, Central Bank of Aruba,
Australia, Reserve Bank of Australia,
Austria, Austrian National Bank,
Azerbaijan, Central Bank of Azerbaijan Republic,
Bahamas, Central Bank of The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Central Bank of Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bank,
Barbados, Central Bank of Barbados,
Belarus, National Bank of the Republic of Belarus,
Belgium, National Bank of Belgium,
Belize, Central Bank of Belize,
Benin, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Bermuda, Bermuda Monetary Authority,
Bhutan, Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan,
Bolivia, Central Bank of Bolivia,
Bosnia, Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Bank of Botswana,
Brazil, Central Bank of Brazil,
Bulgaria, Bulgarian National Bank,
Burkina Faso, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Burundi, Bank of the Republic of Burundi,
Cambodia, National Bank of Cambodia,
Came Roon, Bank of Central African States,
Canada, Bank of Canada – Banque du Canada,
Cayman Islands, Cayman Islands Monetary Authority,
Central African Republic, Bank of Central African States,
Chad, Bank of Central African States,
Chile, Central Bank of Chile,

China, The People’s Bank of China,

Colombia, Bank of the Republic,
Comoros, Central Bank of Comoros,
Congo, Bank of Central African States,
Costa Rica, Central Bank of Costa Rica,
Côte d’Ivoire, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Croatia, Croatian National Bank,
Cuba, Central Bank of Cuba,
Cyprus, Central Bank of Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Czech National Bank,
Denmark, National Bank of Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Central Bank of the Dominican Republic,
East Caribbean area, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank,
Ecuador, Central Bank of Ecuador,
Egypt, Central Bank of Egypt ,
El Salvador, Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Bank of Central African States,
Estonia, Bank of Estonia,
Ethiopia, National Bank of Ethiopia,
European Union, European Central Bank,

money-world-

Fiji, Reserve Bank of Fiji,
Finland, Bank of Finland,
France, Bank of France,
Gabon, Bank of Central African States,
The Gambia, Central Bank of The Gambia,
Georgia, National Bank of Georgia,
Germany, Deutsche Bundesbank,
Ghana, Bank of Ghana,
Greece, Bank of Greece,
Guatemala, Bank of Guatemala,

Guinea Bissau, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Guyana, Bank of Guyana,
Haiti, Central Bank of Haiti ,
Honduras, Central Bank of Honduras,
Hong Kong, Hong Kong Monetary Authority,
Hungary, Magyar Nemzeti Bank,
Iceland, Central Bank of Iceland,
India, Reserve Bank of India,
Indonesia, Bank Indonesia,
Iran, The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran,

Iraq, Central Bank of Iraq,

Ireland, Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland,
Israel, Bank of Israel,
Italy, Bank of Italy,
Jamaica, Bank of Jamaica,
Japan, Bank of Japan,
Jordan, Central Bank of Jordan,
Kazakhstan, National Bank of Kazakhstan,
Kenya, Central Bank of Kenya,
Korea, Bank of Korea,
Kuwait, Central Bank of Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic,
Latvia, Bank of Latvia,
Lebanon, Central Bank of Lebanon,
Lesotho, Central Bank of Lesotho,

