What Did The Periodic Table Almost Look Like?

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Transition metal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Transition metals in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has two possible meanings:

  • The IUPAC definition[1] defines a transition metal as “an element whose atom has a partially filled d sub-shell, or which can give rise to cations with an incomplete d sub-shell”.
  • Most scientists describe a “transition metal” as any element in the d-block of the periodic table, which includes groups 3 to 12 on the periodic table.[2][3] In actual practice, the f-block lanthanide and actinide series are also considered transition metals and are called “inner transition metals”.

English chemist Charles Bury first used the word transition in 1921 when he referred to a transition series of elements during the change of an inner layer of electrons (for example n=3 in the 4th row of the periodic table) from a stable group of 8 to one of 18, or from 18 to 32.[4][5] These elements are now known as the d-block.

Classification[edit]

In the d-block the atoms of the elements have between 1 and 10 d electrons.

Transition metals in the d-block
Group 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Period 4 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30
Period 5 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48
Period 6 57–71 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80
Period 7 89–103 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Ds 110 Rg 111 Cn 112

The typical electronic structure of transition metal atoms can be written as [ ]ns2(n-1)dm, following the Madelung rule where the inner d orbital is predicted to be filled after thevalence-shell s orbital. This is actually not the case; the 4s electrons are higher in energy than the 3d as shown spectroscopically. An ion such as Fe2+
has no 4s electrons: it has the electronic configuration [Ar]3d6 as compared with the configuration of the atom, [Ar]4s23d6.

The elements of groups 3–12 are now generally recognized as transition metals, although the elements La-Lu and Ac-Lr and Group 12 attract different definitions from different authors.

  1. Many chemistry textbooks and printed periodic tables classify La and Ac as Group 3 elements and transition metals, since their atomic ground-state configurations are s2d1 like Sc and Y. The elements Ce-Lu are considered as the “lanthanide” series (or “lanthanoid” according to IUPAC) and Th-Lr as the “actinide” series.[6][7] The two series together are classified as f-block elements, or (in older sources) as “inner transition elements”.
  2. Some inorganic chemistry textbooks include La with the lanthanides and Ac with the actinides.[8][9][10] This classification is based on similarities in chemical behaviour, and defines 15 elements in each of the two series even though they correspond to the filling of an f subshell which can only contain 14 electrons.
  3. A third classification defines the f-block elements as La-Yb and Ac-No, while placing Lu and Lr in Group 3.[4] This is based on the aufbau principle (or Madelung rule) for filling electron subshells, in which 4f is filled before 5d (and 5f before 6d), so that the f subshell is actually full at Yb (and No) while Lu (and Lr) has an [ ]s2f14d1configuration. However La and Ac are exceptions to the Aufbau principle with electron configuration [ ]s2d1 (not [ ]s2f1 as the aufbau principle predicts) so it is not clear from atomic electron configurations whether La or Lu (Ac or Lr) should be considered as transition metals. Eric Scerri has proposed placing Lu and Lr in group 3 on the grounds of continuous sequences of atomic numbers in an expanded or long-form periodic table.[11]

Zinc, cadmium, and mercury are sometimes excluded from the transition metals[4] as they have the electronic configuration [ ]d10s2, with no incomplete d shell.[12] In the oxidation state +2 the ions have the electronic configuration [ ] d10. However, these elements can exist in other oxidation states, including the +1 oxidation state, as in the diatomic ionHg2+
2
. The group 12 elements Zn, Cd and Hg may be classed as post-transition metals in this case, because of the formation of a covalent bond between the two atoms of the dimer. However, it is often convenient to include these elements in a discussion of the transition elements. For example, when discussing the crystal field stabilization energy of first-row transition elements, it is convenient to also include the elements calcium and zinc, as both Ca2+
and Zn2+
have a value of zero against which the value for other transition metal ions may be compared. Another example occurs in the Irving-Williams series of stability constants of complexes.

The recent synthesis of mercury(IV) fluoride (HgF
4
) has been taken by some to reinforce the view that the group 12 elements should be considered transition metals,[13] but some authors still consider this compound to be exceptional.[14]

Position in the periodic table[edit]

The d-block as stated earlier, is present in the centre of the long form of periodic table. These are flanked or surrounded by elements belonging to s and p-blocks on both sides. These are called transition elements since they represent a transition i.e., there is a change from metallic character of s-block elements to non-metallic character of p-block elements through d-block elements which are also metals. As pointed above there are four transition series in this block. Since the filling of electrons takes place in (n-1)d orbitals, the periods to which these series belong, is actually one more than the actual series. For example, the elements included in 3d series belong to fourth period ; the elements included in 4d series belong to the fifth period and so on.

Electronic configuration[edit]

The general electronic configuration of the d-block elements is [Inert gas] (n-1)d1–10n s1–2. The period 6 and 7 transition metals also add (n-2)f14 electrons, which are omitted from the tables below.

The d-sub-shell is the penultimate (last but one) sub-shell and is denoted as (n-1) d-sub-shell. The number of s electrons may vary from one to two. The s-sub-shell in the valence shell is represented as the ns sub-shell. However, palladium (Pd) is an exception with no electron in the s-sub shell. In the periodic table, the transition metals are present in ten groups (3 to 12). Group-2 belongs to the s– block with an ns2 configuration.

The elements in group-3 have an ns2(n-1)d1 configuration. The first transition series is present in the 4thperiod, and starts after Ca (Z=20) of group-2 which has configuration [Ar]4s2. The electronic configuration of scandium (Sc), the first element of group-3 with atomic number Z=21 is[Ar]4s23d1. As we move from left to right, electrons are added to the same d-sub-shell till it is complete. The element of group-12 in the first transition series is zinc (Zn) with configuration [Ar]4s23d10. Since the electrons added fill the (n-1)dorbitals, the properties of the d-block elements are quite different from those of s and p block elements in which the filling occurs either in s or in p-orbitals of the valence shell. The electronic configuration of the individual elements present in all the transition series are given below:

First (3d) Transition Series (Sc-Zn)

Group 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
At.no. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Element Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn
Config. 3d14s2 3d24s2 3d34s2 3d54s1 3d54s2 3d64s2 3d74s2 3d84s2 3d104s1 3d104s2

Second (4d) Transition Series (Y-Cd)

At. No. 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48
Element Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd
Config. 4d15s2 4d25s2 4d45s1 4d55s1 4d55s2 4d75s1 4d85s1 4d105s0 4d105s1 4d105s2

Third (5d) Transition Series (Lu-Hg)[15]

At.No 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
Element Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg
Config. 5d16s2 5d26s2 5d36s2 5d46s2 5d56s2 5d66s2 5d76s2 5d96s1 5d106s1 5d106s2

Fourth (6d) Transition Series (Lr-Cn)

At. No. 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112
Element Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn
Config. 7s27p1 6d27s2 6d37s2 6d47s2 6d57s2 6d67s2 6d77s2 6d87s2 6d97s2 6d107s2

A careful look at the electronic configuration of the elements reveals that there are certain exceptions shown by Pt, Au and Hg.. These are either because of the symmetry or nuclear-electron and electron-electron force.

