From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Africa. Separatism includes autonomism and secessionism. What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:
- They are active movements with living, active members.
- They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy).
- They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and not comes from other country.
Under each region listed is one or more of the following:
- De facto state: for regions with de facto autonomy from the government
- Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state
- Proposed autonomous area: for movements toward greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession
- Ethnic Group(s): for the ethnic groups made up of the area
- De facto autonomous government: for governments with de facto autonomous control over a region
- Government-in-exile: for a government based outside of the region in question, with or without control
- Political party (or parties): for political parties involved in a political system to push for autonomy or secession
- Militant organisation(s): for armed organisations (sometimes called terrorist organisations)
- Advocacy group(s): for non-belligerent, non-politically participatory entities
- Ethnic/Ethno-religious/Racial/Regional/Religious group (s): for information on what group of people calls for change for each individual movement listed
- Ethnic group: Kabyles
- Ethnic group: Cabindans
- Proposed state: Republic of Cabinda
- Government-in-exile: Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda (FLEC) (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples)
- Political party: Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda (FLEC)
- Militant organization: Forças Armadas de Cabinda (FAC)
- Ethnic group: Chagossians
- Ethnic group: Calabars
- Ethnic group: Southern Cameroons
- Northern Muslim minority
- Ethnic group:
- South Congo (Brazzaville)
- Political parties: Confédération des Associations de Katanga Tribales, Union of Independent Federalists and Republicans
- Militant organizations: Mai-Mai community-based militia groups
- Status: Sporadic violence
- Kwili, Kivu, Bukavu
- Status: Insurgency
- Ethnic group: Coptic
- Ethnic group: Ababda
- Ethnic group: Bubi
- Afar Region
- Gambela Region
- Militant organization: Gambella Peoples Liberation Front
- Ogaden ( Somali Region)
- Oromia Region
- Proposed state: Republic of Oromia (also known as Oromia) (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Militant organizations: Oromo Independence Movement, Oromo Liberation Front, Islamic Front for the Liberation of Oromia, Conference of Oromiya Peoples Liberation Front, Oromo Youth Revolutionary Movement (also known as Abiddaa)
- Pressure group: The National Youth Movement for Freedom and Democracy (also known as Qeerroo)
- Tigray Region
- Secessionist movements
- Political party: Lorganizasion Popilèr po Libèr nout Péi (Lplp) – Popular Front for National Liberation: composed of Nasion Rénioné, Mar, Drapo rouz, Patriot rénioné and Mir.
- Political party: Marxist–Leninist Communist Organisation of Réunion
- Mayotte continues to have autonomist movements despite the island having voted to become France’s 101st department in 2011.
- Northern Regions
- Ethnic group: Libyan
- Proposed autonomous area: Semi-autonomous “State of Cyrenaica”
- Political Groups: Movement for Federal Libya, National Union Party[disambiguation needed], Cyrenaica Youth Movement
- Senior Leaders: Dr. Abubakr Buera, Mr.Faraj Kezza, Dr.Azza Huwati, Ms.Najat Obedi, Mr. Mohamed Buisir, Mr. Ahmad Sannusi, Ms.Sarah Ali
- Youth Leaders: Fathi Agori, Enas AlJazwi, Muheddine Mansuri, Osama Buera, Essa Arabi, Zeid Erragas, Mohamed Ali, Mustafa Orefy, Mabrooka Najm
- Ethnic group: Toubou
- Ethnic Groups: Tuareg, as well as Songhai, Fula and Arabs/Moors
- Ethnic group: Sahrawi
- Ethnic group: Riffian
- Rif Independence Movement – occurred in Morocco during the 1920s, and was revitalized in 2013. Rif Independence Movement is a charter member of the Organization of Emerging African States.
- Ethnic Group: Lozi
- Ethnic Group: Tuareg
- Ethnic group: Igbo
- Proposed state: Republic of Biafra (defunct)
- National Liberation Movement: Bilie Human Rights Initiative
- Political party: Biafran Congress Party .BCP., Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra,
- Separatist movements: The Indigenous People of Biafra, Biafra Zionist Movement
- Government in exile: Biafran Government in exile
- Radio News Broadcast: www.radiobiafra.co, www.peopleofbiafra.org, www.biafragalaxy.com
- Ethnic group: Hausa
- Ethnic group Ijaw
- Ethnic group: Yoruba
- Batwa (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Ethnic group: Twa
- Ethnic group: Diola
- Ethnic group: Somali
- Ethnic group: Boere-Afrikaners
- Ethnic Group: Nuer
- Ethnic group: Fur, Zaghawe, Masalit
- Ethnic group: Swahili
- Ethnic group: Ganda
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:
- They are active movements with active members;
- They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
- They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.
Under each region listed is one or more of the following:
- De facto state (de facto entity): for unrecognized regions with de facto autonomy;
- Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state;
- Proposed autonomous area: for movements towards greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession;
- De facto autonomous government: for governments with de facto autonomous control over a region;
- Government-in-exile: for a government based outside of the region in question, with or without control;
- Political party (or parties): for political parties involved in a political system to push for autonomy or secession;
- Militant organisation(s): for armed organisations (sometimes called terrorist organisations);
- Advocacy group(s): for non-belligerent, non-politically participatory entities.
- Ethnic/Ethno-religious/Racial/Regional/Religious group(s): for information on what group of people calls for change for each individual movement listed.
Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.
- Ethnic group: Greeks in Albania
Further information: Partition of Belgium
- Ethnic group: Walloon,
- Political parties (seeking a union with France): Rassemblement Bruxelles-France
- Ethnic group: Flemish
- Ethnic group: Flemish
- Ethnic group: German
- Ethnic group: Walloon
- Ethnic group: Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Ethnic group: Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Proposed state: Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia or Croatia
- Ethnic group: Istrian Italians
- Ethnic group: Turkish Cypriot
- De facto state with partial de jure recognition: TRNC Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
- For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.
- Ethnic group: Danish
- Ethnic group: Faroese
- Secessionist movements
- Basque Country
Further information: Basque nationalism
- Political party: Abertzaleen Batasuna (AB), Batasuna, Eusko Alkartasuna (EFA member), Parti Nationaliste Basque.
- Trade union: Euskal Langileen Alkartasuna, Langile Abertzaleen Batzordeak
- Youth Advocacy groups: Egi, Gazte Abertzaleak, Iritzarri, Segi
- Militant organisation: Iparretarrak (defunct), ETA, Irrintzi
- Proposed state: Euskadi or Euskal Herria (Basque Country)
- Northern Catalonia
Further information: Catalan independence
- Corsica (Main article: Corsican nationalism)
- Gradual and eventual secession
- Political party: Breton Party
- Autonomist movements
- Political party: Union Démocratique Bretonne (EFA member),
- Corsica (Main article: Corsican nationalism)
- County of Nice
- Political party: Savoy Region Movement
- Ethnic group: Abkhaz
- Ethnic group: Ossetians
Proposed autonomous movements:
- Ethnic group: Armenians
- Ethnic group: Danish, Frisian
- Status: autonomous region
- Proposed state: Republic of Sardinia or Socialist Republic of Sardinia
- Movement: Sardinian nationalism
- Political parties: Sardinia Nation, Sardinian Action Party, Independence Republic of Sardinia, Project Republic of Sardinia, To the Left for Independence, Sardinian National Liberation Movement
- Status: autonomous province
- Proposed state: Free State of South Tyrol or Austria
- Movement: South Tyrolean secessionist movement
- Political parties: Citizens’ Union for South Tyrol, Die Freiheitlichen, South Tyrolean Freedom (EFA member)
- Militant organisations: South Tyrolean Liberation Committee (defunct)
- Proposed state: Veneta Republic
- Movement: Venetian nationalism
- Political parties: Liga Veneta, North-East Project, Liga Veneta Repubblica, Veneto State, Venetian Independence, Venetian People’s Unity, Party for Independent Veneto
- Political organisations: Venetian Most Serene Government, Venetians Movement, Independentist Youth, Venetian National Liberation Movement
- Ethnic group: Serbian
- Proposed states: Reunification with Serbia
- De facto autonomous area Northern Kosovo
- Political organisation: Assembly of the Community of Municipalities, Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija
- Ethnic group: Latgalians, Russian
- Ethnic group: Russian
Proposed independent and autonomous movements:
- Ethnic group: Gagauz
- Ethnic group: Frisian
- Ethnic group: Kashubians
- Ethnic group: Hungarians (Szeklers)
- Proposed autonomous region: Székely Land: Székely autonomy initiatives
- Proposed autonomous regions: Transylvania, Partium, Dobruja, Banat
- Political organisations: Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, the demand for Hungarian autonomy has been part of their program since 1993. Hungarian Civic Party (Romania), they signed a settlement with the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania about cooperation and joint support for Hungarian autonomy. Hungarian People’s Party of Transylvania (PPMT), the party proposes the establishments of Transylvanian parliament and government and supports the case of Szekler autonomy in Szekely Land. It also advocates territorial autonomy for Partium. Liga Transilvania-Banat, a regionalist party led by Sabin Gherman.
- Advocacy organizations:
Szekler National Council, Hungarian National Council of Transylvania, Liga Pro Europa, a Romanian-Hungarian regionalist NGO., Provincia, a group of intellectuals promoting regionalization of Romania, Autonomy for Transylvania (AFT) campaign, it demands autonomy for Transylvania. Democratic League of Transylvania (Liga Transilvania Democrată), a regionalist NGO, an active supporter of the “Autonomy for Transylvania” campaign, League of Banat (Liga Banateana), a regionalist NGO.
Russia’s North Caucasus
See also: Insurgency in the North Caucasus
- Militant organisation: Chechen separatists; though recently Ramzan Kadyrov, the Russian-appointed leader of the Chechen Republic within Russia has also made statements seeming to support broad autonomy, criticising Russian attempts to make a “North Caucasus” district and inviting back separatist leader Akhmad Zakayev.
- Proposed state: Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (1991–99)
- Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia
- Movement: Circassian nationalism; Circassian Congress; Circassian Youth Initiative; Adyge Djegi
- Proposed state: Circassia, including all regions historically included in Circassia and/or inhabited by Circassians (note: this includes Adygea as well as north Kabardino-Balkaria, north Karachay–Cherkessia, south-east Krasnodar Krai, and south Stavropol Krai)
- Karachay-Balkaria (Balkar and Karachay peoples)
- Movement: Various nationalist organisations in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia
- Goals: Firstmost, the establishment of autonomy for the Karachay and Balkaria, rather than in biethnic republics where they must share power with Russians and Circassians (division of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia into smaller units, also popular for Circassian nationalists). Then, the unification of Karachay and Balkar units is advocated by some but not all nationalists (see Balkar and Karachai nationalism)
- Proposed state: Karachay-Balkar Republic (includes south Kabardino-Balkaria and south Karachey-Cherkessia)
- Abazinia in central-north Karachay–Cherkessia
- Proposed state: Abazin Pepublic (proclaimed but non-recognized in 1991 as autonomy)
- Kumykia in north Dagestan
Russia’s other European regions
- Mari El
- Proposed state: Idel-Ural
- Proposed state: Idel-Ural
- Komi Republic
- Proposed state: Komi Republic
- Proposed state: Kalmykia
- Voronezh Oblast, southern districts
- Movement: pan-Ukrainian irredentism
- Rostov Oblast
- Krasnodar Krai (Kuban)
- North Caucasus near Terek
- Ethnic group: Ethnic groups in Vojvodina
- Ethnic group: Bosniaks of Serbia
- Ethnic group: Albanians in south Serbia
- Ethnic group: Albanians in Kosovo
- Political parties: Party of the Hungarian Community, In 2010, the party renewed their demand for autonomy.
- Goals: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.
See also: List of active separatist movements in Africa § Spain and Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain
- Ethnic group: Canarians
- Political parties (autonomist): Coalición Canaria, Partido Nacionalista Canario, Centro Canario Nacionalista, Nueva Canarias
- Political parties (secessionist): FREPIC-AWAÑAK, Alternativa Nacionalista Canaria, Alternativa Popular Canaria, Unidad del Pueblo,
- Youth movement: Azarug
- Proposed state: Canary Islands (sometimes also Western Sahara and Tamazgha)
- Ethnic group: Andalusian
- Political parties (autonomist): Partido Andalucista, Partido Socialista Andaluz, Bloque Andaluz de Izquierdas, Partido Comunista del Pueblo Andaluz
- Political parties (secessionist): Nación Andaluza, Asamblea Nacional de Andalucia
- Youth movement: Jaleo!!!, Juventudes Andalucistas
- Proposed state: Andalusia
- Ethnic group: Aragonese
- Political party (nationalist): Chunta Aragonesista (EFA member)
- Political party (secessionist): Estau Aragonés, Puyalón de Cuchas
- Youth movement: Purna Astral, Chobenalla Aragonesista * Trade Unions: SOA
- Other pro-independence organisations:A Enrestida, SEIRA
- Proposed state: Aragon
- Ethnic group: Asturian
- Political parties (regionalist/autonomist): Partíu Asturianista, URAS
- Political parties (nationalist/non secessionist): Unidá Nacionalista Asturiana (EFA member), Bloque por Asturies
- Political parties (nationalist/secessionist): Andecha Astur
- Youth movements: Darréu, UNA-Mocedá, Fai!
- Trade Unions: CSI, SUATEA
- Other pro-independence organisations: Sofitu
- Proposed state: Socialist Republic of Asturias
- Proposed flag: Asturina
- Ethnic group Basque
- Political parties: Partido Nacionalista Vasco (member of the European Democratic Party), Eusko Alkartasuna (EFA member), Bildu, Amaiur, Aralar, Basque Nationalist Action,Batasuna (illegalised due to terrorism support)
- Trade union: Euskal Langileen Alkartasuna, Langile Abertzaleen Batzordeak
- Ethnic group: Cantabrian
- Political party: Cantabrian Nationalist Council
- Youth movement: Regüelta (Revolt)
- Trade union: Intersindical Cántabra
- Proposed state: Cantabria
- Proposed flag: Lábaro
- Ethnic group Catalan
- Proposed state: Republic of Catalonia or Catalan Countries
- Political parties: Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya and Democratic Union of Catalonia 50/135 seats in the regional parliament, Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya21/135 seats in the regional parliament, Initiative for Catalonia Greens 13/135 seats in the regional parliament, Candidatura d’Unitat Popular 3/135 seats in the regional parliament, Solidaritat Catalana per la Independència 0/135 seats in the regional parliament, Reagrupament 0/135 seats in the regional parliament, Estat Català 0/135 seats in the regional parliament.
- Civil Organization: Arran, Joventuts d’Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, Joventut Nacionalista de Catalunya, Unió de Joves
- Youth Advocacy groups: Arran, Joventuts d’Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, Joventut Nacionalista de Catalunya, Unió de Joves
- Ethnic group Leonese
- Political parties (autonomist): Unión del Pueblo Leonés (Leonese Country), Tierra Comunera (Castile)
- Youth movements: Conceyu Xoven (Leonese Country), Yesca (Castile)
- Advocacy groups: AGORA País Llionés (Leonese Country)
- Proposed states: Castile, Leonese Country
- Ethnic group: Galician
- Political party: Bloque Nacionalista Galego (Galician Nationalist Block) (autonomist) (EFA member), NÓS-Unidade Popular (WE-Popular Unity) (independentist), Frente Popular Galego (Galician Popular Front) (independentist), Partido Galeguista (The Galician Party), Terra Galega Galician Coalition (Centrist nationalist Party), Alternativa Galega de Esquedas (Galician Left Alternative)
- Youth Advocacy groups: Galiza Nova, AGIR, CAF
- Militant organisation: Resistência Galega
- Proposed state: Galician Republic or Portugal
- Ethnic group Leonese
- Political parties: Unión del Pueblo Leonés
- Youth movements: Conceyu Xoven (Leonese Country),
- Advocacy groups: AGORA País Llionés
- Proposed states: Leonese Country
- Ethnic group: Portuguese
- Militant organisation: Amigos de Olivença (Portuguese irredentist movement)
- Proposed state: to Portugal
- Regional group: Genevan
- Regional group: Jurassien
- Ethnic group: Kurdish
- Proposed state: Kurdistan
- Political parties: Peace and Democracy Party (BDP), Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP)
- Militant organisations: Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), Group of Communities in Kurdistan (KCK), Kurdistan Freedom Falcons (TAK), Democrat Party of Kurdistan/North (PDK/Bakur), Revolutionary Party of Kurdistan (PŞK), Communist Party of Kurdistan (KKP)
- Ethnic group: Russian
- Ethnic group: Russian
- Ethnic group: Russian
Proposed autonomous regions:
- Ethnic group: Crimean Tatars
- Ethnic group: Hungarian, Rusyn
- Proposed autonomous area: Transcarpathian Regional Confederation of the Hungarian and Rusyn People
- Political parties: People’s Parliament Carpathian Rusyns, who demands autonomy of Ruthenia
- Proposed autonomous area: Transcarpathian Regional Confederation of the Hungarian and Rusyn People
United Kingdom and its dependencies
See also: Devolution in the United Kingdom
Constituent countries of the United Kingdom
See also: Home Nations
See also: Cornish nationalism, Constitutional status of Cornwall, Cornish Assembly, Devolved English parliament,English independence, English nationalism, Scottish independence and Scottish nationalism
- Ethnic group: Cornish
- Proposed state: Cornwall (independence from the UK)
- Advocates: Former members of the defunct Cornish Nationalist Party
- Proposed autonomous area: Cornwall (with a law-making assembly; many supporters want to change its status into a constituent country within the UK, separating from England)
- Political parties: Green Party of England and Wales, Mebyon Kernow – Party for Cornwall (supports separation from England; EFA member), Liberal Democrats
- Advocacy groups: Celtic League, Cornish Constitutional Convention, Cornwall 2000, Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament, Tyr Gwyr Gweryn,Wessex Constitutional Convention
- Proposed state: Cornwall (independence from the UK)
- Ethnic group: English
- Ethnic group: English
Yorkshire (historical county)
- Regional group: Yorkshiremen
See also: Alternative names for Northern Ireland, History of Northern Ireland, Irish nationalism, Irish republicanism, Names of the Irish state, Repartition of Ireland, The Troubles,Ulster loyalism, Ulster nationalism and United Ireland
- Ethnic group: Ulster Scots
- Ethnic group: Irish
See also: Devolution in Scotland, Scottish nationalism, Scottish independence and Scottish independence referendum 2014
- Ethnic group: Scottish
- Ethnic group (s): Shetland Islanders, Orkney Islanders
- Proposed autonomous area or state: Orkney and Shetland (separately or jointly, not yet specified)
- Advocates: Liam McArthur MSP (focusing Orkney), Tavish Scott MSP (focusing Shetland) and some members of the local councils
- Proposed autonomous area or state: Orkney and Shetland (separately or jointly, not yet specified)
Outer Hebrides (Western Isles)
See also: Monmouthshire (historic) § Ambiguity over Welsh status, Welsh nationalism and Welsh independence
- Ethnic group: Welsh
Bailiwick of Jersey (including smaller islands and rocks)
- Ethnic group: Manx
- Proposed State: Isle of Man
- Proposed Autonomous Region: Isle of Man (Constituent of the United Kingdom)
- Political party: Liberal Vannin
- For movements in other British Overseas Territories, see the List of active separatist movements in North America.
The SECOND ANGEL said Harvest time has come in Israel and all the way to Iran.
Then I saw that the second angel had a sickle in his hand, and he said," Harvest time has come in Israel and the countries all the way to Iran." I saw Turkey and those countries that have refused Me and refused My message of love shall hate each other and kill one another." I saw the angel raise the sickle and come down on all the Middle East countries. Blood and Fire I saw Iran, Persia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, all of Georgia, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, all of Asia Minor full of blood. I saw blood and fire all over these countries. Nuclear weapons used in many of those countries. Smoke rising from everywhere. Sudden destruction, men destroying one another. "Israel, Oh Israel, the great judgment has come. The chosen, the church, the remnant, shall be purified. The Spirit of God shall prepare the children of God." I saw fires rising to heaven. This is the final judgment. My church shall be purified, protected and ready for the final day. Men will die from thirst. Water shall be scarce all over the Middle East. Rivers shall dry up, and men will fight for water in those countries. The angel showed me that the United Nations shall be broken in pieces because of the crisis in the MidEast. There shall be no more United Nations. The angel with the sickle shall reap the harvest.
The FOURTH ANGEL said Innocent blood has been shed.
I saw the fourth angel with wings fly over Africa, and I could see from Capetown in the south all the way to the north of Cairo, Egypt. The angel of Africa had a tremendous, sharp sword in his hand. I heard him say, "Innocent blood has been shed. Divisions amongst the people generations far from the Lord, they have killed one another, thousands of people. I have seen my faithful children in Africa, and I shall reward all the faithful in the continent of Africa. I shall bless them abundantly." "I shall control the weather - scorching and burning of the sun in some parts. Great rivers shall dry up, and millions will die from starvation. In other parts, flooding. Foundations shall be shaken. My sword shall judge the unrighteous and the bloodthirsty. So many earthquakes shall happen that rivers shall flow different directions in the continent, flooding many villages." I saw great pieces falling from the sky over different parts of Africa. "There shall be trembling of the earth like has not been seen since the creation. None shall escape the sword of the Lord." I saw the River Nile drying up. It is the god of Egypt. Fishes dead and stinking all over Egypt. A great part of the middle of Africa will be covered with water, millions dying. I said, "Lord, it is all bad news. All destruction. Any good news?" The Lord said, "
Antichrist like Warning!!!!!
Obama wears a Mason ring Daily. They denounce their faith in Jesus at the 32 degree level and pledge allegiance to Lucifer proves they are antichrist and clearly Obama is a 33 degree or he would not be ruling in America today. He is the He Goat of Daniel 8 called the Baphomet as he will be the ruling Western Leader when Damascus gets destroyed tells us it’s him and the pictures I showed of him being portrayed as Jesus are not misleading they are exactly what God warned us about .
it even covers president to spell Jesident of the UN.
He is portraying himself as Jesus on a Donkey.
Risen in Egypt
Galactic Underworld & Pentachronometry
by Goro (goroadachi.com)
February 13, 2011
In this article I want to quickly and conclusively show that there was an unmistakable esoteric undercurrent flowing through the Egyptian Revolution January 25-February 11, 2011… revealed through “pentachronometry” or a pentagrammic temporal rhythm underlying key world events…
|Related posts: Nov 16, 2010, Jan 20, 2011||Related posts: Dec 2, ’10,Jan 5, ’11, Jan 8, Feb 7|
[From Feb 7 post]
Two back-to-back Egyptian bulls-eyes – impressive and surreal… except unlike before it didn’t necessarily have that “in your face” clarity in terms of continuing the predominant multicontextual theme of the season, “Lucifer-Venus-Phoenix rising out of the Underworld” aka “Morning Star“. It was all there, of course. You had to know where, when and how to focus your attention and start digging for the treasure… the Hall of Records.
Mayan Galactic Underworld
Why Egypt and why now? It was “written in the stars.” In particular… Venus aka the “Morning Star” aka “Lucifer” (original meaning) all about being pentagrammic…
Nothing says “Out of the Underworld” like the Morning Star rising over the horizon, evoking Lucifer escaping chthonic prison – a narrative amplified during the Egyptian Revolution (Jan 25-Feb 11, 2011)…
[Above graphic first posted on February 1st, full 10 daysbefore Egyptian Revolution ended on Feb 11.]
…as Venus made its way across the Milky Way near the Galactic Center immersed in what is called the “Dark Rift,” a series of overlapping black “clouds” running through a significant portion of the Milky Way. The Maya considered it the “road to Xibalba,” their underworld (popularly thought integral to the Mayan calendar ominously counting down to “2012”).
Venus in the Dark Rift = Lucifer in/rising from
Ophiuchus was also there accompanying Venus in the abyss, adding an extra layer of “prophetic” meaning…
The Serpent Holder
The obscure constellation few knew how to pronounce – Ophiuchus – went viral out of nowhere mid-January 2011, becoming an overnight sensation…
Many sensed “something” being signaled. Something wonderful, something “dark”. It was for all intents and purposes an “omen” prefiguring the Underworld opening its mouth in the “Black Land” (Egypt originally kemet meaning “black land”). Venus was the timing aspect of the “prophecy”; Ophiuchus was there to provide spatial information through an orbital “mirror”…
…through Orion, exactly on the opposite side from Ophiuchus, signifying a hidden path to the Egyptian Underworld.
In ancient Egypt they called their underworld the “Duat“. It was ruled by Osiris the god of the dead identified withOrion whose “Belt Stars” are memorialized in the arrangement of the Giza pyramids (“Orion Correlation Theory”) standing right next to Cairo or Revolution ground zero…
- Pyramids are “tombs” analogous to the underworld
- Giza once called “Rostau“, originally referring to the deepest section of the Duat
- The Duat traditionally denoted by a circumscribed 5-pointed star i.e. a “pentagram” or “pentacle”
It all came together in Egypt. The country’s “pentagrammic rebirth” was perfectly timed to mirror Venus-Lucifer making its way out of the galactic “womb” aka the Dark Rift(Xibalba).
Behold, Osiris has risen through fire…
The phoenix represents the essence of Osiris – all about resurrection. Osiris = Orion = Giza pyramids… which are in essence extensions of the “Benben Stone,” the archetypal/original capstone, closely linked to the “Bennu” bird (bennu and benben stemming from the same root) which is simply the Egyptian phoenix.
NASA’s “Phoenix” (successfully landing on Mars in 2008)…
…was built and operated (scientific portions) by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory based in Tucson, Arizona, the same city where Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords – a NASA “astronaut’s wife” – was shot, and for a short time thought killed, by a disturbed young man Jared Lee Loughner. She is now making a miraculous “beast”-like recovery – or “resurrection” – from her “beast”-like head injury (Revelation 13). That was back on January 8th, 2011, making it the event that pentachronometrically paved the way for Egypt’s Rebirth.
Mars was in the mix to put the icing on the multicontextual cake or the capstone on the pyramid. Because…
The Egyptian capital Cairo derives its name from al Qahir, (“the victorious”) referring to Mars – a fiery planet we saw “burning”; intensely with the Sun during the Revolution in the “Martian city” Cairo… also burning.
Then out of the Martian ashes rose…
…a New Dawn.
Which is so bright, it just might wake up Atlantis…
So what does all this have to do with Bible prophecy?
Daniel 11:42-43 (NASB)42“Then he will stretch out his hand against other countries, and the land of Egypt will not escape. But he will gain control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt; and Libyans and Ethiopians will follow at his heels.
The prophecy is that the land of Egypt will “not escape.” That is — Egypt will fall. The Egyptian military is Egypt’s protector regardless of the political leanings of the current president. If the country falls, then the military has fallen. In addition, the Egyptian military is the protector of the “hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt.” Here is one article describing what is happening to the hidden treasures of Egypt during the chaos of Arab Spring and even more so the chaos ensuing at present. .
Yet, despite the value of the “hidden treasures” of Egypt, one cannot help but wonder if there is not another item far more valuable than ancient artifacts? Consider the Suez Canal, the producer of approximately $2.5billion annually, 10% of annual revenues for Egypt, which simply put is “worth it” to whomever controls the canal:
The Suez Canal (Arabic: Qanāt al-Sūwais) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows transportation by water between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa. The northern terminus is Port Said and the southern terminus is Port Tawfiq at the city of Suez. Ismailia lies on its west bank, 3 km (1.9 mi) from the half-way point.
Recently, political unrest in Egypt led to chaos even along the bordering towns of the Suez Canal. General al-Sisi made this statement nearly six months before Muhammad Morsi was unseated. Read the statement in light of Daniel 11:42 just quoted:
CAIRO — As three Egyptian cities [the three critical cities bordering the Suez Canal, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez] defied President Mohamed Morsi’s attempt to quell the anarchy spreading through their streets, the nation’s top general warned Tuesday that the state itself was in danger of collapse if the feuding civilian leaders could not agree on a solution to restore order. … With the stakes rising and no solution in sight, Gen. Abdul Fattah el-Sisi, the defense minister, warned Egypt’s new Islamist leaders and their opponents that “their disagreement on running the affairs of the country may lead to the collapse of the state and threatens the future of the coming generations.” (Emphasis supplied)
It appears that the General took things into his own hands when he “unseated” President Morsi on July 3, 2013. His actions placed him in the “driver’s seat” so to speak; for what purpose? To save his country from self-destruction.
How might we assess modern day events in light of prophetic Scripture?
- The spirit of antichrist is working in the hearts of Egyptians to bring about a total collapse of Egyptian society (2 Thessalonians 2:11 NASB; 1 John 2:18 NASB). The spirit of antichrist is working in the “sons of disobedience” (unbelieving humanity) to bring in the wrath of God (Ephesians 5:6 NASB and Colossians 3:6 NASB). Death, violence, destruction, disunity, anger, and unrest are the odor of his breath; such is the case for Egypt today; and such has been the case for the Muslim world in general: “To date, rulers have been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt (twice), Libya, and Yemen; civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrain and Syria; major protests have broken out in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and Sudan; and minor protests have occurred in Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, and Western Sahara.”
- Egypt will fall.
- The military will be unable to bring reconciliation between the Islamists and secularists (which includes both Muslim and non-Muslims). The prophecy tells us of this event.
- The military will likely continue its assault against Islamists to the point that the United States will be forced to withhold $1.3billion in aid to Egypt for no other reason than the political pressures applied upon it by Americans in general, and by the United Nations and the European Union in particular. No matter how you look at it, democratic free elections brought in Muhammad Mursi; the people who elected him are now being targeted by the security forces of Egypt for no other reason than they support him. If Syria’s Assad and his military murdered people to keep him in office, and the United States condemned such actions, how can we not do the same in Egypt? And how else do we evidence that condemnation than by the withholding of aid?
- The economy of Egypt will fail. It is already on the precipice, and the withholding of United States aid will be the “straw that breaks the camel’s back.” The continuing unrest socially between supporters of Morsi and supporters of the military will escalate resulting in the closing of businesses and an eventual impact upon all revenues, including oil and gas revenues impacted by the inability to export same.
- The Suez Canal will be closed because of the inability of the military to provide safe passage for shipping vessels. The chaos and lack of leadership in Egyptian society will either close the canal or result in the captains of sea vessels opting for the long way around the continent of Africa to insure delivery of their cargoes. Already questions are being asked about the impact on Suez traffic of rebellion along the bordering cities, particularly Port Said.
- The 1979 Egypt-Israeli treaty will be terminated. With the Egyptian military no longer at the wheel to maintain the treaty, and with United States aid withheld, whomever is in control will have no financial incentive to maintain the treaty. Daniel 9:27 NASB will be fulfilled in this event. The tribulation of Ezekiel 38/39 against Israel will be brought in through the doors of Egypt.
- The Antichrist will fill the void in the Middle East, perhaps beginning with Iran and Shia Islam, as Iran pulls the trigger upon Israel. Other bible prophecies warn that he will conquer the world in the process. Revelation 13:7-8 NASB.
Stretching it you think? Perhaps, but not from where I sit. Look at the events in the Muslim world over the last two years. Look at the events of the last week – the military (and/or police) killing its own by the hundreds? Who would ever have imagined that the leader of the Egyptian military would warn his own people that unless they reconciled with one another the collapse of the nation was at stake? This has an uncanny resemblance to the prophesied event of Daniel 9:42.
of four U.S.-made F-16 fighters.”
Perhaps a quick review of some key historical developments might be helpful:
- Egypt-Israeli peace accord signed in 1979 at Camp David, a consequence of which was the beginning of significant United States military aid to Egypt (and Israel). According to the Congressional Research Study (author Jeremy Sharp) #RL33003, p. 9, United States aid to Egypt and Israel in 1979 totaled $7.3billion, each. According to the same report, “Since 1979, Egypt has been the second-largest recipient, after Israel, of U.S. bilateral foreign assistance.”
- The United States aid to Egypt since 1987 has been $1.3 billion, annually.1 In addition to the aid of $1.3 billion, Egypt receives a significant portion of financing for its defense budget. According to CRS #33003, it is estimated that U.S. military aid covers as much as 80% of the Egyptian Defense Ministry’s weapons procurement costs.2
- On February 11, 2011, former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (1981 – 2011) “waived” his presidential powers over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.3 Mubarak’s departure was in response to the developments in the Muslim world popularly known as Arab Spring. (Read more)
On June 30, 2012, Muslim Brotherhood candidate Muhammad Morsi was elected president of Egypt in what has been described as the first democratic election in the history of Egypt. In November, 2012, Morsi granted himself unlimited powers to
From left to right: Protesters marching to Tahrir Square, in Downtown Cairo, where the main protests were being held; and Paramilitary riot police of the Central Security Forces; 20000 to 30000 police were deployed in central Cairo.
Tahrir Square at night during the “Day of Revolt”
On 25 January 2011, known as the “Day of Anger” (Arabic: yawm al-ġaḍab, Egyptian Arabic: [ˈjoːm elˈɣɑdɑb]) or the“Day of Revolt”, protests took place in different cities across Egypt, including Cairo, Alexandria, Suez and Ismaïlia. The day was selected by many opposition groups such as the 6 April Youth Movement, We Are All Khaled Said Movement, National Association for Change, 25 January Movement and Kefaya to coincide with National Police Day. The purpose was to protest against abuses by the police in front of the Ministry of Interior. These demands expanded to include the resignation of the Minister of Interior, the restoration of a fair minimum wage, the end of Egyptian emergency law, and term limits for the president.
Protests took place in different location in Egypt. 20,000 protested in various locations across Alexandria, 200 demonstrators in the southern city of Aswan, 2,000 in the eastern city of Ismaïlia, and about 3,000 in the northern city of El-Mahalla El-Kubra.Deadly clashes broke out during the protests leading to the death of two protesters in Suez.
Cairo protesters had gathered in the morning in front of the High Court in the centre of Cairo. The demonstration was larger than expected. It broke through the security cordon and moved to Tahrir Square. Thousands protested in Cairo, with 15,000 occupying Tahrir Square (Liberation Square). Police used tear gas and water cannons against the protesters, who in turn threw stones at police, eventually forcing them to retreat.
Hossam el-Hamalawy stated to Al-Jazeera during the evening of the protest that the demonstrations were “necessary to send a message to the Egyptian regime that Mubarak is no different than Ben Ali and we want him to leave too.” He also told Al-Jazeera, “People are fed up of Mubarak and of his dictatorship and of his torture chambers and of his failed economic policies. If Mubarak is not overthrown tomorrow then it will be the day after. If its not the day after its going to be next week.”
On 26 January, riots continued with protesters’ numbers continuing to rise. Violence by both protesters and police increased. One protester and one police official were killed in Cairo. Suez experienced an unexpected uprising; many protesters faced live rounds, and both protesters and police were beaten. Suez protesters set fire to several government buildings, including the police station.
Protests were not as large on 27 January while preparations were made for planned large-scale events on the following day (Friday). The Muslim Brotherhood declared its full support of the protests, and members planned to take part during Friday’s demonstrations. Leader of the National Association for Change and former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency Mohamed ElBaradei returned that day.
Later in the day a protester of Bedouin descent was shot dead by police in the town of Sheikh Zoweid in the North Sinai region, raising the death toll to seven. In Suez, the uprising continued and violence increased as more buildings were set ablaze, including police posts. Some Suez and Sinai region protesters armed themselves with guns leading to violent conflicts.
“The people have broken the barrier of fear. There is no going back.”
Hundreds were arrested at the various protests. About 600 were arrested in Cairo, including 8 Egyptian journalists protesting against the government’s reported restrictions on domestic and Middle Eastern affairs. More than 120 people were arrested in Asyut, mostly members of the Muslim Brotherhood.