Libya, Central Bank of Libya,

us-homeland-security-seal-plaque_m-747261

Uruguay, Central Bank of Uruguay,
Lithuania, Bank of Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Central Bank of Luxembourg,
Macao, Monetary Authority of Macao,
Macedonia, National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia,
Madagascar, Central Bank of Madagascar,
Malawi, Reserve Bank of Malawi,
Malaysia, Central Bank of Malaysia,
Mali, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Malta, Central Bank of Malta,
Mauritius, Bank of Mauritius,
Mexico, Bank of Mexico,
Moldova, National Bank of Moldova,
Mongolia, Bank of Mongolia,
Montenegro, Central Bank of Montenegro,
Morocco, Bank of Morocco,
Mozambique, Bank of Mozambique,
Namibia, Bank of Namibia,
Nepal, Central Bank of Nepal,
Netherlands, Netherlands Bank,
Netherlands Antilles, Bank of the Netherlands Antilles,
New Zealand, Reserve Bank of New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Central Bank of Nicaragua,
Niger, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Nigeria, Central Bank of Nigeria,
Norway, Central Bank of Norway,
Oman, Central Bank of Oman,
Pakistan, State Bank of Pakistan,
Papua New Guinea, Bank of Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Central Bank of Paraguay,
Peru, Central Reserve Bank of Peru,
Philip Pines, Bangko Sentralng Pilipinas,
Poland, National Bank of Poland,
Portugal, Bank of Portugal,
Qatar, Qatar Central Bank,
Romania, National Bank of Romania,
Russia, Central Bank of Russia,

Rwanda, National Bank of Rwanda,
San Marino, Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino,
Samoa, Central Bank of Samoa,
Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency,

Senegal, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Serbia, National Bank of Serbia,
Seychelles, Central Bank of Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Bank of Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Monetary Authority of Singapore,
Slovakia, National Bank of Slovakia,
Slovenia, Bank of Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Central Bank of Solomon Islands,
South Africa, South African Reserve Bank,
Spain, Bank of Spain,
Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Bank of Sudan,
Surinam, Central Bank of Suriname,
Swaziland, The Central Bank of Swaziland,
Sweden, Sveriges Riksbank,
Switzerland, Swiss National Bank,

Tajikistan, National Bank of Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Bank of Tanzania,
Thailand, Bank of Thailand,
Togo, Central Bank of West African States, (BCEAO),
Tonga, National Reserve Bank of Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Central Bank of Tunisia,
Turkey, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey,

Uganda, Bank of Uganda,
Ukraine, National Bank of Ukraine,
United Arab Emirates, Central Bank of United Arab Emirates,

United Kingdom, Bank of England,

United States, Federal Reserve, Federal Reserve Bank of New York,

US-FederalReserveSystem-Seal_svg_

Vanuatu, Reserve Bank of Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Central Bank of Venezuela,

Vietnam, The State Bank of Vietnam,
Yemen, Central Bank of Yemen,
Zambia, Bank of Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe,
Bank For International Settlements, (BIS),

Mystery Flight 370 Ends in the Indian Ocean Vile Vortex, New Orleans

(excerpt Twilight Language)

As I previously noted here and in the most popular posting I’ve written for this Twilight Language blog (with over 17,000 readers as of today), “Terrorism, Aliens, Vile Vortices: The Mysteries of Missing Flight 370,” on March 9, 2014, I hinted where the focus of the search would end,

The Wharton Basin, especially its southern portions, is the key to this vile vortice.

Ships and planes have not been the subject of study here but whirling rings of lights under the Indian Ocean.

Ivan T. Sanderson’s Indian Ocean Vile Vortex.

Unlike the Bermuda Triangle and Japan’s Dragon’s Triangle or Devil’s Sea, the area where Flight 370 appears to have vanished has no popular culture name.

Because of its location of several storied waves and terrible winds, locals call these seas just south of here the “Roaring Forties.” But those seas may have distracted searchers for days.

The area of interest is known in Fortean literature as the Indian Ocean’s vile vortex, labeled “Wharton Basin” on one map.

While it was plotted out to be a predicted area of vanishings by Sanderson and others, there is a clear explanation of why it was ignored.

“There would appear to be ten lozenges, or vortices, ringing our earth in two belts, one in the northern, and the other in the southern hemisphere. These are approximately, if not precisely, centered 72° apart, and those in the southern hemisphere all shifted to the East (or right) exactly the same distance to about 40°. All but two lie over water but there is no evidence for one in the southern Indian Ocean; probably because no ships or planes ever passed through or over it.”
Ivan T. Sanderson, Invisible Residents, 1970, p. 143.