The (n-1)d orbitals that are involved in the transition metals are very significant because they influence such properties as magnetic character, variable oxidation states, formation of colored compounds etc. The valence s(ns) and p(np) orbitals have very little contribution in this regard since they hardly change in the moving from left to the right in a transition series. In transition metals, there is a greater horizontal similarities in the properties of the elements in a period in comparison to the periods in which the d-orbitals are not involved. This is because in a transition series, the valence shell electronic configuration of the elements do not change. However, there are some group similarities as well.

Characteristic properties[edit]

There are a number of properties shared by the transition elements that are not found in other elements, which results from the partially filled d shell. These include

  • the formation of compounds whose colour is due to dd electronic transitions
  • the formation of compounds in many oxidation states, due to the relatively low reactivity of unpaired d electrons.[16]
  • the formation of many paramagnetic compounds due to the presence of unpaired d electrons. A few compounds of main group elements are also paramagnetic (e.g. nitric oxide, oxygen)

Coloured compounds[edit]

From left to right, aqueous solutions of:Co(NO
3)
2
(red); K
2Cr
2O
7
(orange); K
2CrO
4
(yellow); NiCl
2
(turquoise); CuSO
4
(blue);KMnO
4
(purple).

Colour in transition-series metal compounds is generally due to electronic transitions of two principal types.

  • charge transfer transitions. An electron may jump from a predominantly ligand orbital to a predominantly metal orbital, giving rise to a ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) transition. These can most easily occur when the metal is in a high oxidation state. For example, the colour of chromate, dichromate and permanganate ions is due to LMCT transitions. Another example is thatmercuric iodide, HgI2, is red because of a LMCT transition.

A metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition will be most likely when the metal is in a low oxidation state and the ligand is easily reduced.

  • dd transitions. An electron jumps from one d-orbital to another. In complexes of the transition metals the d orbitals do not all have the same energy. The pattern of splitting of the d orbitals can be calculated using crystal field theory. The extent of the splitting depends on the particular metal, its oxidation state and the nature of the ligands. The actual energy levels are shown on Tanabe-Sugano diagrams.

In centrosymmetric complexes, such as octahedral complexes, dd transitions are forbidden by the Laporte rule and only occur because of vibronic coupling in which a molecular vibration occurs together with a d-d transition. Tetrahedral complexes have somewhat more intense colour because mixing d and p orbitals is possible when there is no centre of symmetry, so transitions are not pure d-d transitions. The molar absorptivity (ε) of bands caused by d-d transitions are relatively low, roughly in the range 5-500 M−1cm−1 (whereM = mol dm−3).[17] Some dd transitions are spin forbidden. An example occurs in octahedral, high-spin complexes of manganese(II), which has a d5 configuration in which all five electron has parallel spins; the colour of such complexes is much weaker than in complexes with spin-allowed transitions. Many compounds of manganese(II) appear almost colourless. The spectrum of [Mn(H
2O)
6]2+
shows a maximum molar absorptivity of about 0.04 M−1cm−1 in the visible spectrum.

Oxidation states[edit]

A characteristic of transition metals is that they exhibit two or more oxidation states, usually differing by one. For example, compounds of vanadium are known in all oxidation states between −1, such as [V(CO)
6]−
, and +5, such as VO3−
4
.

Main group elements in groups 13 to 17 also exhibit multiple oxidation states. The “common” oxidation states of these elements typically differ by two. For example, compounds of gallium in oxidation states +1 and +3 exist in which there is a single gallium atom. No compound of Ga(II) is known: any such compound would have an unpaired electron and would behave as a free radical and be destroyed rapidly. The only compounds in which gallium has a formal oxidation state of +2 are dimeric compounds, such as [Ga
2Cl
6]2−
, which contain a Ga-Ga bond formed from the unpaired electron on each Ga atom.[18] Thus the main difference in oxidation states, between transition elements and other elements is that oxidation states are known in which there is a single atom of the element and one or more unpaired electrons.

The maximum oxidation state in the first row transition metals is equal to the number of valence electrons from titanium (+4) up to manganese (+7), but decreases in the later elements. In the second row the maximum occurs with ruthenium (+8), and in the third row, the maximum occurs with iridium (+9). In compounds such as [MnO
4]−
and OsO
4
the elements achieve a stable octet by forming four covalent bonds.

The lowest oxidation states are exhibited in metal carbonyl complexes such as Cr(CO)
6
(oxidation state zero) and [Fe(CO)
4]2−
(oxidation state −2) in which the 18-electron rule is obeyed. These complexes are also covalent.

Ionic compounds are mostly formed with oxidation states +2 and +3. In aqueous solution the ions are hydrated by (usually) six water molecules arranged octahedrally.

Magnetism[edit]

Main article: magnetochemistry

Transition metal compounds are paramagnetic when they have one or more unpaired d electrons.[19] In octahedral complexes with between four and seven d electrons both high spin and low spin states are possible. Tetrahedral transition metal complexes such as [FeCl
4]2−
are high spin because the crystal field splitting is small so that the energy to be gained by virtue of the electrons being in lower energy orbitals is always less than the energy needed to pair up the spins. Some compounds are diamagnetic. These include octahedral, low-spin, d6 and square-planar d8 complexes. In these cases, crystal field splitting is such that all the electrons are paired up.

Ferromagnetism occurs when individual atoms are paramagnetic and the spin vectors are aligned parallel to each other in a crystalline material. Metallic iron and the alloy alnicoare examples of ferromagnetic materials involving transition metals. Anti-ferromagnetism is another example of a magnetic property arising from a particular alignment of individual spins in the solid state.