An Al Jazeera report on the protests (in English)
The main headquarters of the rulingNational Democratic Party aflame duringFriday of Anger in Cairo
Tens of thousands filled the streets across Egypt on Friday, 28 January, called by some the “Friday of Anger” (Arabic: جمعة الغضب ǧumʿat al-ġaḍab Egyptian Arabic: [ˈɡomʕet elˈɣɑdɑb]) and by others as the “Day of Rage“. Shortly before 1:00 am, hours ahead of the protests, the Egyptian government shut down Internet services, although some people communicated using a text-to-speech telephone service set up by Google andTwitter. Text messaging and mobile phone services also appeared to be blocked. According to Vodafone, all mobile operators in Egypt were instructed to suspend services in selected areas. The authorities had prior legislative approval to issue such an order.
Shortly after Jumu’ah (Friday prayers), tens of thousands of Egyptians assembled to protest; within hours the number rose to hundreds of thousands. ElBaradei arrived from Giza, where he had been leading protests, to Cairo. Ynetnews and CNN stated that ElBaradei was placed under arrest, while Al Jazeera English said that ElBaradei was unaware of his would-be house arrest. ElBaradei’s detention prompted the U.S. to review its $1.5 billion aid package for Egypt; he was later released. Meanwhile, the Muslim Brotherhood said that twenty members of the banned group had been detained overnight, including Essam el-Erian, its main spokesman, and Mohamed Morsy, one of its leaders.
Throughout the day, police fired tear gas, rubber bullets, and water cannons into crowds during violent clashes between authorities and protesters throughout Egypt. In Port Said tens of thousands gathered and multiple government buildings were set ablaze. In Suez, police shot and killed at least one protestor. Protestors in Suez took control of a police station, freed arrested protesters and then burned down a nearby smaller local police post. The government issued a 18:00 to 7:00 curfew, but protesters ignored it and were met by police. In the evening, one of the National Democratic Party (NDP) headquarters buildings in Cairo was set on fire by an unidentified culprit. While protesters paused for evening prayers, police continued firing tear gas. The day’s defiance was summed up by the plethora of Tunisian national flags and anti-Mubarak graffiti that the protesters had created in the Greater Cairo region, Alexandria, Beni Suef, Mansoura and Manufiya.
Amid reports of looting, concerns were raised about the safety of the antiquities of the famous Egyptian Museum, near the epicenter of the Cairo protests. Egyptian state television announced in the evening that army commandos had secured the museum. Protesters joined soldiers in protecting the museum, situated beside the burning ruling party headquarters. Looters managed to enter during the night from the roof to damage a number of small artifacts, and it was initially reported that they had ripped the heads off two mummies, but subsequent reports claimed that Egypt’s top archaeologist had mistaken skulls from other skeletons, and that the mummies were intact.
Deployment of the army
Police vehicle that was burned during the night of 28 January
A delegation led by the chief of staff of Egypt’s armed forces, Lt. Gen. Sami Hafez Enan, was in Washington, D.C., although the visit was truncated due to the protests. The sessions, an annual country-to-country military coordination, were being led for the U.S. by Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs Alexander Vershbow. A meeting with Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, and other talks had been planned to extend to 2 February. However, in light of events in Egypt, the delegation left Washington to return home. Before their Friday night departure, Vershbow urged the two dozen representatives of the largely American-funded Egyptian military “to exercise ‘restraint'”.
Al Jazeera reported an Associated Press claim that an elite counter-terrorism force had been deployed at strategic points around Cairo, and that Egypt’s interior ministry was warning of “decisive measures”. The secretary-general of the ruling National Democratic Party, Safwat Sherif, held a press conference stating, “We hope that tomorrow’s Friday prayers and its rituals happen in a quiet way that upholds the value of such rituals … and that no one jeopardises the safety of citizens or subjects them to something they do not want.”
The Egyptian government deployed military in Cairo, Alexandria, and Suez to assist the police. Al Jazeera reported that in Suez and in Alexandria the military wanted to avoid an open armed confrontation with protesters. In Giza, Protestors gathered in front of the l-Istiqama Mosque. where protesters and riot police fought in parts of Giza, including at the mosque.
From left to right: Protesters in Cairo carrying a coffin; and Demonstrators standing on an army vehicle in Tahrir Square, Cairo. The sign reads: “Leave, you tyrant. Down with Mubarak.”
The night of 28/29 January was quieter in Cairo with fewer reports of looting than in previous days.
Widespread protests continued, with many protesters chanting, “Down with Mubarak”. Chants of “the people and the army are one” were also heard, as the position of the army in the course of events continued to be critical but ambiguous. By 2:00 pm local time, approximately 50,000 had gathered in Tahrir Square, 10,000 gathered in Kafr-al-Sheikh, and additional protests took place in other cities. A curfew was announced by the army for Cairo, Alexandria and Suez from 4–6 pm. The 6:00 pm police curfew the previous day had had “almost no effect whatsoever”, according toAl Jazeera English, and protesters continued to descend on Tahrir Square. Protesters gathered at the Ministry of Interior, and three were killed by police when they tried to storm the building.
Protesters were described by reporters as more confident and even celebratory as they felt they were nearing their objective—the end of Mubarak’s regime—although they had no tangible evidence of this. An eyewitness told Al Jazeera that people of all ages and both genders were present. Demonstrators violated the curfew and no one attempted to stop them. Looting was also reported, while no police were visible.
In Beni Suef, south of Cairo, 17 protesters were killed by police as the protesters attempted to attack two police stations. In Abu Zabaal prison in Cairo, eight people were killed as police clashed with inmates trying to escape. According to a Reuters tally, these unconfirmed deaths brought the death toll to at least 100. Several Islamist terrorists and others escaped. Prison overcrowding and police brutality were voiced by many of the protesters. Emad Gad, an analyst with the Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, said that he had obtained information from a trustworthy source that “there have been orders from the very top to free known felons from the prisons, to arm them and to let them mingle with protesters.” Two Egyptian policemen jailed following the death of anti-corruption activist Khaled Said were among the hundreds of prisoners that escaped in Cairo that day.
Tanks were reported on the streets of Suez. A police station was torched after protesters seized weapons stored inside before telling officers to get out. At first there was a presence of the Central Security Force, then army troops who were ordered into major cities to quell street fighting. In the Sinai town of Rafah a lynch mob killed three police officers.
Many tourists sites were disrupted and the access to the Pyramids was suspended. The resort town of Sharm-el Shaikh, however, remained calm. Chaos was reported at Cairo International Airport, where thousands of stranded and frightened foreigners attempted to evacuate.
Protesters in Tahrir Square. Translation reads “Go away Mubarak”
A troop carrier defaced with protester graffiti, the larger of which reads “Down with Mubarak“, “No to Mubarak”,“Mubarak the dictator has fallen”, “30 years of theft and injustice … enough is enough … get out now!”, “Leave, you thief!”‘.
Overnight, thousands of protesters continued to defy the curfew and, as the night progressed, troops and armoured vehicles deployed across Cairo to guard key places such as train stations, major government buildings and banks. The army had insufficient capacity to patrol neighbourhoods, so residents set up armed vigilante groups to drive off looters and robbers. A heavy army presence (though no police) was reported in Suez. Chaos was rampant in Suez during the night, but as day broke the streets remained relatively quiet. As in Cairo, many residents formed vigilante groups to protect their homes and businesses in the absence of police. The military set up numerous checkpoints throughout the city. An estimation of about 30 bodies including the bodies of two children were taken to El Demerdash Hospital in central Cairo. By 6:00 am local time, Tahrir Square was quiet, with only a few hundred people. Later in the morning, 3–5,000 protesters were reported as gathering there, including hundreds of state judges protesting for the first time.
The National Association for Change, along with the April 6 Youth Movement, “We are all Khaled Said”, the Jan 25 Movement and Kefaya (the main organizers of the protests) gave their support to ElBaradei to negotiate the formation of a temporary national unity government. They called for a newconstitution and a transitional government. The Muslim Brotherhood (MB), reiterated demands for Mubarak’s resignation. The MB also said, after protests turned violent, that it was time for the military to intervene. Al Jazeera reported that 34 members of the Muslim Brotherhood were released from custody as their guards abandoned their posts.
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Egypt’s Minister of Defence and Commander in Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, was seen with the protesters in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo. As of 18:30, ElBaradei had arrived in Tahrir Square and announced that “what we have begun cannot go back”. He also said “You are the owners of this revolution. You are the future. Our key demand is the departure of the regime and the beginning of a new Egypt in which each Egyptian lives in virtue, freedom and dignity.” Egyptian opposition leaders said that talks would be held only with the army. Mubarak was holding a meeting with his military commanders at the time.
Soldiers were then ordered to use live ammunition, but the army refused the order since it was present to “protect the people”. The army chief told protesters they would not be fired upon. Helicopters monitored the protests, and fighter jets repeatedly flew low over Tahrir Square. After the first pass of the two Egyptian Air Force F-16s, the crowd cheered and subsequent passes triggered louder chants, laughing, and waving. The crowd did not disperse. Protesters were also reported picking up garbage in Tahrir Square, as essential services were not working and that they wanted to “keep our country clean”. Food and water were offered at the scene by Egyptian people to the Egyptian protesters in sign of solidarity with the protesters.
Mubarak asked the current aviation minister and former chief of Air Staff Ahmed Shafiq, to form a new government. Shafiq, a Mubarak loyalist, had often been mentioned as a potential successor to Mubarak due to his politically reliable nature.
The Egyptian Central Bank said all banks and the stock market would remain closed on 30 January. Police returned to the streets at about 10:30 pm except at Tahrir Square. By 10:55 local time, Al Jazeera’s offices in Cairo were ordered to close. At the same time, all correspondents for the network had their credentials revoked.
On the night of 30 January Mubarak’s Sharm el-Sheikh holiday villa was guarded by a small force of armed and loyal police who turned away all approaching vehicles. Sharm el-Sheikh had seen no deaths and minimal trouble. Military aircraft were visible from the local airport’s perimeter fence, although the airport was frequently used by the armed forces for operations. It was also one of the hubs for private air travel in and around Egypt, but most light aircraft had departed earlier that day.
An Egyptian Air Force Mi-17 circling over Tahrir Square
The night of 30 to 31 January was quieter in Cairo, with fewer reports of looting. For the fourth day in a row the curfew was violated without repercussions. Security officials had announced that the curfew would start at 3:00 pm and threatened to shoot anyone who ignored it, although eventually little or no action was taken as security and army personnel left Tahrir Square.
Hundreds of thousands continued to protest in Egyptian cities, including 250,000 protesters in Cairo alone. A protester was shot dead in Abu Simbel and extra troops were moved to guard the Suez Canal. For the first time during protests, there were pro-Mubarak protests of at least 1,000 people. Mohamed ElBaradei again joined thousands of protesters in Tahrir Square. The National Association for Change, an umbrella group that contains several opposition movements including the Muslim Brotherhood and pro-democracy groups, chose ElBaradei to negotiate with Mubarak. Luis Ayala, the secretary-general of the Socialist International said that the NDP was expelled because:
The use of violence, with scores dead and injured, is totally incompatible with the policies and principles of any social democratic party anywhere in the world. Consequently, we consider that a party in government that does not listen, that does not move and that does not immediately initiate a process of meaningful change in these circumstances, cannot be a member of the Socialist International. We are, as of today, ceasing the membership of the NDP, however we remain determined to cooperate with all the democrats in Egypt striving to achieve an open, democratic, inclusive and secular state.
Industrial strikes were also called in many cities, including Cairo. Nissan had suspended production at its plant in Egypt to ensure employees’ safety after anti-government protests, but Hyundai‘s plant chose to continue working.
Reports emerged of several major prisons across the country being attacked, and law and order rapidly deteriorated across most of Egypt. Criminal violence continued in Cairo as looters burnt out the Arkadia shopping mall. Egypt Air cancelled all internal and outbound flights; an inbound Egypt Air flight from London to Cairo was diverted to Athens because of an alleged bomb threat. Once policing became more problematic due to police disappearing from Cairo, the military took over, creating an overall more rigid system and making the military position more critical. Senior Egyptian generals led by Tantawi released a statement saying:
“The armed forces will not resort to use of force against our great people. Your armed forces, who are aware of the legitimacy of your demands and are keen to assume their responsibility in protecting the nation and the citizens, affirms that freedom of expression through peaceful means is guaranteed to everybody.”
Zahi Hawass, an internationally known archeologist, was appointed by Mubarak to the newly created cabinet post of Minister of Antiquities during the cabinet shakeup on 31 January. Hawass said in a statement published on his personal blog that “the broken objects can all be restored, and we will begin the restoration process this week”. In a New York Times interview he rejected comparisons with Iraq and Afghanistan and said that antiquities were being safeguarded.
Young protesters in Cairo. The middle sign reads: “Mubarak leave us and go look for someone else to gross out other than us.”
Opposition leaders called for a “March of the Millions“, from the Arabic مسيرة مليونية masīrat milyōna) from Cairo’s Tahrir Square to the Presidential Palace in Heliopolis on 1 February. Egyptian security forces fortified Mubarak’s presidential palace with coils of barbed wire to ensure no demonstrators could break into the palace.
According to the Egyptian government media, the number of protesters in Cairo was reported to be thousands. The BBC reported the number of protesters in Tahrir Square ranged from “more than 100,000 to some 250,000—the square’s maximum capacity.” Egyptian security forces stated that 500,000 people participated in the protests in Cairo alone. According to Al Jazeera, over one million protesters gathered in central Cairo by the afternoon, a number growing to around 2 million later in the day.
Similar protests occurred across Egypt with hundreds of thousands in Alexandria, and an estimated 250,000 in Sinai and Suez marking the largest mobilisation in the then eight day old protest. Meanwhile, a virtual “March of Millions” was launched on Facebook with the goal of reaching one million voices in support of the march.
Vice President Suleiman held a meeting with some of the Muslim Brotherhood figures, including Mohamed Morsy and Saad El-Katatny. In the meeting Suleiman asked them to withdrawn the MB youth from Tahrir so the situation would cool down and in return the Muslim Brotherhood would gain legitimacy by obtaining an actual license for a political party plus releasing some of its member including Khairat El-Shater.
In the late evening (11:00 PM local Egyptian time) President Mubarak proclaimed that he did not intend to run in the next election. Mubarak said he would stay in office to ensure a peaceful transition to the next election, set for September 2011, and promised to make political reforms. He also said that he would demand that Egyptian authorities pursue “outlaws” and “investigate those who caused the security disarray.” Mubarak said that peaceful protests were transformed into “unfortunate clashes, mobilised and controlled by political forces that wanted to escalate and worsen the situation”. He called upon the Egyptian parliament to change the term limits of the presidency and to change the requirements to run for president. He also admitted that there were voting violations by key members of the parliament, which would have led to removing those who were in rigged positions through the legal process.
In his speech on 1 February 2011 he said:”This dear nation … is where I lived, I fought for it and defended its soil, sovereignty and interests. On its soil I will die. History will judge me like it did others.”. Crowds continued protesting in Tahrir Square, demanding that the president step down.There were reports that Mubarak’s proclamation came after President Barack Obama’s special envoy, Frank G. Wisner, told Mubarak the U.S. saw his presidency at an end and urged him to prepare for an orderly transition to real democracy. In the past, Mubarak had said he would continue to serve Egypt until his last breath.
The United Nations human rights chief Navi Pillay announced that there were reports that more than 300 people had died in the violence with up to 3,000 injured, although stressed that these reports remain unconfirmed. Meanwhile banks remained closed, making it difficult for people to obtain money to buy food; for those that have money, prices skyrocketed as consumers flood the few open stores. Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey’s Prime Minister, urged Mubarak to meet his people’s “desire for change”.
Protesters in Cairo next to Tahrir Square
During the night of 1–2 February, Mubarak supporters and protesters clashed in Alexandria, where shots were reportedly fired into the air. Government forces and the police also fired into the crowd in an attempt to disperse the protesters. In Cairo, many protesters from the previous day had remained in Tahrir Square overnight.
In the morning, Internet access had been partially restored and the night-time curfew was eased, running from 5:00 pm to 7:00 am instead of 3:00 PM to 8:00 AM.  By midday, the army was asking protesters to go home in order to stabilise the situation. State television then announced: “You have to evacuate Tahrir Square immediately. We’ve got confirmed information that violent groups are heading toward Tahrir Square carrying firebombs and seeking to burn the Square.”
The NDP sent many people to show support for Mubarak. Provocateurs on horses and camels armed with swords, whips, clubs, stones, rocks, and pocket knives, attacked anti-government protesters in central Cairo, including Tahrir Square in what was later known as the (Battle of Jamal or Battle of the Camel) (Arabic: موقعة الجمل). Security officials were witnessed bribing ordinary citizens into attacking protesters. Some pro-Mubarak supporters were reportedly off-duty and undercover police, carrying police IDs. Gunfire was reported to be heard in Tahrir Square.
Molotov cocktails were also used on protesters, some landing on the grounds of the Egyptian Museum. Pro-Mubarak supporters were filmed dropping stones and firebombs from buildings onto demonstrators. Five were reported killed and 836 were taken to hospitals according the Health Minister. There were also clashes in Alexandria and unrest in Port Said. Shadi Hamid, a Brookings Institution analyst based in Qatar, suggested a strategy of “hired muscle” had repeatedly been employed in the past by the Mubarak government, suggesting the same approach was possible. The Interior Ministry denied that this was being done. Some journalists were attacked by the pro-Mubarak supporters.
ElBaradei called on the army to intervene. He also said Mubarak should be given a “safe exit” for Friday’s “Departure Day.” and that “Today’s violence is again an indication of a criminal regime that has lost any common sense. When the regime tries to counter a peaceful demonstration by using thugs … there are few words that do justice to this villainy and I think it can only hasten that regime’s departure.” A coalition of opposition parties agreed to hold talks with the newly formed government. However, ElBaradei and the Muslim Brotherhood stressed they would not talk to any government representative, including Vice President Omar Suleiman, until Mubarak’s resignation.
From left to right: Camels in Tahrir Square; and Battle of Tahrir Square during the evening of 2 February 2011
Ali Gomaa, the Grand Mufti of Egypt, said: “I greet President Mubarak who offered dialogue and responded to the demands of the people. Going against legitimacy is Haram (forbidden). This is an invitation for chaos. We support stability. What we have now is a blind chaos leading to a civil war. I call on all parents to ask their children to stay home.” A former general who was a part of the intelligence services said that Mubarak would have no qualms about “setting the whole country on fire.” Western media suggested the possibility of civil war as violence between the two sides escalated, leaving over a thousand injured.
UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon condemned the violence and reiterated calls for reform, while EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton said that the violence must stop and that Mubarak needed to explicitly describe proposed changes.
UK Prime Minister David Cameron and the White House condemned the violence, and the US State Department called for restraint. US President Obama also said that the transition “must be meaningful, it must be peaceful and it must begin now”. German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle and French President Nicolas Sarkozy asserted the right to march peacefully, while Erdogan called for democratisation. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu expressed concern over a new government saying: “I am convinced that the forces that want to bring change and democratization in Egypt will also enhance peace between Israel and the Arab world. But we are not there yet. The struggle has not been decided … We need to do everything to make sure that peace endures.”
Mubarak rejected international calls to step aside. Finance Minister Samir Radwan said the government would be “open to discussion with all shades of political opinions”. The army had earlier broadcast a message on television: … You began by going out to express your demands and you are the ones capable of restoring normal life.
From left to right: A baby waving the flag of Egypt in Tahrir Square and A popular slogan directed at President Mubarak and his government was “Irhal”, meaning “Leave!”.
On 2–3 February, 13 people were killed and 1,200 injured, according to the Egyptian health ministry.
In Cairo, a standoff took place in front of the Egyptian Museum in the early morning hours with rocks and petrol bombs reportedly flying. Large-caliber shots were reportedly fired in the air by the army to keep opposing factions at bay. There was a heavy police presence at the museum following the standoff. Anti-government protesters banged on metal railings while rocks were thrown at them.
Protests continued in Alexandria and Mansoura, where Al Jazeera suggested up to a million people marched. In Cairo, Egyptian army tanks cleared a highway overpass from which pro-Mubarak protesters had been hurling rocks and Molotov cocktails onto the anti-Mubarak protesters. On the streets below, hundreds of armed soldiers lined up between the two factions, pushing the pro-Mubarak protesters back and blocking the main hotspots in front of the Egyptian Museum and at other entrances to the square. Violence was reported to have been perpetrated by police.
The Prosecutor General decided to prevent former ministers and government officials Ahmed Abdel Aziz Ahmed Ezz, Mohamed Zuhair Mohamed Waheed Garana, Ahmed Alaa El Din Maghraby, Habib Ibrahim El Adly and others from traveling outside the country. He also froze their bank accounts, and established investigative authorities and procedures to identify and investigate criminal and administrative responsibilities in all of these cases.
With banks not due to reopen for three more days, cash-starved Egyptians reportedly were offered food and money to side against the anti-Mubarak protesters in Tahrir Square.Bloomberg reported that Vodafone had been forced by the Egyptian government to send SMS text messages to its customers. The pro-Mubarak messages characterized protesters as disloyal and called upon recipients to “confront” them. Vodafone CEO Vittorio Colao reported that the general public was still blocked from sending text messages.
Shahira Amin resigned from her position as deputy head of Nile TV, citing its coverage of the protests, saying, “I walked out yesterday. I can’t be part of the propaganda machine; I am not going to feed the public lies.” Many international journalists in Egypt covering the protests were detained, beaten, shouted at or threatened by pro-Mubarak protesters, as were numerous Egyptian bloggers and activists including Wael Abbas. Two Al Jazeera reporters were attacked as they arrived from the airport while three others were arrested and later released.
“I was very unhappy about yesterday. I do not want to see Egyptians fighting each other … I don’t care what people say about me. Right now I care about my country, I care about Egypt … I would never run away. I will die on this soil.”
In an interview, Mubarak said that he was “fed up” with being in power but would not resign because he did not want Egypt to descend into a chaos in which the Muslim Brotherhood would be the beneficiaries. Suleiman said, in the same interview, that the Egyptian people do not have a culture of democracy and that an Islamic current is pushing young people to protest. In an interview broadcast on state television, Suleiman reasserted that “The president will not go for another term nor any member of his family including his son. The January 25 youth was not a destructive movement, however it was a demand movement … Constitution articles 76 and 77 will be modified, other articles are subjected to change.” Regarding the clashes in Tahrir Square he commented, “Everyone responsible for these clashes will be questioned … The clashes had negatively impacted what the president speech had achieved.” Regarding economic effects, he commented, “A million tourists had left Egypt in 9 days, imagine the lost revenue.” He declared that anyone who had been arrested during the demonstrations would be released unless they had committed a crime. He asked the protesters to go home as all their demands had been heard. He thanked them for their efforts to move political life in Egypt forward.
Tahrir Square during the “Friday of Departure”
A tank at the entrance to Tahrir Square
During the night of 3–4 February, there were tanks on the street in Cairo as many of the protesters again spent the night in Tahrir Square. Pro-government protesters were active and small-scale clashes happened in the early hours. Ahmad Mohamed Mahmoud of Al-Ta’awun became the first journalist to die covering the protests, from gunshot wounds sustained on 28 January.
The organizers of the “Day of Revolt” and “Friday of Anger” called for a protest which was dubbed the “Friday of Departure“. In Cairo, they planned to march to Heliopolis Palace. (Arabic: جمعة الرحيل gumʿat ar-raḥīl) They demanded Mubarak step down immediately, with 4 February as their deadline. Protest marches were also held in Giza and El-Mahalla El-Kubra, Suez, Port Said, Rafah, Ismailiya, Zagazig, al-Mahalla al-Kubra,Aswan and Asyut.
Two million Egyptians flooded Tahrir Square to participate in Friday prayer in Tahrir Square. Egyptian Christians and others not performing Friday prayers formed a “human chain” around those praying to protect them from potential disruptions. The day’s planned events began after prayers. Al Jazeera estimated the crowd size to be over one million in Tahrir Square. Protesters held portraits of former presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser andAnwar Sadat. However, protesters did not get to the presidential palace. In Alexandria, over a million protesters turned out, making it the biggest-ever protest there. They warned that if the government used violence against protesters in Cairo, they would march to Cairo to join the protesters.
The New York Times and Bloomberg reported that the US administration was in talks with Egyptian officials over a proposal for Mubarak to resign immediately, turning over power to a transitional government headed by the Vice-President, because the longer Mubarak held on to power the more “strident” protesters would become. Saad El-Katatny appeared on Mehwar TV Channel and stated that the Muslim brotherhood and Omar Suleiman reached an agreement in their previous meeting.
The General Prosecutor followed up travel bans and frozen bank accounts on former ministers and government officials including former Minister of Trade and Industry Rachid Mohamed Rachid. He told Al Arabiya that “I returned from Davos to Egypt because of the current situation in Egypt. The new Prime Minister had contacted me for the same position in the new cabinet, I refused because I want fresh blood.” Regarding the travel ban, he commented, “I had no idea about the accusations, I served for six and half years and I am completely ready to face any accusation. No one had informed me of this decision and I heard it from the news.” He was considered a possible candidate for Prime Minister before the protests.
An Egyptian protester holding the Egyptian flag with one hand while showing the V sign with the other
The so-called Etha’et al-thawra(broadcast of the revolution), set upon an elevated stage and used by the demonstrators in Tahrir Square to address the crowds. In the background is theAmerican University in Cairo.
During the night of 4–5 February, a few protesters continued to camp out in Tahrir Square. Early in the morning shots were fired as protesters said pro-Mubarak activists tried to assault the square. Troops then fired into the air to disperse them. Demonstrators later formed a human chain to prevent tanks from passing through the barricades into the square; a witness said scuffles broke out when an army general asked demonstrators to take down their makeshift barricades of corrugated steel and debris. As the army tightened access to Tahrir Square, the head of the army met protesters and asked them to return home. Protesters responded that “he (Mubarak) will go” and they would not. The army was also more organized and present than on any other day of the protest. A heavy military presence continued in central Cairo. An Interior Ministry spokesman said that “the army remains neutral and is not taking sides because if we protect one side we will be perceived as biased….our role is to prevent clashes and chaos as we separate the opposing groups.” Scuffles were reported during the day in Tahrir Square and one protester was said to have died. A group of foreigners including an English protester on the 5th and a Swede on the 6th joined the protesters in Tahrir Square, handing out flowers in a sign of solidarity and holding up a banner in English. Five hundred protesters arrived in Tahrir Square from Suez. There were reports of over 10,000 people continuing to stay in Alexandria through the night.
State television announced the appointment of Hossam Badrawi (seen as a member of the liberal wing of the party) as Head of the Shura Council after Safwat El-Sherif‘s resignation from his position within the party. Mubarak’s son Gamal also resigned as Assistant Secretary and Secretary of the Policy Committee. Minister of State for Legal Affairs Mufid Shehab and Presidential Chief-of-Staff Zakaria Azmy were dismissed from the party. Initial reports indicated that Mubarak had resigned as head of the ruling NDP party, however this was later denied by state television and the Information Minister. Former Interior Minister Habib el-Adli and three of his leadership were put under house arrest. There had been reports about the arrest of other security leaders who were being held in a military prison. However, the opposition leaders continued to seek ways to remove Mubarak from power. They called on the protesters to continue at Tahrir Square every Tuesday and Friday until Mubarak “resigns and makes true the demands of the people.”
From left to right: Copts leading the crowd in prayer in Tahrir Square andMuslims and Christians United for Egypt, by Carlos Latuff.
During the night of 5–6 February, protesters continued to camp out in Tahrir Square and Alexandria. However, gunfirewas heard in the early hours of the day in Cairo. Banks temporarily reopened throughout the country amidst long queues, and people rushed to buy US dollars.
The organizers of the “Day of Revolt”, “Friday of Anger”, “March of the Millions” and “Friday of Departure” called for a protest that was dubbed the “Sunday of Martyrs“ (Arabic: أحد الشهداء).
Egyptian Christians held their Sunday Mass in Cairo’s Tahrir Square as Muslim protesters formed a ring around them to protect them during the service.; They did it to counter claims by state television that most of the anti-Mubarak protesters were members of the Muslim Brotherhood. Copts wanted to show that they were a part of Egypt’s popular uprising and shared the grievances. Crowds in Tahrir Square chanted “We are one, we are one” ahead of prayers held at noon for those killed during the protests. Muslims later participated in Salat al-Janazah (Arabic: صلاة الجنازة) (literally: funeral prayer). Protesters in Cairo numbered in the vicinity of one million. Demonstrations continued in Alexandria focused around the train station of El Ramel. Several thousand anti-government protesters continued calling for Mubarak’s resignation in Mansoura. Ayman Mohyeldin, an Al Jazeera English journalist, was arrested by soldiers in Tahrir Square, and held for 9 hours.
Vice President Suleiman negotiated with the opposition, including Mohamed Morsy and El-Sayyid el-Badawi. The Muslim Brotherhood said it was talking with the government. Suleiman agreed to set up a committee of judiciary and political figures to study constitutional reforms. The committee was due to meet by early March. Naguib Sawiris, who was involved in the talks, said that “big progress” had been made.
From left to right: An imam of Al-Azhar University, who was wounded in his eye during the protests and An anti-government protester in Tahrir Square. The placard reads “Leave leave and rest assured, the chaos will leave with you, leave leave.“.
Hundreds of thousands of protesters camped out in Tahrir Square where a symbolic funeral procession was held for Ahmad Mohamed Mahmoud of Al-Ta’awun. Protesters demanded that an investigation be carried out into the cause of his death.State-owned Al-Ahram, declared its support for the protesters and stopped supporting the government.
At least 70 people were wounded when hundreds of residents attacked the police station in Khargah to demand the ouster of a police official who had a reputation for heavy-handedness. Police then opened fire on the protesters. Authorities said that 11 people had been killed. The United Nations estimated deaths at more than 300.
Former minister of the interior Habib El-Adli faced prosecution in a military court for ordering police to fire at protesters and forhis role in the 31 December 2010 bombing of al-Qiddissin Church in Alexandria. Minister of Antiquities Zahi Hawass announced that artifacts damaged by looters would be restored over the next five days. He said that steps were being taken to reopen Egypt’s famed archaeological sites, which had been closed since pro-democracy protests started. Among the damaged objects was a statue of King Tutankhamun standing on a panther and a wooden sarcophagus from the New Kingdom period, dating to roughly 3,500 years ago. The museum, which is adjacent to the anti-government protests in downtown Cairo, was being guarded by the army. Finance Minister Samir Radwan announced a 15 per cent raise in pensions and salaries for government employees at a cost of 6.5 billion Egyptian pounds (US$960 million). This decision was made at the first Cabinet meeting since the protests began. One protester said that protests would not end soon despite the government’s increasing concessions.While banks had reopened, schools and the stock exchange remained closed. The Egyptian Stock Exchange said it would resume operation on 13 February.
Wael Ghonim, Google‘s head of Marketing for the Middle East and North Africa and the founder of the Facebook page that was said to have been influential in fomenting the protests, who had been in custody since 25 January, was reported to have been released. At 20:00, he posted on Twitter that “Freedom is a blessing that deserves fighting for it.” (sic) His release from custody and an emotional interview with Mona El-Shazly on DreamTV “inject[ed] new vigor into [the] protest movement”. Thousands of supporters joined a Facebook page created in his honour, “We authorise Wael Ghoneim to speak on behalf of the Egyptian revolution.” He issued a statement reading:
First of all my sincere condolences for all the Egyptians that lost their lives. I am really sorry for their loss, none of us wanted this. We were not destroying things. We all wanted peaceful protests, and our slogan was no to vandalism. Please don’t turn me into a hero. I am not a hero, I am someone that was asleep for 12 days. The real heroes are the ones that took to the streets, please focus your cameras on the right people. I am ok. (sic) God willing we will change our country, and all the filth that was taking place in the country has to stop. Together we will clean this country. – Wael Ghonim
Tahrir Square during the “Day of Egypt’s Love”
Over a million people gathered in and around Tahrir Square to demonstrate. At least 1,000 went to the parliament to demand Mubarak’s resignation while others went to the Shura Council and the Council of Ministers. They later slept in front of those buildings, besides the usual camp in Tahrir Square. Hundreds of journalists gathered in the lobby of the state-owned newspaper Al-Ahram‘s headquarters to protest corruption and to call for greater freedom of the press. A substantial protest took place in Alexandria, while workers at the Suez Canal went on strike. BBC correspondents reported that by the afternoon the protests had the highest turnout to date.
Ibrahim Yosri, a lawyer and former deputy foreign minister, drafted a petition, along with 20 other lawyers, asking the Prosecutor General Abdel Meguid Mahmoud to try Mubarak and his family for stealing state wealth. According to the state-owned Middle East News Agency, The newly appointed Mubarak’s Interior Minister, Mahmoud Wagdy, issued an order releasing 34 political detainees, mostly members of the Muslim Brotherhood.
In a statement on Egyptian state television, Suleiman announced the formation of two independent committees for political and constitutional reforms, both starting work immediately. One committee would carry out constitutional and legislative amendments to enable a shift of power. The other would monitor the implementation of all proposed reforms. Suleiman also stressed that demonstrators would not be prosecuted and that a separate independent fact-finding committee would be established to probe the violence of 2 February. He said that wider press freedoms were under consideration and that he would produce a list of what was needed to hold free elections. He also said that plans were underway to organize a peaceful transfer of power. Suleiman reiterated his view that Egypt was not ready for democracy, while warning of a possible coup d’état unless demonstrators agreed to enter negotiations.
From left to right: Tahrir Square during the evening of 9 February and a sign on the Parliament building in Cairo on 9 February, reading “Closed until the fall of the regime”.
Some protesters moved from Tahrir Square to the area outside the parliament buildings, while demanding the assembly’s immediate dissolution. The demonstrators put up a sign that said: “Closed until the fall of the regime”. Cabinet offices in Cairo were evacuated after anti-government protesters gathered outside the building. Meanwhile, labour unions across the country, and particularly in Alexandria, Cairo and Suez, staged general strikes, demanding higher wages and better treatment. The strikers were said to number around 20,000 workers.Violent clashes were reported in Wadi al-Jadid, where police stations and the NDP party building were destroyed, and several deaths and hundreds of injuries also occurred. Protesters in Port Said burnt down the governor’s office in response to his reluctance to provide enough housing for the city’s residents. Clashes were said to have killed three people and wounded hundreds more in the past two days.
Egyptians living outside the country returned to join the anti-government demonstrations. An Internet campaign sought to mobilise thousands of expatriates to return home and support the uprising.
The government followed up on a prisoner amnesty from the previous day, releasing 1,000 more prisoners who had served three-quarters of their sentence; 840 more were released from Sinai province. The Muslim Brotherhood continued to demand for Mubarak’s resignation. The offices of state-owned Channel 5 in Alexandria were shut down and evacuated under the order of its chief amid mounting pressure by protesters. The government warned of a military crackdown amid ongoing protests. Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit rejected US calls to repeal the emergency law and also accused the US of trying to impose its will on the Egyptian government. The newly appointed Mubarak’s Culture Minister Gaber Asfour resigned after one week in office, citing health problems.
The protests continued at Tahrir Square and the parliament building. 3,000 lawyers marched from the lawyers’ syndicate in downtown Cairo to Abdeen Palace, one of Mubarak’s official residences. About a thousand physicians, dressed in white coats, also arrived at Tahrir Square to applause.Strikes at national industries, including tourism and transportation, continued and spread to Alexandria, Mahalla and Port Said. Protesters around Egypt, expecting Mubarak’s resignation, were described as euphoric, while singing and waving Egyptian flags. Fighter aircraft were heard above the Tahrir Square at 20:00 amid calls for the “destruction of the regime.” In Alexandria, over 1,000 “diehard” protesters were reported by the train station.
Prior to Mubarak’s speech, contradictory reports from various media sources around the world stated that either Suleiman or Tantawi was expected to take over. The military council also met without Mubarak. The Muslim Brotherhood had feared a coup at one point. The head of the NDP said that Mubarak should go for the good of the country.