The Flight 370 search areas have moved around until now, when the focus is in the vile vortex of the southern Indian Ocean.

One of Fortean Times’ original Gang of Fort has died. The world is a little less enlightened today with the passing of Steve Moore (1949-2014). Steve was well-known for his many Fortean articles, his editorship of Fortean publications, and his good spirits.On Wednesday, March 19, 2014, Bob Richard wrote the following to the Fortean list: “Just learned that my oldest friend and colleague, Fortean, sinologist, chaos adept, Chinese film buff and comics wizard, Steve Moore died sometime in the last few days. He had recently been diagnosed with angina following a deterioration of circulation in his legs. Simply don’t know any other details yet. I miss him terribly already.”Steve was a rock in the Fortean world. This is earthshaking news!

Update: March 23, 2014
The search for missing Flight 370 is now focused on the Vile Vortex Ivan Sanderson pinpointed in the southern Indian Ocean.


Did you know there is a southern form of the Bermuda Triangle?

One of the most popular posting I’ve written for this Twilight Language blog (with over 12,000 readers as of today) is “Terrorism, Aliens, Vile Vortices: The Mysteries of Missing Flight 370,” published on March 9, 2014. Today, I want to explore more deeply aspects of that essay.

Why “No Little Green Men”?

Speaking about his thoughts on the vanished Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, John Goglia, independent air safety consultant and a former NTSB board member, spoke freely on CNN on March 13, 2014. He said, “The only thing we know for sure is that little green men didn’t come down and take it.”

So, I must ask, how does anyone know this?

John Goglia (above) served as a member of the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). With more than 30 years experience in the aviation industry, he was the first NTSB Board Member to hold an FAA aircraft mechanic’s certificate.

The mystery of Flight 370 continues to evolve. The strange Chinese satellite photo of three objects east of the location of where the transponder was turned off is now said to have been a “mistake.” New information from the USA government, has led now to the possibility of opening a new search area in the Indian Ocean for the missing Malaysia Airlines plane, White House spokesman Jay Carney said on March 13th. Many countries are partnering in the search and “following leads where we find them,” he said.
The area has continued to expand to now include the Indian Ocean.
Certainly, the cause of this disappeared flight is probably due to terrorism, bad weather, catastrophic structural failure, pilot suicide, engine failures, being shoot down, an internal bomb, a hijacking gone wrong, or something else rather terribly mundane in our modern era. Little green men, ufos, and vile vortices? How silly, right?
However, logic dictates that there is no reason to take anything off the table, from twilight dimensions to an area of known missing ships and planes. Lists of aerial disappearances are being scanned and stories like the 1937 Amelia Earhart disappearance are being dusted off, by television news programmers, to decide what ones should be highlighted. For example, on March 13, CNN News will be broadcasting a special on the History of Missing Planes at 10 PM Eastern. Clearly, this mystery has captured the public’s interest, and historically fits into a well-studied Fortean field.
 Credit here.
 

The entire popularization of “triangles of vanishings,” is to be credited to Fortean writer Vincent Gaddis, who put the Bermuda triangle “on the map” in a February 1964 Argosy feature, which he said extended Florida to Bermuda, southwest to Puerto Rico and back to Florida through the Bahamas. In 1965, Gaddis’ book, Invisible Horizons, furthered his thesis with more accounts of disappearances.