Catalytic properties[edit]

The transition metals and their compounds are known for their homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic activity. This activity is ascribed to their ability to adopt multiple oxidation states and to form complexes. Vanadium(V) oxide (in the contact process), finely divided iron (in the Haber process), and nickel (in catalytic hydrogenation) are some of the examples. Catalysts at a solid surface (nanomaterial-based catalysts) involve the formation of bonds between reactant molecules and atoms of the surface of the catalyst (first row transition metals utilize 3d and 4s electrons for bonding). This has the effect of increasing the concentration of the reactants at the catalyst surface and also weakening of the bonds in the reacting molecules (the activation energy is lowered). Also because the transition metal ions can change their oxidation states, they become more effective ascatalysts.

Other properties[edit]

As implied by the name, all transition metals are metals and conductors of electricity.

In general, transition metals possess a high density and high melting points and boiling points. These properties are due to metallic bonding by delocalized d electrons, leading tocohesion which increases with the number of shared electrons. However the group 12 metals have much lower melting and boiling points since their full d subshells prevent d–d bonding. Mercury has a melting point of −38.83 °C (−37.89 °F) and is a liquid at room temperature.

Many transition metals can be bound to a variety of ligands.[20]

See also[edit]

STONES, MINERALS, METALS…ECT

 

In general, stones and gems symbolize stability, immortality, life, and fertility. They have been used to mark sacred places of worship, places where important events have taken place, and burial sites. Many mythologies contain stories of people being born of stone or turning into stone.

Gems and stones are widely believed to have magical and healing qualities. Natural rock structures are places of worship and people pray and make offerings at them as representation of their gods or as altars to their gods. Stones are painted, carved, and used in their natural forms in rituals, for healing, and as symbolic representations of gods, the elements, planets, and other natural phenomena. As the keepers of wisdom, medicine men, shamans, and priests of every culture wear amulets made of stones and precious gems. Many times these amulets are a way for the holy men to communicate with their gods

Gods and goddesses were often represented and worshipped in the form of stones. In ancient Greece, people would leave piles of small stones along the roadsides in honor of Hermes, and in doing so they hoped for his protection and blessings on their travels. In India rock piles represent the guardian goddesses of the villages. The Druids had no representations of their gods except for columnar and cubical stones.

Spherical stones symbolize the moon and moon goddesses. Pillars of stone are used to symbolize the world axis, the axis mundi, and as phallic symbols. Broken stones were used in ancient cultures to symbolize death or the end of a cycle. Cubic stones symbolize stability and perfection, and were often used as the foundation stones of sacred buildings. The symbolism of the cubic stones survives today in the ceremony that surrounds the placing of the cornerstones when new buildings are being constructed.

Aegerine

Truth, self-acceptance, and integrity.

Enhances the healing qualities of other stones and strengthens the immune system.  Aids in the quest of the self and helps a person do what is in their heart. Guards against negative energy.

Agate

Victory, change, strength, truth, fertility, prosperity, and courage.  Agates are named after the Achates River, in Sicily, in which many can be found.  Their use as ornaments, amulets, and for healing can be traced back to ancient Babylon.  They have been called the stone of wanderers and are said to have the power to bring love, long life, protection, intelligence, prosperity, and healing into a persons life.  They have been used as protection against snake bites and scorpion stings and for protection from lightning and bad dreams.  Associated with the planet Mercury.

Strengthens the heart, helps heal liver diseases, blood disorder, skin problems, and helps stop bleeding.  Held in the mouth it will relieve thirst.

Black and white agates are stones of protection.  Red agates were used anciently to increase the fertility of the Earth.  They also give courage, long life, protection, love, and strength.  Banded agates ease anxiety, increase physical energy, give courage, and are good meditation stones.  Protective stone.  Green agates are worn to improve eye health.  Women used to drink water with a green agate in it to protect against sterility.  Moss agates are believed to contain the spirit of the Earth because of the small pieces of plants they contain.  They are the stone of gardeners. Help a person connect with nature spirits and the land.  They neutralize fears and open the mind.  Eases emotional pain and enhances creativity. Moss agates also help with communication with spirit guides.  They were used by ancient shamans and priests as healing stones and were believed to bring wealth, happiness, and long life to anyone who wore them.  Encourages universal love.  Brown agates were once worn by warriors to ensure victory in battle.  Lace agates encourage and support. They ease depression.  Blue lace agates is the stone of self-expression. It helps a person speak the truth and it makes it easier to express their thoughts. It takes away hoarseness and eases sore throats, is used to treat arthritis, and aid digestive conditions. It also is a calming stone and can help ease physical as well as emotional tension. Wear or carry for happiness and peace.

  • European:  In Europe it was believed that agates could cure insomnia.
  • Miscellaneous:  In Persia and Italy they were worn or carried as amulets for protection from the evil eye.
  • Judaic:  First stone in Aaron’s breastplate.
  • Roman:  The ancient Romans wore red agates to bring peace, heal blood disorders, to protect against insect bites, and to bring peace and serenity.

Alexandrite

Change, joy, oneness with life.

Helps with internal and external healing, and has a positive effect on the spleen, pancreas, and nervous system.  Balances the mental and physical bodies.

Aluminum

Pieces of aluminum are carried to enhance mental abilities.  In magic aluminum is associated with the planet Mercury and the element air.

Amazonite

Faith, hope, endurance, and strength.  Known as the “Hope Stone.”  Associated with the zodiac sign of Virgo, and the number five.  A stone believed to endow the wearer with creativity.

Balances the emotions.  Amazonite also helps align the solar plexus and heart chakras.

Amber

Luck, strength, beauty, and love. Amber may be the oldest substance used by men and women for jewelry and as magical and healing amulets.  It has been used for almost every magical purpose from protection to healing to bringing about fertility in people as well as the Earth.  Although amber is not a stone but the fossilized resin of conifer trees it has long been called a stone.  As a once living substance, it was believed to contain the essence of life because it often contains small insects, animals, and plants.  The symbol of strength, beauty, and love, amber is and was believed to bestow on the wearer knowledge, strength, courage, healing, and luck.  Amber is a solar stone and is also associated with the planet Mercury and Jupiter.

People used to wear chokers of amber beads to cure coughs, holding a piece of amber in your hand was believed to cure fevers and cool the body on a hot day, it was burned by ancient healers to cleanse the air and ease labor pains, and believed to cure the eyesight of anyone who gazed into it.