Al Hurra TV reported that Mubarak was planning to hand authority to the Egyptian army. General Hassan al-Roueini, the military commander for the Cairo area, told protesters in Tahrir Square, “All your demands will be met today.” State TV added that Mubarak would speak that night from his Cairo palace. This came after Egypt’s military proclaimed on television that they had stepped in to “safeguard the country”. The Associated Presssuggested a military coup might be occurring. State TV showed Defence Minister Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi meeting with two dozen top army officers. Mubarak and Suleiman were not present.
“… I thought I would delegate powers to the vice president, according to the constitution …”
However, information minister Anas el-Fiqqi, denied that Mubarak would resign. Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq said, “everything is in the hands of President Hosni Mubarak and no decisions have been taken yet.” Al Arabiya television, citing “trusted sources” just minutes before Mubarak was to speak, said he would transfer his powers to his vice president.
In his television statement, Mubarak said that he would penalise those responsible for the violence and had a clear vision on how to end the crisis, but was satisfied with what he had offered. He stated that while remaining president to the end of his term in September he would transfer his powers to the vice-president. As far as transfer of power was concerned, Mubarak said “I have seen that it is required to delegate the powers and authorities of the president to the vice president as dictated in the constitution,”. The constitutional article was used to transfer powers if the president was “temporarily” unable to carry out his duties and did not require his resignation. He also said he would request six constitutional amendments and that he would lift emergency laws when security in the country permitted. Mubarak said he would stay in the country and was “adamant to continue to shoulder my responsibility to protect the constitution and safeguard the interests of the people … until power is handed over to those elected in September by the people in free and fair elections in which all the guarantees of transparencies will be secured.”
Protesters watched in stunned silence or in anger to his speech, some crying or waving their shoes in the air. People in Tahrir Square chanted “Leave! Leave! Leave!” after Mubarak’s speech. Suleiman called on the protesters to go home. Protesters then moved to the state television and radio buildings. Soon after the television announcement, a large number of protesters began to march towards the presidential palace. ElBaradei said, “Egypt will explode” because Mubarak refused to step down and called on the military to intervene.
Mubarak’s top aides, family and son Gamal told him he could ride out the turmoil, which convinced him to cling to power. It was also reported that one son, Alaa, accused his younger brother Gamal of ruining their father’s reputation. Eyewitnesses said that the Egyptian army had pulled out troops from many locations near the presidential palace.
“Spare tire?” How does a presidential candidate receive such a nickname? Clearly a slap in the
Egyptian President Muhammad Morsi
face — but I suppose that’s just politics! Sounds like politics in the good-old U.S.A. to me; but in Egypt? In the days before Muhammad Morsi’s election as Egypt’s fifth president (June 30, 2012), someone (in the press?) gave him the nickname, “spare tire.” Morsi, an academian, rose through the ranks of the Muslim Brotherhood as a man who could be depended upon, who would do what he was told to do, and a loyalist to the ideaology of the 84-years old Muslim Brotherhood – but Morsi was never thought to be a leader. He was backup, second string, to the candidate of favor, Khairat El-Shater, the Brotherhood’s charismatic “deputy supreme guide.” However, El-Shater was disqualified by Egypt’s military election commission (the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces) on 14 April 2012, just a few weeks before the election because of a technicality. Morsi became the Brotherhood candidate only after El-Shater was given the boot – much like a spare tire is mounted when the good tire fails; but just like a spare tire is quickly replaced, so it appears to be the case for Muhammad Morsi. The military has given Morsi until 11:00am ET, , for his agreement to the demands of the “opposition” or step-down as president (apparently non-Muslim Brotherhood, but it seems difficult to figure out who the “opposition” really is).
“The people empowered me, the people chose me, through a free and fair election,” he said. “Legitimacy is the only way to protect our country and prevent bloodshed, to move to a new phase,” Mr. Morsi said. “Legitimacy is the only thing that guarantees for all of us that there will not be any fighting and conflict, that there will not be bloodshed. . . . If the price of protecting legitimacy is my blood July 3, 2013, I’m willing to pay it,” he said. “And it would be a cheap price for the sake of protecting this country.”
On July 4th, 2013, the good-old U.S.A. will celebrate Independence Day. I may not agree with the decisions of the present administration but one thing for sure: in the home of the free and the land of the brave, presidents don’t get replaced by the people but every four years, on election day, and only by going to the polls and casting their vote. Perhaps replacing presidents in Egypt is like changing a tire on a car. If you don’t like the decisions of the man you just elected, get rid of him. Throw him in the trunk, under the bus, wherever you want. After all, democracy is government “by the people for the people,” right? So much for Arab Spring democracy. Morsi appears to be its next victim.
The Pope is missing from the chair of adulation. Change is coming for the Catholic Church
Luke 14:10-11 (NASB)10 “But when you are invited, go and recline at the last place, so that when the one who has invited you comes, he may say to you, ‘Friend, move up higher’; then you will have honor in the sight of all who are at the table with you. 11 “For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be
Humility is a good thing to the Lord. The Scripture leaves us little question about that. 1 Peter 5:5 (NASB) “… clothe yourselves with humility toward one another for God is opposed to the proud but gives grace to the humble.” Check the papal-chair in the above picture. Does it look like a chair for the humble or the proud? A chair for someone who “clothes [himself] with humility” or a chair for the exalted and lifted up? It is the Pope’s chair — and, it is empty!
This past week, Pope Francis was a no-show at a gala event where he was the guest of honor. The event was scheduled prior to his election in March, and was attended by the rich and famous, except in this case, they happened to be cardinals and Italian dignitaries.
“It took us by surprise,” said one Vatican source on Monday. “We are still in a period of growing pains. He is still learning how to be pope and we are still learning how he wants to do it.” The article continued, “The prelates, assured that health was not the reason for the no-show, looked disoriented, realising that the message he wanted to send was that, with the Church in crisis, he – and perhaps they – had too much pastoral work to do to attend social events.”
The day before the concert, Francis said bishops should be “close to the people” and not have “the mentality of a prince.” Imagine the adjustment that is going on at the Vatican. One source reports, “Since his election on March 13, Francis, the former cardinal Jorge Bergoglio of Argentina, has not spent a single night in the opulent and spacious papal apartments. He has preferred to live in a small suite in a busy Vatican guest house, where he takes most meals in a communal dining room and says Mass every morning in the house chapel rather than the private papal chapel in the Apostolic Palace.
Does that sound like the Catholic Church that you know? Absent of the pomp and “vestments“ intended to “excite the viewer into good thoughts and to increase devotion in those who see and those who use them”? Doesnt sound like Pope Francis got the memo on how to “increase devotion” by the outfit he wears or the chair he sits in. Another interesting item was the report that Pope Francis had performed an impromptu exorcism as he exited a bishop’s conference. In the report, a “man who appears to be a priest leans forward and explains something to the pope, at which point Pope Francis places both of his hands on the man’s head. The man soon appears to become agitated, breaths heavily, twitches slightly and sinks a bit lower in his wheelchair.”
And what is my point? When Pope Francis models the humility of our Lord, in direct contrast to that demonstrated by his predecessors, the Church and the world should take notice. It is not the vestments or the papal-chair that we should take notice of — but the absence thereof. In Francis’ refusal to be exalted on the human plane, it seems that the message he is seeking to deliver to his leaders is not only being communicated with his words, but also by his actions. If our Lord entered Jerusalem seated on a donkey, what is it that makes leadership in the church, Catholic or otherwise, think that we should be seated on anything higher or more elevated? Was it not our Lord that said, “And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to myself”? John 12:32 (NASB).
Christ wasn’t talking about a papal chair to lift him up, but His atoning work on the cross. Perhaps the empty chair was Pope Francis’ way to encourage the leadership of the Church to carry their own cross, and thereby speak volumes about what it really means to “increase devotion” among the followers of our Lord.
Egyptians in Giza celebrate Mubarak’s resignation.
A soldier joins the protesters in celebration of Mubarak’s downfall.
Shock that Mubarak did not step down resulted in a nationwide escalation of protests on 11 February, named again as the “Friday of Departure” by the opposition movement. Massive protests continued in Cairo, Alexandria, and other cities. The presidential palace and parliament remained surrounded by protestors and thousands of people surrounded the state TV building, keeping anyone from entering or leaving. The army issued acommuniqué supporting Mubarak’s attempt to remain de jure president. Hossam Badrawi, the new secretary of the NDP, resigned from unhappiness with Mubarak’s refusal to leave.
Demonstrators began to gather at new locations in Cairo. The army surrounded the presidential palace and state television and radio buildings as protesters surrounded the Egyptian radio and television union building demanding fair media coverage. State television shifted its attitude towards the protesters and begun referring to them as Jan25 Youth, admitting mistakes had been made in the media coverage of the protests: “We [the state TV] were under an information chaos,” the news anchor stated. “We had strict orders from external sides.” Major protests occurred in Alexandria and Mansoura. In Arish, in north Sinai, the second police station in 24 hours came under heavy arms fire—including RPGs—in which at least one protester was killed and 20 injured, with possibly more police fatalities.
|“||In the name of God the merciful, the compassionate. Citizens, during these very difficult circumstances Egypt is going through, President Hosni Mubarak has decided to step down from the office of president of the republic and has charged the high council of the armed forces to administer the affairs of the country. May God help everybody.||”|
|—Omar Suleiman, Vice President of the Arab Republic of Egypt|
|“||The people of Egypt have spoken, their voices have been heard, and Egypt will never be the same.||”|
|—Barack Obama, United States president|
As the protesters started marching onto the Presidential Palace in the morning, Mubarak and his family reportedly left the Palace by helicopter which took them to the nearby Almaza Airbase, where they boarded the Presidential jet and headed to Sharm el-Sheikh. Former Finance Minister Youssef Boutros Ghali fled to Beirut.
Vice President Omar Suleiman announced after 18:00 Cairo local time (GMT +2) on 11 February that the presidency had been vacated and the army council would run the country: Mubarak’s resignation was followed by nationwide celebrations.ElBaradei told the Associated Press “This is the greatest day of my life. The country has been liberated after decades of repression,” and he expected a “beautiful” transition of power. Mohammed ElBaradei said that “Egypt is free.” Various media outlets pointed out that this date was also the anniversary of the Iranian Islamic Revolution, which occurred on 11 February 1979.
An exchange-traded fund based on the Egyptian stock market listed at the NYSE Euronext increased by 5% following the announcement. Egyptian five-year credit default swaps fell by 0.25%. Al Arabiya reported that the military council said it would sack the cabinet and dissolve parliament, although they only did the latter. Celebrations and car honking were reported in Alexandria and Cairo. Celebratory gunfire in Gaza.
CBS correspondent Lara Logan was covering the jubilation in Tahrir Square when she suffered a brutal and sustained sexual assault and beating before being saved by a group of women and an estimated 20 Egyptian soldiers.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the events following the 2011 Egyptian revolution culminating in the resignation of Hosni Mubarak. For the full sequence of events following 2011 revolution, seeAftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
|2011 Egyptian revolution (Second and Third waves)|
|Part of Aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution|
|Down With The Military Rule (Graffiti)|
The following is a chronological summary of the major events that occurred during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, after Hosni Mubarak’s resignation as the fourth President of Egypt, on 11 February 2011. This article documents the second wave of the 2011-2012 Egyptian revolution. The second wave began on 12 February 2011, when the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces assumed control, of the country, and it ended on 30 June 2012, when Mohammed Morsi was sworn in, as the 5th President of Egypt. For a documentation of the third wave of the 2011-2012 Egyptian revolution, which began with Morsi inauguration, see Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Mohamed Morsi.
Volunteers use shovels to dispose rubble, debris, and trash.
People celebrating on the streets of Cairo
A group of activists issued the “People’s Communiqué No 1”, which imitated the titles of communiqués from the Army. It demanded the dissolution of the cabinet Mubarak appointed on 29 January, the suspension of the parliament elected in late 2010 in a poll that was widely suspected of being rigged, the creation of a transitional presidential council made up of four civilians and one member of the military, the formation of a transitional government to prepare for an election to take place within nine months and a body to draft a new democratic constitution, freedom for the media and syndicates and for the formation of political parties, and the scrapping of military and emergency courts. They also announced the formation of a council to organize mass protests.Curfew was reduced to between midnight and 6:00 Eastern European Time. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces issued “Communiqué no. 4” in which they “promised to hand power to an elected, civilian government….[and] also pledged that Egypt would remain committed to all international treaties.” Minister of Information, Anas El-Fekky, had been placed under house arrest, and later resigned from his position.
Egypt’s stock market regulator said the trading, which was due to start on 13 February, was delayed until 16 February.
The army stated that the constitution was suspended and parliament was dissolved and that it would stay in power until the presidential andparliamentary elections could be held. The High Council of Egyptian Armed Forces had selected its chief to represent the council. The caretaker cabinet appointed by Mubarak would remain until a new cabinet was formed after the elections.
Police in the city of Bani Suef were protesting for better pay and more rights by lying down on a bridge. Hundreds of police also marched in Tahrir Square to show solidarity with the protesters. Waving Egyptian flags, the police demonstrators shouted, “We and the people are one”, and said they wanted to “honor the martyrs of the revolution”.
After an inventory was completed, it was determined that a total of 18 artifacts from the Egyptian Museum were missing. About 70 objects were damaged.
Eight representatives from the demonstrators, including Wael Ghonim and Amr Salama, met with spokespersons of the military and reported that there would be a referendum on changes to the constitution within two months.
Military rulers called for an end to the strikes and protests. Thousands of state employees, including police, transit workers, and ambulance drivers, protested for better pay. In a statement, the ruling military council issued a final warning to the labor unions stating that the armed forces could intervene. They also imposed an outright ban on gatherings and strikes. In addition, the army cleared out most of the remaining demonstrators from Tahrir Square.
Tarek El-Bishry, a retired judge known for his pro-opposition views and his support for a strong independent judiciary, was tasked with setting up the committee to reform the constitution. The changes would be formally announced within ten days. Adly Fayed, the director of public security at the interior ministry, and Ismail El Shaer, Cairo’s security chief, have been fired over their decision to open fire on the demonstrators.
Amr Moussa announced on 15 February that he would run in the presidential election. The Muslim Brotherhood announced on the same day that it would form the Freedom and Justice Partyto run in the parliamentary elections.
One of the protestors waving the Egyptian Flag during the protests in Tahrir Square, Cairo
On 17 February, the army stated that it would not field a candidate in the upcoming presidential elections. Four important figures of the former regime were detained on that day: former interior minister Habib el-Adly, former minister of housing Ahmed Maghrabi, former tourism minister Zuheir Garana, and steel tycoon Ahmed Ezz.
On 18 February, Muslim cleric Yusuf al-Qaradawi arrived in Egypt after his exile in Qatar and led the “Victory Day” Friday sermon in Tahrir Square, which was attended by hundreds of thousands of people. Men, who appeared to be Qaradawi’s guards, barred Wael Ghonim from joining him on stage. On that same day, Wael Ghonim wrote the following on his Twitter: “I loved Sheikh Qaradawi Khutbah today. Was truly inspired when he said: ‘Today I’m going to address both Muslims and Christians. Respect!'”
On 20 February, the constitutional reform committee stated that its work was almost done, and also announced that the caretaker government would soon be reshuffled. On 21 February, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, became the first world leader to visit Egypt since Mubarak was ousted as the president. A news blackout was lifted as the prime minister landed in Cairo for a brief five-hour stopover, which had been hastily added to the start of a planned tour of the Middle East.
A government reshuffle took place on 22 February, but the defense, interior, foreign, finance, and justice ministries remained unchanged. New ministers included Yehia el-Gamal as deputy prime minister, the New Wafd Party‘s Monir Fakhri Abdel Nour as tourism minister, the Tagammu Party‘s Gowdat Abdel-Khaleq as minister of social solidarity and social justice, and Ismail Ibrahim Fahmy as the new labor minister. The changes were not well-received by the public, because most of Mubarak’s former supporters remained in the cabinet, and there were renewed calls for a demonstration to demand the resignation of the interim government. Protesters were also set to return to Tahrir Square to keep up the pressure on the interim government.
Left: An underground cell in State Security Investigations Service. Right: Shredded documents found inside State Security Investigations Service.
Before any large protests against him were planned, Ahmed Shafik stepped down as Prime Minister and was replaced by Essam Sharaf. Sharaf returned to Tahrir Square, which he had also visited during the revolution, to address the Friday mass rally.
The foreign, justice, interior, and oil ministers resigned and three new ministers were named: General and former governor of Minya,Mansour El Essawi, became interior minister; Mohamed Abdel Aziz Al-Guindy became justice minister; and former judge Nabil Elarabywas appointed foreign minister. Secretary General of the New Wafd Party, Monir Fakhri Abdel Nour, remained tourism minister.State television aired footage of the ceremony showing the prime minister and his Cabinet taking the oath before Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi, who heads the ruling military council.
On 5 March, three weeks after Hosni Mubarak was ousted as President, Egyptians turned their anger toward his internal security apparatus by storming the agency’s main headquarters and other offices in order to seize documents that would provide evidence of human rights abuses as well as preventing said documents from being destroyed. Following rumors that officials were destroying evidence, 200 protesters stormed the secret police headquarters in Cairo. The closing of the agency has been a key demand of the protesters but one which had not been heeded. Human rights abuses, including torture, were alleged to have been carried out inside it. The protesters stated that they stormed the building to secure evidence as they feared that it might be destroyed. The SSIS was announced dissolved on 15 March 2011, with a new National Security Force replacing it.
A group of youths who participated in the protests announced the formation of the Party of Youths for Change on 6 March 2011.
Mohamed ElBaradei stated on 9 March 2011 that he would run in the presidential elections.
On 19 March, the constitutional referendum was held, with millions of Egyptians turning up to vote on nine proposed amendments to the constitution. Eager for their first free vote, Egyptians formed long lines outside polling centers to cast their ballots on constitutional amendments that were sponsored by the ruling military. In the lead up to the referendum, there was still dispute amongst the political movements and parties in Egypt about whether they should approve or reject the proposed constitutional amendments. 16 of those political parties and movements, including The Alliance of Women’s Organizations, announced that they would reject the proposed amendments and call for the creation of a new constitution. The movements also renewed their calls for protests against the amendments to be held. Supporters of the amendments include the Muslim Brotherhood, the Wasat Party, and the Labor Party. The proposed amendments were limited to nine articles, which many deemed to be insufficient as they failed to limit the power of the president, whilst others argued that the amendments were only a temporary measure and as such did not need to include all the changes that were requested, as the Constitution was to be completely redrafted after the parliamentary and presidential elections. This point has proven to be the most contentious with those who oppose the amendments. They claim that a redrafted Constitution will not be representative with the Egyptian presidential candidate Mohamed ElBaradei calling on all Egyptians to reject the proposed constitutional amendments, saying that a “Yes” vote will “provide a parliament not representative of the people, composed mainly of members of the National Democratic Party and benefiting businessmen, the opportunity to uphold a Constitution which is also not representative of the people, and this will take us backwards to a great extent.” ElBaradei was assaulted when he showed up at a school in Moqattam to vote.
The final results of the referendum were announced the next day: 77.2% of Egyptians voted “YES” to constitutional amendments, while 22.8% voted “NO”. In total, 18,537,954 Egyptians voted out of around 45 million eligible voters, making the turnout 41%.
|This section requires expansion. (July 2011)|
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 1 April 2011
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 8 April 2011
Two army vehicles burning in Tahrir Square after the army attack that happened on 9 April 2011 in the Square from 3:00 to 5:30 am; at least two protesters were killed and dozens were wounded.
On 1 April, protesters called for a “Save the Revolution” day in which thousands of demonstrators filled Tahrir Square after Friday prayers demanded that the ruling military council move faster to dismantle lingering aspects of the old regime; it was the largest protest since Mubarak’s resignation.
On 3 April, the Muslim Brotherhood called on its members to participate in the demonstrations in Tahrir Square on 8 April. Having withheld support for demonstrations held on 1 April because they coincided with Orphans’ Day, the Brotherhood called for a large turnout to pressure the government to pursue cases against members of the old regime who remained in positions of influence after the revolution. The Brotherhood also suggested the name “Friday of Purging” for the event. The next day, employees of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Amonsito Textile Company demonstrated outside cabinet offices.
On 5 April, Egyptian authorities arrested Omneya Soliman, the former housing minister.
On 7 April, the National Association for Change seemed to accept the Brotherhood’s proposal, calling for the “Friday of Prosecution and Purging”, a million-man march on Tahrir Square, on 8 April. The NAC also proposed holding a mock “people’s trial” of the regime figures for whom they demand the prosecution and/or removal of. While Friday protests in Tahrir Square had been a weekly event, million-man protests had not been seen for some time. The following day, protesters called for a “Friday of Cleansing” in which hundreds of thousands of demonstrators filled Tahrir Square again. They criticised the ruling SCAF for not following through on the protesters’ previous demands. They called for the resignation of the remaining Mybarak-era figures and the removal of Egypt’s public prosecutor due to the slow pace of investigations of corrupt former officials.
On 9 April, the military used force to break up a camp that protesters had set up in Tahrir Square, as tensions also continued to build between the protesters and the military leadership that were running the country in the interim.
On 12 April, Hosni Mubarak was questioned in hospital by prosecutors. The following day the country’s Prosecutor General ordered the detention of Mubarak and his two children, Alaa Mubarak and Gamal Mubarak, for 15 days. A statement from the Attorney General Egyptian published on itsFacebook page said that the arrest warrant was issued after the prosecution presented the charges against them and in accordance with the development of the criminal investigations around the rioting that led to the fall of the regime.
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 27 May 2011
|This section requires expansion. (July 2011)|
On 24 May, it was announced that Mubarak and his two sons, Gamal and Alaa, would be tried over the deaths of anti-government protesters. On 28 May, Mubarak was fined $34m (£20m) for cutting off communications services during the uprising.
Egypt also eased the blockade at the Rafah border crossing with Gaza. Women, children, and men over 40 were allowed to pass freely while men aged between 18 and 40 would still require a permit. Though trade across the border remained prohibited, the crossing was opened between 9:00 – 21:00 every day except on Fridays and public holidays. The move was strongly opposed by Israel.
A protester braving tear gas near theAUC during 28 June.
Treating an injured man in Tahrir due to inhalation of CS gas during 28 June.
Injured protester near Tahrir Square during 28 June.
On 6 June, crowds of Egyptians dressed in black held demonstrations to honour Khaled Said, a young man from Alexandria who was beaten to death in 2010 in a savage attack which was blamed on police. This attack helped inspire the uprising that brought down Egypt’s president. Pictures of his body, taken by his family in a morgue, caused public outrage that caused the January 2011 uprising. Hundreds of protesters stood side by side on Stanley Bridge in Alexandria in a silent protest commemorating the death of Said. The protesters neither held pictures or banners of Said; they only carried thEgyptian flag. They then marched to Said’s family’s home in Cleopatra. By the time they arrived there, more people joined, and the number of protesters reached about 1,500. They set a big monitor on the street screening a documentary on Said’s case and its development.
On 12 June, Ilan Grapel, accused for being an Israeli spy, was arrested by Egyptian authorities, who claimed that Grapel was sent to Egypt to build a team that had been “trying to gather information and data and to monitor the events of 25 January revolution.” The authorities also claimed that Grapel tried to incite violence amongst Egyptian protestors, hoping to spark a face-off with the military “and spread chaos in the Egyptian public and harm the state’s political, economic, and social interests.” Grapel appears to be the same man who told Haaretz that he moved to Israel three years before its 2006 war with Lebanon and ended up enlisting in the Israeli Defense Force. Israel, however, has denied the reports, stating that “There is no such thing, no Israeli agent has been arrested in Egypt. These reports are false.” Friends and relatives of Grapel said that he is a law student in Atlanta with an avid interest in the Middle East, and not a Mossad agent out to sabotage Egypt’s revolution, as Egyptian authorities have charged. His mother said he arrived in Cairo in May, countering implications that he was involved in protests as early as February. The arrest of 27-year-old Ilan Grapel has sparked fears in Israel that relations with Egypt will sour now that Hosni Mubarak has been deposed. Later that year, Egyptian officials admitted Ilan Grapel was not a spy, and he was scheduled for release in exchange for 25 Egyptian prisoners held in Israel.
On 19 June, the military prosecution released the editor-in-chief of Al-Fagr, Adel Hammouda, and journalist Rasha Azab without bail pending further investigation. They were both interrogated on charges of publishing false news that disturbed the peace and negligence in the editorial process. Hammouda was released at around 13 pm, while Azab was released at around 16:30 pm after which she immediately led chants of “down with military rule.” Azab had written an article about a meeting between SCAF and prominent members of an advocacy group against military trials for civilians called “No to Military Trials” in which group members provided SCAF with proof and evidence of military violations against civilians. Azab said that Major General Hassan El-Roweiny was astonished when he saw the pictures and testimonies. She added that El-Roweiny apologized to one of the female witnesses for being violated in military prison, adding that individual actions don’t represent the morals or principles of the army.
On 20 June, Mubarak’s lawyer, Farid el-Deeb, said that in 2010 the former president underwent “critical surgery” in Heidelberg, Germany to remove his gallbladder and part of his pancreas which were cancerous. el-Deeb told The Associated Press that “there is evidence suggesting that there is a recurrence of cancer and that it has reached the stomach,”. He called Mubarak’s condition “horrible” and said the former leader “doesn’t eat and he loses consciousness quite often.” Mubarak is hospitalized in Sharm el-Sheikh, the Red Sea resort where he has been living since he was removed from power.
On 21 June, Egypt’s military rulers launched an online poll to test the popularity of potential presidential candidates, a move that could be aimed at judging public opinion for former officials who were trying to run for positions of parliament again. The list includes at least four ex-military officers as well as Islamists, judges, diplomats and others. Most have declared that they will run, including two former officers.
On 22 June, Egypt’s cabinet approved a budget for the 2011–2012 fiscal year, boosting spending in social programs to meet the growing demands from the people after the uprising. The budget totals £490.6 billion ($83 billion), reflecting a spending increase of 14.7% over the current fiscal year, while revenues are forecast at $59 billion. On the same day, leaders of the youth wing of the Muslim Brotherhood have split with their elders to form an independent political party. This has deepened the fractures within the group as some of its prominent members have moved towards a more centrist and liberal version of Islamist politics. The new group, the Egyptian Current Party, is expected to advocate the separation of religion from politics, the protection of individual freedoms and the embrace of Islamic morals and culture without the enforcement of Islamic religious law. Its founders, including Islam Lotfy, Mohamed el-Kasaas and Mohamed Abbas, were amongst the young leaders of the Egyptian revolution and broke with the Brotherhood to help lead the first day of protests that brought down Hosni Mubarak.
On 26 June, John McCain and John Kerry visited Egypt at the head of a U.S. business delegation. Both politicians said that it was in America’s national security interests to see that the uprising succeeded. They said that Washington was not interested in dictating policy to Egypt. Instead, the focus was on finding ways to help the Arab world’s most populous nation boost its economy and address the needs of its people.
On 28 June, Egyptian security forces clashed with around 5,000 protesters in central Cairo. According to witnesses and medical officials, dozens of demonstrators were injured. Clouds of tear gas engulfed Tahrir Square as the security forces battled to regain control of the central plaza from the demonstrators, many of whom had family members who were killed during the revolution. The families were frustrated with what they perceived to be the slow prosecution of security officers who were believed to be responsible for the deaths of some 850 protesters during the 18-day uprising in February. As Tuesday’s clashes moved into early Wednesday morning, rocks and shattered glass littered the streets around Tahrir, as protesters chanted “Down with the military junta”. The demonstrators used motorcycles to ferry the injured to safety. According to the Health Ministry some 1,036 people were injured, among them at least 40 policemen. Early the next day there were still some demonstrators who were hurling stones at police near the ministry as commuters went to work. 
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 8 July 2011
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 15 July 2011
Thousands of people protesting on 23 July 2011
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 29 July 2011
A Facebook page entitled “The Second Egyptian Revolution of Rage” read: “Seeing that the situation, under the leadership of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, is only going from bad to worse, and since the council has proven from day one that public pressure is the most effective policy for achieving the demands of the legitimate revolution, we have decided to take to the streets and squares [once again] and demonstrate throughout Egypt until our demands are met…” On 1 July, tens of thousands of protesters gathered for what they termed the “Friday of Retribution” in Suez, Alexandria and Tahrir Square in Cairo to voice frustrations with the ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for what they perceived to be the slow pace of change five months after Mubarak’s ousting.
On 4 July, an explosion at the pipeline near Nagah in the Sinai Peninsula halted natural gas supplies to Israel and Jordan. This was the third attack on Egyptian gas pipelines since Mubarak was removed from power. There was also a failed attempt to attack the pipeline in March.
On 8 July, hundreds of thousands of protesters gathered for what they called the “Friday of Determination” or the “March of the Million” in Suez, Alexandria, Cairo and other cities. They demanded immediate reforms and swifter prosecution of former officials from the ousted government. Revolutionaries in Tahrir square also began another sit-in which is still[when?] ongoing.
Most of Egypt’s political parties and coalitions supported widespread calls for the protest to be staged across Egypt. The protesters hoped to start a “second revolution”. The main demand of these groups is to combine efforts toward achieving the goals of the revolution, including: banning the trial of civilians by military courts; setting a minimum wage; bringing Mubarak, his sons and the senior officials to justice quickly; banning former National Democratic Party (NDP) members from political activity for five years; releasing all political prisoners; purging the police, the legal system, the media, the universities and the banks of members of the former regime; electing new municipal councils; stopping the export of natural gas to Israel;the arrest and trial of those responsible for killing protesters; and restructuring the ministry of interior. An employee of the Suez Canal University said that in Ismailiya, there were also protests for higher wages and stable employment contracts. Protesters also called for the removal of Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, who was said to be emblematic of the old regime.
Several stages have been set up by the Revolution Youth Coalition (a coalition of liberal parties and movements), the Muslim Brotherhood, the Wafd party and leftist parties in order to organise the protests. As the Muslim Brotherhood’s stage was the highest and largest, many protesters complained that they were attempting to gain an unfair advantage over the other political parties. These accusations were also compounded by the Muslim Brotherhood’s opposition to a sit-in called by other political groups to pressure the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) into meeting their demands. Though the Muslim Brotherhood decided to join the protests only two days before the event, it said that it would avoid the sit-in and leave by 17:00. The event was used to rally support for the various groups by organizing their own tents and passing out paraphernalia.
On 9 July, Minister of Interior Mansour Essawy sacked the head of the Suez Security Police Osama El-Taweel and appointed Adel Abd El-Hamid as his replacement following clashes between families of those killed during the revolution and the Suez police. The clashes, in turn, followed accusations that the head of the Suez police had helped the police officers accused of killing protesters to escape trial after a court ruling released the officers on bail. Prime Minister Essam Sharaf also responded to the protests, saying that any member of the security forces who was accused of killing protesters would be sacked: “I have issued new instructions as a matter of urgency for the minister of interior to suspend any officers implicated in the killing of protesters. I have also demanded a swift return to the highest levels of security on the streets of Egypt to make them safe again and give our citizens the dignity they deserve.” On the night of 10 July, gunmen blew up an Egyptian natural gas pipeline to Israel and Jordan in the town of El-Arish in the Sinai Peninsula. This is the fourth time this has occurred this year and the second time in less than a week
On 11 July, Prime Minister Essam Sharaf made a televised statement reassuring protesters that the government would respond to public demands and also included a timeline in which these demands would be met. The changes included a new cabinet to be formed within one week and a change in provincial governors before the end of the month. The protesters responded with calls for a million-man march the following day and continuation of their sit-in in Tahrir Square. The Muslim Brotherhood responded that they will not participate in the sit-in. The next morning the SCAF issued a statement, which was perceived as aggressive.
On 13 July, state television reported that Egypt’s government had met a key demand of protesters by firing nearly 700 top police officers in order to cleanse the discredited and widely unpopular force. It was also reported that 37 of the dismissed officers face charges of killing protesters. Among those dismissed were 505 major-generals, including 10 of the interior minister’s top assistants, 82 colonels and 82 brigadiers.
On 14 July, Mubarak told prosecutors that he did not order security forces to open fire on protesters during the initial uprising in February. Transcripts of prosecutors questioning Mubarak were published in two Egyptian newspapers, and judicial officials confirmed the authenticity of the documents. Mubarak said he issued clear instructions for police not to use force against the protesters. He also denied charges that he ordered or had knowledge of security forces firing on the demonstrators.
On 16 July, Maj. Gen. Tarek el-Mahdi briefly visited a protest camp in Tahrir Square but left after protesters, some holding shoes in anger, booed him off a stage. He had come to persuade a dozen demonstrators to end a hunger strike which had begun several days ago. El-Mahdi later told state television that he was disappointed that a small crowd of protesters managed to drive him out of the square before he could reach the tent housing the hunger strikers. Prime Minister Essam Sharaf also accepted the resignation of Foreign Minister Mohammed el-Orabi. He then appointed two new deputies, one of which was prominent economist and former head of the U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, Hazem el-Biblawi.
On 17 July, Sharaf named 12 new Cabinet members. State television dubbed the new government lineup the “Revolution Cabinet”. Most of the ministers were newcomers as the government sought to placate further criticism by the protesters. Despite the cabinet reshuffle, many of the protesters said that they had no intention of calling off their week-old sit-in. One of the prominent members of the “Revolution Cabinet” is the Chief of Antiquities Zahi Hawass. Hawass is a prominent member of Egypt’s archaeological community, but has been the target of protests himself. These protests were begun by archaeology students who accused him of falsely claiming publicity for himself and corruption. Sharaf also accepted the resignation of Finance Minister Samir Radwan (the reason for his resignation was because his new budget was deemed by many protesters to be too conservative in dealing with the poverty which had been one of the main catalysts of the uprising) and the foreign minister, who was replaced by the former ambassador to Saudi Arabia, Mohammed Kamel Omar. Radwan’s position was taken by economist Hazem el-Biblawi, who had also been appointed deputy prime minister. There were also changes in the ministries of transport, military production, higher education, communication, agriculture, health, religious endowments, local development, trade and industry and civil aviation, with ministers being replaced.
On 23 July, thousands of protesters tried to march to the Defense Ministry of Egypt in Cairo when they were attacked by groups of men wielding knives, sticks, stones and Molotov cocktails.It was the second time in two days that crowds had tried to march to the headquarters located in Heliopolis. The march started moving from Tahrir Square at 4:00 pm, picking up more and more protesters as the march went onto Ramsis and then to the eastern Abbasiya neighbourhood, where it was stopped by army barricades. The march was a reaction to the SCAF accused 6 April Youth Movement and Kefaya of treason and that their movements are harming “national interests” a day earlier. The violence broke out following a televised speech commemorating the 1952 coup by Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi, head of the ruling military council, who attempted to defuse tensions by praising young people who led the uprising that toppled Mubarak. The clashes broke out after civilians threw rocks from rooftops in adjacent buildings. Many in the crowd were thought by protesters to be thugs but some residents of the Abbassiya district were fearful protests in their neighborhood were obstructing business and normalcy. State media said the civilians fighting with the demonstrators were from “people’s committees” protecting the neighborhood and the army had maintained all self-restraint, blaming the violence on protesters. Some Abbasiya residents appeared to believe protesters were seeking to create rifts between the army and the people. Military police, armed with Tasers and batons, fired in the air to stop the demonstrators from approaching the Defense Ministry. A Reuters witness said tear gas fumes were wafting outside the area as military helicopters circled overhead. The Health Ministry stated a total of 231 people were wounded in the violence.