One of the most popularly known Bermuda Triangle stories is of the disappearance of Flight 19, consisting of five TBM Avenger torpedo bombers that disappeared on December 5, 1945, while over the Atlantic.
Gaddis’ friend Ivan T. Sanderson was behind the scenes in the conceptualization and came up with his own theories about a worldwide grid of such locations he called “Vile Vortices.” Indeed, I appeared, in 2006, on the History’ Channel’s UFO Files’ episode “Pacific’s Bermuda Triangle,” talking of my knowledge of Sanderson’s interest in the subject.
Another Vile Vortex is called “The Devil’s Sea” or “Dragon’s Triangle” or “Ma-no Umi”
off Japan, in an area that extends as a triangle between Japan and the Islands of Bonin, including a major portion of the Philippine Sea.
One of the most celebrated stories of Dragon’s Triangle missing ships is that of USS Cyclops which disappeared in March of 1918. Few realize that the various theories as to why the Cyclops went down lead to the famed novel and resulting movie, The Poseidon Adventure (1972).Is there a Vile Vortex in the most recent direction that Flight 360 is said to have been flying?
Yes, one of Sanderon’s Vile Vortices is in the Indian Ocean, where some planes and more have vanished.
The following ships may have disappeared in the Indian Ocean:

København 1928-1929 somewhere between Buenos Aires and Australia
Madagascar 1853 somewhere between Port Phillip and London
Neva 1887 somewhere between Banyuwangi and Lisbon
Shannon 1885 somewhere between London and Calcutta
Burmah 1859/60 somewhere between London and New Zealand
HMS Stonehenge 1944 somewhere in Bay of Bengal or Andaman Sea

Some of the planes include…

During World War II, on July 7-9, 1943, a famed Japanese aviator and explorer Kenji Tsukagoshi flying a prototype Tsukagoshi Ki-77, from Singapore to Sarabus (now Hvardiiske, Crimea) to over the Indian Ocean, was lost with a crew of 5 and 3 Imperial Japanese Army passengers.

On March 25, 1986, K2729, an Afghan Air Force cargo plane, an Antonov An-32 flight, disappeared over the Indian Ocean, 450km off Jamnagar, India. It was operated by the Indian Air Force.

Not missing, but a mystery, in 2004, a Beechcraft 200 Super King Air left Perth, Australia, on a 600 kilometre journey and eventually flew 2,840 kilometres before crashing in Queensland.
Will the mystery of Flight 360 ever be solved or join the annals of other Fortean mysteries?
Credit sources: Wikipedia, the books of Vincent Gaddis and Ivan T. Sanderson, my files, and online maps.

Mysteries love theories. Unknown gaps in data call for speculations. We are seeing it happen this weekend.
Malaysia Airlines MH370, a Boeing 777, has gone missing. Airline officials lost contact with the plane, which was carrying 239 passengers, two hours into the Kuala Lumpur-to-Beijing flight, on Saturday, March 8, at 2:40 a.m. local time (18:40 GMT). It is thought it went missing off the coast of Vietnam, but that is pure speculation.

This photo provided by Laurent Errera taken Dec. 26, 2011, shows the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777-200ER that disappeared from air traffic control screens Saturday, taking off from Roissy-Charles de Gaulle Airport in France. The Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777-200 carrying 239 people lost contact with air traffic control early Saturday morning, March 8, 2014 on a flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, and international aviation authorities still hadn’t located the jetliner several hours later. (Photo Credit: Laurent Errera)

Who was on board? A delegation of painters and calligraphers, a group of Buddhists returning from a religious gathering in Kuala Lumpur, a three-generation family, nine senior travelers and five toddlers.Most of the 227 passengers on board missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 were Chinese, according to the airline’s flight manifest. The 12 missing crew members on the flight that disappeared early Saturday were Malaysian.Other passengers were from India, Indonesia, Australia, the United States, France, New Zealand, Ukraine, Canada, Russia and the Netherlands, the airline said.Keller, Texas native, 50-year-old Philip Wood, was on Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 when it disappeared over the Gulf of Thailand in the South China Sea. Philip Wood works as a technical storage executive at IBM Malaysia and was transferred to a job from Beijing to Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, where the flight originated.

Terrorism
 
A Boeing 777 goes missing. Is someone playing a numbers twilight game?

Was it terrorism? Two people named on the manifest — an Austrian and an Italian — whose passports had been stolen were not aboard the plane. But speculation is they were just trying to immigrant, yes, illegally, from Iran. There are questions about a third, Chinese, passport, but word of that has disappeared from the media.