  • European:  In medieval Europe men would place a piece of amber on the breasts of their sleeping wives in the belief that if she had done any wrong she would confess her evil deeds.
  • Greek:  The origin of amber was explained in Greek myth by the story of Phaeton’s death.  Phaeton was the son of Phoebus Apollo, the god of the Sun.  One day Phaeton asked if he could drive his father’s Sun chariot.  His father allowed him to drive it but warned him not to go too close to the Sun.  The rides went well for awhile, but one day Phaeton was driving the horses faster than usual and lost control.  The horses bolted and Phaeton was killed.  His three sisters, the Heliades, searched for his body and when they found it they swore to stay with their dead brother forever.  They cried day and night and their bodies slowly turned into trees.  Their tears continued to fall and were eventually turned into amber by the Sun.
  • Native American:  Believed to be pieces of the Sun which have fallen to the Earth.

Amethyst

Courage, happiness, piety, peace, sobriety, and humility.  Wearing an amethyst was believed to bring peace of mind, sweet dreams, courage, happiness, protection from witchcraft, healing, strengthens memory, and strengthen faith.  Amethysts are associated with the planets Jupiter and Pluto.  Used as an antidote to poisons. Used to increase psychic awareness.

Amethyst has been called “nature’s tranquilizer” because it relaxes not only the mind but also the nervous system.  An elixir of amethyst is used to treat toothaches, bone and skeletal disease, balances blood sugar, heals stomach and digestive disorders, help with heart disorders, hearing problems, and convulsions.

  • Christian:  Represented the tribe of Dan.  St. Valentine wore an amethyst ring that was engraved with a figure of Cupid.
  • European:  Leonardo Da Vinci believed amethyst would heighten his intelligence and drive evil thoughts out of his mind.
  • Greek:  Protection, humility, and innocence, and simplicity.  The name of this stone is of Greek origin and is translated as- amethystus meaning “not drunken”, or “intoxicated” (-methystos from methyein or intoxicated, and methy meaning wine).  The ancient Greeks believed that if you drank wine from a goblet made of amethyst or had an amethyst bound to your navel you would not become intoxicated.  The legend of the origin of amethyst comes from Greek myths.  Dionysius, the god of intoxication, was angered one day by an insult from a mortal and swore revenge on the next man that crossed his path, he created fierce tigers to carry out his wish.  The next to come along was Amethyst, a beautiful young maiden on her way to pay tribute to the goddess Diana.  Diana turned Amethyst into a statue of crystalline quartz to protect her from the tigers. Dionysius wept tears of wine in remorse for his actions and at the sight of the beautiful statue.  His tears stained the quartz purple, creating amethyst.
  • Egyptian:  Protection from the evil eye.
  • Hindu:  The Hindus associate amethysts with the zodiac sign of Pisces and say they will keep Pisces children free from worry and pain.
  • Roman:  Amethysts origins are traced to Bacchus, god of nature and wine.
  • Tibetan: In Tibet it is believed to be sacred to Buddha and it is used to make rosaries.

 

Apache Tear

This is a translucent form of obsidian.  Associated with the planet Pluto.  A projective stone.  Will protect and bring good luck. A  grounding stone.

  • Native American:  Many Native American tribes regarded the stone with great respect and considered it sacred.  It was used for protection and to bring good luck.  Apache tear’s represent the tears of women who have lost a loved one in a war.

Apatite

Helps calm emotional stress.  Known as the “mind over matter” stone.

Aquamarine

Hope, peace, courage, happiness, and everlasting youth.  Associated with the planet Neptune.  Sailors used to wear or carry an aquamarine for protection.  The stone of sea gods and goddesses.  Said to help keep marriages happy, babies safe, protect against evil, and ensure good health. To dream of an aquamarine means you will meet new friends.  Receptive stone.

Used for diseases of the neck, head, throat, and relief of stomach upset.  A diuretic.  Calms hostility and anger, and promotes openness.

  • Christian:  Christian myths say that this stone gives you power over the devil and if you put it in your mouth you cannot be lied to.
  • Greco-Roman:  Used by  fisherman and sailors for protection from the sea.  The ancient Greeks believed it was made from the tears of sea nymphs.  The Romans were the first to call it aquamarine, which means “water of the sea”.

Avalonite

Used to help dispel fears…fear of love, of failure, of being wrong, ect.  When these fears are gone you are better able to trust your intuition and discover your true path.

Aventurine

Balance universal love, prosperity, truth and joy.  Associated with the planets Venus and Uranus.  Has been used through time by gamblers as a good luck charm.  Is said the bring tranquility and peace to the wearer.

Used to heal the heart and lungs, migraines, eye problems, hypertension, inflammation, and lower fevers.  Helps ground a person emotionally.

Green aventurine soothes and balances. This stone is an all-around healer…physical, mental, and emotional.  Increases motivation and brings luck.  Called the “Stone of Heaven.”  Blue aventurine stimulates creativity and expression.  Helps dissolve blocks in the brow chakra.  Blue-green aventurine connects the throat and heart chakras which helps a person communicate in a more loving manner.  Orange aventurine dissolves creative blocks and heals sexual traumas.

  • Tibetan:  The ancient Tibetans decorated their statues with aventurine, most often using it for the eyes to symbolize spiritual insight.

Azurite

Wisdom and intuition.  Associated with the planet Saturn.  It has long been used as a rubbing stone, and like amber, needs to be touched to release its energies.  Azurite helps people connect with their spirit guides and aids healers, psychics, and mediators.

Considered a powerful healing stone, and believed to stimulate psychic abilities and intuition, reduce stress, and aid meditation.  Helps with spine, rib cage, and small bone disorders.  Helps clear toxins from the body.  Azurite is believed to have the power to restructure molecules and reconstruct the brain.

  • Egyptian:  Priests and priestesses used azurite to enhance their spiritual awareness.

Bloodstone

Victory, strength, change, balance, and long life.  This stone was referred to as hematite and heliotrope in ancient times.  Associated with the Earth.  Warriors carried it believing it would stop the bleeding if applied to a wound.

Used to help heal blood disorders.  People with weak voices or who are afraid to speak in front of groups should wear carnelian.

  • Babylonian:  The ancient Babylonians wore it to help them conquer their enemies.
  • Christian:  Medieval Christians often carved scenes of the crucifixion and martyrs on bloodstone.  Christian legend says that the bloodstone was created at the crucifixion when the blood from Christ’s wounds dripped onto the dark green Earth and turned into stone.
  • Egyptian:  The Egyptians believed bloodstone could break down any barriers and open all doors.
  • Roman:  Soldiers wore it because they believed it stopped bleeding and would protect them from fatal injury.

Blue Topaz

Inspiration.  Associated with the planets Mercury and Uranus.