On 1 August, the first day of Ramadan, Egyptian soldiers clashed with protesters in Tahrir Square, tearing down tents the activists had used for the sit-in and where hundreds of protesters had been sleeping in the square since 8 July. Egyptian forces swinging electrified batons and shouting the battle cry “God is greater” swiftly chased off dozens of activists who had refused to end four weeks of renewed protests at Tahrir Square to pressure the country’s transitional military rulers. Hundreds of riot police backed by armored vehicles and soldiers moved in to tear down the camp of dozens of tents after a group of holdout activists — some of them relatives of people killed in the uprising that toppled Hosni Mubarak in February — refused pleas over loudspeakers to go home. Some in the crowd hurled stones at the police. Protesters’ rights groups said that the military police detained 66 people in the process. The removal of the Tahrir sit-in was a calculated political move. Average citizens had been growing weary of the lack of mobility in the central square, so when the military showed up on early Monday afternoon they were met with cheers. Most Egyptians supported the military’s actions.
The trial of Hosni Mubarak and his two sons Ala’a and Gamal, along with former interior minister Habib el-Adly and six former top police officials began on 3 August 2011 at a temporary criminal court at the Police Academy in north Cairo. The charges were corruption and the premediated killing of peaceful protestors during the mass movement to oust him, the latter of which carries the death penalty. The trial was broadcast on Egyptian television, with Mubarak making a surprise first appearance since his resignation, brought in on a hospital bed and held in a cage for the session. Upon reading out the charges to him, Mubarak pleaded not guilty, denying responsibility for the charges against him. Judge Ahmed Refaat adjourned the court, ruling that Mubarak be transferred under continued arrest to the military hospital on the outskirts of Cairo, with the second session scheduled for 15 August.
The trials of Mubarak and el-Adly were separated after the first session, and a second hearing was held for el-Adly’s case on 4 August to release evidence regarding the killings of protesters. After hearing the complaints and requests of the defense lawyers, Judge Refaat proceeded to open numerous boxes of evidence for screening before the lawyers and audience. The evidence included documents of the Central Security Forces, their unit formations and organization, operational police logs and details of orders received and carried out during the protests, a jacket and pants of one of the victims of the protests riddled with bullet holes, guns, spent ammunition casings and grenades used during the protests. At the end of the hearing, Judge Refaat adjourned the trial to 14 August.
The conduct of individual defense lawyers in both sessions was widely criticized, being somewhat unruly and disorderly, and Judge Refaat demanded at least once during the second hearing that they assume order. That day, Interior Minister Mansour el-Esawy issued several warnings for police officers not to salute or greet el-Adly and the other accused men, and threatened that he would place the officers under investigation if they did so again.
On Friday, 6 August, protesters gathered in Tahrir once again, this time to hold a funeral prayer for one who died during the Abasseya clashes. Around 200 attended, and were prevented from moving to Tahrir Square. Later during the day, a festive iftar was held in the square by protesters. After finishing, they were attacked by military police and central security forces, who dispersed them using force.
On 14 August, Asmaa Mahfouz was arrested on charges of defaming the Egyptian military junta for calling them a “council of dogs”. She was referred to a military court, prompting activists, as well as presidential hopefuls such as Mohamed ElBaradei and Ayman Nour, to protest her being charged in a military court. Mahfouz was released on bail in the amount of 20,000 Egyptian Pounds, equivalent to approximately 3,350 US dollars.
See also: 2011 Israeli embassy attack
Tens of thousands of people protesting on 9 September 2011
On 9 September, tens of thousands of protesters gathered for what they called the “Friday of Correcting the Path” (or the “Correct the Path”) in Suez, Alexandria, Cairo, and other cities, in the absence of supporters of Islamic political movements.
The major demands of the Friday were relieving the Mansour el-Essawy (The current Minister of the Interior), maintaining independence of the judiciary, closing the Israeli embassy in Cairo, amending the laws of the People’s Assembly and Shura Council, and stopping military trials for civilians that began under the SCAF.
After gathering in Tahrir Square, the protest moved to the MOI, then to the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt, and finally towards the Israeli embassy. The 2011 Israeli embassy attack occurred later in Cairo, when Egyptian protesters entered the Israeli embassy after tearing down the wall surrounding the building that housed it. Police fired tear gas into the crowds. Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Yigal Palmor said that about 3,000 protesters had torn apart the wall, forcing the Israeli ambassador to Egypt to flee. The military restored a state of emergency; Egyptian activists denounced the political manipulation of doing so.
See also: Maspero demonstrations
Victims of the 9 October riots.
Late into the evening of 9 October, during a protest that was held in Maspiro, peaceful Egyptian protesters, calling for the dissolution the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the resignation of its chairman, Field Marshal Mohamed Tantawi, and the dismissal of the governor of Aswan province, were attacked by military police. At least 25 people were killed and more than 200 wounded. The protest began due to an attack on a Coptic Christian church in Merinab village in Aswan on 30 September. Aswan governor Mustafa al-Seyyed said that Copts had built the church without having the proper permits. The 9 October attack was committed by both the Egyptian police force and military police using live ammunition, vehicles to run over protesters and extensive rounds of tear gas were fired.
The Army also stormed Al-Hurra TV station and 25 January TV stations, and took them off air. The State Media, which has become biased to military junta, asked on “honorable” Egyptians to protect the army against attacks by “Coptic protesters” even though the protesters were not only Copts.
Man injured in clashes between Egyptian police and protesters angry at army’s continuing political influence in Cairo, 20 November 2011
In November 2011, dissatisfied with the progress of the reforms, almost all civilian political parties called for an accelerated end to the military rule before drafting a constitution — either an immediate handover to a civilian-led government, or a turnover to the lower house of Parliament when it is seated in April, or after a presidential election, which would be scheduled as soon as possible. A major difference between Egyptian revolutionaries is that secular groups want the election to be postponed since they believe that the election would favor religious parties and well established groups like the Muslim Brotherhood while those parties want the parliamentary elections to be held on time. On the other hand they are united in their demand that the military should get out of politics and stop imposing restrictions on the future constitution and allow democratically elected representatives of Egyptians to freely write the new constitution.
The protesters are demanding the SCAF to step down from governing and politics, and hand over the authority to civilians. Other demands include banning former members of Hosni Mubarak‘s regime from running in the next election, and rejection of the military’s super-constitution (which restricts the power of the future elected representative in writing the new constitution, gives the military the power to select up to 80 percent of the membership committee that writes the new constitution, and removes the possibility of civilian control of the military and Egypt’s foreign policy which will allow the military to act as a state within a state in Egypt, a system similar to Turkey’s Deep State before democratic reforms). The protesters state that the situation has not improved during the last 10 months under military government. Media and freedom of expression has become even more restricted, civilian political activists are being tried in military courts for insulting military, human rights situation has not improved, the emergency law (which gives government extra-ordinary powers and the right to ignore laws) continues, and the military junta continues to use the same methods that Mubarak was using. They are also angry at Field Marshal Tantavi’s statement announced on TV which implies that military wants to remain involved in politics and will not return to barracks even after presidential elections.
On 19 November, two people were killed and 600 wounded in violent clashes after mass protests in Tahrir Square against the military junta regime. The protests started in reaction to the military unilaterally announcing a super-constitution that representatives elected for writing the constitution will not be able to change.
Egyptian medics say a police and army assault on anti-government protesters in Cairo has killed at least three people, raising the death toll in Egypt to at least five killed in two days of unrest. Police in Cairo lobbed teargas into crowds of protesters angry at the military government’s continued role in political life. Demonstrators kept control of Tahrir Square Sunday morning, and vowed to keep their revolution alive.
Protesters demanding faster reforms and establishment of civilian government took to the Tahrir square in Cairo, and also in other cities, and clashed with the security forces. On 21 November 2011, after several days of violent demonstrations in which more than 33 protesters lost their lives and over 1,500 were wounded, the provisional government offered its resignation to the supreme military council in reaction to the use of force against the protesters.
At a crisis meeting on 22 November 2011 between the political and the military leaders, the parties agreed for a new interim government to be formed, and to proceed with the scheduled parliamentary election on 28 November, with a goal of holding a presidential election before the end of June 2012. Also on the same day, the US State Department condemned the excessive use of force against the demonstrators by the Egyptian security forces.
Since Kamal Ganzouri was appointed prime minister, there has been a three-week protest sit-in, outside a government building near Tahrir square.In the morning of 16 December 2011, the army attempted to forcefully disperse the protesters. In the following days, 7 people were killed and violence has escalated.
On 19 December, Hillary Clinton US Secretary of State in a speech at Georgetown University in Washington, denounced the stripping and beating of a female protester and said that ‘recent events in Egypt have been particularly shocking’ and “women are being beaten and humiliated in the same streets where they risked their lives for the revolution only a few short months ago.”
On 20 December, thousands of Egyptian women demonstrated against abuses by military police.
On 5 January 2012, a prosecutor in the trial of Hosni Mubarak demanded that Mubarak be hanged, for the killing of protesters, during the 2011 uprising, that toppled his regime. On 11 January, the parliamentary elections were officially over. On 24 January, the leader of Egypt, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, announced that the decades-old State of Emergency would be partially lifted, the following day.
On 1 February, 73 people were killed at a football game, in a stadium in Port Said. The riots began when fans of the team El Masry invaded the stadium, some of them carrying knives, and attacked fans of the rival team, Al Ahly. Initial media reports stated that more than 70 people were killed, with the death toll rising.
Numerous protests then took place, following this event. On Thursday, 2 February, protesters took to the streets of Cairo, enraged by the fact that the lax security had failed in preventing this tragedy from happening. Some of the protesters were heard chanting that Tantawi should be executed. The police then deployed tear gas, on the protesters.
On 24 March, numerous protesters took to the streets, angry that the football team El-Masry was banned for two more seasons, following the riots last month. The army then attacked the protesters. At least one person was killed, and at least 18 others were injured.
On 20 April, hundreds, possibly even thousands, of protesters once again gathered in Cairo’s Tahrir Square, demanding that the country’s military rulers transfer power to a civilian government, sooner. They also wanted the Field Marshal, and leader of Egypt’s military, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, to step down.
On 14 April, several candidates in the upcoming presidential election were disqualified, for various reasons.
On 23–24 May, the first round of voting in the presidential elections took place. Many people went to the polls, to vote. The two candidates with the highest amount of votes were the Muslim Brotherhood’s replacement candidate, Mohammed Morsi, and Hosni Mubarak’s last Prime Minister, Ahmed Shafik.
On 31 May, the decades-old State of Emergency was finally completely lifted, in Egypt.
On 2 June, former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak was sentenced to life in prison, for complicity in the killings of protesters by police, during the revolution that eventually toppled him, in 2011. However, the judge also found him not guilty, on corruption charges. This, and the fact that he had not received the death penalty, led numerous protesters to immediately take to the streets, directly after the verdict was announced. On 14 June, Egypt’s Constitutional Court ruled that a law preventing members of Hosni Mubarak’s former government from running for President was unconstitutional, therefore letting Ahmed Shafik remain in the presidential race. The court also ruled that the mainly Islamist-led Parliament, should be dissolved. Both of these verdicts also led to protests, as well.
On 16–17 June, the second round of voting in the presidential elections took place. Both candidates claimed that they had won the election, and each accused the other of cheating. The results of the presidential election were initially going to be officially announced, on Thursday, 21 June. However, this date was later postponed.
On 18 June, the Muslim Brotherhood announced that its candidate, Mohammed Morsi, had won the election. On the same day, the ruling military junta, (which is scheduled to transfer power to the newly-elected President on 30 June), made a statement, in which they severely restricted the powers, of the Presidency. This led to huge protests in Tahrir Square, the biggest since those that eventually ousted Mubarak, more than a year earlier. Many of the protesters were members of the Muslim Brotherhood. On 19 June, the protests continued. Protesters rallied in Tahrir Square in Cairo, accusing the SCAF of planning a coup, and demanding that it back down.
The results of the presidential election were officially announced, on Sunday, 24 June. It was announced that Morsi had narrowly beat Shafik, gaining 52% of the votes, while Shafik got 48% of them. Right after this announcement, the Morsi supporters in Tahrir Square celebrated their victory. It has also been noted, that this is the first time since Hosni Mubarak’s resignation, on 11 February 2011, that celebrations of this magnitude have occurred, in Egypt. However, even after the results of the presidential election were announced, numerous protesters still remained, in Tahrir Square. They were protesting the apparent power grab, by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.
On 30 June 2012, Mohammed Morsi was sworn in, as the 5th President of Egypt. This marks the first time in Egypt’s history that a civilian President has been elected, by the people. In the past, all of the other Presidents were either from the military, or had a military background.
For a documentation of the third wave of the 2011-2012 Egyptian revolution, which began with Morsi inauguration, see Timeline of the 2011–2012 Egyptian revolution under the Muslim Brotherhood.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the events following the 2011 Egyptian revolution culminating in the election of Mohamed Morsi. For the full sequence of events following 2011 revolution, see Aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
|2011 Egyptian revolution (Third wave)|
|Part of Aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Egyptian opposition||Government of Egypt|
Lead figuresMohammed Morsi
(President of Egypt)
(Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood)
(Prime Minister of Egypt)
(Minister of Justice)Casualties34 killed
The following is a chronological summary of the major events that occurred during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, after Mohamed Morsi’s election as the fifth President of Egypt, on 30 June 2012. This article documents the third wave of the 2011-2012 Egyptian revolution.
Further information: Timeline of the 2011–2012 Egyptian revolution under Hosni Mubarak’s rule
See also: Egyptian Shura Council election, 2012
See also: Egyptian presidential election, 2012
On 8 July, Mohamed Morsi issued a decree calling back into session the dissolved parliament for July 10, 2012. Morsi’s decree also called for new parliamentary elections to be held within 60 days of the adoption of a new constitution for the country, which is tentatively expected for late 2012. A constitutional assembly selected by the erstwhile parliament has been formed and has begun the work of drafting the constitution. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces hold an emergency meeting in response to the decree, but adjourn the meeting without making an announcement.
On 9 July, Egyptian President Mohammed Mursi’s order to reconvene parliament was rejected by Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court which said after meeting on July 9, 2012 said that all its rulings and decisions, including its judgement that part of the election for parliament was unconstitutional and which led in return to the assembly’s dissolution by the SCAF, are final, not subject to appeal and binding for all state institutions. With its ruling the court asserted that Morsi had no right to reconvene parliament after the court ordered it dissolved in June 2012. Though the constituent assembly tasked with drawing up Egypt’s new constitution is currently functioning, after being selected by the dissolved parliament, the SCAF also gave itself the power to choose a new assembly if the current one runs into any problems according to Al Jazeera. In its 2012-07-09 statement the military council said its constitutional declaration which gave it broad powers “came as a result of the political, legal and constitutional circumstances that the country was facing” and added that the declaration “ensures the continuity of state institutions and the [military council] until a news constitution is drafted”. The military said it was “confident” that all state institutions will respect constitutional declarations.
On 10 July, Egypt’s parliament convened despite dissolution, but the session was adjourned by Speaker Saad al-Katatni after the members of parliament approved Katatni’s proposal that the parliament seek legal advice from the Court of Cassation on how to implement the supreme court’s ruling. Thousands gathered in Cairo in protest of a ruling by Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court to freeze the decree issued by President Mohamed Morsi to reinstate the Islamist-led parliament. While the Supreme Constitutional Court ruled that Morsi did not have the right to reconstitute the body, it also threatened the new president with the equivalent of contempt of court if he continued to reject its decisions. Parliament asked Egypt’s Court of Cassation to essentially overrule the aspect of the Supreme Constitutional Court’s decision holding that the whole Parliament must be immediately dissolved because of flaws in the electoral system used to fill a third of the seats. The Administrative Court (whose function is the review of executive actions), besides the Supreme Constitutional Court (whose function is the review of statutes) and Court of Cassation (whose function is the handling of appeals of lower court rulings) one of the three highest Courts in Egypt, is also weighing that question and has said it will issue its own ruling on July 17.
On 11 July, Egypt’s President Mohamed Morsi declared he will seek dialogue with political forces and judicial authorities to resolve the row over the dissolved parliament. He also said that he will respect Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court ruling that blocked his decision to call the nation’s parliament back into session.
On 14 July, the parliament’s request to examine Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court ruling that dissolved the Islamist-led assembly was rebuffed by the Court of Cassation. Egypt’s highest appeals court unanimously ruled on July 14, 2012 it has no jurisdiction over the implementation of the June 14, 2012 constitutional court ruling.
On 16 July, more than 20000 workers at Egypt’s largest textiles manufacturing company, which saw major strikes in 2006 and 2008, began their first day of strikes demanding an increase in wages and more government investment in their sector.
On 19 July, the Administrative Judiciary Court of the State Council put on hold all appeals against the formulation of the Constituent Assembly, tasked with drafting a new constitution, until the court decides on July 30, 2012 on suits calling for a change of the judge presiding over the case. The court was also looking at a case filed against the supplementary constitutional decree released by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces days before President Mohamed Morsi’s inauguration, and another against the president’s decision to bring back the People’s Assembly, parliament’s lower house that SCAF dissolved after the Supreme Constitutional Court ruled the parliamentary elections law unconstitutional. The court ruled lack of jurisdiction on both cases and referred the latter back to the Supreme Constitutional Court.Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi ordered to release 572 people detained by the Egyptian military in the 2011 protests, and reduced the sentence of 16 others from life sentence to seven years in jail.
On 30 July, the Administrative Judiciary Court of the State Council ruled on 30 July to postpone the case calling for the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly to 24 Septembe, giving the assembly enough time to complete the drafting of Egypt’s new constitution.
On 2 August, the first Cabinet under President Mohamed MorsI headed by Prime Minister Hesham Kandil was sworn in.
On 5 August, 2012 Egyptian–Israeli border attack. Following this event Egypt’s President Morsi fired his intelligence chief, the head of the military police, several Interior Ministry officials, the head of the presidential guard and the governor of North Sinai, while the President during a trip to the border region vowed with respect to the victims of the attack. “We will never, ever rest until we take revenge and bring back justice to those killed.”
On 8 August, following the 2012 Egyptian–Israeli border attack Egyptian forces launched aerial strikes on militants in response to a series of attacks by masked gunmen on military checkpoints as part of a broader operation against Islamist militant organizations in the Sinai Peninsula.
On 12 August, Morsi asked Mohamad Hussein Tantawi, head of the country’s armed forces, and Sami Anan, the Army chief of staff, to resign and Morsi assumed legislative powers Morsi’s spokesman, Yasser Ali, announced that both Tantawi and Anan would remain advisers to the president. Tantawi and Anan were kept on as “special counsels to the president” with undisclosed roles and were given Egypt’s highest state honour, the Grand Collar of the Nile. Morsi named Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, currently serving as chief of military intelligence, as Egypt’s new defense minister. He also replaced Egypt Chief of Staff Lieutenant General Sami Hafez Anan with General Sedki Sobhi. GeneralMohamed al-Assar, a member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, was named an assistant defense minister.Morsi also pushed out the chiefs of the navy, the air force and the air defense branch of Egypt armed forces. More specifically Vice Admiral Mohab Mamish, Commander of the Egyptian Navy; Lieutenant General Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeen, Commander of the Egyptian Air Defense Forces; and Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez, Commander of the Egyptian Air Force were relieved from duty and moved on to civilian roles. Morsi said his decisions had not been intended to humiliate military. “I never meant to antagonize anyone,” Morsi said. “We go on to new horizons, with new generations, with new blood that has long been awaited.” “I want the armed forces to devote themselves to a mission that is holy to all of us, which is protecting the nation,” he said in a televised address. “The decisions I took today were not meant ever to target certain persons, nor did I intend to embarrass institutions, nor was my aim to narrow freedoms,” he said. “I did not mean to send a negative message about anyone, but my aim was the benefit of this nation and its people.” Morsi also announced that the constitutional amendments passed by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) that had gutted the authority of his office, and replaced it with his own declaration, one that gave him broad legislative and executive powers and a decisive role in the drafting of Egypt’s still unfinished new constitution. In addition Morsi appointed a senior judge and Muslim Brotherhood favorite, Mahmoud Mekki, as his vice president. The new constitutional decree Morsy released is made up of just four articles. Among the powers Morsi assumed are the power to select a new panel to write Egypt’s constitution, if the current panel could finish its work, and the full power to author, approve, and promulgate legislation. This marked the “completion of Egyptian revolution,” said an unidentified spokesman according to the Jerualem Post. The New York Times described the move as an “upheaval” and a “stunning purge”, given the power that SCAF had taken after the fall of Mubarak. Morsi’s moves triggered support for and protest against his August 12 decisions, while legal experts questioned legitimacy of Morsi’s constitutional changes and conflicting reports emerged from military officials over whether Morsi consulted with the armed forces regarding his decision to retire Tantawi and Anan. Al Jazeera described it as “escalating the power struggle” between the president and military.
On 14 August 2012, Mohamed Salem, an Egyptian lawyer, filed a legal challenge over Morsi’s removal of Tantawi and Anan, arguing that Morsi planned to bring back the totalitarian regime.
On 23 August, Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi issued a new law cancelling the Mubarak-era practice of temporarily detaining journalists for so-called “publication offences,” including the charge of “offending the president of the republic.” With this law Morsi outlawed the pretrial detention of people accused of press crimes. A Constitutional Declaration issued by Morsi earlier in August 2012 gave the president full legislative powers, which he will command until the election of a new parliament.
See also: Reactions to Innocence of Muslims
On 8 September, The Administrative Court of the State Council postponed its decision on the constitutionality of Egypt’s Constituent Assembly until 2 October 2012.
On 11 September, a protest was organized by Wesam Abdel-Wareth, a Salafist leader and president of Egypt’s Hekma television channel, who called for a gathering at 5 pm in front of the United States Embassy, to protest against a film that he thought was named Muhammad’s Trial. After the trailer for the film began circulating, Nader Bakkar, the Egyptian Salafist Nour Party‘s spokesman, and Muhammad al-Zawahiri, the brother of al-Qaeda leader Ayman al Zawihiri, called for Egyptians to assemble outside of the American embassy. About 3,000 demonstrators, many of them from the ultraconservative Salafist movement, responded to his call. A dozen men were then reported to have scaled the embassy walls, after which one of them tore down the flag of the United States of America and replaced it with a black Islamist flag with the inscription of the shahada: “There is no god but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God”. Some of the protesters also wrote “There is no God but Allah” on the compound walls. According to Sherine Tadros of Al Jazeera, the protestors demanded that the film be taken “out of circulation” and that some of the protestors would stay at the site until that happens. Thousands of Egyptian riot police were at the embassy following the breach of the walls; they eventually persuaded the trespassers to leave the compound without the use of force. After that, only a few hundred protesters remained outside the compound. During the entry into the embassy grounds United States Marines were not allowed to carry live ammunition by the State Department. Egypt’s prime minister Hesham Kandil said “a number” of protesters later confessed to getting paid to participate.
On September 14, in the town of Sheikh Zuwayed in the Sinai Peninsula, protesters stormed a compound of the Multinational Force and Observers, designed to monitor the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. The peacekeeping force opened fire on the protesters. Two members of the peacekeeping force were wounded.Ahmad Fouad Ashoush, a Salafist Muslim cleric, issued a fatwa saying: “I issue a fatwa and call on the Muslim youth in America and Europe to do this duty, which is to kill the director, the producer and the actors and everyone who helped and promoted the film.” Another Muslim cleric, Ahmed Abdullah (aka Abu Islam) tore up the Bible and threw the torn pages on the ground during the September 11 embassy attack.
On 22 September, Egypt’s Supreme Administrative Court upheld on 22 September upheld an earlier Supreme Constitutional Court ruling, which had ordered the dissolution of the lower house of Egypt’s parliament (People’s Assembly) based on the unconstitutionality of some of the parliamentary elections law. The administrative court said that since the electoral laws on which the People’s Assembly was elected were found to be unconstitutional, the entire composition of the assembly is invalid.
On 23 September, Egypt’s Supreme Administrative Court issued on 23 September 2012 a verdict supporting the right of former members of the now-defunct National Democratic Party (NDP), which was formally disbanded by an administrative court in April 2011, the NDP to run in parliamentary elections.
On 1 October, Egypt’s doctors began on Monday a partial strike that lasted for weeks.
On 2 October, The Administrative Court of the State Council postponed its decision on the constitutionality of Egypt’s Constituent Assembly until 9 October 2012.
On 8 October, Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi has ordered pardon for all persons who already have convictions and those who are still under investigation or are on trial for deeds “committed with the aim of supporting the revolution and bringing about its objectives.” The decree included felonies, misdemeanors committed to support the uprising to achieve its goals from January 25, 2011 until June 30, 2012 except crimes of first degree murder and abides the general prosecutor and the military attorney general, each one in his field to publish a list for those given amnesty in the official newspaper. The persons missed can submit a complaint in a month from the date of publication, and one or more committees will be formed to consider the complaints under the presidency of the head of court of cessation within thirty days of the date of the complaints.
On 9 October, The Administrative Court of the State Council postponed its decision on the constitutionality of Egypt’s Constituent Assembly until 16 October 2012 in order to review more documents.
On 10 October, Egypt’s prosecutor general Abdel-Maguid Mahmoud failed to win a conviction of two dozen Mubarak allies charged with orchestrating an attack by thugs on the protesters who ousted Mubarak. Some of the thugs were mounted, and the resulting melee became known as the 2 February 2011 Battle of the Camels where men riding horses and camels charged into crowds on Cairo’s Tahrir Square, setting off two days of clashes that ended with killing of nearly a dozen people.Activist groups and political parties called for a nationwide protest on 12 October 2011 after a court acquitted all 24 people charged with involvement in the Battle of Camels.
On 11 October, Despite the fact that Egyptian law protects the prosecutor general from being ousted by the president, president Morsi ordered Egypt’s prosecutor general Abdel-Maguid Mahmoud to leave his position as prosecutor general to defuse public anger over acquittals in the Battle of the Camels case. Mahmoud however refused to step down and become Egypt’s ambassador to the Vatican, as the law gave immunity to the prosecutor general from being ousted by the president.
On 12 October, Critics and supporters of Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi clashed in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on 12 October 2012 in a small but potent rally, as liberal and secular activists erupted with anger accusing the Muslim Brotherhood of trying to take over the country. The rally sharpened the nation’s tensions over its political direction and the failure to bring loyalists of the former government to justice for their actions during Battle of the CamelsThe clashes erupted between two competing rallies in Tahrir.One was by liberal and secular activists to criticize Morsi’s failure to achieve promises he had made for first 100 days in power and to demand greater diversity on the panel tasked with writing Egypt’s new constitution, the other had been called by Morsi’s Muslim Brotherhood to call for judicial reforms and to support the move by Morsi on 11 October 2012 to remove the prosecutor-general. The secular camp accused the Brotherhood of holding the gathering to “hijack” the square from their anti-Morsi protest. The violence erupted when Morsi supporters stormed a stage set up by the rival camp, angered by chants they perceived as insults to the president.
On 13 October, Egypt’s president Morsi backed down on 13 October 2012 from his decision to remove the country’s top prosecutor Abdel-Maguid Mahmoud, keeping him in his post and sidestepping a potential clash with the country’s powerful judiciary. The two-day standoff between President Mohammed Morsi and Prosecutor General Abdel-Meguid Mahmoud escalated with a backlash from a powerful group of judges who said Morsi’s move had infringed upon their authority and on the judiciary’s independence.Egypt’s Vice President Mahmoud Mekki told reporters after meeting the prosecutor that the president agreed to suspend the decision to make Mahmoud Egypt’s ambassador to the Vatican following a request from the country’s Supreme Judicial Council. Mekki said the presidency had announced the decision to make Mahmoud Egypt’s ambassador to the Vatican after initially understanding that Mahmoud had agreed to step down as Prosecutor General. After meeting Morsi and his advisers, Mahmoud told The Associated Press that “a misunderstanding” had been resolved.
On 23 October, Egypt’s Supreme Administrative Court in Cairo referred the law regulating the Constituent Assembly to the Supreme Constitutional Court and hence suspended the hearing of lawsuits that sought the dissolution of the assembly charged with drafting the country’s new constitution.Plaintiffs from 48 lawsuits demanded the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly claiming the assembly failed to proportionately represent various social sectors, and violated Egypt’s interim constitution by including MPs as members. More specifically, the Administrative Court referred Law 79/2012, which granted the assembly immunity from dissolution, to the Supreme Constitutional Court, which will rule on the law based on the Constitutional Declaration that has governed the country since the fall of former President Hosni Mubarak. Egypt’s parliament had approved the law on the same day of its formation two days before Parliament was dissolved. However, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces refused to pass the law. After decreeing the return of the People’s Assembly, President Mohamed Morsy approved the stalled law to prevent the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly. Judge Nazih Tangho of the High Administrative Court referred the case to the Constitutional Court to look into the law that gave the constitutional panel legal immunity, a clause he said needed vetting because no one should be above legal supervision. “The law was meant to prevent the High Administrative Court from looking into appeals … against the panel,” he said. Muslim Brotherhood lawyer Abdel Moneim Abdel Maqsoud stated that the Supreme Constitutional Court needed at least two months to rule on the case, citing the law that obliged it to consider the cases 45 days after its referral.
This article is about the events following the 2011 Egyptian revolution after Mohamed Morsi’s decree. For the preceding events, see Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Mohamed Morsi (July–October 2012). For the full timeline, see Timeline of the 2011–13 Egyptian civil unrest.
|2012–13 Egyptian protests|
|Part of the Arab Spring and the aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution|
|Demonstrators in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on the morning of 27 November 2012|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
| Egyptian Armed Forces
|28 killed (17–22 November 2012);
59–60+ killed (25 January–3 February 2013);
40 killed (23 June–3 July 2013)
On November 22, 2012, tens of thousands of protesters started to demonstrate against president Mohamed Morsi, after Morsi’s government issued a temporary constitutional declaration that in effect granted the president unlimited powers. Morsi deemed the decree necessary to protect the elected constituent assembly from a planned dissolution by judges appointed during the Mubarak-era.
The demonstrations were organized by Egyptian opposition organizations and individuals, mainly liberals, leftists, secularists andChristians. The demonstrations have resulted in violent clashes between Morsi-supporters and the anti-Morsi protesters, with dozens of deaths and hundreds of injuries. Demonstrators gathered outside the presidential palace, which in turn was surrounded by tanks and armored vehicles of the Republican Guard. The anti-Morsi protesters in Cairo were estimated at 200,000, while over 100.000 supporters of Morsi gathered in Cairo to show support. A number of Morsi’s advisers resigned in protest, and many judges spoke out against his actions as well. Resignations were tendered by the director of state broadcasting, Rafik Habib (Christian vice president of the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party), and Zaghloul el-Balshi (general secretary of the commission overseeing the planned constitutional referendum). Seven members of Morsi’s 17-member advisory panel resigned in December 2012.
On 8 December 2012, Morsi annulled his temporary decree which had expanded his presidential authority and removed judicial review of his decrees, an Islamist official said, but added that the results of the temporary declaration would still stand. George Isaac of the Constitution Party said that Morsi’s declaration did not offer anything new, the National Salvation Front rejected it as an attempt to save face, and the April 6 Movement and Gamal Fahmi of the Egyptian Journalists Syndicate said the new declaration failed to address the “fundamental” problem of the nature of the assembly that the opposition boycotted.
By 30 June, on the first anniversary of the election of Morsi, tens of thousands of Morsi opponents massed in Tahrir Square and outside the main presidential palace in the Heliopolis suburb demanding Morsi’s resignation. Demonstrations were also reported to be in progress in 18 locations across Cairo and in other different locations across the country including Alexandria, El-Mahalla and cities of the Suez Canal. The demonstrations are described as being backed by multiple entities, including the Tamarod movement formed by members of the Egyptian Movement for Change in April 2013 that claims to have collected 22 million signatures calling for President Morsi’s resignation.
On the night of 3 July, after a warning 48 hours earlier to intervene, the Egyptian Armed Forces came out with a statement announcing the end of Mohammed Morsi’s presidency. In the same statement, the military announced that the constitution was suspended, that a presidential election would be held soon, the chief justice of the constitutional court, Adly Mansour, is now head of the government and that a transitional technocratic government would be formed until the election.
In protest of the partially popular coup, supporters of the ousted President Morsi staged large demonstrations in the Nasr City district of Cairo, and in Alexandria, Luxor, Damanhour and Suez.
After the military coup of 30 June 2013, the Egyptian army cracked down on public media and shut down several news outlets that it deemed pro-morsi, including al-Jazeera.
In what many have deemed a massacre, hundreds of pro-Morsi demonstrators have since been killed in army crackdowns and attacks on pro-Morsi demonstrations.In many cases the army has denied shooting at demonstrators with live ammunition, contrary to eyewitnesses and first hand accounts of western news outlets and local residents.
On 22 November 2012, Morsi issued a constitutional declaration purporting to protect the Constituent Assembly of Egypt from judicial interference. The declaration stated that it only applies until a new constitution is ratified. The declaration also requires new trials for people acquitted of Mubarak-era killings of protesters, and extends the mandate of the constituent assembly by two months. Additionally, the declaration authorizes Morsi to take all measures necessary to these ends.
In effect, the declaration makes all constitutional declarations, laws and decrees made since Morsi assumed power immune to appeal by any individual, political or governmental body. Demonstrations both in support of and opposing Morsi broke out around Egypt after the declaration was made.
Sometime between 18 November and 21 November 2012, secular groups walked out of the constitutional constituent assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while members of the Muslim Brotherhood supported Morsi and denied such allegations. Protesters battled the police in Cairo’s Mohamed Mahmoud Street over the slow pace of change in Egypt,after thousands of protesters had returned to the streets around Tahrir Square demanding political reforms and the prosecution of officials blamed for killing demonstrators as well as to protest against Morsi and the growing influence of the Muslim Brotherhood.The protests held to commemorate four days of street fighting between protesters and security forces in November 2011 had already turned violent on 19 November 2012.
On 22 November, Morsi issued a constitutional declaration and dismissed with it Egypt’s prosecutor general Abdel Maguid Mahmoud who was replaced by Talaat Ibrahim Abdullah. This caused a disagreement amongst Egyptian judges and condemnation from various organizations. His decree was called “an unprecedented attack on judicial independence” by the Supreme Council of the Judiciary. Morsi said that the decree was made to prevent the courts from dissolving the Constitutional Assembly. Three protests were held outside the court building. Mohamed ElBaradei, a former UN diplomat, called for withdrawal of the decree. While the declaration was immediately criticized by Morsi opponents, his supporters defended Morsi’s move.Morsi’s declaration contained the following contents:
All investigations into the killing of protesters or the use of violence against them will be re-conducted; trials of those accused will be re-held. With the declaration a new “protection of the revolution” judicial body was also created to swiftly carry out the prosecutions, but the decree would not lead to retrials of the dozens of lower-level police officers who have been acquitted or received suspended sentences in trials for killing protesters — verdicts that have outraged many Egyptians. That exclusion will guarantee Morsi the loyalty of the powerful but hated police force.
All constitutional declarations, laws and decrees made since Mr Morsi assumed power cannot be appealed or cancelled by any individual, or political or governmental body
The public prosecutor will be appointed by the president for a fixed term of four years, and must be aged at least 40
The constituent assembly’s timeline for drafting the new constitution has been extended by two months.
No judicial authority can dissolve the constituent assembly or the upper house of parliament (Shura Council)
The president is authorised to take any measures he sees fit in order to preserve the revolution, to preserve national unity or to safeguard national security
On 23 November, protests erupted in Cairo, the port city of Alexandria and elsewhere around Egypt, as opponents of President Mohamed Morsi clashed with his supporters over his 22 November 2012 declaration. Protesters torched the offices of Egypt’s ruling Islamist party, the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party, in Suez, Alexandria and other cities. Essam el-Erian, a leading figure of Morsi’s FJP, condemned attacks on party property. Media organizations noted that the events showed Egypt was a divided country Morsi defended amid the protests before his supporters his declaration stating that he was working to secure a strong and stable nation and leading Egypt on a path to “freedom and democracy”.