Freescale, Motorola, Lear, UFOs
 
 

On March 8th, the Austin, Texas-based Freescale Semiconductor confirmed that 20 employees were passengers on Flight 370. Twelve are from Malaysia and eight from China, the company said.

The history of Freescale Semiconductor is intriguing. Freescale was one of the first semiconductor companies in the world, having started as a division of Motorola in Phoenix, Arizona in 1948, according to the company’s own historical data. In 1955, a Motorola transistor for car radios was the world’s first commercial high-power transistor. It was also Motorola’s first mass-produced semiconductor device. It was in 2004, a mere decade ago, when it became autonomous by the divestiture of the Semiconductor Products Sector of Motorola.

Motorola? 1948 for this division? In Phoenix? Who came up with the name Motorola? It turns out most credit for the name is given to William “Bill” Lear, in 1930, the investor/inventor who would go on to produce such items as the 8-track music cartridge and the Lear Jet. Perhaps it is only a coincidence that the mystery of UFOs date to such events as Roswell in 1947, in nearby New Mexico.

Some folks take the notion of “Reverse-Engineering Roswell UFO Technology” very seriously. In that paper, computer company chief Jack Shulman argues that the transistor could never have been invented so suddenly at AT&T in late 1947 without input from top secret Government projects, that some have identified to him as being from alien spacecraft.

And then there is Bill Lear’s son, John, who is an accomplished pilot, former CIA operative, and Ufologist. He is noted in the latter field for promoting a variety of conspiracy theories which are based, he claims, on information obtained from military contacts.
Lear is a controversial figure in Ufology, to say the least, for many of his statements.

Lear believes that any number of flying discs ‘fell’ into our hands when they crashed in the southwest in the late 1940’s and early 50’s.
Lear’s scenario also includes the suspicion that the government has made secret deals with the ‘aliens’, actually exchanging humans for advanced technological data. Source.

Will we be hearing that aliens are behind the disappearance of Flight 370?
Ooops. I guess some sites are already writing about this form of speculation.
 
Missing Planes and Sanderson’s Vile Vortices

Did Flight 370 vanish off Vietnam into a Devil’s Triangle-like area, like the one found off Japan? Who knows, but this is not an area recognized in Fortean literature for such disappearances. Indeed, examining Ivan T. Sanderson’s traditional map of “Vile Vortices” around the globe does not show one in this location.

But an airliner is missing, and answers are wanting about what happened.Update March 12. It has been confirmed by military radar, and missed by civilian radar, that the plane’s transponder was turned off as 370 neared the Vietnam coast. The flight then turned around and fly over the Malay Peninsula.

Late on March 12, the Chinese authorities announced they have new images of 79″ by 72″ object in the ocean that they think is 370 debris.

Or was Flight 370, like Flight 19, the way into one of Ivan’s Vile Vortices

Other Mysteries
As the search for the aircraft continues, the rescuers are bumping into other mysteries. Take this Sunday, March 9th, CNN report:

‘Strange object’ not debris from missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 

The mysteries surrounding the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, and the true identities of some of its passengers, are as deep as the South China Sea waters where a multinational search team is searching for the jet.
One promising lead has turned out to be a dead end. A “strange object” spotted by a Singaporean search plane late Sunday afternoon is not debris from the missing jetliner, a U.S. official familiar with the issue told CNN on Sunday.
A U.S. reconnaissance plane “thought it saw something like debris but it was a false alarm,” said the official, who spoke on condition of anonymity.

If all those on board Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 are found to have died, it will rank as the deadliest airline disaster since November 12, 2001, when American Airlines Flight 587 crashed into a New York neighborhood, killing all 260 people on board and five more on the ground. Many recall that crash with horror, as it followed so closely after the events of 9/11 in New York City.

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