Brass and Bronze

Wealth, justice, purity, morality, and protection.  Brass and bronze have the same symbolic meanings because each of their base alloys is copper.  Brass is a combination of copper and zinc, and bronze a combination of copper with tin and silver.  They are associated with both the Sun and Moon.  The copper being associated with the Sun and the other metals with the Moon.  Both metals have been considered sacred since ancient times.  The metals of sky gods and goddesses.

  • Roman:  Ancient Romans shaved the heads of their priests with bronze razors.  Bronze and brass ploughs were used to mark the boundaries of new towns, personal property, and sacred sites.

Calcite

Used to cleanse organs, heal bones, joints, and improve the memory.

Pink calcite centers and grounds.  It is a calming stone.  Orange calcite brings joy and protection.  Green calcite helps a person let go of old emotional and mental patterns and accept new.

Carnelian

Courage and peace.  The name comes from the Latin word for flesh.  Used to see into the past.  Associated the planets Saturn and Earth.  Believed to bring healing, protection, and courage to the wearer.  Ancient warriors wore carnelian pendants to gain physical power.

Used for healing infertility, menstrual cramps, asthma, rheumatism, insomnia, and skin and blood problems.  Carnelian helps you to have the mental power to focus on one important task at a times. It can help one with confidence and inspiration.

  • Egyptian:  The sacred stone of Isis, it was used in ancient Egypt to promote peace, courage, harmony, cure depression and increase sexual energy.

Chalcedony

Peace and protection.  Protects against nightmares.  Helps dispel sadness and fear.

Blue chalcedony is very calming.  Pink chalcedony heals all issues of the heart. It helps a person to be open to love from all.  Heals the inner child.  Gives people the security and safety to explore their feeling on a deeper level and let go of the pain from the past.

  • European:  Prescribed by 16th century magicians to cure mental problems, and worn in Italy by mothers to increase lactation.

Chrysocolla

Woman and the Earth.  Allows women to explore their feminine side and celebrate their womanhood.

Helps heal arthritis, female disorders, digestive problems, and helps prevent ulcers.  Strengthens the thyroid gland and the lungs.  Eases guilt, fear, and tension.

Citrine

This stone has been considered a strong protective stone since ancient times.  Associated with the planets Mercury and Mars.

Aids healing of the kidneys, liver, colon, and heart. Increases the body’s healing energies.  Allows you to trust your intuition.  Helps a person accept change.

Coral

Love, harmony, and protection.  Associated with the planets Venus, Neptune, Isis, and water.  As an amulet it had been used for protection against the evil eye and storms at sea, and protection for travelers.  The stone of teachers, singers, and public speakers.  Worn to effect inner changes.

Long considered to have great healing powers, coral has been used to cure everything from acne to mental illness.  Said to increase fertility, ease teething pain, prevent epilepsy, and cure arthritis.

Orange coral was worn to calm a person’s nerves.  Red coral is supposed to protect newlyweds from sterility and destroy negative vibrations.

  • Egyptian:  Protection.
  • Greek:  One of the Greek names for Coral was Gorgeia, recalling the blood that dripped from the head of Medea, Perseus placed on some of the blood in branches near the sea-shore and the blood drops were taken by the sea nymphs and planted in the sea, growing into coral.
  • Hindu: Mars.
  • Roman:  The ancient Romans had their children wear coral necklace for protection and healing

Copper

Love and luck.  Associated with the planet Venus and the element of water.  Copper is the metal of all love gods and goddesses.  Believed to bring healing and protection when used in amulets and charms.

Detoxifying, aids blood flow, and aligns the physical and mental bodies.  Helps raise self-esteem.

Diamond

Love, courage, peace, devotion, bravery, strength, innocence, and the perfect man.  Associated with the Sun and the element of fire.  The power of a diamond as an amulet is said to be lost if the diamond is purchased by the wearer, to be effective it must be a gift from another person. Diamonds have been worn as amulets of protection against poison, to drive away nightmares, to tame wild animals, and to protect mothers during childbirth.  One legend says that diamonds could determine a person’s guilt or innocence.  If a person was guilty the diamond would grow dark.

  • European:  In the past many Europeans believed that diamonds would sweat when in the presence of poison, so for many years it was used to detect poisons and poisonous creatures.  Aristocratic families wore diamonds to keep the plague away during the Middle Ages. This belief arose because the plague always entered cities through the ports, the poorest part of the cities, so the wealthy mistakenly believed their diamonds, a valuable unavailable to the poor, that would keep away the plague.
  • Greek:  The name comes from the Greek adamas, “unconquerable”, suggestive of the eternity of love.
  • Hindu:  Diamonds are the stones of the planet Venus and rule the arts and sexual pleasures.
  • Persian:  The ancient Persians believed the Devil created diamonds and considered them evil.

Emerald

Wealth, balance, love, rebirth, spring, chastity, hope, faith, harmony, immortality, and understanding.  Associated with the Moon, Jupiter and Venus. Emeralds have been worn as amulets to attract love and protect the wearer from demons.

Emeralds have long been used to cure eye diseases and relieve eye strain.

  • Christian: One Christian legend says that when Satan was cast out of heaven he lost an emerald from his crown. The Queen of Sheba had a bowl made from the emerald which was later used by Christ as the last supper and then Joseph of Arimanthea used the bowl to catch blood from the wound of Jesus. This bowl was later believed to be the Holy Grail.
  • Egyptian: Egyptian mummies were often buried with an emerald on their necks as a symbol of eternal life. The emerald was a sacred stone of Isis and she wore an emerald on her headband that was said to confer fertility on anyone who looked upon it.
  • Greek:  The name comes from the Greek smaragdos, “green stone”.  The ancient Greeks believed emeralds guaranteed everlasting love. The walls of the city on the Isles of the Blessed are decorated with emeralds.  Sacred to Ceres and Venus

Fluorite

Good luck.  Associated with the planet Neptune.  Called the Fairy Gem.

Strengthens he bones and teeth. Increases mental and emotional powers.

Garnet

Health, faith, truth, happiness, fertility, commitment, and good fortune.  Associated with the planets Mars and Pluto, and the element of fire. Believed to have great healing and protective powers.  Garnets were exchanged between friends as a symbol of their friendship and as a promise to meet again.  Have been worn as charms to gain strength, for protection, to keep away nightmares, to cure insomnia, and for good luck.  The garnet creates a protective shield around its wearer.  At one time women wore it around their waists to help with their menstrual cycle.

Helps with blood disorders.  Increases creativity, and helps with patience and persistence.

  • European:  They were worn in the 13th century as an insect repellent.
  • Greek:  The ancient Greeks called it the lamp stone because they believed it gave the wearer the ability to see in the dark.  Sacred stone of Persephone.
  • Roman:  Name comes from the Latin granatus, “like seeds”, because they are found ‘seeded’ in many different kinds of rocks.