On 24 November, the Supreme Judicial Council, the highest judicial body in Egypt, joined protesters in lambasting the president’s constitutional declaration and called it an “unprecedented attack on the independence of the judicial branch”. The leadership of the Egypt Judges Club, an association of judges from across the country, called for a nationwide strike in all courts and prosecution offices to protest the president’s declaration. State news media reported that judges and prosecutors had already declared a strike in Alexandria. MENA news agency reported that Egyptian human rights agencies filed a lawsuit at the Court of Administrative Justice calling for the declaration to be annulled. There were also clashes in Cairo between protesters and security forces, between opponents and supporters of the government.
On 25 November, shares on Egypt’s stock market plunged almost 10%. Trading was suspended for 30 minutes as shares slumped in the first session since the president’s November 22 constitutional declaration. The Muslim Brotherhood had called for nationwide protests on November 25 in support of Morsi’s declaration. Judges in two of the country’s 27 provinces, including Alexandria, heeded the call to strike while those elsewhere in the country were meeting to decide their response. After a meeting with Egypt’s justice minister Ahmed Mekki, the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, the highest council overseeing the Egyptian courts, urged judges not to disrupt their work by joining in a proposed strike over the decree. But the council also urged the president to scale back his writ, to limit the immunity from judicial review he decreed for “laws and decisions issued by the president as sovereignty acts”, a reference to Egyptian legal precedents that could justify such executive action in certain circumstances. The Muslim Brotherhood’s party offices in Damanhour, Alexandria, Mansoura, Suez and Cairo were ransacked and damaged in the wake of the November 22 constitutional declaration. Five hundred people were injured in clashes with the Egyptian police, and 15-year-old Islam Fathi Masoud died after being hit on the head with a club wielded by one of dozens of men who attacked the MB’s offices in the northern city of Damanhour. The Al-Ahram state newspaper said that three women were victims of sexual assault during an anti-Morsi demonstration. Egypt state news media reported that Morsi advisers who had resigned over the decree included Samir Morqos, one of the few Christians in the administration; Sekina Fouad, one of the few women, and Farouk Guweida, a poet and intellectual.
On 26 November, The Court of Administrative Justice in Cairo said it would hold a first hearing on 4 December in a case brought by lawyers and activists against the declaration. Morsi met with representatives of the supreme judicial council in an effort to settle the mounting crisis over the extent of his powers following his November 22 constitutional declaration. He agreed to limit his decree on his decisions related to “sovereign matters” only. Morsy “did not give himself judicial power” but did provide “immunity for his presidential decisions,” said Jihad Haddad, a senior adviser in the Freedom and Justice Party. Haddad added that “the president himself (is) not immune from judicial oversight,” though it wasn’t clear in what circumstances that might apply, or if there was anything preventing Morsi from issuing a new decree to forestall that. According to Al-Jazeera “sovereign matters” were widely interpreted to cover the declaration of war, imposition of martial law, breaking diplomatic relations with a foreign nation, or dismissing the cabinet. Activists on Monday camped in Cairo’s Tahrir Square for a fourth day, blocking traffic with makeshift barricades to protest against what they said was a power-grab by Morsi. Nearby, riot police and protesters clashed intermittently. In addition to popular outbursts on the street, Egypt’s judges reacted. All but seven of Egypt’s 34 courts and 90% of its prosecutors went on strike Monday in protest, according to Judge Mohamed al-Zind of the Egyptian Judge’s Club. Muslim Brotherhood supporters staged a counter-demonstration, while they were relocated from central Cairo to a location in front of Cairo University in Giza. Egypt’s stock market, which had seen a fall of almost 10% on November 25, 2012, recovered some ground on Monday morning. Islam Fathy Massoud member of the Muslim Brotherhood was killed during protests in Damanhour. Gaber Salah, a member of the April 6 Youth Movement, was officially pronounced dead, after being brain dead for a week in the hospital. He had received a rubber bullet shot at close range during clashes with riot police in downtown Cairo. The funeral of Islam Fathy Massoud, who died in the Nile Delta town of Damanhour in a clash between the president’s supporters and opponents, was held on Monday, while in Cairo thousands of people marched through Tahrir Square for the funeral of Gaber Salah.
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on the evening of 27 November 2012
On 27 November, tens of thousands of people held protests in Cairo against Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi demanding that their first freely elected leader respect their wishes either to roll back his November 22 constitutional declaration or to resign. At least one demonstrator died in early clashes with authorities before Tuesday night’s massive rally. The opposition Popular Alliance Party said the protester died after inhaling excessive amounts of tear gas, which police used in numerous scuffles with rock-throwing protesters on the side streets leading to the square. And in the Nile Delta city of Mahalla, police reported dozens of injuries when demonstrators stormed and destroyed the headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood. Protests were also held in Alexandria and other cities. FJP offices in Alexandria and Mansoura were stormed, with the latter set ablaze. The Muslim Brotherhood scrapped its own demonstration to show support for Morsi—also scheduled for 27 November 2012 — “to avoid any problems due to tension in the political arena,” according to spokesman Mahmoud Ghozlan.
On 28 November, In an interview with TIME magazine President Morsi said of his November 22 constitutional declaration: “If we had a constitution, then all of what I have said or done last week, will stop. … when we have a constitution, what I have issued will stop immediately. … “ TheConstituent Assembly of Egypt rushed to finish its work amid widespread protests against President Mohamed Morsi and his declaration. The rush toward a new constitution spurred a walkout among its drafters i.e. liberals, human rights activists, and others who were unsatisfied with a range of provisions dealing with the role of religion in the state, the status of women, and the privileges accorded to the country’s powerful army. According to the BBC’s Jon Leybe the move was designed to preempt a ruling by Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court on December 2, 2012, which might once again dissolve the assembly. The Brotherhood hoped that the decree replaced by a completely new constitution would be approved on a referendum and put an end to the unrest. The demonstrations nevertheless continued. Low-level rallies continued in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on Wednesday. Dozens of police officers, backed by trucks firing tear gas, arrested numerous protesters, some of whom were beaten by officers as others continued to throw stones at police. The Brotherhood organized counter-demonstrations, including one in Egypt’s second city, Alexandria, which attracted several thousand participants. As protests mounted over Morsi’s decision to grant himself sweeping powers until the text of the constitution was ratified in a referendum, the panel tasked with writing the constitution wrapped up its deliberations on Wednesday and readied for a vote on Thursday. By 28 November two more people were killed and hundreds more injured. Egypt Independent reported that one of the dead peoples was Fathy Ghareeb, one of the founders of the Socialist Popular Alliance Party, who died by suffocation caused by the tear gas fired by the Central Security Forces (CSF) in Tahrir Square. Egypt’s Court of Cassation, the country’s highest appeals court, the Cairo Appeals Court, and other appeals courts suspended their work until Morsi’s decree is rescinded.
On 29 November, The voting on Egypt’s new constitution by the Constituent Assembly of Egypt began on November 28, 2012, and continued through Thursday night. There were protests against Morsi outside the presidential palace and a small protest supporting Morsi in Giza on the outskirts of Cairo. The new Egyptian constitution adopted the first part of the draft that includes theSharia as the main source of legislation and making Islam a state religion. Egyptian State TV reported that Christianity and Judaism would be the main source for legislation for Christians and Jews. The liberals, left-wing, and Christians boycotted the assembly and accused the Islamists of trying to impose their vision; they also accused them of trying to limit freedom of speech as well as not including articles establishing equality between men and women.
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 30 November 2012
On 30 November, Racing against the threat of dissolution by Supreme Constitutional Court judges appointed by ousted President Hosni Mubarak, quickly defusing anger about Morsi’s November 22 declaration granting himself expanded presidential powers and ignoring howls of protest from secular opponents, the Islamists drafting Egypt’s new constitution voted on November 29, 2012 to approve the 2012 Draft Constitution of Egypt that human rights groups and international experts said was full of holes and ambiguities and that was criticed by secular, liberal and Coptic Egypts. Thousands of Egyptians took to the streets in various governorates to denounce the constitutional declaration issued on 22 November, as well as the final draft of the constitution approved by the Islamist-dominated Constituent AssemblyIn Alexandria, anti-Morsi protesters clashed with Morsi’s supporters, but no injuries were reported.
See also: Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2012
On 1 December, Morsi announced that a constitutional referendum on the 2012 Draft Constitution of Egypt will be held in Egypt on 15 December 2012. Islamist backers of Egypt’s President Mohammed Morsi have held mass rallies at Cairo University in Cairo and other cities of Egypt to support his sweeping new powers and the drafting of a constitution, while several thousand of Mr. Morsi’s opponents rallied in Tahrir Square to oppose the draft constitution and what they describe as Morsi’s power grab. Also on the 1st, the director of the Nadeem Centre for Human Rights said that the Egyptian government paid people to beat protesters and sexually assault women; this accusation has also been made against the Muslim Brotherhood.
On 2 December, Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court put off its much-awaited ruling on the legitimacy of the constituent assembly that passed the draft constitution, and on a separate but related decision about whether to dissolve the Shura Council, Egypt’s upper house of parliament. It has said it is halting all work indefinitely in protest at the “psychological pressure” it has faced, after Islamist protesters earlier prevented the judges from meeting in Cairo. Anti-Morsi protesters continued to occupy Cairo’s Tahrir Square. Leaders of the Judges Club, a powerful but unofficial body which represents judges across the country, announced that its members would refuse to perform their customary roles as election supervisors and would thus try to block a referendum on the new constitution scheduled for December 15, 2012.
On 3 December, Egypt’s top judicial administrative authority, the Supreme Judicial Council, has said that judges and prosecutors would supervise the constitutional referendum to be held on December 15 despite the Judges Club strike announcement from December 2, 2012. In addition seven cases against Morsi’s call for the referendum were filed in an administrative court
On 4 December, police fought the demonstrators in front of the Presidential Palace in Cairo. Demonstrators proclaimed a march to the Presidential Palace, calling it “the last warning.” The demonstrators cut through a barbed-wire barrier near the Presidential Palace, after which police fired tear gas at them as Morsi fled. More violence broke out at the headquarters of the Freedom and Justice Party in Menia, south of Cairo, where the front of the party headquarters was damaged. Egypt Independent, the English-language sister publication of the country’s largest independent daily, Al Masry Al Youm, and 10 others did not publish to protest limits on the draft constitution’s protections for freedom of expression and freedom of the press. Prosecutor General Talaat Ibrahim Abdallah filed a complaint charging former presidential candidates Moussa and Sabbahi, as well as El-Baradei, Wafd Party president El-Sayyid el-Badawi, and Judges Club head Ahmed al-Zend with espionage and inciting to overthrow the government. The lawyer who filed the report, Hamed Sadeq, claimed that Moussa met with former Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni and agreed with her to fabricate a crisis. It was further alleged that all of politicians named in the complaint met at the Wafd Party headquarters to execute the “Zionist plot.”
On 5 December, at least 100,000 people were estimated to have protested at the Presidential Palace and at Tahrir Square against Morsi’s constitution, asserting it represented an effort to seize control of the judiciary. Many began demanding the “fall of the regime” as they fought running battles with police who deployed tear gas before retreating from the area, outnumbered by protesters. Supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood attacked 300 of Morsi’s opponents during a sit-in. Members of the Egyptian Popular Current Mohamed Essam and Karam Gergis were killed in the clashes surrounding Heliopolis Palace between protestors against the new Constitution and Muslim Brotherhood members, which attacked the demonstrators with molotov cocktails. The Health Ministry reported four were killed and 271 were injured. Masked men set fire to Muslim Brotherhood offices in Suez, Ismailia and Zagazig.
On 6 December, Supporters of Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood held counter protests the next day at the Presidential Palace, and clashed with anti-Morsi protesters in violent street battles that saw seven people killed and more than 650 injured. Morsi met with Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, chief of the Egyptian Army, and with his cabinet ministers, to discuss a “means to deal with the situation on different political, security, and legal levels to stabilize Egypt and protect the gains of the revolution.” Soldiers backed by tanks moved in to restore order as the death toll began to rise.While addressing the nation, Morsi criticized the opposition “for trying to incite violence” against his legitimacy. During his speech he invited his opponents to a common dialogue, but they rejected it because Morsi remained determined to press forward with the referendum on the Islamist-backed draft constitution that has plunged Egypt into a political crisis. Meanwhile, the Egyptian government imposed a curfew after the military sent tanks and armored vehicles into Cairo. Morsi’s family was forced to evacuate their home in Zagazig, 47 miles (76 km) northeast of Cairo. Four of Morsi’s advisers resigned their posts in protest against the violence, which they claimed was orchestrated by the Muslim Brotherhood supporters.
On 7 December, Morsi supporters and anti-Morsi demonstrators continued their protests in different cities including Cairo, Alexandria, and Assiut. Demonstrators in Assiut chanted “No Brotherhood, no Salafis, Egypt is a civic state.” Dozens of protesters threw rocks and glass bottles at Morsi’s home in Sharkia province and tried to push aside a police barrier. Advisers and Brotherhood leaders acknowledged that outside his core base of Islamist supporters President Morsi feels increasingly isolated in the political arena and even within his own government. Opposition leaders said in a statement that Morsi’s December 6 dialogue offer failed to meet “the principles of real and serious negotiations” and displayed “the complete disregard” for the opposition’s demands. They said they would not negotiate with Morsi until he cancels his Nov. 22 decree and calls off the Dec. 15 referendum on the draft constitution. Opposition protesters marched on the presidential palace and breached a security perimeter built by the military’s elite Republican Guard — charged with protecting the palace — which withdrew behind the palace walls. The Egyptian newspaper Al-Masry Al-Youm also reported that individuals suspected of protesting against the Muslim Brotherhood were being tortured and beaten in a facility run by the Brotherhood in Heliopolis, a Cairo suburb.
Tanks sent near the presidential palace
On 8 December, The Egyptian Army issued its first statement since the protests erupted, stating that it would protect public institutions and innocent people and not allow the events to become more serious. The Qandil Cabinet also authorized the army to help Egypt’s police maintain security. Egypt state news media reported that Morsi was moving toward imposing a form of martial law to secure the streets and allow the vote on the draft charter constitutional referendum. Morsi annulled his decree which had expanded his presidential authority and removed judicial review of his decrees, an Islamist official said, but added that the effects of that declaration would stand. In addition the mostly annulled November 2012 constitutional declaration should be replaced by a modificated one. The new decree Morsi issued Saturday night said he retained the limited authority to issue “constitutional declarations” protecting the draft charter constitution that judges could not overturn. George Isaac of the Constitution Party said that Mursi’s declaration did not offer anything new, the National Salvation Front rejected it as an attempt save face, and the April 6 Movement and Gamal Fahmi of the Egyptian Journalists Syndicate said the new declaration failed to address the “fundamental” problem of the nature of the assembly that was tasked with drafting the constitution.
On 9 December, Confusion and disarray pervaded the ranks of Egypt’s opposition after Morsi rescinded his November 22 constitutional declaration a day earlier. Despite the declaration’s annulment the general prosecutor, who was dismissed, will not be reinstated, and the retrial of the former regime officials will go ahead. Opposition leaders also called for more protests after Morsi refused to cancel the constitutional referendum in the wake of the declaration’s annulment. In response, the Alliance of Islamist Forces, an umbrella group that includes Morsi’s Muslim Brotherhood, said it would hold rival demonstrations. The group said its rallies would support of the referendum and the president under the slogan “Yes to legitimacy”.
On 10 December, the opposition group, the National Salvation Front, announced that it would organize a rally on 11 December.
See also: Badrashin railway accident
Shubra March to Tahrir on January 25
On the second anniversary of the beginning of the 2011 revolution, protests again erupted in cities across the country, following occasional skirmishes between protesters and police in Cairo the day before. Tens of thousands of people gathered in Cairo’s Tahrir Square during the day, with clashes between police forces and protesters occurring around the city at the Interior Ministry headquarters, state media offices and the presidential palace. Security forces fired tear gas at protesters trying to force their way into the presidential palace and state television offices. In the city of Suez, five people were killed by gunfire—four protesters and one security trooper. Protests also took place in Alexandria, Ismailia, Damanhur, andPort Said, many of which were focused on local government buildings. Tear gas use by police was reported in Alexandria, while protesters in that city and Suez burned tires. By the end of 25 January, about 280 protesters and 55 security personnel had been injured across the country.
On 26 January, the sentencing to death of 21 people for their roles in the Port Said Stadium disaster sparked further unrest in Port Said that resulted in 16 fatalities. The number of people killed in the city was 33. Many of them were killed by police snipers.
Tahrir Square on January 25
On 27 January, Egypt’s government was reported to have lost control of Port Said as a result of the protests and attacks. The same day seven more people died from gun shots in the clashes during the funerals for 33 people who had been killed on 26 January in the city. There were also deadly clashes in Suez and Ismailia. As a result, Morsi announced a state of emergency in Suez Canal cities (namely Ismailia, Port Said and Suez) for 30 days, with a curfew from 9:00 p.m to 6:00 a.m, effective Monday 28 January 2013. Morsi also invited eleven political parties, as well as four major political leaders, to talks concerning the unrest, but the leading opposition party, the National Salvation Front, refused to begin discussions until a new government was put in place and the country’s constitution modified.
On 28 January, Further demonstrations and clashes took in place in eleven cities, including those in the Suez Canal, Alexandria, Monufia and Cairo. The clashes resulted in six deaths. Thousands of people gathered in the Tahrir Square in Cairo to show their solidarity with those killed over the weekend early in the day. Police fired tear gas at protesters near the Qasr al-Nil Bridge, while further violence spread along the Nile.Protesters also set fire to security vehicles and detained a police officer. The Shura Council approved the President state of emergency decision as per the Constitution requirement. And to aid the police, it approved a law granting judicial seizure powers to the Army. A funeral procession Port Said devolved into a street battle between mourners and police, with security troops firing tear gas and live ammunition at crowds from police buildings across the city; protesters threw rocks, explosives and gas canisters back at police, and by the end of the day civilians across the city were seen[by whom?] carrying guns. A Ministry of the Interior spokesman, however, denied that police had fired on protesters, and said that tear gas had been used only briefly. By the end of the day, a total of 50 people were estimated to have died since the January protests began.
On 29 January, Egypt’s defense minister Abdul Fatah al-Sisi warned both pro- and anti-Morsi groups, arguing “their disagreement on running the affairs of the country may lead to the collapse of the state and threatens the future of the coming generations.”
On 30 January, two protesters were shot dead by unknown assailants in Cairo, near Tahrir square.
On 1 February, protesters gathered in front of the presidential residence in Cairo and clashed with riot police officers. President Morsi blamed police officers due to clashes. One protestor was shot and killed next to Ettehadiya Palace, and ninety one were injured around the country according to the official sources. One of the wounded protestors who had been hit by birdshotdied on 3 February.
Anti Sexual Harassment March to Tahrir Square, 6 February 2013.
The Egypt Independent reported that police forces dragged a protester, stripped him naked, beat him up with batons, and took him to a security truck. The incident sparked criticism against the administration of President Morsi for tolerating the security force’s excessive use of force. The presidency said it “was pained by the shocking footage of some policemen treating a protester in a manner that does not accord with human dignity and human rights.” State television reported that the 48-year-old beaten man, from a police hospital and without a lawyer present, said that the police had in fact saved him from thieving protesters. The man’s daughter, who says she was present at the scene of the attack, said that her father is simply “afraid to talk”, while his nephew said “he is lying because there is a lot of pressure on him.” In new twist, Hamada Saber finally retracted his earlier testimony: “I told [prosecutors] today that [police] shot me in the leg, beat me and dragged me,” he said. “When I resisted, they tore off my shirt. After I resisted some more, they tore off my pants and underpants. They kept telling me to stand up and I kept telling them I was injured”. “Now my family has disowned me; my wife and kids won’t talk to me. The whole country is angry at me for [giving false testimony],” Saber added.
Egypt’s interior minister, Mohamed Ibrahim, said he would leave if it was in the wishes of the people. Minister of Culture Mohamed Arab resigned from his post in protest of the police assault on protestors, being the third Culture Minister to resign from office since the beginning of the 2011 Egyptian uprising.
On 4 February, Mohamed el-Gendy, a member of the Popular Current tortured by the police following his arrest at Tahrir Square on 27 January, died in the Helal hospital due to his grave injuries.
On 11 February, the second anniversary of the former president Mobarak’s ouster, people gathered outside the presidential palace, protesting Morsi.
On 3 March, clashes erupted in Port Said when police fired teargas at demonstrators opposed to the Interior Ministry decision to transfer 39 detainees from Port Said to the Wadi Natroun Prison, in the Beheira governorate. The clashes took the lives of five peoples, including two policemen and three civilians. News outlets reported that police forces and army troops exchange fire, what was denied by the Egyptian armed forces official spokesperson. Over 500 persons were injured only in Port Said that day, with 39 with bullet wounds.
On 5 March, protestor Mohamed Hamed Farouk died from head wounds caused by gas canisters fired by police during protests in Port Said.
On 9 March, three protesters died (one of them an eight-year-old boy) in clashes between demonstrators and police at Qasr al-Nil Bridge, near Tahrir Square. In addition, the headquarters of the Ittihad El-Shorta (the Egyptian National Police football club) and the Egyptian Football Association were torched.
On 30 March, an arrest warrant was issued for Bassem Youssef, host of the satirical news program El Bernameg, for allegedly insulting Islam and Morsi. The move was seen by opponents as part of an effort to silence dissent against Morsi’s government. Youssef confirmed the arrest warrant on his Twitter account and said he would hand himself in to the prosecutor’s office, jokingly adding, “Unless they kindly send a police van today and save me the transportation hassle.” The following day, he was questioned by authorities before being released on bail of 15,000 Egyptian pounds. The event sparked international media attention as well as a segment on Jon Stewart’s The Daily Show in which he declared his support for Youssef, calling him a “friend” and “brother” and saying to Morsi: “What are you worried about? You’re the President of Egypt! You have an army! Youssef’s got puns and a show; you’ve got tanks and planes.”
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (April 2013)|
During Mubarak’s last days and after the ouster of his regime, the Sinai Peninsula witnessed an ongoing insurgency with several attacks perpetrated by Islamist militants mainly in the North Sinai governorate. Hamas, the Muslim Brotherhood’s biggest ally outside of Egypt, is being widely blamed by Egyptians for the attacks in the region although no solid evidence proves it. The reason for Hamas being blamed was the increasing activity in the smuggling tunnels from the Gaza Strip. A case that received wide controversy was the possible involvement of Hamas in the orchestrated attacks on prisons throughout the country on the night of 28 January during the 2011 uprising against Mubarak. In the prison breaks, more than 30 leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood who were imprisoned by Mubarak in the outbreak of revolution, escaped including Mohamed Morsi himself.
On 16 May, seven Egyptian soldiers were kidnapped by unknown militants in the Sinai demanding the release of members of an Islamist group detained for almost two years. One week later, they were reportedly released and handed over to the army in an area south of Rafah after talks mediated by tribal chiefs in the region with president Morsi greeting them upon their arrival at Cairo’s airport. The real issue though is Morsi’s way of dealing with the crisis with most actions taken by the government to solve the problem receiving wide criticism. Such reactions include Morsi’s call for a national dialogue instead of either fighting or negotiating with the kidnappers and for also appearing as being concerned for the safety of the kidnapped soldiers and their kidnappers equally.
Mohamed Sayed Abu-Shaqra, a security officer, was assassinated more than a week later by suspected jihadists near El-Arish while investigating the identity of the kidnappers and their location. During his funeral, relatives and colleagues started chanting against the president forcing the Interior minister to leave the military ceremony.
On 17 June, Morsi appoints Adel el-Khayat, an Islamist possibly linked to the Luxor massacre where at least 58 tourists were brutally killed by al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya gunmen, as governor of Luxor with 17 other provincial governors. The move sparked protests by tourism workers and activists in Luxor outside el-Khayat’s office forcing him to finally resign a week later in order to prevent bloodshed.
On 23 June, four Shia Muslims were attacked by an angry mob led by Salafist preachers. The attackers numbering at least several hundred surrounded the house and demanded Hassan Shehata, a local Shia leader, and his followers who were attending a worshiping ceremony to leave the house before storming it with molotov cocktails. Images showed the attackers beating them to death, lynching and later dragging them through the streets. The tragedy came only a few days after a conference in support of the Syrian uprising that was attended by Morsi and leading Islamist figures. During the conference, Sheikh Mohamed Hassan and al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya’s Mohamed Abdel-Maqsoud used sectarian speech against the Shias. Morsy was present during the event so he was heavily criticized by the media for not reacting against the hate and sectarianism used by both clerics.
On 26 June, Morsi delivered a two-hour-and-forty-minute speech to the whole nation. It was supposed to be a re-conciliatory speech but was widely viewed as provocative and full of threats and accusations targeted against his opponents including media presenters and Ahmed Shafik, his former rival in the 2012 Egyptian presidential elections. He used questionable statistics to describe accomplishments made by his administration in tourism and unemployment. After the speech the opposition stated that it is even more determined to take to the streets on the planned June 30 uprising against the president.
On 28 June, three individuals were killed during clashes between pro- and anti-Morsi protesters in the city of Alexandria, including 21-year-old Andrew Pochter, an American student who was reportedly stabbed to death as he observed the demonstrations. On 29 June 2013, thousands of Egyptians converged on Tahrir Square in Cairo to demonstrate against the Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, demanding his resignation from office. The demonstrators used the slogan “the people demand the ouster of the regime“, used in the protests that led to the ouster of Mubarak in the 2011 revolution.
By 30 June, tens of thousands of protestors surrounding the presidential palace in the Heliopolis suburb. Demonstrations were reported to be in progress in 18 locations across Cairo  and in other different locations across the country including Alexandria, El-Mahalla and cities of the Suez Canal. The demonstrations are described as being backed by multiple entities, including the Tamarod movement formed by members of theEgyptian Movement for Change in April 2013 that claims to have collected 22 million signatures calling for President Morsi’s resignation.Opponents of Morsy claimed Google Earth had published figures suggesting 33 million demonstrators were on the streets. Responding to the claims that it recorded 33 million protesters in Tahrir Square, Google confirmed that its engines do not have the ability to estimate numbers of rallies or protests on the ground. Furthermore, it insisted that it does not publish live imaging of protests or any other events on planet earth. Later, Aljazeera News Channel also broadcasted a documentary suggesting through calculations and experts analysis that the number of those who protested against Morsi in Cairo couldn’t have exceeded 800,000 in Cairo and 4 Millions across Egypt.
Concurrently with these anti-Morsi demonstrations, supporters of President Morsi held demonstrations elsewhere in Cairo.
July 2013 (ousting of Morsi)
Main article: 2013 Egyptian coup
General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi announced on the night of 3 July in a televised address that President Mohammed Morsi had been deposed and the constitution suspended.
General al-Sisi announced on the night of July 3 in a televised address that President Morsi had been deposed. An Egyptian opposition movement that has led nationwide protests in the country have given the president Mohammed Morsi an ultimatum to resign as president of Egypt on 2 July. On the other hand, there was a small group of counter-protests (only in Cairo) by supporters of the ruling Islamist alliance.
On the morning of 1 July, anti-Morsi protesters ransacked the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood in Cairo. Protesters threw objects at windows and looted the building, making off with office equipment and documents. The health ministry confirmed the deaths of eight people who had been killed in clashes around the headquarters in Mokattam.
Hours later, the Egyptian Armed Forces issued a 48-hour ultimatum which gave the country’s political parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the Egyptian people. The Egyptian military also threatened to intervene if the dispute is not resolved by then. Four Ministers also resigned on the same day: Tourism Minister Hisham Zazou (who previously offered to resign a few months ago after Morsi appointed an Islamist linked to the group that attacked tourists as governor of Luxor), Communication and IT Minister Atef Helmi, State Minister for Legal and Parliamentary Affairs Hatem Bagato and State Minister for Environmental Affairs Khaled Abdel Aal, leaving the government with members of the Freedom and Justice Party.
On 2 July Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr resigned as well in support of the anti-government protesters. The presidency rejected the Egyptian Army‘s 48 hour ultimatum vowing that the president is sticking with his own plans for national reconciliation to resolve the political crisis. Defense MinisterGeneral Abdul Fatah al-Sisi was also said to have told Morsi that he would impose a military solution if a political one could not be found by the next day.
Incidentally the Court of Cassation ordered the reinstatement of former general prosecutor Abdel Maguid Mahmoud who was replaced with Talaat Abdallahfollowing the constitutional declaration on November 22, 2012. The Presidency spokesman and the spokesman for the cabinet resigned as well.
The newspaper Al-Ahram reported that if there was no resolution the military would suspend the constitution of Egypt and appoint a new council of experts to draft a new one, institute a three-person executive council and appoint a prime minister from the military. Morsi’s military advisor, Sami Hafez Anan, also resigned and said that the army would not “abandon the will of the people.”
Morsi declared, in a late-night television address, that he would “defend the legitimacy of his elected office with his life”. He added that “there is no substitute for legitimacy” as he vowed not to resign. Morsi accused supporters of Hosni Mubarak of exploiting the wave of protests to topple the government and fight democracy. SCAF leaders also issued a statement entitled “The Final Hours” in which they said that the military is willing to shed its blood “to protect the people against terrorists and fools” following Morsi’s refusal to step down from his elected office.
On 3 July, unknown gunmen opened fire on a pro-Morsi rally in Cairo, killing 16 and wounding 200. As the 16:35 deadline set by the army approached, military leaders met for emergency talks with the army expected to issue a statement when the deadline passes. Mohamed El-Baradei, who was chosen to represent the National Salvation Front, was also said to have met army chief General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi. On 3 July, just before the deadline approached, Morsi offered to form a consensus government. An army statement read: “The General Command of the Armed Forces is currently meeting with a number of religious, national, political and youth icons…There will be a statement issued from the General Command as soon as they are done.” At the same time the Freedom and Justice Party’s senior leader, Waleed al-Haddad, said: “We do not go to invitations (meetings) with anyone. We have a president and that’s it.”
The head of the Egyptian Armed Forces and Defense Minister Abdul Fatah al-Sisi spoke at night from Cairo and said that the army was standing apart from the political process but was using its vision as the Egyptian people were calling for help and discharged its responsibility. Morsi was removed from power, the draft constitution was suspended and Chief Justice Adli Mansour was named interim president. Mohammed el-Baradei says the Revolution was to rectify the issues of the revolution. The Grand Sheikh of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, the Coptic Pope Tawadros II as well as opposition leader Mohamed El Baradei and a youth member of the Tamarod movement, who were present during the statement, spoke in support of the Revolution of 30 June 2013, while the al-Nour party also commented in saying that the events occurred as they were not heard in their call for dialogue. A travel ban was put on Morsi, the head of his Muslim BrotherhoodMohammed Badie, Badie’s deputy Khairat el-Shater, the Muslim Brotherhood’s former leader Mahdi Akef, another Muslim Brotherhood figure, Mohammed el-Beltagi, a Salafi preacher close to the Muslim Brotherhood, Safwat Hegazy and the leader of the Al-Wasat Party Abou Ela Madi and his deputy Essam Sultan.
Television channels allegedly Morsi have been taken off the air by police forces after the military statement. Misr 25, a channel owned by the Muslim Brotherhood, was shut down and officials said that journalists working for the channel were arrested. Ultra-extremist salafist channels like Al Hafez and Al Nas, that were accused by secular movements for their fueling of the sectarian strife between the different religious factions in the country, were shut down as well.A few hours later, Al Jazeera Egypt, which had been criticised for its alleged “pro-Morsi slant”, was also taken off the air and its employees detained. Several media watchdogs have since condemned the army’s crackdown on free media.
On 4 July, violence continued with over 100 people wounded and at least two deaths, believed to be that of children. The Muslim Brotherhood’s spokesman called for “strictly peaceful” protests to defy the military response The Armed Forces said that it would guarantee the right to peacefully protest. Other Islamist groups threatened armed retaliation, while the police arrested four armed men on 5 July over claims that they had planned a reprisal attack, according to state-run Al-Ahram. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces added that it would protect all groups from revenge attacks and that Egyptian values “do not allow for gloating.”
Surge in Sinai incidents
See also: Sinai insurgency
The next day, Islamist gunmen staged multiple attacks on security forces in the Sinai and Suez. One soldier was killed and two others were wounded at a police station near the local headquarters of military intelligence in Rafah as it was attacked by rocket fire. Attackers also fired rocket-propelled grenades at army checkpoints guarding El Arish airport. A protest by hundreds of people occurred in Al-Arish the day after the ouster with calls to form a war council to combat the army. Ten areas in north Sinai were witness to clashes, including the Central Security Force camp and a number of checkpoints along the ring road. The airport was also closed after being targeted by unidentified armed men.
Protests after Friday prayers were called by Morsi supporters, now in opposition, and termed “Rejection Friday.” During the protests, troops opened fire on Islamists as they tried to march towards the military barracks headquarters of the Republican Guard, in which Morsi is believed to be held. Several deaths have been reported. At least three Morsi supporters were killed and 69 were injured. Though the Egyptian Army denied firing at the protesters, BBC News reporter Jeremy Bowen said he saw soldiers firing on protesters. In Qena, security forces opened fire on protesters trying to storm a security building, injuring two of them. Shots were also fired in Alexandria. This occurred as tens of thousands of Egyptians took to the street to condemn 30 June Revolution and support Morsi. Despite claiming to respect all sides, the military also issued a statement warning Islamists who planned on protesting. Tamarod, which had organised anti-Morsi protests, called for protests to “protect the revolution.” During the night pro and anti-Morsi demonstrators clashed over the 6th October Bridge; at least two people were killed and more than 70 people were injured, according to state television, who quoted medical personnel at a makeshift hospital in the square. At least three deaths were that of Morsi supporters during the march towards the military barracks after the Friday prayer in Cairo. In all, through the night of rioting, throughout the country 30 people were killed. Pro-Morsi demonstrators continued to call for protests.
On 8 July 2013, in what many have deemed a massacre, 51 pro-Morsi demonstrators were killed and 435 injured, when security forces at the headquarters of the Republican Guard fired at a pro-Morsi sit-in. The military said “a terrorist group” had tried to storm the building. The pro-Morsi demonstrators said the army opened fire at dawn while they were in the midst of prayer.Testimony of local residents in the surrounding buildings backed the pro-Morsi version of the episode.
On 27 July 2013, another massacre took place as at least 120–136 pro-Morsi demonstrators were killed and 4,500 injured, when security forces opened fire at a pro-Morsi demonstration.The incident took place in the Nasr City district of Cairo, the center of the pro-Morsi demonstrations.
According to the Human Rights Watch who have visited the hospitals that took in the injured and killed demonstrators, many of the killed demonstrators were killed execution-style as they were either shot in the head or chest.
- United Nations – UN spokesman Eduardo del Buey stated that while most of the protests appear to be peaceful, “the reports of a number of deaths and injuries, of sexual assault against women demonstrators, as well as acts of destruction of property are to be strongly condemned.”
- Syria — Information Minister Omran al-Zoubi said that the political crisis in Egypt could only be overcome if Morsi realizes that an overwhelming majority of his Egyptian people reject his presence and want him removed. On 3 July, he called the Muslim Brotherhood a “terrorist” organisation and a “U.S. tool.”
- United Kingdom — Prime Minister David Cameron stated in the House of Commons on 3 July that: “We should appeal to all sides to stay calm and stop the levels of violence, and particularly sexual assaults”, and that it is not for the United Kingdom “to support any single group or party. What we should support is proper democratic processes and proper government by consent.”
- United States – President Barack Obama remarked on 1 July in a Press conference in Tanzania that “our number-one priority has been making sure that our embassies and consulates are protected. Number two, what we’ve consistently insisted on is that all parties involved – whether it’s members of Mr. Morsi’s party or the opposition – that they remain peaceful. And although we have not seen the kind of violence that many had feared so far, the potential remains there, and everybody has to show restraint”. On August 6, two U.S. senators traveled to Egypt and threatened that if the military government didn’t move rapidly toward democracy, US sanctions could be cut.
- Human Rights Watch has alleged there that have been sexual assaults during the protests. In the first three days of the month, women’s activists have reported 43 alleged sexual assaults of both foreign and domestic women.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|2013 Egyptian coup d’état|
|Part of 2012–13 Egyptian protests and the aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution|
|General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi announcing the removal ofPresident Mohamed Morsi|
| Government of Egypt
| Military of Egypt
National Salvation Front
|Commanders and leaders|
|President Mohamed Morsi
|General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi
Mahmoud Badr (Tamarod)
Mohamed ElBaradei (NSF)
Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb
Pope Tawadros II
It was General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi that removed President Morsi — every major news organization is in agreement on the facts of what happened (since when does that occur?). Consider just a few:
CAIRO (AFP) FOX News – Egypt’s army ousted and detained Islamist president Mohamed Morsi on Wednesday after a week of deadly clashes and mass protests calling for him to go after a year in office. His defence minister, armed forces chief General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, announced Morsi’s overthrow on state television, even as police began rounding up key Morsi aides and leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood. Warrants have been issued for the arrest of a total of 300 Brotherhood officials, state media reported.
(CAIRO) (CBS News) The armed forces ousted Egypt’s first democratically elected president Wednesday after just a year in power, installing a temporary civilian government, suspending the constitution and calling for new elections. Islamist President Mohammed Morsi denounced it as a “full coup” by the military.
(Reuters) Mursi was sequestered in a Republican Guard barracks after denouncing a “military coup” that stripped him of power after just a year. As tanks and troops secured the area, tens of thousands of supporters of his Muslim Brotherhood rallied nearby to protest against his removal.
The facts we can agree on; but what do the facts mean? That is quite a different question. Was it a military coup? And why does it matter? At least $1.5 billion (annually) is riding on the meaning of what happened. U. S. law bars “any assistance to the government of any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by military coup d’etat or decree.” Reuters describes the dilemma for Obama and his aides:
(Reuters) – The Egyptian military’s overthrow of elected President Mohamed Mursi left President Barack Obama grappling with a difficult question of diplomacy and language in dealing with the Arab world’s most populous nation: was it a coup? At stake as Obama and his aides wrestle with that question in the coming days is the $1.5 billion in aid the United States sends to Cairo each year – almost all of it for the military – as well as the president’s views on how best to promote Arab democracy.
It seems Obama is caught between a rock and a hard-place. Muhammad Morsi is an Islamist1 who, upon his election in a free democratic election by Egypt’s masses, led the Islamist controlled Egyptian legislature (also elected in free elections) to replace Egypt’s secular constitution with a constitution based upon the Qur’an. The sharia-based constitution was voted on by the Egyptian people, and 10 million votes were cast in favor of the new constitution, nearly 2/3 of the votes cast. President Morsi signed the law into affect just six months later, December 26, 2012. On July 3, 2013, the armed forces chief, General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, announced that the constitution had been “suspended provisionally.” Here is a transcript, in part, of the General’s statement (courtesy of AlJazeera.com translation):
As a result, it was necessary for the EAF [Egyptian Armed Forces] to act on its patriotic and historic responsibility without sidelining, marginalising any party, where during the meeting a road map was agreed upon which includes the following (bullet points supplied):
- Suspending the constitution provisionally;
- The chief justice of the constitutional court will declare the early presidential elections;
- Interim period until president elected. Chief Justice will have presidential powers; …
- The Supreme Constitutional Law will address the draft law and prepare for parliamentary elections;
- Securing and guaranteeing freedom of expression, freedom of media. All necessary measures will be taken to empower youth so they can take part in decision making processes.
- The EAF appeal to the Egyptian people with all its spectrum to steer away from violence and remain peaceful. The Armed Forced warn it will stand up firmly and strictly to any act deviating from peacefulness based on its patriotic and historic responsibility.
Morsi had taken office just one year prior, June 30, 2012, by action of the Supreme Council of Armed Forces, a 21 member council composed of senior military officials established to lead the country when Hosni Mubarak was forced from office as president of Egypt on February 21, 2011. Apparently, the same group of military officials that forced Mubarak from office in 2011 also forced Morsi out in 2013. Hmmm. Does that sound like a democracy to you?
President Obama is on the horns of a dilemma. If he supports the recent military action, he stands against the rules of democracy Arab Spring supposedly brought in. Morsi was elected by the people. The constitution was voted in by the people. The billion dollar question is U.S. aid. If it ends (because a coup has taken place), then so does the relationship between America and Egypt, our strong Middle East ally (money will buy you anything if you have enough of it). On the other hand, if Obama stands for the principles of democracy in Egypt and supports Muhammad Morsi, including his return to office, Obama supports an Islamist, and he stands with the Muslim Brotherhood and the Salafis (a strict “puritan” sect of Sunni Islam, the roots of which created Al Qaeda and related Sunni splinter groups of Islam), and apparently, he stands against the majority of Egyptian people. Since Morsi took office a year ago, Christian Copts have been persecuted and killed by Islamist groups. Copt churches have been destroyed and renovations halted (Christians are “dhimmis” in Egypt). In some cases, improvements to churches have been denied outright or put on hold indefinitely. Recently, Shias were attacked in a small village outside Giza, Egypt, killing four Shias, including a prominent Shia leader, Hassan Shehata. Lastly, if Obama stands with Morsi and the Brotherhood, he stands against the powerful Egyptian Armed Forces, the true power in Egypt.
Obama’s response is also complicated by his administration’s public actions in support of the Islamist backed Egyptian government and the Muslim Brotherhood that has recently led it:
- Raymond Ibrahamreports of the United States Ambassador to Egypt, Anne Patterson, recently urging Egyptians not to protest against the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt (in protests prior to Morsi’s removal from office). In her efforts, the Obama Administration is seen supporting the democratically elected administration in spite of its opposition to Western values;
- CNN reports of the views of Egyptians blaming Obama and Ambassador Patterson for propping up the Muslim Brotherhood, Morsi, and their Islamist agenda, to the expense of the Egyptian people.
- New York Times reporting (September 28, 2012) of embattled Congressional leadership, Kay Granger of Texas, attempting to withhold aid to Islamist controlled Egypt while the Obama administration fights to continue it.
What will Obama do now? I suspect he will change the meaning of words. Obama will not want to stop aid to Egypt. He will use a different word (not “coup”) to describe what really happened. Reuters has already taken note of the words he used in his first public announcement of the events in Egypt: Reuter’s explained:
But he [Obama] did not use the word “coup” and stopped well short of advocating for Mursi’s reinstatement, suggesting Washington might be willing to accept the military’s move as a way to end a political crisis in a nation of 83 million people struggling with severe economic difficulties.
The Washington Post carried an article entitled, “Is what happened in Egypt a coup or a revolution? It’s both.” My point? The meaning of words are changing. If Egypt’s crisis is a revolution (not a coup), then Obama can have his cake and eat it too. That is, he can support the Egyptian people and their “revolution” against Islamists (led by Morsi and the Brotherhood) which, politically, can be explained as Obama supporting the democratic efforts of the Egyptian people. Obama can continue aid to Egypt, and thereby, maintain a relationship with the Egyptian Armed Forces (who rule the country), as well as maintain a U.S. ally in the Middle East. All he has to do is change the words that describe what really happened from coup (what it was) to revolution (what it was not). In the process, Obama does not have to decide whether it was a coup or not. What do you think he will do?
But what does this have to do with Bible prophecy the only subject that I am somewhat qualified to opine on? Two passages that we need to remember:
Isaiah 19:1-2 (NASB) The oracle concerning Egypt. Behold, the LORD is riding on a swift cloud and is about to come to Egypt; The idols of Egypt will tremble at His presence, And the heart of the Egyptians will melt within them. 2 “So I will incite Egyptians against Egyptians; And they will each fight against his brother and each against his neighbor, city against city and kingdom against kingdom.
Daniel 11:42-43 (NASB) “Then he will stretch out his hand against other countries, and the land of Egypt will not escape. 43 “But he will gain control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt; and Libyans and Ethiopians will follow at his
If we interpret the Isaiah passage to apply to the end-times (it does not specify the time of its application), it could easily be interpreted to apply to the recent events in Egypt. The Daniel prophecy is specifically an end-time prophecy (Daniel 11:40 NASB). This prophecy warns that the Antichrist will stretch out his hand against the land of Egypt; and, “he will gain control over the hidden treasures of gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt…” In other words, the treasures of Egypt, its precious, ancient artifacts of inestimable value will no longer be subject to the control of the authorities in Egypt. Control will be lost to the invader. That could mean they are stolen — or destroyed.
The Egyptian army is responsible for protecting the artifacts of Egypt. In the end-time, the army will no longer be able to protect the “precious” things of Egypt. Who might be the invading force? If we combine the two prophecies, the Isaiah passage tells us that the invader will be from within. This interpreter believes the prophecy is referring to Islam — the Islamists will ultimately recover from their loss of control to the military; and, the “revolution” will eventually be turned against the military and be decided in favor of Islam.
On 3 July 2013, General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi removed President Mohamed Morsi and suspended the Egyptian constitution in a bloodless coup after ongoing public protests. The move came after large-scale ongoing public protests in Egypt for and against Morsi, and a warning from the army to respond to the demands of the protesters or it would impose its own roadmap. Al-Sisi declared Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour as the interim president of Egypt. Morsi was put under house arrest and several Muslim Brotherhood leaders were arrested. The announcement was followed by demonstrations and clashes between supporters and opponents of the move throughout Egypt.
The protests against Morsi on 30 June marked the one-year anniversary of Morsi’s inauguration as president. Millions of protesters across Egypt took to the streets and demanded the immediate resignation of the president. Reasons for demanding Morsi’s resignation include accusations that he was increasingly authoritarian and pushing through an Islamist agenda without regard to secular opponents or the rule of law. The demonstrations, which had been largely peaceful, turned violent when five anti-Morsi protesters were killed in separate clashes and shootings. At the same time, supporters of Morsi staged a rally in Nasr City, a district of Cairo.
On the morning of 1 July, anti-Morsi protesters ransacked the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood in Cairo. Protesters threw objects at windows and looted the building, making off with office equipment and documents. The Health and Population Ministryconfirmed the deaths of eight people killed in clashes around the headquarters in Mokattam. On 3 July, gunmen opened fire on a pro-Morsi rally, killing 16-18 people and wounding 200 others. During the same time as the anti-government protests were ongoing, there were also other smaller pro-Morsi protests.
The situation escalated to a full-blown national political and constitutional crisis, with Morsi refusing the military’s demands for him to leave power and the army threatening to take over if the civilian politicians did not resolve the situation. Morsi gave a defiant speech in which he reiterated his “legitimacy” as a democratically elected president and criticised the military for taking sides in the crisis. On 3 July, the Egyptian military announced the end of Mohammed Morsi’s presidency, the suspension of the constitution, and that a new presidential election will be held soon. The military appointed Chief Justice Adly Mansour as the interim president, and charged him with forming a transitional technocratic government. Morsi was put under house arrest and Muslim Brotherhood leaders were arrested. The announcement was followed by demonstrations and clashes between supporters and opponents of the coup throughout Egypt. The announcement was followed by a statement made by the Grand Sheikh of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, the Coptic PopeTawadros II as well as opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei.
There were mixed international reactions to the events. Most of the Arab world was generally supportive or neutral, with the notable exception of the founding state of the Arab Spring, Tunisia. Other states either condemned or expressed concern over the coup; there was also a perceived measured response from the United States. Due to the regulations of the African Union regarding the interruption of constitutional rule by a member state, Egypt was suspended from that union. There has also been debate in the media regarding the labeling of these events. It has been variously described as a coup d’état or as a revolution. Ongoing protests in favour of Morsi were violently suppressed with the August 2013 Egyptian raids.
Then President Mohamed Morsi (right) and General al-Sisi (left) listen to visiting U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel (center), during a meeting with U.S. officials on April 24, 2013. Al-Sisi, chosen by Morsi to be the first post-Mubarak era Defense Minister,would later sanction the removal of Morsi.
In February 2011, Hosni Mubarak was ousted after 18 days of mass demonstrations that ended his 29-year rule of Egypt. In June 2012, Mohamed Morsi won the presidential election to become the first democratically elected president of Egypt. His rule has been subject to ongoingprotests. In the lead up to the protests, a Gallup poll indicated that about a third of Egyptians said they were “suffering” and viewed their lives poorly.
In November 2012, following the protests against the controversial Constitutional Declaration by Morsi, opposition politicians – including Mohamed ElBaradei, Amr Moussa and Hamdeen Sabahi, according to the Wall Street Journal – started holding confidential meetings with army leaders, in order to discuss ways of removing President Morsi.
On 28 April 2013, Tamarod was started as a grassroots movement to collect 15 million signatures to remove Morsi by 30 June. They called for peaceful demonstrations across Egypt especially in front of the Presidential Palace in Cairo. The movement was supported by the National Salvation Front,April 6 Youth Movement and Strong Egypt Party.
At a conference on 15 June, Morsi called for foreign intervention in Syria. According to Yasser El-Shimy, an analyst with the International Crisis Group, this statement crossed “a national security red line.” The army rebuked this statement the next day by stating that its only role was to guard Egypt’s borders. Although the Egyptian constitution ostensibly declares the president as the supreme commander of the armed forces, the Egyptian military is independent of civilian control.
As the first anniversary of Morsi’s presidential inauguration approached in 2013, his supporters such as the National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy started demonstrations at multiple places including El-Hossari Mosque, El-Nahda Square, outside Cairo University, outside Al-Rayan Mosque in the posh suburb of Maadi, and in Ain Shams district. They had started open-ended rallies The largest protest was planned for 30 June.
Anti-Morsi demonstrators marching in Cairo on June 28
On Friday 28 June, protests against Morsi started to build throughout Egypt including in such cities as Cairo, Alexandria, Dakahlia, Gharbiya andAswan as a “warm up” for the massive protests expected on 30 June that were planned by Tamarod. Pro-Morsi and democracy supporters from the National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy started counter demonstrations at the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque in Nasr City.
Prior to the protests, Christians, particularly in Upper Egypt, received threats pressuring them not to take part in the protests. Sheikh Essam Abdulamek, a member of parliament’s Shura Council, said in an interview on television that Christians should not participate in the protests and warned them “do not sacrifice your children [since the] general Muslim opinion will not be silent about the ousting of the president.”
According to information that came out after the coup, officials said that Morsi stopped working at Egyptian Presidential Palace on 26 June in anticipation to the protests and moved with his family to El-Quba Palace.
The ouster of Morsi was a result of massive protests that took the streets on the 30th of June. Reason why people took the streets was the frustration with Morsi’s management for only one year in which Egypt faced economical issues, energy shortage, lack of security and diplomatic crises. Although Egypt was, indeed, in a very bad state before Morsi came in power, most of those issues, causing frustrations, were direct, inevitable, results to Morsi’s and his government’s actions.
Issues that caused the protests and, consequently, the ouster of Morsi by the Army include:
- Power, gas and economical crises (main issues fueling the protests).
- Before elections, President Morsi promised to stabilize the post-revolution state of the country through a 100-day plan, from which he achieved less than 16%.
- Plans to cutting subsidies in exchange for a $4.8 billion IMF loan which would cause increase in prices of gas, electricity, food and taxes.
- On the 22nd of November 2012, Morsi issued a constitutional declaration that grants him appointing the public prosecutor and makes all his [Morsi’s] decisions final and binding and cannot be appealed by any way or to any entity. It was later abrogated due to multiple protests and public’s anger.
- Morsi granted presidential pardon for 17 Islamist convicts. They include members of al-Gama’a al-Islamiya, jailed during the group’s armed insurrection against the state in the 1990s, and Islamic Jihad, the movement behind the 1981 assassination of President Anwar Sadat.
- Torture and violence activities held by Muslim Brotherhood members against people opposing Morsi’s policies
- Despite their promises of a consensual constitution, Muslim Brotherhood and Freedom and Justice party, ruling party, used the majority of their members and allies in the constitutional committee to pass a flawed non-consensual constitution which caused non-Islamist parties members and Church representative to withdraw from the committee.
- Several diplomatic problems including construction of Ethiopian dam along the Nile river, affecting Egypt’s share of water.
- According to an Egyptian court, Muslim brotherhood partnered with foreign millitants, Hamas and Hezbollah, and launched a prison break in 2011; one of the prisons had Morsi as a prisoner, arrested by police forces along with several other Muslim Brotherhood members, during the revolution. 
- Security state worsened severely; two of the most prominent stories related to security under Morsi were: the murder of 16 border guards in Sinai in an attack and the abduction of 7 Egyptian security personnel who were later released. 
On 30 June, millions of protesters demonstrated across Egypt both against and in support of Morsi. The Egyptian Armed Forces estimated the number to be at 14 million and reportedly one of the biggest protests in Egyptian history. In Damietta, 250 fishing boat sailors demonstrated against Morsi by sailing through the Nile and chanting against him. The President moved that day from the Quba Palace to the Republican Guard head quarter, while protesters thought he was at Ittihadeya Palace.
On 1 July, tens of thousands of demonstrators against Morsi gathered in Tahrir Square and outside the presidential palace, while other demonstrations were held in the cities of Alexandria, Port Said and Suez. Some police officers wearing their uniforms joined the anti-Morsi protests and chanted: “The police and the people are one.” In clashes around the Muslim Brotherhood headquarters in Mokatam, eight people died. Their headquarter was ransacked and burned while protesters threw objects at windows and looted the building, making off with office equipment and documents. Tamarod gave President Mohammed Morsi until 2 July at 17:00 to resign or face a civil disobedience campaign.
That was followed by the Egyptian Armed Forces issuing a 48-hour ultimatum that gave the country’s political parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the Egyptian people. The Egyptian military also threatened to intervene if the dispute was not resolved by then. Four ministers also resigned on the same day: Tourism Minister Hisham Zazou (who previously offered to resign a few months ago after Morsi appointed an Islamist member of al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya, the group responsible of the Luxor massacre, as governor of Luxor), Communication and IT Minister Atef Helmi, State Minister for Legal and Parliamentary Affairs Hatem Bagato, and State Minister for Environmental Affairs Khaled Abdel Aal, leaving the government with only members of the Freedom and Justice Party.
On 2 July, opponents and supporters of Morsi gathered in the capital, Cairo, as the deadline set by the protest group for him to leave power passed. Helicopters were also present around Cairo with armored vehicles taking up positions. On 3 July, clashes between protestors and local residents erupted around a pro-Morsi rally near Cairo University, leaving 18 people dead.Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr also resigned, in support of the anti-government protesters. The presidency rejected the Egyptian Army‘s 48-hour ultimatum, vowing that the president would pursue his own plans for national reconciliation to resolve the political crisis. Defense Minister General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi was also said to have told Morsi that he would impose a military solution if a political one could not be found by the next day. Incidentally, the Court of Cassation ordered the reinstatement of former general prosecutor Abdel Maguid Mahmoud who was replaced with Talaat Abdallah following the constitutional declaration on 22 November 2012. The Presidency spokesman and the spokesman for the cabinet resigned as well.
The newspaper Al-Ahram reported that if there were no political resolution, the military would suspend the constitution of Egypt and appoint a new council of experts to draft a new one, institute a three-person executive council, and appoint a prime minister from the military. Morsi’s military advisor, Sami Hafez Anan, also resigned and said that the army would not “abandon the will of the people.”
In a late-night television address Morsi declared that he would “defend the legitimacy of his elected office with his life.” He added that “there is no substitute for legitimacy” as he vowed not to resign. Morsi accused supporters of Hosni Mubarak of exploiting the wave of protests to topple the government and fight democracy. Military leaders also issued a statement entitled “The Final Hours”, in which they said that they were willing to shed their blood against “terrorists and fools” supporting Morsi’s refusal to step down from office.
As the deadline of the army’s ultimatum approached on 3 July, there was renewed expectation of an increase in violence, according to the media. As in other days, there were both anti-Morsi and pro-Morsi protests, the latter particularly in Nasr City and near Cairo University. Army tanks were reported to surround two smaller pro-Morsi rallies as the demonstrators vowed to defend the government with their lives.
As the 16:35 deadline set by the army approached, military leaders met for emergency talks, with the expectation that the army would issue a statement when the deadline passed. Mohamed El-Baradei, who was chosen to represent the National Salvation Front, was also said to have met army chief General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi. On 3 July, just before the deadline approached, Morsi offered to form a consensus government. An army statement read: “The General Command of the Armed Forces is currently meeting with a number of religious, national, political and youth icons…There will be a statement issued from the General Command as soon as they are done.” At the same time the Freedom and Justice Party’s senior leader, Waleed al-Haddad, said: “We do not go to invitations (meetings) with anyone. We have a president and that is it.”
On 3 July, General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, announced that he had removed President Mohamed Morsi from power,suspended constitution, and would be calling new presidential and Shura Council elections. The military appointed Chief Justice Adly Mansour as the interim president and charged him with forming a transitional technocratic government. Military vehicles drove throughout Cairo. Morsi was put under house arrest, and was believed to be at the Republican Guard barracks. According to other sources he was taken to a military base and his travel was restricted. Army troops and tanks were reported to have surrounded key facilities and installations. At noon, the Republican Guard, who had Morsi in their care, left his side to allow Army commandos to take him to an undisclosed Ministry of Defence building. He offered no resistance.
General al-Sisi said: “The president’s speech last night failed to meet and conform with the demands [of the people, prompting the armed forces to consult] with some of the symbols of the national forces and the youths without excluding anyone. [They agreed on a road map] that includes initial steps that realize the building of a strong and coherent Egyptian society that does not exclude any of its sons and currents and that end the state of conflict and division.” He added the army was standing apart from the political process but was using its vision as the Egyptian people were calling for help and discharged its responsibility. al-Sisi named former Chief Justice Adli Mansour as the interim president and added that he will be sworn in on 4 July. The Shura Council was also dissolved.
Morsi condemned his removal as a “full coup” by the general. He also urged everyone to “adhere to peacefulness and avoid shedding blood of fellow countrymen.” The Office of Assistant to President of Egypt on Foreign Relations called Morsi’s removal a “military coup”, and said “there is no democracy without the ballot box”.
The announcement of the coup was met with cheers in Tahrir Square. Anti-Morsi protesters shouted “Allahu akbar” and “Long live Egypt” and launched fireworks as green laser lights held by those in the crowd lit the sky. Mohammed el-Baradei says the coup was to rectify the issues of the revolution. The Coptic Pope Tawadros II, Grand Imam of al-Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb,Mohammed ElBaradei and some of the youth leaders of Tamarod, Mahmoud Badr and Mohamed Abdelaziz, spoke in support of the military intervention. The al-Nour party also commented in saying that the events occurred as they were not heard in their call for dialogue. Party Secretary-General Galal Murra commented that “we took this position (on agreeing to the army political road map) and we took these decisions only so we stop the bloodshed of our people.” Pro-Morsi protesters heard a statement from Morsi, which was published on his Facebook page. He called the move a coup and rejected the Armed Forces’ statement.
The Freedom and Justice Party’s Gamal Heshmat said: “There is absolutely no direction toward violence. The Brotherhood are not raised on violence. Their cause is a peaceful one, defending their rights, which is stronger than a military coup. [The army had perpetrated a]shameful coup. We are still in the street, we still don’t know if all of the armed forces will accept what Sisi has done.” A party spokesman said that what started as a military coup was “turning into something much more.” The National Salvation Front, an alliance of multiple political parties, stated on 4 July that “what Egypt is witnessing now is not a military coup by any standards. It was a necessary decision that the Armed Forces’ leadership took to protect democracy, maintain the country’s unity and integrity, restore stability and get back on track towards achieving the goals of the January 25 Revolution.” 
The army arrested the former speaker of parliament and the head of Freedom and Justice Party Saad El-Katatni, along with Rashad al-Bayoumi, a Muslim Brotherhood deputy, as well as other top leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood. Al-Jazeera quoted unnamed security officials saying that “more than a dozen” members of the Muslim Brotherhood had been arrested, while Al-Ahram reported that the Egyptian police had been ordered to arrest more than 300 members of the Muslim Brotherhood. A travel ban was also put on Morsi, the head of his Muslim Brotherhood Mohammed Badie, Badie’s deputy Khairat El-Shater, the Muslim Brotherhood’s former leader Mahdi Akef, another Muslim Brotherhood figure Mohamed Beltagy, Salafi preacher close to the Muslim Brotherhood Safwat Hegazi and the leader of the al-Wasat Party Abou Elela Mady and his deputy Essam Sultan. Badie and Akef were arrested for “incitement to murder.”
Following Morsi’s ouster, pro-Morsi supporters still gathered in Cairo said that they would undo the coup and continued their allegiance to Morsi saying that they would “defend the integrity of the ballot box.” Amidst threats of violence, Al Jazeera English reported the death of four people from a Muslim Brotherhood stronghold near the Libyan border.
Four television channels deemed to have been supporting Morsi were taken off the air by police forces after the military statement. Misr 25, a channel owned by the Muslim Brotherhood, was shut down and officials said that journalists working for the channel were arrested. The Al Hafez and Al Nas channels were shut down as well. A few hours later, Al Jazeera‘s Mubasher Misr, which had been criticised for its alleged pro-Morsi slant, was also taken off the air, its offices raided and its employees detained. Five staff were arrested, including managing director Ayman Gaballah, who was still in custody after the others were released. It was also prevented from broadcasting a pro-Morsi rally in northern Cairo. Associated Press Television News was ordered not to provide Al Jazeera with footage of protests in the country or with any filming equipment, while the Cairo News Company was warned against providing broadcasting equipment. Al Jazeera Media Network’s acting Director General Mostafa Souag condemned the move, saying “regardless of political views, the Egyptian people expect media freedoms to be respected and upheld. Media offices should not be subject to raids and intimidation. Journalists should not be detained for doing their jobs.”
The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) reported that two journalists and one student were killed while covering Egyptian unrest in the two weeks leading up to 8 July 2013. According to CPJ research, before those deaths only four journalists had been killed in Egypt since 1992. One of the journalists killed while documenting the 2013 clashes was 26-year-old photographer Ahmed Assem el-Senousy, also known as Ahmed Samir Assem, The photographer was shot by a sniper after he recorded security forces firing on protestors. According to media reports, el-Senousy may have captured his own death on film. A video clip posted on his Facebook page shows a sniper firing on crowds before turning toward the camera, at which point the clip abruptly ends.
Main article: Aftermath of the 2013 Egyptian coup d’état
Supporters of the ousted President Morsi demonstrate in Damietta on July 5
On 4 July, violence continued with over 100 people wounded and at least two deaths, believed to be that of children. The Muslim Brotherhood’s spokesman called for “strictly peaceful” protests to defy the military coup. The Armed Forces said that it would guarantee the right to peacefully protest. Other Islamist groups threatened armed retaliation, while the police arrested four armed men on 5 July over claims that they had planned a reprisal attack, according to state-run Al-Ahram. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces added that it would protect all groups from revenge attacks and that Egyptian values “do not allow for gloating.”
Protests after Friday prayers were called by Morsi supporters, now in opposition, and termed “Rejection Friday.” During the protests, troops opened fire on Islamists as they tried to march towards the military barracks headquarters of the Republican Guard, in which Morsi is believed to be held.Several deaths have been reported. At least three Morsi supporters were killed and 69 were injured. Though the Egyptian Army denied firing at the protesters, BBC News reporter Jeremy Bowen said he saw soldiers firing on protesters. In Qena, security forces opened fire on protesters trying to storm a security building, injuring two of them. Shots were also fired in Alexandria. This occurred as tens of thousands of Egyptians took to the street to condemn the coup and support Morsi. Despite claiming to respect all sides, the military also issued a statement warning Islamists who planned on protesting. Tamarod, which had organised anti-Morsi protests, called for protests to “protect the revolution.” During the night pro and anti-Morsi demonstrators clashed over the 6th October Bridge; at least two people were killed and more than 70 people were injured, according to state television, who quoted medical personnel at a makeshift hospital in the square. At least three deaths were that of Morsi supporters during the march towards the military barracks after the Friday prayer in Cairo. In all, through the night of rioting, throughout the country 30 people were killed. Pro-Morsi demonstrators continued to call for protests. Protesters continued to demand the reinstatement of Morsi throughout the weekend, some of which were violent protests.
Palestinian officials in Gaza also said that the Egyptian Armed Forces had shut the Rafah border crossing and that only certain people, such as patients and students, would be allowed through. Egyptian Intelligence Service official Nader al-Asar telephoned Palestinian Prime Minister in Gaza Ismail Haniyeh on the afternoon of 5 July and Haniyeh briefed him about the humanitarian crisis in Gaza as a result of the restrictions on tunnels and the Rafah crossing. Al-Asar promised to seek remedies on the situation
After dawn prayers on 8 July, clashes erupted between pro-Morsi protesters and the army at the Republican Guard compound. According to the army, “terrorists” tried to storm the compound and one officer and 42 other people were injured. On the other hand, the Muslim Brotherhood said that 42 of its supporters were killed and over 300 were injured after shootings that followed the police storming their peaceful sit-in demading the reinstatement of Morsi. MP Mohamed Beltagy described the incident as a “massacre” during dawn prayers. After the incident, the Freedom and Justice Party, called for “the international community and international groups and all the free people of the world [to] intervene to stop further massacres […] and prevent a new Syria in the Arab world.” The Nour party said it would suspend taking part in the political process as a response to the deadly clashes. And Ahmed el-Hawary, a founding member of the al-Dustour party and a member of June 30 front, said: “We cannot blame the Muslim Brotherhood without blaming the army. They are both held accountable for this catastrophe…The Bortherhood is playing victims to gain international sympathy yet losing whatever is left of the sympathy at home. A speedy formation of the new cabinet is essential at this point, and although consensus is critical. Egypt must not be the hostage of a concurrence based on non-pertinent arguments.” At the same time, Morsi supporters were said by the military of having forced two soldiers, Samir Abdallah Ali and Azzam Hazem Ali, to make pro-Morsi statements on a loudspeaker and that one of them was “severely beaten up” and filmed while making the statements. However, an army official later said that they had “managed to escape their captors.”
On 8 July, following reports that many fighters in Syria were returning in support of the Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt slapped restrictions on Syrians entering the country and required them to obtain visas before entering the country. Mohamed Badie also an arrest warrant out against him as the party refused to join a transitional government. The Investigative Reporting Program at the University of California at Berkeley showed that a State Department programme ostensible to support democracy provided funds to activists and politicians for fomenting unrest in Egypt after the ouster of President Hosni Mubarak in February 2011. The Muslim Brotherhood vowed to continue its resistance to the military’s ouster of Morsi. In a statement it disavowed itself from an assassination attempt against a senior army commander in the Sinai Peninsula on 10 July and said it adheres to peaceful measures. The statement also read: “We will continue our peaceful resistance to the bloody military coup against constitutional legitimacy. We trust that the peaceful and popular will of the people shall triumph over force and oppression.” The public prosecutor[who?] issued a freeze on the assets of the Muslim Brotherhood’s leaders, as well as other supporters pending investigations in ongoing cases related to events in al-Mokatam, al-Nahda square and the Republican Guards Club. This would affect Mohamed Badie, Khairat al-Shater, Mohamed Ezat, Mahi Ekef, Saed ElKatatni, Essam ElErian, Mohamed ElBeltagy and the Muslim Brotherhood’s allies, including Essam Sultan, Assem Abdul Majed, Safwat Hegazy and Hazem Abu Ismail, will also be affected by the freeze.
In addition to continuing daily protests, the Muslim Brotherhood called for more protests after Friday prayers on 19 July. The protests were held in Cairo and Alexandria with two formations of fighter jets flying over both cities after noon prayers ended and some military helicopters flew low over roof tops in Cairo. Amongst the tens of thousands of protesters present, they chanted “Islamic, Islamic” calling for an Islamic state. The protests again turned violent and fatal in Cairo and Qalyoub on 22 July. Morsi’s family also held a press conference in Cairo in which his children accused the military of kidnapping him, as well as announcing local and international legal measures they had initiated against General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi.
Since Morsi’s removal, Egypt’s Christian minority, a reported 10% of the population, have been the target of backlash by Morsi supporters. On July 5, 2013 — two days after Morsi was ousted— mobs rampaged through the Christian village of Nagaa Hassan, burning dozens of homes, ransacking stores and stabbing to death at least four people. This included, anti-Morsi Christian activist Emile Naseem, who was hacked and beaten to death. Witnesses reported seeing “a mob of several hundred men wearing the hallmark long beards of ultraconservative MuslimSalafis as well as more extreme movements.” Dozens of Christian families sought protection in the local Church of St. John The Baptist.
Morsi supporters also attacked Christian homes and shops in Dalaga, a village where Christians constitute 35 percent of the population. In Port Said’s al-Manakh, masked gunmen opened fire at the Mar Mina Church. Since 30 June, mobs carried out attacks on Christians in six out of Egypt’s twenty-seven provinces. Churches across Egypt have cancelled their evening Mass and social activities. Other incidents include Coptic Christian priest Mina Abboud Sharobeen being killed in an outdoor market.
See also: Sinai insurgency
The day after the coup, Islamist gunmen staged multiple attacks on security forces in the Sinai and Suez. One soldier was killed and two others were wounded at a police station near the local headquarters of military intelligence in Rafah as it was attacked by rocket fire. Attackers also fired rocket-propelled grenades at army checkpoints guarding El Arish airport. A protest by hundreds of people occurred in Al-Arish the day after the ouster with calls to form a war council to combat the army. Ten areas in north Sinai were witness to clashes, including the Central Security Force camp and a number of checkpoints along the ring road. The airport was also closed after being targeted by unidentified armed men.
In late July 2013 the Egyptian military reportedly launched “Operation Desert Storm” in an effort to squash the militants. Videos had been released within hours of Morsi’s ousting calling for action against the Egyptian armed forces saying: “Go away from North Sinai, we are the mujahideen.”
International reactions[edit source | editbeta]
Pre-coup[edit source | editbeta]
- United Nations – UN spokesman Eduardo del Buey stated that while most of the protests appear to be peaceful, “the reports of a number of deaths and injuries, of sexual assault against women demonstrators, as well as acts of destruction of property are to be strongly condemned.”
- Syria – Information Minister Omran al-Zoubi said that the political crisis in Egypt could only be overcome if Morsi realises that an overwhelming majority of his Egyptian people reject his presence and want him removed. On 3 July, he called the Muslim Brotherhood a “terrorist” organisation and a “U.S. tool.”
- United Kingdom – Prime Minister David Cameron stated in the House of Commons on 3 July that: “We should appeal to all sides to stay calm and stop the levels of violence, and particularly sexual assaults”, and that it is not for the United Kingdom “to support any single group or party. What we should support is proper democratic processes and proper government by consent.”
- United States – President Barack Obama remarked on 1 July in a press conference in Tanzania that “our number-one priority has been making sure that our embassies and consulates are protected. Number two, what we’ve consistently insisted on is that all parties involved – whether it’s members of Mr. Morsi’s party or the opposition – that they remain peaceful. And although we have not seen the kind of violence that many had feared so far, the potential remains there, and everybody has to show restraint…”
- Human Rights Watch have alleged there that have been sexual assaults during the protests. In the first three days of the month, women’s activists have reported 43 alleged sexual assaults of both foreign and domestic women.
African Union members with Egypt suspended.
- African Union – A statement from the group read that its head, Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, “observes that the removal of…Mursi was in violation of the provisions of the Egyptian Constitution and falls under the AU doctrine on unconstitutional changes of Government. [The Peace and Security Council (PSC)] will deliberate on the situation in Egypt and take the required decisions.” It added of Dlamini-Zuma that “she is particularly concerned about the tension prevailing in the country and the risks that this situation poses to stability and security in Egypt as well as to the consolidation of its democratic process. [The AU’s] principled position on unconstitutional changes of government” underscores the need “to find an appropriate response to the popular aspirations within the framework of legality and Egyptian institutions.” Following debate on 5 July, the PSC made a decision to suspend Egypt over the coup and added that it was sending a team of “high-level personalities” in order work toward restoring constitutional order.