 

Gold

Fire, power, wisdom, success, and the masculine principle.  Associated with the Sun.  Considered protective and healing when used in amulets.

Energizes the physical body, improves circulation, and strengthens the nervous system.  Because it aids tissue regeneration it would also be beneficial to burn victims

Hematite

Blood, success, focus, and good fortune.  Associated with the planet Saturn and the element of fire.   It is said if you hold hematite in your hand and ask a question the answer will come to you. Shamans placed it over the location of illness to draw out the spirit causing the illness.

A blood purifier and balancing stone.  Hematite has long been considered a powerful healing stone and people used to wear necklaces of hematite to cure blood diseases and gas.

  • Egyptian:  Used it to cure hysteria.
  • Greek:  Name comes from the Greek word meaning blood.

Holey Stone 

Protection, good health.  Holey stones are stones with at least one naturally occurring hole.  These stones are known by many names: Odin Stones, Hagstones, Wish Stones, Faery Stones, Mare-Stanes, and Goddess Stones, to name a few.

Iron

When used in amulets it is said to give protection, strength, balance, healing, and aid in the return of stolen goods.  Associated with the planet Mars and the element of fire.

Jade

Love, wisdom, serenity, and virtue.  Associated with the planets Venus and Neptune.  As an amulet jade is worn for protection and healing.  Jade bracelets are worn for long life.  A good stone for gardener’s.  Wearing it while gardening and planting it around the perimeter of a garden will  improve the health and growth of plants.

Called the “colic stone.”  Believed to help with kidney health and eye problems.  Helps the body heal itself.

Jade is found in many colors, each having its own meaning: green…good luck harmony and sympathy; red…long life white…luck purity and virginity; yellow…intellect; pale lilac…love of humanity; and black…power and strength.

  • Chinese:  Purity, serenity, love, wisdom, and long life.  Jade is the most sacred stone of China.  It is a stone thought to give a person a quick, precise mind, so ancient traders in the East often held jade stones in their hands while conducting business.  Prospective brides give a jade butterfly to their betrothed to seal their engagement.  Blue, yellow, green, red, white, and black jades were associated with the heavens, the Earth, east, south, west, and north, respectively.
  • Egyptian:  Jade is found in most Egyptian burial chambers because they believed jade aided the soul on a its journey through the Underworld.
  • Maori:  Brings good luck.
  • Mayan:  The Mayans wore jade amulets to protect against bladder and kidney diseases.

Jasper

Happiness, stability, and balance.

Used as a blood purifier, in treating cancers, and to balance hormones.  Helps strengthen the liver and bladder.  Balancing.  Helps reduce fear, guilt, and insecurity. Enhances the aura.

Leopard skin jasper helps balance the heart and solar plexus chakras. The grey in it brings serenity, the black…protection, the yellow…clarity, the pink…love, the green…health, and the red…energy.  Red jasper has long been considered a powerful protective stone.  It sends negative energy back to the source.  Green jasper is said to bring the wearer good health, peace of mind, promote sympathy for others in pain, and is said to help end droughts.  Brown jasper symbolizes security and is worn for balance, grounding, and protection.  Worn as a charm against snake, spider, and snake bites.

  • Native American: A rain bringing stone.

Jet

Good luck and protection.  Jet is fossilized wood that is millions of years old.  Jet has been called black amber and held in high regard for its protective qualities.  Associated with the earth element.  When worn as a necklace  jet is associated with being a direct link of the body to the soul.  It is a one person stone and should not be exchanged from one person to another.  It was used in ancient times to detect the loss of virginity.  Associated with the planet Pluto.

Help with toothaches, headaches, stomach problems, and fevers.

  • European:  In Victorian times it was worn during periods of mourning.
  • Greek:  Those who worshipped the Greek goddess Cybele wore jet to gain favor with her.  Sacred to Pan.
  • Roman:  Travelers carried jet for protection.

Kunzite

Love, and balance. Has very high spiritual love vibrations.

Kunzite has a high lithium content and is used with people with addictions, and manic depression.  Helps strengthen the cardiovascular system. A soothing stone. Aligns the crown and heart chakras.

Lapis Lazuli

Love, fidelity, truth, wisdom, power, and the sky.  Associated with the planets Venus and Neptune.  The stone of teachers.  A receptive stone. Gives courage, joy, fidelity, and gentleness on the wearer.  Before the Middle Ages Lapis was referred to as sapphire.

Strengthens the pituitary gland and the skeletal system.  Enhances mental clarity, psychic abilities, and communication with the higher self and spirit guides.

  • Arabic: Its name is derived from the Arabic al lazward meaning “the blue sky” or “heaven.”
  • Egyptian:  The stone of Isis, her priests used it to strengthen their minds and access ancient knowledge.  A holy stone.  Nearly all of the scarabs found in Tutankhamun’s grave were made of lapis.
  • Judeo-Christian:  According to one legend, the ten commandments were engraved on a tablet made of lapis.

Lead

Used in protective amulets and for aid in divination.  Associated with the planets Earth and Saturn.

Lodestone

Good luck, fidelity, honesty, virility, friendship, and love.  Associated with the planet Venus and the element of water.

  • Roman:  The ancient Romans believed that if a husband and wife both wore a lodestones it would keep them faithful.
  • Voodoo:  Lodestones are painted different colors and used as amulets: red, to bring love; green and gold, to bring money; blue, to bring peace; and white, for protection.

Malachite

Hope, peace, and abundance.  Associated with the planet Venus.  They have long been used as amulets to protect children from nightmares and evil spirits.  They are said to bring the wearer inner peace, protection, and abundance in all areas of their life.  If a person wears malachite it will shatter to warn them of danger.

Malachite was used 5000-6000 years ago to cure convulsions, and as an anesthetic.  Balances blood sugar and cleanses the digestive system. Placed between a piece of green jade and a double terminated quartz crystal on the heart chakra, it may help a person recover blocked memories, although this may be a very intense experience for the person, both the memory recovery and the releasing of emotional pain.  It is a purging stone, a mirror of the subconscious, and show a person what needs to be cleansed.

Mercury (quicksilver)

Spring, luck, and protection.  Associated with the planet Mercury and the elements of air, water, and earth.