- European Union – High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton said: “I urge all sides to rapidly return to the democratic process, including the holding of free and fair presidential and parliamentary elections and the approval of a constitution, to be done in a fully inclusive manner, so as to permit the country to resume and complete its democratic transition. I hope that the new administration will be fully inclusive and reiterate the importance of ensuring full respect for fundamental rights, freedoms, and the rule of law and will hold the authorities to account for this. I strongly condemn all violent acts, offer my condolences to the families of the victims, and urge the security forces to do everything in their power to protect the lives and well-being of Egyptian citizens. I call on all sides to exercise maximum restraint.” During a visit to Cairo, Ashton met the interim president, Adly Mansour, but she also said that she regretted being unable to meet Morsi. She said: “I believe he should be released. I was assured he is well. I would have liked to see him.”
- United Nations – Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said: “At this moment of continued high tension and uncertainty in the country, the secretary-general reiterates his appeals for calm, non-violence, dialogue and restraint. An inclusive approach is essential to addressing the needs and concerns of all Egyptians. Preservation of fundamental rights, including freedom of speech and assembly remain of vital importance. In their protests many Egyptians have voiced deep frustrations and legitimate concerns. At the same time, military interference in the affairs of any state is of concern. Therefore, it will be crucial to quickly reinforce civilian rule in accordance with principles of democracy.” He also called for “speedy resumption of civilian rule.” He spoke to Egyptian Foreign Minister Nabil Fahmy and “called for an end to all violence, especially sexual violence against women.” High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay urged all parties to make a concerted effort to restore calm by ensuring that the human rights of all citizens are respected and protected and are subsequently entrenched in sound laws and institutions. She also urged Egypt to stop arbitrary detentions.
- Argentina – The Foreign Ministry issued a statement that read that “the Argentine government follows with concern the recent events in Egypt that led to the interruption of the democratic process, the destitution of its legitimate authorities, and a complex political and social situation.”
- Australia – Prime Minister Kevin Rudd called for a swift return to democracy in Egypt and upgraded the national travel warning for Egypt to its second highest level.
- Bahrain – King Hamad Bin Isa Al Khalifa wrote his Egyptian counterpart, Adly Mansour, “With great honor we take this opportunity to congratulate you on taking over the reins of power in Egypt at this important time in history. We are confident that you will take the responsibility to achieve the aspirations of the Egyptian people.”
- Canada – Foreign Minister John Baird called for “a transparent democratic system that respects the voices of its citizens.” A spokesperson for the foreign ministry called the removal of president Morsi a “coup”.
- China – Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said: “China respects the choice of the Egyptian people. We also hope that all parties concerned in Egypt can avoid using violence and properly solve their disputes through dialogue and consultation and realise reconciliation and social stability.”
- Colombia – The Foreign Ministry issued a press release stating that “the National Government is following with major attention the current events that have been taking place in the Arab Republic of Egypt and expresses its confidence on the corresponding political characters and the egyptian society to deploy their best efforts to promptly hold elections, re-stablish democracy and the constitutional order in that country. [Colombia] calls on their friends, the egyptian people, to exercise their rights on a peaceful manner and that the authorities incharged of the political transition to avoid any violent situation that might hamper the reconciliation and the aspirations of the egytian people to stablish a solid and prosperous democracy in the country. The National Government will be kept informed on the evolution of the situation trough its embassador in the Arab Republic of Egypt.”
- France – President Francois Hollande talked of Tunisia as an Arab Spring model on the visit there by a French leader since the Tunisian revolution where he said that Islam and democracy were “on the same path.” He compared this to other Arab Spring countries in saying: “You (Tunisia) are heading in the right direction. In Libya the transition has been tainted by violence; in Egypt the transition was stopped after the removal of the elected president; and in Syria, desire for change led to war. Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said: “In a situation that has worsened seriously and with extreme tension in Egypt, new elections have finally been announced, after a transition period. [A timetable should be drawn up respecting] civil peace, pluralism, individual liberties and the achievements of the democratic transition, so that the Egyptian people can freely choose their leaders and their future.”
- Germany – Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle said: “This is a major setback for democracy in Egypt. It is urgent that Egypt return as quickly as possible to the constitutional order. There is a real danger that the democratic transition in Egypt will be seriously damaged.”
- Iran – Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Salehi asked the military government to hold a new election soon. In a statement published by the Foreign Ministry: “Iran will respect to the Egyptian political requirements and it is hoped that future political developments will happen in the interests of the people.” Foreign Ministry spokesman Abbas Araqchi said that Iran was concerned about the “continuance of clashes between the opposition and Morsy supporters. Unfortunately, the unrest during last few days left several dead and injured, but Egyptians should be united and stop the violence.” He later said: “We do not consider proper the intervention by military forces in politics to replace a democratically elected administration. Islamists and revolutionaries should not be frustrated. We do not see the recent events in Egypt as a defeat for Islamic awakening.”
- Iraq – Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki‘s spokesman, Ali al-Moussawi, said that he expressed support for the Egyptian people’s choices, while also congratulating the interim president, Adly Mansour. al-Moussawi said that Iraq is “looking forward to boosting bilateral relations” and is “certain that the new president will move on with the new plan in holding elections and safeguarding national reconciliation.”
- Israel – Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu ordered his cabinet ministers “not to release public statements or grant interviews,” according to Haaretz. Yet Transportation Minister Yisrael Katz told Israeli Army Radio: “It is an Egyptian matter; we must worry about our own interests, and I am sure we are doing just that.”
- Jordan — A government statement read that it respected the wishes of the Egyptian people as well as the role of the armed forces.
- Kuwait – Kuwait News Agency reported: “In his name and the country’s name, His Highness expressed his congratulations to the president of the Republic of Egypt, for taking the lead during the transitional and historical stage.” The country then also gave US$4 billion in aid following Morsi’s removal.
- Lebanon – Prime Minister-designate Tammam Salam cabled Adly Mansour to congratulate him on his appointment as interim leader.
- Libya – Speaking from Rome, Prime Minister Ali Zidan said: “We support any political choice by the Egyptian people and we are with it. We support the Egyptian people and we wish to it peace and stability as its stability and security are also Libya’s. Our relationship with Egypt will not be affected by any change. It is strategic and it will always be strong based on mutual respect, neighborhood and brotherhood. Libya does not intervene in the internal affairs of other countries.”
- Malaysia – Prime Minister Najib Razak said “Malaysians should learn from the conflict in Egypt when the changes you want to claim is not a guarantee of prosperity and well-being of the people.” Nevertheless, Minister of Youth and Sports Khairy Jamaluddin stated “UMNO Youth Malaysia condemned the coup and the arrest of Dr. Morsi. Incident erupted after prolonged demonstration were not only killed, but also bring the riots and violent clashes between supporters and opponents of the government there.”
- Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party‘s Murshidul Am Tuan Guru Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat described it as another “dark moment” repeating in Egypt.
- Meanwhile, PKR de-facto leader Anwar Ibrahim said any military coup must be condemned by democratic countries. “A leader democratically elected through free and fair elections should not be deposed in such a manner. [The coup is a] major setback for the Arab Spring. Whatever the ends, the means are not justified.”
- Norway – Foreign Minister Espen Barth Eide said Norway regretted that the political process has not led to a unifying solution for Egypt and instead the army intervened to oust President Morsi. “Norway has always encouraged Morsi and the opposition to find solutions to the country’s challenges through a broad and inclusive process” and added that Norway provides full support for democratic development in Egypt and moreover it was essential to allow for a civilian government with a democratic election quickly.
- Netherlands – Spokesman for Consular Affairs Toon van Wijk said that “we are following the situation in Egypt closely. But there’s no reason for us to make reductions to our embassy staff in Cairo or to ask personnel to come home.”
- Pakistan – Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif called for the immediate release of Morsi. A statement issued by the Foreign Office read: “Pakistan therefore urges all sides in Egypt to address the legal and constitutional issues in an inclusive and peaceful manner to enable the country to successfully restore the democratic institutions as early as possible. We also call for the immediate release of President Muhamed Morsi.”
- Palestine – The internationally recognised head of the PNA and PLO Mahmoud Abbas called on Palestinians “not to interfere in internal issues of Arab countries,” which was read by the media as supportive of the coup. PLO executive committee member Hanan Ashrawi said: “I don’t see this as a coup d’état. We see this as recognising the will of the people there for the armed forces serving and protecting the people as they should.”
- Hamas Member of Parliament in Gaza, Yahia Moussa said: “The [Hamas] movement does not interfere in Egyptian affairs [and has] no comment on the Egyptian army’s decision to isolate President Morsi.” A senior Hamas figure Ahmad Yousef, said: “We do not fear the fall of President Mohamed Morsy. [sic] We fear the dramatic changes that could cause things to go out of hand and lead to bloodshed. We only care about stability in Egypt regardless of who is in charge. Egypt is a lifeline to us; it’s a major factor in the stability of the internal Palestinian situation — it is our backbone.”
PFLP member of the central committee in Gaza, Jamil Mezher, said that the leftist group supports the Egyptian people’s choice and their chief demands for freedom and social justice. He also refused to call the military’s action a “coup” and added: “Legitimacy doesn’t lie only in the ballot box. Legitimacy lies in the people’s calls and their aspirations; it is the millions who filled Egypt’s streets and squares demanding change and calling for freedom and political inclusion.”
- Philippines – President Benigno Aquino III‘s spokesman, Edwin Lacierda, advised Filipinos to avoid areas of conflict. Lacierda also assured that the personnel of the Philippine embassy in Cairo will not be pulled out and that the number one concern of the Department of Foreign Affairs, is to ensure the safety of Filipino nationals in Egypt. However, Lacierda refused to comment if the Philippine government supported the ousting of Morsi.
- Poland – Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman, Marcin Bosacki, said: “It is with concern that we received news of the suspension of Egypt’s constitution and the removal of President Mohamed Morsy from power. Such a solution must be treated as at least a temporary freeze of the democratic process initiated by the Egyptian nation over two years ago. What is most important today is that the current Egyptian authorities — staying true to their promises — undertake the fastest possible steps to return full power to democratically elected representatives of society.”
- Qatar – Qatar was reported to be unhappy over the move after it spent about US$10 billion in financial aid towards the Morsi government; while they were said to also be unhappy about the closure of Al Jazeera‘s offices in Cairo. Yet the new emir, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, sent “a cable of congratulations” to the new interim President. The Foreign Ministry released a statement that read: “Qatar will continue to respect the will of Egypt and its people across the spectrum.” After a month of protests and international mediation efforts, Foreign Minister Khaled al-Attiya said that he had not been able to meet all those he was promised he could meet and that “my wish for the brothers in Egypt is to release the political prisoners as soon as possible because they are the key to unlocking this crisis. Without a serious dialogue with all the parties, and most importantly with the political prisoners because they are the main element in this crisis, I believe things will be difficult.”
- Russia – The Foreign Ministry issued a statement that read: “We consider it important for all political forces in Egypt to exercise restraint…to consider the broad national interests of their actions, and to prove that they strive to solve the brewing political and socio-economic problems in a democratic framework, without violence, and accounting for the interests of all social groups and religious confessions.”
- Saudi Arabia — King Abdullah was the first international head of state to send a message of congratulations to Interim President Adly Mansour. “In my own name and on behalf of the people of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, I congratulate you on assuming the leadership of Egypt at this critical point of its history. By doing so, I appeal to Allah Almighty to help you to shoulder the responsibility laid on your shoulder to achieve the hopes of our sisterly people of the Arab Republic of Egypt. At the same time, we strongly shake hands with the men of all the armed forces, represented by General Abdel Fattah al-Sissi, who managed to save Egypt at this critical moment from a dark tunnel God only could apprehend its dimensions and repercussions, but the wisdom and moderation came out of those men to preserve the rights of all parties in the political process. Please accept our greetings to you and deep respect to our brothers in Egypt and its people, wishing Egypt steady stability and security.
- al-Shabaab announced on Twitter: “It’s time to remove those rose-tinted spectacles and see the world as accurately as it is, change comes by the bullet alone; NOT the ballot. [The Muslim Brotherhood] should perhaps learn a little from the lessons of history and those ‘democratically elected’ before them in Algeria or even Hamas. When will the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) wake up from their deep slumber and realize the futility of their efforts at instituting change. After a year of stumbling on the hurdles, the MB horse is finally off to the knacker’s yard, never to see the light of day again.”
- Sudan – Foreign Minister Ali Karti called his former Egyptian counterpart, Mohamed Kamel Amr, to ask about the situation in Egypt. He also expressed hope that Egypt will enjoy security, stability and social peace, while saying Sudan respected the people’s will and that the event was an internal matter. Further, he underscored the unique nature of the relationshipbetween their two countries. The government also said that the coup was a “domestic affair” and that “Sudan calls on all parties in Egypt to make as a priority to preserve Egypt’s stability and security, peace and unity of its people,” while saying that it wanted “brotherly ties” with Egypt.
- Sweden – Foreign Minister Carl Bildt wrote on Twitter: “I’m horrified by the large number of dead in the demonstrations in Egypt. Security forces can’t avoid responsibility.” The tweetcame after at least 80 protesters were confirmed dead and 411 were injured after security forces had opened fire on pro-Morsi demonstrators on a road near the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque.
- Switzerland – The Federal Department of Foreign Affairs issued a statement that read: “Switzerland expects to see a swift return to democracy in which all the social forces in the country are involved and in which fundamental human rights are respected. It expresses the hope that a peaceful solution can be found to the current political polarization in Egypt and it calls on all sides to renounce the use of violence.”
- Syria – President Bashar al-Assad told the newspaper Thawra that “whoever brings religion to use in politics or in favour of one group at the expense of another will fall anywhere in the world. The summary of what is happening in Egypt is the fall of what is called political Islam. You can’t fool all the people all the time, let alone the Egyptian people who have a civilisation that is thousands of years old, and who espouse clear, Arab nationalist thought. After a whole year, reality has become clear to the Egyptian people. The Muslim Brotherhood’s performance has helped them see the lies the [movement] used at the start of the popular revolution in Egypt.”
- Tunisia – The government of the founding state of the Arab Spring, condemned the “flagrant coup,” with Ennahda party leader Rachid Ghannouchi expressing his astonishment and said that the removal of Morsi would undermine democracy and feed radicalism.
- Turkey – Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said: “No matter where they are…coups are bad. Coups are clearly enemies of democracy. Those who rely on the guns in their hands, those who rely on the power of the media cannot build democracy…Democracy can only be built at ballot box.” He also criticised the West for not terming the actions as a coup, while praising the African Union’s decision to suspend Egypt over coup. “The West has failed the sincerity test. No offence, but democracy does not accept double standards.” Foreign MinisterAhmet Davutoglu said in a televised statement that “The toppling of a government that came into office through democratic elections, through methods that are not legal – and what is worse, through a military coup – is unacceptable, no matter what the reasons”. Hüseyin Çelik, a spokesman for the governing Justice and Development Party and former cabinet member in theErdoğan administration, condemned the coup as a sign of “backwardness” and accused unnamed Western countries of supporting Morsi’s overthrow. “Some Western countries have not accepted Muslim Brotherhood’s rise to power. They have mobilized the streets, then issued a memorandum, and are now staging the coup.” He also advised Morsi’s supporters to avoid bloodshed in response.
- United Arab Emirates – Foreign Minister Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan said that his government was “satisfied” with the developments in Egypt. Al Nahyan also praised the Egyptian army as a “strong shield” and a “protector,” while expressing confidence that Egypt can overcome the crisis “to reach a safe and prosperous future.”
- United Kingdom – Prime Minister David Cameron said that the United Kingdom “never supports intervention by the military. But what now needs to happen…in Egypt is for democracy to flourish and for a genuine democratic transition to take place and all the parties need to be involved in that. And that’s what Britain and our allies will be saying very clearly to the Egyptians.” Foreign Secretary William Hague said the United Kingdom “does not support military intervention as a way to resolve disputes in a democratic system.” He also called the situation “dangerous” and called on all sides to “avoid violence” and resort to “a political process that includes all groups on an equal footing leading to early and fair elections which all parties are able to contest, and civilian-led government.”
- United States – President Barack Obama said he was “deeply concerned” by the actions of Egypt’s military and urged a return to democratic governance. He ordered his administration to review United States aid to Egypt. He added: “No transition to democracy comes without difficulty, but in the end it must stay true to the will of the people. An honest, capable and representative government is what ordinary Egyptians seek and what they deserve. The long-standing partnership between the United States and Egypt is based on shared interests and values, and we will continue to work with the Egyptian people to ensure that Egypt’s transition to democracy succeeds.” The State Department also expressed concern over the military intervention and ordered the mandatory evacuation of its embassy in Cairo, while it issued a travel advisory that “the Department of State ordered the departure of non-emergency US government personnel and family members from Egypt due to the ongoing political and social unrest.” On 5 July, State Department Spokeswomen Jennifer Psaki said: “We call on all Egyptian leaders to condemn the use of force and to prevent further violence among their supporters. As President Obama said, we expect the military to ensure that the rights of all Egyptians are protected, including the right to peaceful assembly, and we call on all who are protesting to do so peacefully.”
In the most senior visit to Egypt since the coup, Deputy Secretary of State William Burns said on 15 July: “Only Egyptians can determine their future. I did not come with American solutions, nor did I come to lecture anyone. We know that Egyptians must forge their own path to democracy. We know that this will not mirror our own and we will not try to impose our model on Egypt. [The U.S. would] stand behind certain basic principles, not any particular personalities or parties.” He also criticised the exclusion of Islamist parties from the political process: “If representatives of some of the largest parties in Egypt are detained or excluded, how are dialogue and participation possible?”
- On 26 July, the United States[who?] said that it would not make a formal determination of whether the events in Egypt constituted a coup. State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki said: “The law does not require us to make a formal determination…as to whether a coup took place, and it is not in our national interest to make such a determination.”
- Republican Senator John McCain, who is a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said: “We have to suspend aid to Egyptian military because the military has overturned the vote of the people. We cannot repeat the same mistakes that we made in other times of our history by supporting removal of freely elected governments.” He added that once a timetable was arranged for a new election and a new constitution “we should evaluate whether to continue with aid or not.” He was the first U.S. politician to refer to the events as a coup.
- Representatives Ed Royce, the chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, and Eliot Engel, members of different parties released a statement that read:
The decision by the Egyptian military to take state authority out of the hands of the ruling Muslim Brotherhood government marks another sharp turning point in Egypt’s incomplete revolution. What the Brotherhood neglected to understand is that democracy means more than simply holding elections. Real democracy requires inclusiveness, compromise, respect for human and minority rights, and a commitment to the rule of law. Morsi and his inner circle did not embrace any of these principles and instead chose to consolidate power and rule by fiat. As a result the Egyptian people and their economy suffered greatly. It is now up to the Egyptian military to demonstrate that the new transitional government can and will govern in a transparent manner and work to return the country to democratic rule. We are encouraged that a broad cross-section of Egyptians will gather to rewrite the constitution. All parties in Egypt must show restraint, prevent violence, and prepare to be productive players in the future democratic Egypt. We encourage the military to exercise extreme caution moving forward and support sound democratic institutions through which the people and future governments can flourish.
- Ambassador to Israel Dan Shapiro said from Tel Aviv that the U.S. supports any democratic regime in Egypt and such a commitment towards democracy is what pushed Obama to call for a swift peaceful transition of power.
- Former Ambassador to Egypt Frank Wisner said:
“It wasn’t the military that plotted the seizure of the government and grabbed it. It was a massive public uprising that, left unchecked, would have produced great violence. It would have left the military in the miserable position of having to control those demonstrations by force. The cry from the crowd was they wanted new elections … to help decide the country’s future, which has been so troubled. The military was faced with, genuinely overheated situation … It isn’t a coup in any classic sense and, yet, the military played a role in upsetting the government. We have to ask ourselves, then, finally, what are the interests of the United States? And here the president wisely has waiver authority and has to make a judgment. Egypt is the largest and most influential country in the Middle East. Egypt is central to peace with Israel. Egypt’s fate will influence the course of politics elsewhere in the region. So we want to be very, very careful before we go out and condemn an event that has, by the most recent polling of Egypt’s best pollsters, 80 percent support in the population. What is clear is the wave of anger against the government that drove Morsi from power, enjoyed massive, massive public support in the many, many millions of Egyptians.
- The U.S. is to go ahead with the delivery of F-16 jets to Egypt.
- Yemen – President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi congratulated his Egyptian counterpart, Adly Mansour, raising the ire of his Islamist coalition partners.
Political non-state groups
- Al-Qaeda – Al-Qaeda’s Egyptian leader Ayman al-Zawahiri commented in a video released on the internet criticising the Islamists for losing power and not uniting to implement Sharia. He said: “The battle isn’t over, it has just started…the Islamic nation should offer victims and sacrifices to achieve what it wants and restore power from the corrupt authority governing Egypt.”
Syrian state-television carried live coverage of the anti-Morsi protests. It also said of the statement that “Syria’s people and leadership and army express their deep appreciation for the national, populist movement in Egypt which has yielded a great achievement.”
The United States media pointed out that Obama did not call the removal of Morsi a coup. If Obama accepts that a coup had taken place, then U.S. law requires him to cut off military and economic aid to Egypt such as previous incidents in Mauritania, Mali, Madagascar and Pakistan. The U.S. funds 20% of Egypt’s military costs (US$1.3 billion) and gives another US$250 million in economic aid. Al Jazeera noted that the refusal to term the events as a coup were tied with the U.S. stance in stopping military aid to countries that have perpetrated a coup.
The media noted that the U.K. did not condemn the removal of Morsi, nor call for him to be restored to power. Some media reports refer to the events as another “revolution” and there has been debate as to whether events are best named as being a coup or not.
Egyptian-Americans, particularly in the Arab-dominated areas of Michigan, had mixed views of the event with some wary of the Muslim Brotherhood, but were also wary of usurping democratic rights following a 30-year “dictatorship.”
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Political violence in Egypt, 2013)
This article is about the events following the 2013 Egyptian coup d’état. For the preceding events, see 2012–13 Egyptian protests. For the full timeline, see Timeline of the 2011–13 Egyptian civil unrest.
|Political violence in Egypt (July 2013-present)|
|Part of Aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution and theArab Spring|
|Map showing areas in Egypt affected by curfew after 14 August|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
| Military of EgyptTamarod
National Salvation Front
|Deaths and injuries|
Political violence erupted in the aftermath of the 2013 Egyptian coup d’état (referred to by some media outlets as the Egyptian crisis). Immediately following the 3 July 2013 removal of President Mohamed Morsi of Egypt by the Egyptian Armed Forces amid popular demonstrations against Morsi’s rule, many protesters amassed near the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque to call for Morsi’s return to power and condemn the military, while others demonstrated in support of the military and interim government. Deadly clashes continued for several days, with three particularly bloody incidents being described by Muslim Brotherhood officials as “massacres” perpetrated by security forces. During the month of Ramadan (10 July- 7 August), prime minister Hazem al-Beblawy threatened to disperse the ongoing Pro-Morsi sit-ins in Rabaa al-Adaweya square and al-Nahda square. The government crackdown of these protests occurred in“clashes” on 14 August In mid-August, the violence between Islamists and the Army escalated, with dozens killed, and the government declaring a month-long nighttime curfew.
Background[edit source | editbeta]
Egypt in transition[edit source | editbeta]
Main article: 2011 Egyptian revolution
Protests against President Hosni Mubarak in early 2011 led to his resignation and trial after the Egyptian military switched its allegiance to the demonstrators. Mubarak’s downfall was only the second revolution in the Arab world of the revolutionary wave known as the Arab Spring.
Vice President Omar Suleiman, who announced Mubarak’s resignation in February 2011, handed power to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. Egypt came under martial law as top generals led by Mohamed Hussein Tantawi began directing Egypt toward democratic elections. This period was marked by further conflict and continuing protests, as demonstrators who had cheered the support of the military in removing Mubarak turned against the generals when they began imposing harsh security measures and tamping down on revolutionary activity. The Muslim Brotherhood emerged as a leading voice in criticizing military rule.
Morsi administration[edit source | editbeta]
Main article: Egyptian presidential election, 2012
See also: Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2012
Presidential elections were held in mid-2012. No candidate garnered as much as a quarter of the vote in the first round of elections. The top two candidates advanced to the runoff: Mohamed Morsi of the Freedom and Justice Party, the candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood, and Ahmed Shafik, an independent candidate who served as prime minister of Egypt under Mubarak. Morsi strongly criticized the Mubarak regime and offered a vision for Egypt as an Islamic democracy, while Shafik, a secularist, promised to restore order. Morsi ultimately prevailed in the runoff, defeating Shafik by a margin of 3.5 percentage points. While Islamists hailed Morsi’s election with enthusiasm, many Copts and liberals viewed the runoff as a choice between two unappealing candidates.
Morsi reinstated parliament days after his election, and lawmakers set to work drafting a constitution that established Islam as the state religion. The constitution was passed over the objections of opposition members who argued the process was faulty. When put to a referendum in December 2012, the constitution was approved by a nearly 28-point margin, as supporters successfully argued that approval of the constitution was needed to ensure stability.
However, Morsi’s government faced popular protests after the president decreed in November 2012 that he had vast powers that could not be checked by the courts. Protesters called for Morsi to withdraw his constitutional declaration or resign from office. Within weeks, Morsi annulled the declaration, days before the constitution itself was approved by voters.
2012-13 Protests[edit source | editbeta]
Main article: 2012–13 Egyptian protests
Coup d’état[edit source | editbeta]
Main article: 2013 Egyptian coup d’état
Protests against Morsi continued throughout the first half of 2013, whipping up in June 2013 briefly after the president appointed an Islamist accused of involvement in the Luxor massacre to head the Luxor Governorate and culminating in mass demonstrations that began on 30 June. Protesters criticized Morsi for alleged mismanagement of the country and for the growing influence of the Muslim Brotherhood. The Tamarod movement, which translates into English as “Rebel”, claimed it had gathered 22 million signatures from Egyptians opposed to Morsi. According to some sources, the protests were the largest in Egypt’s history.
The Egyptian Armed Forces again sided with demonstrators against the regime, warning Morsi to respond to protesters’ demands or face a “political road map” widely expected to involve the president’s removal from office. Despite this, Morsi remained defiant, giving a speech on 2 July insisting he was the legitimate president and would sooner die than relinquish power. The next day, Defence Minister Abdul Fatah al-Sisi informed Morsi that he was no longer president and addressed the country on television to announce the change in leadership.
Formation of new government[edit source | editbeta]
Indications on 6 July 2013 that Mohamed ElBaradei would be sworn in as prime minister proved to be incorrect. The next day, a founding member of the Egyptian Social Democratic Partynamed Ziad Bahaa El-Din was reportedly offered the post of Prime Minister, while ElBaradei was nominated as vice president. Younes Makhioun, chairman of the Nour Party, objected to both appointments because both of them belong to the same political coalition (the National Salvation Front); he called for nominees who were “politically neutral” instead. The Nour Party rejected El-Din on 7 July 2013 and pulled out of the transitional process altogether on 8 July 2013 because of the 2013 Republican Guard Headquarters clashes. However, the party has advised the interim government on ministerial candidates, including Ahmed Darwish. Hazem Al Beblawi was sworn in as prime minister on 9 July 2013 with the backing of the Nour Party.
Chronology[edit source | editbeta]
Prelude[edit source | editbeta]
4 July[edit source | editbeta]
Adly Mansour, chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt, was sworn in as interim president. Mansour gave a speech in which he praised demonstrators for toppling the government, saying, “I offer my greetings to the revolutionary people of Egypt.”
Violence continued with over 100 people wounded and at least two deaths, believed to be that of children. The Muslim Brotherhood’s spokesman called for “strictly peaceful” protests to defy (according to his description) the military coup.
5 July: “Friday of Rejection”[edit source | editbeta]
Supporters of the ousted President Morsi demonstrate in Damietta on July 5
Muslim Brotherhood members and sympathizers rallied across Egypt for what they dubbed a “Friday of Rejection” on 5 July, demanding the reinstatement of Morsi as president. Clashes with police and soldiers turned deadly in some areas, with reported instances of troops firing live ammunition into crowds of protesters. At least 36 were killed and more than 1,000 were injured. Protesters reportedly attacked a police station and military airbase in the North Sinai Governorate, as well as the governorate headquarters, resulting in casualties on both sides.
Palestinian officials in Gaza also said that the Egyptian Armed Forces had shut the Rafah border crossing and that only certain people, such as patients and students, would be allowed through. Egyptian Intelligence Service official Nader al-Asar telephoned Palestinian Prime Minister in GazaIsmail Haniyeh on the afternoon of 5 July and Haniyeh briefed him about the humanitarian crisis in Gaza as a result of the restrictions on tunnels and the Rafah crossing.
Leaders from the protest movement Tamarod and the National Salvation Front urged demonstrators to “protect their revolutionary legitimacy” and resist unnamed “foreign forces” and supporters of Morsi who might stage a “counter-revolution” in Egypt. Police also announced the arrest of Khairat El-Shater, a figure in the Muslim Brotherhood.
6 July[edit source | editbeta]
Mohamed ElBaradei was reportedly appointed prime minister by acting President Mansour, over the objections of Islamists. The announcement of ElBaradei’s appointment was later retracted, with a spokesman for the president saying no decision had been made on whether ElBaradei or somebody else would be named prime minister. Ahmed Douma, a dissident jailed for “insulting” President Morsi and inciting violence against the Muslim Brotherhood during protests earlier in the year, was released from custody pending a court verdict. Meanwhile, clashes continued on the Sinai Peninsula, with a Coptic Christian priest shot to death by masked gunmen. Pro-Morsi supporters continued their sit-in in front of the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque in Nasr City, a suburb of Cairo, demanding the reinstatement of the former president.
7 July[edit source | editbeta]
Negotiations continued over the prime ministerial appointment, with reports suggesting the Al-Nour Party had objected to ElBaradei’s appointment and representatives of the Tamarod movement continuing to push for it. Meanwhile, a message from Mohammed Badie appeared on the Muslim Brotherhood’s Facebook page accusing coup leaders of “flagrant violations against the Egyptian people”, those opposed to the rule of Morsi mobilized for another day of rallying in Tahrir Square. Huge demonstrations against the military coup, also occurred in manned makeshift roadblocks in Cairo and the Nasr City suburb in Cairo.
July events[edit source | editbeta]
8 July[edit source | editbeta]
Main article: 2013 Republican Guard headquarters clashes
Muslim Brotherhood sources alleged 54 pro-Morsi demonstrators were killed when police fired on their sit-in during dawn prayers. According to the army, “terrorists” tried to storm the compound, leading to the death of an officer. MP Mohamed Beltagy described the incident as a “massacre” during dawn prayers. After the incident, the Freedom and Justice Party, called for “the international community and international groups and all the free people of the world [to] intervene to stop further massacres […] and prevent a new Syria in the Arab world.” At the same time, Morsi supporters were said by the military of having forced two soldiers, Samir Abdallah Ali and Azzam Hazem Ali, to make pro-Morsi statements on a loudspeaker and that one of them was “severely beaten up” and filmed while making the statements. However, an army official later said that they had “managed to escape their captors.”
The Nour Party announced it would not participate in the political transition due to the “massacre”, and former Muslim Brotherhood member, moderate Islamist, and 2012 presidential candidateAbdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh called for Mansour to resign. Meanwhile, Mansour issued a proposed timetable for elections to occur within six months.
Following reports that many fighters in Syria were returning in support of the Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt placed restrictions on Syrians entering the country and required them to obtain visas before entering the country.
9 July[edit source | editbeta]
Amnesty International urged the Egyptian government to probe the “massacre” of the previous day. The army continued to deny it used excessive force, claiming police and troops responded to aggression by armed protesters. Tamarod posted on Twitter that “Mansour’s maneuvers will create a new dictatorship”, rejecting the proposed election timetable. Mohamed ElBaradei andHazem Al Beblawi were named vice president and prime minister for the interim government respectively by Mansour.
10 July[edit source | editbeta]
Ramadan began in Egypt. The Muslim Brotherhood again rejected overtures to participate in the transitional government. Arrest warrants were issued for Mohammed Badie and other top Muslim Brotherhood officials. The Investigative Reporting Program at the University of California at Berkeley reported that a State Department programme ostensibly to support democracy provided funds to activists and politicians for fomenting unrest in Egypt after the ouster of President Hosni Mubarak in February 2011.
11 July[edit source | editbeta]
The Muslim Brotherhood vowed to continue its resistance to the military’s ouster of Morsi. In a statement it disavowed itself from an assassination attempt against a senior army commander in the Sinai Peninsula on 10 July and said it adheres to peaceful measures. The statement also read: “We will continue our peaceful resistance to the bloody military coup against constitutional legitimacy. We trust that the peaceful and popular will of the people shall triumph over force and oppression.”
Public prosecutor Hisham Barakat issued a temporary freeze on the assets of senior leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood, as well as senior members of the National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy, pending investigations in ongoing cases related to events in al-Mokatam, al-Nahda square and the Republican Guards Club. The freeze affects the senior Muslim Brotherhood leadersMohammed Badie, Khairat el-Shater, Mohamed Ezat, Mahi Ekef, Saad El-Katatni, Essam el-Erian and Mohamed Beltagy, as well as the politicians Essam Sultan, Assem Abdul Majed, Safwat Hegazy and Hazem Abu Ismail.
12–23 July[edit source | editbeta]
On 13 July, Egyptian prosecutors announced a criminal investigation of Morsi for “spying, inciting violence and ruining the economy”. Two days later, General Abdul Fattah al-Sisi spoke on state television for the first time since the coup to defend the army’s actions. Mohamed ElBaradei was also sworn in as interim vice president the same day, while the assets of 14 prominent Islamists,[who?] including Mohammed Badie, were frozen. At least three were also killed and 17 others were wounded in North Sinai when suspected militants fired rocket-propelled grenadesat a worker bus.
The Muslim Brotherhood continued its call for more protests after Friday prayers. The protests were held in Cairo and Alexandria with two formations of fighter jets flying over both cities after noon prayers ended as well as military helicopters that flew low over roof tops in the city. Amongst the tens of thousands of protesters present, they chanted “Islamic, Islamic” in calling for an Islamic state.
On 22 July, protests in Cairo led to two deaths at a pro-Morsi rally as unknown gunmen opened fire on demonstrators. A bomb also killed a conscript and injured 15 at a police station inMansoura. Morsi’s family also accused the military of kidnapping him.
The United States called on Egypt’s army to free deposed President Mohamed Morsi, amid ongoing protests on the first Friday of Ramadan. U.S. Deputy Secretary of State William Joseph Burns, the highest-ranking U.S. official to visit Egypt since Morsi’s ouster, visited Cairo to meet with representatives of the interim government. Representatives from both Tamarod and the Nour Party refused to meet with Burns, with Tamarod accusing the U.S. of interfering with Egyptian internal affairs. The U.S. also delayed the delivery of F-16 Fighting Falcons from Fort Worth, Texas, to Egypt due to “political reasons.”
24 July[edit source | editbeta]
During a speech at a military parade, General Al-Sisi called for mass demonstrations on 26 July to grant his forces a “mandate” to crack down on “terrorism”, an apparent reference to the bombing at Mansoura and to restive Islamists continuing to oppose the overthrow of Mohamed Morsi. This was seen as contradicting the military’s pledges to hand over power to civilians after removing Dr. Morsi and as an indication for an imminent crackdown against Islamists.
The reactions to Al-Sisi’s announcement ranged from open support by the Egyptian presidency and the Tamarod movement to rejection, not only by the Muslim Brotherhood, who called the announcement “an invitation to civil war”, but also by the Salafi Al-Nour Party, the Strong Egypt Party, the revolutionary April 6 Youth Movement and the Egyptian Human Rightsgroups.
26 July[edit source | editbeta]
In response to General Al-Sisi‘s call, millions of protesters took part in demonstrations across the country in support of the army including tens of thousands in Cairo‘s Tahrir Square and at the Presidential Palace. At the same time, smaller demonstrations (thousands of protestors) rallied in Nasr City and at Cairo University in protest at the military coup. While the demonstrations in Cairo were largely peaceful, five people including a 14-year old boy were killed and at least 146 injured in Alexandria, when a pro-army march passed near a demonstration of Morsi supporters at Al-Qaed Ibrahim Mosque. The Health Ministry confirmed a total of nine people killed during protests in Alexandria.
In Sphinx Square in Mohandessin, a group of activists called The Third Square, who mistrust both the military and the Islamists, held their own protest. In a leaflet, they declared their opposition to “the defense minister calling for an authorization to kill Egyptians on the pretext of fighting terrorism”.
In a separate development, Egyptian state media announced that deposed President Morsi was being investigated for conspiring with the Palestinian group Hamas in relation to a prison breakout in 2011.
27 July[edit source | editbeta]
At least 82 were killed early in the morning after security forces opened fire on pro-Morsi demonstrators on a road near the Rabaa Al-Adawiya Mosque, a centre of resistance to the military coup. The health ministry said 82 were confirmed dead and 299 injured, while doctors at the field hospital said at least 200 protesters had been killed and 4,500 injured. A Brotherhood spokesman said police used live ammunition and shot to kill.
Interior Minister Mohamed Ibrahim said police had been forced to intervene after demonstrators clashed with locals while trying to block a major bridge. He claimed that police did not use live ammunition and attempted to disperse protesters with tear gas. However, multiple photos on the internet show clearly the police and army forces using live ammunition and automatic guns.Meanwhile, Al-Nour Party leader Younis Makhyoun called for a full investigation into the incident, which the Brotherhood described as a “massacre”, and angry activists chanted violent slogans calling for Sisi to be executed during pro-Morsi protests during the day.
Two days later, the United States White House released a statement that read it “strongly condemns the bloodshed and violence” in Cairo and Alexandria, while calling on the military-backed interim government to respect the rights of demonstrators.
30–31 July[edit source | editbeta]
On 30 July, a member of the Palestinian movement Hamas‘ named Salah al-Bardaweel said that it had documentary proof that the interim government was colluding with its Palestinian rivals,Fatah and the Palestinian National Authority, in pushing forward a malicious agenda to tarnish the group, while it also denied involvement in the Egypt protests following the coup. Fatah termed the documents as “fabrications” in rejecting the allegations.
The next day, the interim cabinet warned that it would use any measures to deal with the pro-Morsi protesters’ sit-in in dispersing them.
August events[edit source | editbeta]
On 11 August, efforts by the international community to end the standoff and find a peaceful resolution to the crisis failed. Egypt’s prime minister warned just ahead of the Muslim Eid al-Fitr holiday that ends Sunday that the government’s decision to clear the sit-ins was “irreversible.”
On 12 August, supporters of toppled president Mohamed Morsi increased the pressure on Egypt’s interim leadership by defiantly flooding into two protest camps Monday, prompting police to postpone moving against the 6-week-old sit-ins to “avoid bloodshed” and delayed taking any action. The Interior Ministry has depicted the encampments as a public danger, saying 11 bodies bearing signs of torture were found near both sites. Amnesty International has also reported that anti-Morsi protesters have been captured, beaten, subjected to electric shocks or stabbed. At least eight bodies have arrived at a morgue in Cairo bearing signs of torture, the human rights group said.
13–14 August[edit source | editbeta]
Main article: August 2013 Egyptian raids
On 13 August, Egyptian interim President Adly Mansour appointed 18 new provincial governors, many of them former military officers, removing all Muslim Brotherhood members who had been in office, triggering a wave of criticism from groups and activists who decried the appointments of mainly former security officials to the posts. According to The Economist a number of those newly appointed governors “had glaring records of hostility to the 2011 revolution.”
Shortly after dawn on 14 August, Egyptian police raided two large encampments by supporters of ousted president Mohamed Morsi in Cairo to forcibly disperse them, after six weeks of unauthorized sit-in, sparking deadly clashes that drew global condemnation from world states. The Egyptian government announced a one-month state of emergency as a result of the deadly clashes. A spokesman for Egypt’s health ministry said the death toll has reached 638 of which 595 are civilians and 43 police officers with at least 3,994 injured. Additionally according to workers at the Al-Iman mosque, over 200 bodies, which had been moved from a protest camp nearby, are not included in the official Health Ministry tally. The Muslim Brotherhood has said the true death toll was far higher, with a spokesman saying 2,000 people had been killed in the “massacre”. Among the dead was the daughter of Mohamed el-Beltagy, a prominent lawmaker. Four journalists were killed and several others were injured or arrested. Egyptian Vice President Mohamed ElBaradei resigned on the same day following the violent actions by security forces against the protesters.
15–16 August[edit source | editbeta]
On 15 August, following the security forces raids on Cairo protest camps held by supporters of deposed president Mohamed Morsi, churches across Egypt came under frenzied attack Thursday as Morsi loyalists allegedly orchestrated nationwide assaults on Christian targets throughout the country. It’s estimated that as many as 36 churches were “completely” devastated by fire across nine Egyptian governorates and many other churches were looted or stormed. Egypt’s army chief Gen. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi pledged the military would cover the costs of restoration for all damaged churches. Morsi’s Islamist backers also set dozens of police stations ablaze across Egypt and attempted to storm provincial governor offices following Wednesday’s bloody crackdown. A group of Morsi supporters also set fire to the finance ministry building in Cairo’s Nasr City district.
The unrest led the interim government to declare a month-long state of emergency, with a daily curfew between 7:00pm and 6:00am in Cairo and 12 other governorates.
Several episodes of clashes are reported in Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities. The interim Interior Minister authorized the police agents and the military to shoot on sight anyone who is involved in unrests. All touristic attractions and antiquities museums are closed all over the country, many suffering looting episodes.
The army blocked all major streets and squares, among which, Tahrir Square. The early clashes caused many deaths, at least 80 in Cairo, 5 in Fayoum, 10 in Ismailia, 8 in Damietta and at least 1 in Al Arish.
17–18 August[edit source | editbeta]
On 17 August, security forces cleared a Cairo mosque after a standoff with anti-government protesters barricaded inside. The confrontation at the al-Fath mosque continued for most of Saturday – with exchanges of gunfire between security forces and protesters.
On 18 August, a convoy carrying about 600 detainees to Abu Zaabal prison near Cairo resulted in at least 35 deaths. The interior ministry said that the detainees tried to escape from the convoy and took an officer hostage. They then said that police fired tear gas back at them and the detainees died as a result of suffocation. However, the Muslim Brotherhood disputed the claim and said that its supporters were killed in cold blood and called for an international inquiry into the incident.
25 Egyptian policemen died on 19 August in an attack in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula by militant Islamists.
In all, nearly 1,000 people have been killed in clashes between security forces and supporters of ousted President Mohammed Morsi during 14-18 of August.
On 19 August, the government banned vigilante groups known as “people’s committees” that are armed with clubs, sticks and guns and have appeared on Egyptian streets as of mid-August 2013.
Egyptian President Muhammad Morsi
JERUSALEM (Reuters) by Jeffrey Heller, August 19, 2013 – “Israel is urging the West to stick by Egypt’s army in its confrontation with the Muslim Brotherhood, quietly echoing warnings by U.S. regional ally Saudi Arabia against putting pressure on the military-backed government. Israel shares its views with the U.S. and some EU (European Union) countries, and those views are to give priority to restoring stability,” a senior Israeli official said on Monday. And like it or not, the army is the only player that can restore law and order (in Egypt).” (Read more)
In my recent posts (Read more) (Read more) about the Biblical implications of Egypt’s present chaos and Morsi’s unseating by the Egyptian military, I have directed readers to the prophecy of Daniel 11:42-43 (NASB) wherein Egypt’s demise is prophesied. I have interpreted this demise to include the Egyptian military since it is the protector of the land of Egypt, including its “precious things.” The above Reuter’s article by Jeffrey Heller gives us the behind-closed doors position of Israel in the Egyptian crisis, as provided by an anonymous “senior Israeli official.” Heller quotes this senior official that the West should support the military, not Morsi’s Muslim Brotherhood supporters (and the democratic principles that elected him).
It is important that we take notice of who is aligning with who and then compare the alignments with our interpretations of Bible prophecy. If Israel is aligning with the Egyptian military then what does the Bible say will happen to Israel in the end-times? Because what happens to Israel will happen to Israel’s allies, i.e., in this case, Egypt.
Consider this prophecy:
Ezekiel 38:8-9, 16 (NASB) “After many days you will be summoned; in the latter years you will come into the land that is restored from the sword, whose inhabitants have been gathered from many nations to the mountains of Israel which had been a continual waste; but its people were brought out from the nations, and they are living securely, all of them. “You will go up, you will come like a storm; you will be like a cloud covering the land, you and all your troops, and many peoples with you.” … 16 and you will come up against My people Israel like a cloud to cover the land. It shall come about in the last days that I will bring you against My land, so that the nations may know Me when I am sanctified through you before their eyes, O Gog.”
It is the view of this interpreter that Israel will be initially overcome by “Gog” (Russia) and his forces. (Read here for my support for this view). Here is my concluding paragraph from this previous post (July 2, 2012):
Conclusion. The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood (not Egypt as a nation) will join the Ezekiel 38:5-6 Russian-led Alliance in an end-times attack against Israel. The Brotherhood is included in the phrase “many peoples with you” of Ezekiel 38:6 and related passages. If this is the correct interpretation, we should expect to see Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood gaining more and more strength in Egypt, and the military regime of former President Mubarak losing more of what it once held. It is likely that this strength will be gained while the Brotherhood uses the subterfuge of nonviolence, tolerance, and a public distancing of itself from Islamist ideals, all the while its true agenda is the destruction of Israel.
I would say that since that post a year ago, the Muslim Brotherhood has gained significantly in strength. The resulting bloodshed ensuing from the “unseating” of Morsi by the military has been used by the Islamists to further polarize the world and will soon force world leaders to take a stand with either the military or the Muslim Brotherhood. The economic aid package of the United States will be drawn into the equation and will intensify the polarization of the nations of the world. Recent news reports (August 19, 2013) that Hosni Mubarak is about to be released from Egyptian prison where he has been held since Morsi took office. It will only be a matter of time for Russia to be drawn into the mix. Iran will follow. The line will be drawn in the sand when this occurs. The United States, the Egyptian military, Israel, the Saudis, will be on one side. The Russians, the Iranians, the Muslim Brotherhood (along with the Salifis), and HAMAS, Hezbollah, will be on the other side. Oops. Forgot about the Turks. They will align with the Muslim Brotherhood as well. World War 3 appears to be ever more in view. It is almost as if we are looking through a key hole trying to see what is happening on the other side of the door. Soon the door will be open and we will no longer be interpreting prophecy’s expected fulfillment, but recounting the fulfillment of prophecy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|2013 Republican Guard headquarters clashes/massacre|
|Part of the aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution|
|Egyptian Armed Forces
|Commanders and leaders|
|Mohammed Badie(Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood)||Abdul Fatah al-Sisi(Supreme Commander &Defense Minister)|
|Egyptian Republican Guard
|Casualties and losses|
|51 protesters killed||3 military and security personnel killed|
|Figures as of 11 July 2013|
On the morning of 8 July 2013 at the Republican Guard headquarters in Cairo, Egypt there was a clash between protesters, who wanted the return of deposed president Mohamed Morsi, and the military, who were protecting the institution. At least 51 protesters seeking the return of Morsi to power were killed and more than 435 injured in the clashes, in what has been deemed as a massacre by the Muslim Brotherhood and those opposed to the recent coup d’état. Amnesty International has condemned the military’s disproportionate use of force, with a spokesperson stating, “Even if some protesters used violence, the response was disproportionate and led to the loss of life and injury among peaceful protesters.”
According to some witnesses, the military opened fire without provocation towards the end of morning prayers, immediately using live ammunition and shooting to kill. Gehad El-Haddad, the Muslim Brotherhood‘s spokesman, reported that the military opened fire at the protesters while they were praying in front of the Republican Guard and staging a peaceful sit-in. One witness said protestors had their backs to the Republic Guard building, as they were praying towards Mecca.
By contrast, the military said that a “terrorist group” tried to storm the Republican Guard headquarters and that it had retaliated by opening fire at the attackers. A military spokesman claimed that an officer was killed and six troops were injured before adding that 42 troops were injured and eight were in critical condition. An amateur video recording showed people holding guns from the side of the protesters, although this was later during the incident, when it was daylight.
Investigation[edit source | editbeta]
Preliminary investigations showed that the crime scene contained firearms, ammunition, Freedom and Justice Party membership cards, explosives that contained pieces of glass, smoke grenades and a document that contained a list of names with monetary values next to it.
The army said it had arrested over 200 people, with “large quantities of firearms, ammunition and Molotov cocktails”.
Domestic response[edit source | editbeta]
- The Presidency ordered the formation of a Judicial committee to investigate the killings at the “raid against the Republican Guard headquarters”.
- The National Salvation Front condemned “all acts of violence” and called for an investigation over the incident.
- The Nour Party objected to the incident and stated that they would stop participating in the political transition.
- The Freedom and Justice Party called for “the international community and international groups and all the free people of the world to intervene to stop further massacres […] and prevent a new Syria in the Arab world.”
- Former Presidential candidate and Strong Egypt Party leader Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh called for interim president Adly Mansour to step down in response to the clashes.
- Germany – The Foreign Ministry said that it was “dismayed” over reports of the violence and called for a “speedy clarification” by an independent body into the incident.
- Iran – The Foreign Ministry published a statement about recent conflicts in Egypt: “Expressing concern about Egypt’s internal conflicts, we stressed the need for strict adherence to the democratic process in this country.”
- Palestine Hamas[who?] expressed “extreme pain and grief for the falling of these victims”.
- Qatar – Qatar[who?] expressed “great concern” over the incident.
- Turkey – Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu wrote on Twitter: “I strongly condemn the massacre that took place at morning prayers in the name of basic human values.”
- United Kingdom – Foreign Secretary William Hague said: “There is an urgent need for calm and restraint”.
International response[edit source | editbeta]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|August 2013 Egyptian raids|
|Part of the Political violence in Egypt, 2013|
|Date||14 August 2013|
|Deaths||Health Ministry: 638 killed595 civilians43 police officersMuslim Brotherhood: 2,600 killed at Rabaa Al-Adawiya|
|Injured (non-fatal)||At least 3,994 injured.|
On 14 August 2013, Egyptian security forces raided two camps of protesters in Cairo: one at al-Nahda Square and a larger one at Rabaa al-Adawiya Mosque. The two sites had been occupied by supporters of ousted President Mohamed Morsi, who was removed from office by the military after mass street protests against him. The camps were raided after initiatives to end the six week sit-ins failed and as a result of the raids the camps were cleared out within hours. The raids were described by Human Rights Watch as the most serious incident of mass unlawful killings in modern Egyptian history.
According to the Egyptian Health Ministry, 638 people were killed on 14 August, of which 595 were civilians and 43 police officers, with at least 3,994 injured. However, the Muslim brotherhood and National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy (NCSL) put the number of deaths from the Rabaa al-Adawiya Mosque sit-in alone at some 2,600. Violent retaliation followed in several cities across the country. The interim government declared a month-long state of emergency in response and curfews were instituted in many areas. The total casualty count made 14 August the deadliest day since the 2011 Egyptian revolution which toppled Morsi’s predecessor Hosni Mubarak. The clashes were widely denounced by world leaders, with the exception of Gulf Arab states: the U.A.E., Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, which is facing its own uprising, and potential GCC member Jordan.
Background[edit source | editbeta]
See also: Political violence in Egypt (2013)
Following the 2011 Egyptian revolution and subsequent instability, millions of Egyptians took to the streets calling for the resignation of Egypt’s president which culminated in the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi. For weeks, supporters of the deposed president occupied two squares — Rabaa al-Adawiya in Nasr city, Cario and al-Nahda in Giza — to protest his ouster, vowing to remain until Morsi was reinstated. Authorities delayed clearing the two protest camps as internal and external reconciliation process was established to resolve the crisis peacefully.
According to the military, the sit-ins were flash points for outbreaks of violence and bloody confrontations amongst pro-Morsi, anti-Morsi demonstrators and security forces. The encampments became a potent symbol of Egypt’s impasse as they grew more permanent with stores, barbers and their own television station. Authorities saw the camps as destabilising and disruptive and representing “a threat to the Egyptian national security and an unacceptable terrorizing of citizens,” accusing the pro-Morsi side of provoking bloodshed to win sympathyand considered the standoff as hindering their view of putting Egypt on a “roadmap” to restoring civilian democracy, with a new constitution and new elections. The government threatened a raid on the protest camps on multiple occasions. Allegedly, an ultimatum was issued prior to 14 August, although Al-Azhar, Egypt’s official Islamic authority, denied that such a warning had been given.
Warning[edit source | editbeta]
Initiatives that tried to resolve the tensions, including foreign-backed efforts by Gulf Arab countries, the E.U. and the U.S.A., failed to yield any positive outcomes before state authorities decreed these a failure and issued the ultimatum. Prime Minister Hazem el-Beblawi warned just ahead of the Muslim Eid al-Fitr holiday that the government’s decision to clear the sit-ins was “irreversible”.
According to the Interior Ministry, the plan was originally to disperse the six-week-old sit-ins gradually by forming cordons around the two sites as early as dawn Monday, August 12, allowing protesters to leave but preventing others from getting in, to minimize casualties before using water cannons and tear gas. However, leaked news of the plan prompted thousands of protesters to defiantly flood into two protest camps, prompting police to postpone the move.
The protesters have been fortifying the sit-in camps. In Rabaa, men with helmets, sticks and what appeared to be protective sports equipment guarded barricades made of sandbags, truck tires and bricks. They have also built three concrete waist-high barriers against armored vehicles.
Raids[edit source | editbeta]
On 14 August 2013, shortly after 7:00, Egyptian police moved to disperse the camps. According to the Interior Ministry, the plan was originally to stop the protests gradually by cutting off supply lines while providing a safe exit for those who elected to leave. Army troops did not take part in the two operations, although they provided security at the locations.
By 8:00 the smaller camp — near Cairo University in Giza — was cleared of protesters, but it took about 12 hours for police to take control of the main sit-in site near the Rabaa al-Adawiya Mosque that has served as the epicenter of the pro-Morsi campaign. The police in riot gear used tear gas, rubber bullets, birdshot and live ammunition to disperse the protesters while being supported by bulldozers to clear barricades and covered by armored vehicles and snipers on rooftops. Military helicopters swooped low over the encampment and loudspeaker warning, told the thousands of demonstrators to leave the area to take designated routes to safety.
For much of the afternoon, thousands of Morsi supporters chanting “Allahu Akbar” tried to join those besieged by the security forces inside the Nasr City camp. They were driven away when police fired tear gas. All entrances to Rabaa were later blocked by security forces. Brotherhood spokesman Gehad El-Haddad accused police snipers of firing at Rabaa protesters from the rooftop of surrounding buildings and protesters also claimed that snipers fired down on those trying to flee or reach safety. In the afternoon, the protesters managed to push the police back to the point where they could get into a makeshift hospital. Shortly before dusk, soldiers and police officers renewed their push and the protestors were forced to flee. The government forces seized control destroying what remained of the protest camp.
Immediately after the morning raids, the National Coalition for Supporting Legitimacy, a pro-Morsi group, reiterated its rejection of violence and called on its members to continue to protest “to stop the massacre”. The attacks set off retaliatory clashes and protest marches. Protesters blocked important roads, including the Ring Road, a key route that connects many of Cairo’s major districts. Crowds of Morsi supporters marched toward eastern Cairo in the late morning, running into a barrage of gunfire as they confronted police lines. In addition, there have been a number of attacks on police stations around the country. Interior Minister Mohamed Ibrahim put the number of stations attacked at 21. Angry mobs reportedly also attacked dozens of Christian properties. By nightfall, the military-backed interim government had declared a state of emergency declaring a curfew. However, protestors had established new sit-ins outside Mustafa Mahmoud Mosque in Mohandeseen, Giza and others in cities around the country, defying the new curfew and the interior minister’s vows to break up any such assemblies.
Initial reports by the Egyptian Health Ministry said 235 civilians, three journalists and 43 policemen died in the violence and more than 2,000 injured, with the death toll expected to rise.Many protestors were shot and at least one was burned alive. Egyptian state television aired images purporting to show weapons confiscated from the sit-in protester’s camps, including automatic rifles and thousands of rounds of ammunition. Various journalists and news agencies discredited these claims as multiple independent journalists had visited and inspected the camps for weapons prior to the attacks, finding none of the purported weapons caches. A television channel supporting the government aired unverified infrared footage purporting to show Muslim Brotherhood members firing automatic weapons against security forces. According to several political analysts and historians, including Issandr El Amrani, Hugh Roberts and Tarek Masoud, the force with which the military attacked the protesters was a deliberate calculation designed to provoke a violent response from supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Aftermath[edit source | editbeta]
Rabaa Square before and after 14 August.
The violence then spread across the country as people learned what had happened in Cairo and took to the streets in anger. In the Giza Governorate, an angry mob attacked a police station, one of 21 such attacks according to the interior ministry. In southern Egypt, between two and seven Coptic Christian churches were burned to the ground, according to the New York Times, while the interior ministry said that at least seven Coptic Christian churches had been vandalised or torched by suspected Islamists. While, Coptic rights group, Maspero Youth Union (MYU), estimated that as many as 36 churches were “completely” devastated by fire across nine Egyptian governorates including in Minya, Sohag and Assiut, and many other churches were looted or stormed in ensuing street violence. Christian activists accused Morsi supporters of waging “a war of retaliation against Copts in Egypt.” According to the government, Muslim Brotherhood supporters attacked government headquarters in several governorates. Supporters of Morsi staged solidarity protests against the crackdown, with clashes reported in Ismailia, Alexandria, Suez, Upper Egypt’s Assiyut and Aswan and other places. In defiance of the curfew, Morsi supporters vowed to return to the streets to continue protesting against the crackdown and coup. Egyptian banks and its stock market were closed through 15 August. Rail travel into and out of Cairo was also suspended. In Giza, hundreds of Morsi supporters also set fire to local government offices; the government then authorised the use of live ammunition on anyone attacking state buildings.
Tamarod called on its supporters to protest on 16 August and to form neighbourhood watch groups to guard against Morsi supporters; in like measure, Morsi supporters vowed to keep up their campaign to get the deposed president reinstated.
The next day, hundreds of Morsi supporters barricaded themselves at the Fateh Mosque in Cairo. After a day, security forces again cleared the demonstrators. The Muslim Brotherhood then reiterated its call to hold continued protests. The Muslim Brotherhood called for a “Day of Rage” after Friday prayers on 16 August with Muslim Brotherhood spokesman Gehad el-Haddad writing on Twitter: “Anti-coup rallies tomorrow will depart from all mosques of Cairo and head towards Ramsis square after Jumaa prayer in ‘Friday of Anger’.” The party also released a statement that read: “Despite the pain and sorrow over the loss of our martyrs, the latest coup makers’ crime has increased our determination to end them.” By 20 August, the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, Mohammed Badie, who had been in hiding, was arrested after being found residential flat in Nasr City. Pro-Morsi supporters continued to rally and on 30 August six protesters were killed.
State of emergency and curfew[edit source | editbeta]
Map showing extent of the curfew initially issued by the interim Egyptian government on 14 August 2013. The curfew was lifted in South Sinai Governorate the next day.
The interim government declared a month-long state of emergency beginning at 16:00. By doing so, the right to a trial and due process of the law was suspended. A 19:00 curfew was also declared in 14 of the 27 governorates (Cairo, Giza, Alexandria, Suez, Qena, Ismailia, Asyut, Sohag, Beni Suef, Minya, Beheira, South Sinai, North Sinai and Faiyum). The army promised to enforce the curfew with the “utmost firmness.” The curfew would be enforced from 19:00–06:00 for a month, along with the state of emergency. The following day, Egypt’s interim cabinet lifted the curfew in South Sinai to avoid harming tourism in the city of Sharm El-Sheikh. The curfew had started to hurt the Cairo economy after less than a week in place. Starting 24 August, the interim cabinet decided to shorten the curfew by two hours to 21:00-06:00 excluding Fridays. On 31 August, the curfew was again shortened by another two hours to 23:00-06:00 excluding Fridays where the curfew remains from 19:00-06:00.
Casualties[edit source | editbeta]
On 14 August, the Egyptian Health Ministry said that at least 235 civilians were killed and more than 2,000 injured. An additional 43 police officers were killed in the violence, according to the Interior Ministry. According to the New York Times, those figures were likely to rise as more information became available. The Muslim Brotherhood estimated the death toll at 2,000. Of the dead, 37 were from the town of Fayoum. Many of the dead appeared to be teenagers.
On 15 August, The Egyptian Health Ministry then raised the death toll to 638 and number of injured to 3,994 from the bloody clashes that broke out the previous day. Of those killed, 595 were civilians, including 288 at Rabaa Al-Adawiya and 90 in al-Nahda Square. It is unclear whether at least a dozen of charred corpses and others that remain unidentified, have been included in the official death toll. However, the Muslim Brotherhood andNCSL put the number of deaths from the Rabaa sit-in alone at about 2,600 people.
Many deaths were also reported in Giza. Workers of al-Iman mosque claim the ministry “won’t acknowledge” in their official death toll tally over 200 charred bodies that had been moved to the mosque from a protest camp nearby. At al-Iman mosque in Nasr City the next day, hundreds of bodies were still on the floor of a makeshift morgue and wrapped in shrouds and kept cool with blocks of ice, some bodies also bore gunshot wounds and many were charred beyond recognition.
Attack on journalists[edit source | editbeta]
During the raid, journalists covering the event were trapped, four of them were killed while others were injured or detained. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, it was the deadliest day for journalists in Egypt since the organization began keeping records in 1992. Veteran Sky News camera operator Michael “Mick” Deane, 61, was killed. Deane was an experienced journalist who had previously worked for CNN before working for Sky News for 15 years. Photos of Deane’s body showed that he was wearing a helmet that clearly identified him as a journalist. The CPJ said Deane was the 1000th journalist it had confirmed killed worldwide. Egyptian journalist Habiba Ahmed Abd Elaziz, 26, worked for Gulf News publication XPRESS newspaper, was shot and killed. Egyptian reporter Ahmed Abdel Gawad, who was with Al-Akhbar state-run newspaper and was an editorial manager for the Muslim Brotherhood television satellite channel Misr 25, was shot in the back and killed. Rassd News Network (RNN) photojournalist Mosab El-Shami was also killed.Among the journalists most seriously injured were Al-Watan editor Tariq Abbas, who was shot in the face, and Al-Masry Al-Youm photojournalist Alaa al-Qamhawy, who was shot in the foot. Among the detained journalists were Al-Jazeera journalist Abdallah Al-Shami and Al Jazeera Media Network’s Mubasher Misr photographers Emad Eddin Al-Sayed and Abdulrahman Al-Mowahhed-Bellah, and Freedom and Justice Party (Egypt) (Al-Hurrya wa Al-Adala) / Misr 25 journalist Radwa Al-Selawi. Previously during the 2013 political violence in Egypt, photojournalist Ahmed Assem el-Senousy was killed on 8 July 2013 as a result of sniper fire, while covering a protest. In total, five journalists were killed since political violence erupted after the military coup in 2013.
Egypt’s State Information Service released a statement on 17 August critical of news coverage from foreign journalists: “‘Media coverage has steered away from objectivity and neutrality’ which has led to ‘a distorted image that is very far from the facts… Egypt is feeling severe bitterness towards some western media coverage that is biased to the Muslim Brotherhood and ignores shedding light on violent and terror acts that are perpetrated by this group.'”
The United Nations said about the attack on protesters that there had been “serious violations of human rights law”, including the killing of journalists, after UNESCO’s Director-General Irina Bokova had already condemned the killing earlier of journalist el-Senousy in July. The International Press Institute demanded that Egypt be held responsible for violations of journalists’ rights and the Egyptian military’s targeting of the press corps.
Reactions[edit source | editbeta]
Domestic[edit source | editbeta]
Mostafa Hegazy, a spokesperson for Egypt’s interim president,[who?] said: “We’re not into the effort of dissolving anyone – or preventing anyone from being active in the public domain, but we’re trying to make sure that everyone is legalised according to what the Egyptian law says…” He added that the country was facing a war waged by “terrorist forces.” Interim Vice PresidentMohamed El-Baradei resigned in protest at the crackdown saying his conscience was troubled over the loss of life “particularly as I believe it could have been avoided. It has become too difficult to continue bearing responsibility for decisions I do not agree with and whose consequences I fear.” He added that the “state of polarisation and grave division… the social fabric is threatened as violence breeds violence.” He was then charged by a Cairo court with “breaching national trust;” the charge of “betraying” could carry an US$1,430 fine if convicted. It followed a complaint his resignation gives the international community a false impression of unity of the state as it “contradicts reality.” However, after his resignation he left the country for Vienna.Interim Prime Minister Hazem el-Beblawi defended the state’s reactions and praised the security forces saying that “we found that matters had reached a point that no self respecting state could accept…the spread of anarchy and attacks on hospitals and police stations.” He also recommended the dissolution of the Muslim Brotherhood. He further noted that Egypt was headed in the “right direction” and that he did “not fear civil war.” In reaction to consideration of cutting aid funds from the U.S. and the E.U., he defiantly said that it would be “a bad sign” in cutting of aid, but that while that would “badly affect the military for some time,” Egypt would survive as “let’s not forget that Egypt went with the Russian military for support and we survived. So, there is no end to life. You can live with different circumstances.” It also follows Saudi Arabia’s promise to fill in the aid vacuum.
On 17 August, presidential advisor Mostafa Hegazy said: “We are facing a war launched by extremist forces escalating every day to a terrorist war. Forces of extremism intend to cripple our journey towards pure bright future, aiming and willing to bring to the whole state into total failure.” Foreign Minister Nabil Fahmy condemned suggestion of cutting aid to Egypt and added that the government would not abandon its efforts to restore order ““We keep hearing if Egypt doesn’t do this or doesn’t do that, then aid will be stopped here or will be stopped there. If one side is revising aid they are giving, we are revising aid we receive as well.” He also said in light of international criticism of the move: “The attempts to internationalize the discussions about this event is something that Egypt rejects. I ask the foreign ministry to review the foreign aid of the past and to see if those aids are used in an optimal way.” In the wake of continued protests and violence, army chief Abdel Fattah el-Sisi said that he would no longer restrain his forces from confronting “attackers who want to destroy Egypt.” He added:
Our self-restraint will not continue. We will not accept any more attacks. We will meet with full force. Attackers want to destroy Egypt. Whoever imagines violence will make the state and Egyptians kneel must reconsider; we will never be silent in the face of the destruction of the country. [There is] room for everyone [and the security services would not] conspire [to take power]. The will of the Egyptian people is free, their will is free, they can choose whoever they want to rule them, and we are the guardians of this will. The army and the police right now are the guardians of the will of the people with regard to choosing who their leaders will be. I said previously that Egyptians if they want to change the world, they are capable of that, and I tell the Egyptian people now that if you want to build Egypt and its future, you will and you can, and you can make it ‘Egypt the mother of all nations’ Egypt will be as big as the world itself, with God’s will.
Egyptian state television claimed the protest camps had been cleared “in a highly civilised way,” while the interim government released a statement praising the brave security forces and blaming the Islamists for the loss of life. The government also called the raids necessary and said police had confiscated guns and other weapons from the camps. The government renewed its promise to pursue an army-backed political transition plan in “a way that strives not to exclude any party”. The Muslim Brotherhood’s media office in London issued a statement that read the world “cannot sit back and watch while innocent men, women and children are being indiscriminately slaughtered. The world must stand up to the military junta’s crime before it is too late.”Egyptian Ambassador to the U.K. Ashraf El-Kholy defended the crackdown and blamed the Muslim Brotherhood for causing the difficulties saying: “Of course they did nothing but return fire. If you have somebody firing at you then you have to respond.” Party spokesman Mona al-Qazzaz said:
This is not a government, this is not a regime, this is a mafia…They failed at every single democratic process, and they came on the back of the tanks as leaders…This is an illegitimate mafia that has hijacked the power of Egypt…They would have to pay the price of their crimes against humanity. They are the illegal people, we have won at every single democratic process and they have lost, and the only way for them to be back in the political arena is through the power of the bullets and tanks.
Grand imam Ahmed el-Tayeb called for “restraint” saying Al-Azhar is committed to seeking a political solution to the situation. He also urged all political factions to respond to the national reconciliation efforts and said that he had no prior knowledge of the crackdown efforts. The Coptic Church condemned the attacks on its churches and called on the army to restore order.el-Tayeb and el-Baradei were amongst other advocated of the coup who later were seen to express at least a modicum of sympathy for the protesters due to the heavy-handed nature of the crackdown. The al-Nour Party called on protestors to exhibit restraint, but said the crackdowns would further complicate the political process. The April 6 Youth Movement blamed the “the army, interior ministry and the Muslim Brotherhood” for the violence. There were also reactions on social media. The Wafd Liberal Party said it was the government’s duty to the sits-ins since the alleged mandate to fight violence and terrorism on 26 July. It added that while theright of peaceful protest and freedom of expression is guaranteed, the protesters at both squares were not peaceful protesters and were hiding weapons; it further accused the Muslim Brotherhood of being responsible for the unrest in the country with its allegedly inciting speeches, defiance of the state and disrespect of the will of what they suggested was a majority of the people and of the army that deepened the polarisation. Former presidential candidate Amr Moussa said that “the whole Egyptian society should stand against any attempt to raise strife on the current incidents.” The founder of the Free Egyptians Party Naguib Sawiris said: “Decision to disperse MB sit-ins was crucial” and that no one accepts sit-ins that block the roads and hinder economic development. Popular Current leader and former presidential candidate Hamdeen Sabahi said: “We support people, army, police against terrorism” and wrote on Twitter “we will support our people, army and police against the terrorism of those who monopolized the people’s will.” Former presidential candidate Abdel-Moneim Aboul-Fotouh added that was in touch with senior state officials and had asked them to take the necessary decision to stop the bloodshed immediately as it could drag the country into a wave of violence and chaos. The Dawaa Salafya called on the cabinet to resign and issued a statement that condemned the violent clashes and warned against dragging the country into mobilisation of both sides, which would negatively affect social cohesion. The foreign ministry also formed a working group of senior officials to follow up on foreign reactions to the crisis and would supply Egyptian embassies with the requisite details and follows up on foreign media coverage of the events, according to the interior ministry.
The Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies in its condemnation of lethal violence against those condemned Egyptian security forces for having “failed to do their duty to take the necessary legal measures to protect public security and citizens, particularly residents and passersby in the aforementioned two areas, which in turn allowed weapons, ammunition, and fortifications to enter the sit-ins and led to killing, torture, and physical assaults on journalists with impunity.”
International[edit source | editbeta]
- African Union – The A.U. was to send a panel consisting of former Malian president Alpha Oumar Konare, former Botswana President Festus Mogae and former Djibouti Prime Minister Dileita Mohammed Dileita, amongst others, to help find a resolution to the conflict. The panel was in Egypt from the end of July to early August. A.U. spokesman El Ghassim Wane said: “We have formally written to the Egyptian interim authorities to inform them of the intention of the panel to come back to Egypt, and we look forward to the cooperation of both the interim authorities and all Egyptians. The plans are for the panel to go back to Egypt as early as [this] week. The Peace and Security Council has urged that preparations be expedited for the panel to go back to Egypt. Further polariSation of the situation in Egypt or escalation of violence will have far-reaching implications both for Egypt, the region and the African continent as a whole. And this is why the AU is making sustained efforts to contribute to the ongoing efforts, based of course, on the ownership by the Egyptian stakeholders themselves.”