Meteorite

Have been used since ancient times to symbolize Great Mother goddesses.  Used in amulets for protection. As recently as the 18th century meteorites were thought to have had several origins from those now accepted: 1) they were considered gifts or missiles from the gods and were to be worshipped and feared; 2) they came from distant volcanoes; and 3) they were just earth rocks dropped by powerful storms.

Helps a person explore past lives.

 Moonstone

The Moon, good luck, the feminine, love, peace, intuition, and serenity.  Called the ‘traveler’s stone’ because is was worn by night traveler’s for protection.  The movement of light across its surface is said to reflect the waxing and waning of the Moon.  When placed in the mouth during a full moon, moonstones were believed to enabled lovers to foretell the future of their relationship.  A goddess stone.

A woman’s healing stone, it helps heal female organs, stabilize hormones, helps during childbirth, and balance menstrual cycles.  Aids weight loss.  Also used in healing the spleen, stomach, pancreas, and pituitary gland.  Balances the emotions.

  • Hindu: Sacred and believed to bring good luck and happiness.

Obsidian

Transformation.  A very protective stone.  Associated with the planets Saturn and Pluto and the element of fire.  It is a stone that is used for a focal point in meditation and as a ‘magic mirror’ for divination.

Cleanses the liver and helps heal stomach problems.  Unites the mind and emotions, helps clear subconscious blacks, reduces stress, and absorbs and dissolves negative energy.  Obsidian is a good stone for gentle people because it will help guard them from abuse.

Snowflake obsidian helps clear a person’s mind.

  • Aztec:  The Aztec’s made scying mirrors out of obsidian.

Onyx

Marital happiness.  Associated with the planet Saturn.  Worn to lessen sexual desires.

Strengthens bone marrow.  Balances female and male energies.

  • Christian:  Folklore says the wedding ring of Mary and Joseph was made of onyx and could cure any disease.
  • Greco-Roman:  It was a very popular protective amulet among the ancient Greeks and Romans.  The name comes from the Greek onux, “fingernail”, because one day Cupid accidentally cut Venus’ fingernails with an arrow while she was sleeping.  He left the clippings in the sand and the Fates turned them into stones so that no part of Venus’ sacred body would ever be lost or cease to exist.

Opal

Intuition, joy, love, hope, fidelity, and innocence.  In ancient times, people believed that opals were bits of the rainbow that had fallen to the ground. Associated with the planets Mercury and Neptune.

Generally used to heal spiritual problems but can be used for eye problems.

Black opals have long been considered lucky. It was believed that when a love was conceived in the presence of a black opal, the gem would absorb the emotion and forever after, the fire of that passion would glow in the stone. For this reason, the black opal is sometimes referred to as the “passion stone.”

  • European:  During the Crusades women gave their crusaders opals to protect them in battle and bring them home safely.  In the Middle Ages young girls wore opals in their hair to protect its blond color.  In the 19th century opals were considered unlucky because of the plot of “Anne of Geirsten”, a popular Sir Walter Scott novel of the time.  The life-force of the heroine in the novel is held in the opal she wears and she will die when the fire in the opal dims.
  • Hindu and Buddhist:  Name comes from the Sanskrit upala, meaning “precious stone.”
  • Roman:  The Romans considered opals a symbol of hope because it had the rainbow inside it.

Pearl

Purity, chastity, peace, gentleness, and virtue.  Associated with the Moon and Venus.   Men used to give  their wives pearl necklaces to wear to keep them chaste while the men were away.

Through out time pearls have been used to cure almost every disease.

  • Arabic:  Arabic legend says that pearls were created when moonlight fell into the ocean and was swallowed by oysters.
  • Chinese:  The pearl is considered the soul of the oyster.  The Chinese also believed that pearls protected them from the fire-breathing dragons.
  • Hindu:  Couples are often given pearls as a wedding gift and the ceremonial piercing of the perfect, virgin pearl is often part of the wedding ceremony.

Peridot

Happiness and creativity. A stone considered to be a powerful amulet against all evil, the peridot was a favorite stone among pirates. Associated with the planet Mercury.

Beneficial to the heart, liver, spleen, and adrenal glands.  Reduces stress.  Connects us with our higher selves.  Frees the mind of envy and jealousy.

  • Arabic:  Names is a French word derived from the Arabic faridat, “gem”.
  • Egyptian:  The ancient Egyptians called them “the gem of the Sun”, but also associated them with their Earth goddesses
  • Roman:  Peridot was used as amulets to protect people from nightmares and evil spirits.
  • South American:  Shamans use peridot to protect them from snakebites and sleeping sickness.

Petrified Wood

Associated with the earth.

Helps restore physical and metal energy. Protects against infection. Grounding stone.

Pyrite

Harmony and practicality.

Oxygenates the blood, improves circulation, and improves brain function.

Quartz Crystal

Freedom and purity.  Crystal has been used as a protective amulet in many cultures and collections of crystals have been found in burial sites dating back to the time of Neanderthal man.  Associated with the planet Uranus.  Crystal balls have long been used as instruments to tell the future and meditation.  Symbolic of the opening of the third eye.  Crystal balls symbolize the universal egg.

All around healing stone.  Balances the emotions.  Helps us find our inner light that connects us to the rest of the universe.  Used to amplify and focus thoughts.

  • Aborigine:   Among the Australian aborigines of Northern Queensland, shamans use quartz crystals in initiation ceremonies, to enhance telepathy, to cure illness, and to bring rain.
  • Cherokee:  The Cherokee used crystals in a ritual for purification and cleansing. They would place seven large crystals in a river or stream and submerge people in the water.
  • Greek:  The name comes from the Greek krystallos, “ice”, because the ancient Greeks believed quartz crystal was water that has been frozen forever by the gods.
  • Hopi:  Hopi medicine men used crystals to observe the energy fields of the body to see where the energy was blocked, which would be the cause of an illness.
  • Japanese:  The crystallized breath of a white dragon.

Rhodocrosite

Peace, love, and energy.  Rhodocrosite is said to represent the love of God.  Associated with the planets Mercury and Venus.

Used to heal eye diseases, the kidneys, heart, and increases blood circulation.  Unites the conscious with the unconscious.  A stone of self-acceptance.

Rose Quartz

Love, fidelity, peace, and intuition.  Associated with the planet Venus.  Worn as an amulet to bring love into one’s life.

Aids the circulatory system and kidneys.  A stone much used for healing the emotions and teaching self-love and love of others.  Teaches forgiveness of self and others.  Heals soul trauma.

Rutilated Quartz

Treats depression, helps the body absorb nutrients, and boosts the immune system.  Energizes and balances the body.  Good for past life work.

Ruby

Freedom, charity, dignity, divine power, and courage.  Associated with the planet Mars and the Sun.  In ancient times, rubies were thought to be made of the blood of Mother Earth, and therefore contained the spark of life.  Worn as an amulet it was thought to protect a person from disease, ensure good harvests, guard against natural disasters, protect against evil and enemies, and make the wearer invulnerable.  They ruby was said to darken as a warning of impending danger.  To dream of a ruby meant success in money and business matters, or a good harvest if dreamt of by a gardener or farmer.

Enhances circulation, strengthens the immune system, and gives energy to the body.  Worn to cure depression.

  • Buddhist:  In China rubies are considered the most perfect offering to Buddha.
  • Hindu:  Rubies are the stone of the Sun and in Burma it is believed that rubies ripen to their deep red color while in the womb of Mother Earth.

Salt

Salt is a biological need for human life.  Life, purity, wisdom, knowledge, immortality, and preservation.  Duality…as a preserver and corrosive.  A symbol of  friendship and hospitality because it is shared during meals, and a symbol of a binding promise because it is indestructible.  Among all the people of the world salt has played a prominent part in their rites and ceremonies…birth, initiation, marriage, death, and public and private worship.  Because of its protective properties, it is unlucky to spill it.  Leonardo da Vinci, building on this symbolism, portrayed Judas Iscariot as spilling salt in “The Last Supper.”

  • Alchemical:  The human body.
  • Aztec: Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water
  • Christian:  Wisdom, purification, blessing, consecration, and protection.
  • Greek:  Homer called salt a divine substance. Plato described it as being especially dear to the gods. Associated with Aphrodite.
  • Japanese:  Sumo wrestlers throw handfuls of salt into the arena before a bout to purify it from any negative energy that may still remain from previous bouts.
  • Judaic:  In Kabbalah, the Hebrew word for salt, MLH, is a sacred word.  God commanded that all their offerings be seasoned with salt.
  • Roman:  The Romans considered salt a very valuable substance and for a time paid their army in salt.  The Latin phrase salarium argentum, “salt money,” referred to part of the payment made to every Roman soldier, and the word has come down through the ages into the English word “salary”.  The Latin word sal developed into the French word solde, meaning “pay,” and in turn became the word “soldier.”
  • Shinto:  Used to purify people and places.

Sapphire

Truth, constancy, loyalty, love, purity, strength, and wisdom.  Associated with the planet Neptune and the element of water.  Worn as amulets, sapphires are said to bring reconciliation and peace, creativity, promote fidelity, aid mediation, and bring love into the wearer’s life.  Sapphires were once believed to scare away the devil and evil spirits and are still worn today for protection.

Star sapphires are considered to be more potent, magically speaking, for all uses.  The three intersecting rays of the star sapphire symbolize faith, hope, and destiny.

Heals eyes, strengthens heart, boosts immune system, and protects the body from disease.  Aligns the body, mind, and spirit.

  • Greek:  Name comes from the Greek sappeiros, “blue”.  The ancient Greeks believed the dark sapphires were female and the light sapphires male.  Sacred to Apollo.  The Greeks wore it to aid them when consulting the oracles, and soldiers wore them to keep them from being captured.  It was considered a very sacred stone and believed that the only way to benefit from the use of this stone is for the person to be pure in thought and deed.
  • Hindu: Yellow sapphires are attributed to Jupiter and blue sapphires to Saturn.
  • Persian:  The ancient Persians believed the Earth rested on a giant sapphire whose reflection gave the sky its color.

Sardonyx

Marital happiness.  Because it is thought to make the wearer eloquent, sardonyx would be beneficial to public speakers and bashful lovers.

  • Roman:  Soldiers wore a sardonyx with a figure of Mercury carved on it to give them courage in battle

Silver

Associated with the Moon and the element of water.  Sacred stone of all lunar gods and goddesses.  Used in amulets to bring protection, love, money, and peace.

Smoky Quartz

The strength of the Earth and peace.  Associated with the planets Mercury and Earth.

Strengthens the kidneys, increase sexual energy, helps with depression, and is mildly sedative.  Will aid a person the come to terms with their physical body, their life, and their physical incarnation on Earth.

Stones with naturally occurring holes

Protection, Mother Goddesses, the womb of the goddess, opening, and conception.  Looking through a holey stone is said to improve your eyesight.  Also known as Holey Stones, Hag stones, Odin Stones, Holy Stones, Wish Stones, Nightmare Stones, Witch Riding Stones, Mare Stanes, Ephialtes Stones, Faery Stones, Eye Stones, Pledge Stones and Goddess Stones.  Holey stones were worn on natural cords for luck, and protection from illness and the evil eye.  At one time holey stones were used for healing and to make healing water.

  • British:  These stones were tied to bedposts with red ribbons to keep away nightmares.
  • Middle Eastern:  Holey stones are tied around a camel’s neck to protect them and their rider from evil spirits and the evil eye.
  • Nordic:  Odin changed himself into a worm and slipped through the hole of a stone to steal the mead of poetry, so some call these stones Odin stones.

Tektite

In prehistoric times, tektites were considered religious objects by some people, magical by others and omens of evil by yet others.

  • Australian Aborigine:  Known as “sky charms”.

Tiger’s Eye or Cat’s Eye

Courage, luck, wealth, and long life.  Ruled by the Sun, associated with the planet Mars and the element of fire.  Used as an amulet for courage, strength, and protection.  In the past people who wore tiger’s eye were feared because it was thought they could see everything, even through walls and behind closed doors.  Worn to increase beauty and promote youthfulness.

Used to heal eye diseases, the spleen, digestive system, and pancreas. Soothes the emotions and clears the mind.

Blue tiger’s eye (hawk’s eye) brings peace.

  • Egyptian:  Sacred to Bats, the cat goddess.  The ancient Egyptians used them as eyes in the statues of their gods to symbolize of divine wisdom.
  • Roman:  Soldiers wore them for protection.

Tin

Associated with the planet Jupiter and the element of air. Used in amulets to bring luck and money, and aid in divination.

Topaz

Love, courage, transformation, and beauty.  Associated with the Sun and the planet Mercury, and the element of fire.  Worn as an amulet to protect from disease, envy, injury, sorcery ,and lunacy.  Thought to be especially effective when set in gold and bound to the left arm.  When placed in the home, it is a charm against fire and accidents.  Known as “lover of gold,” topaz was used to bring wealth and money.  A stone of trust, protection, and strength.

Relieves anger, fear, depression. insomnia, and tension headaches.  Helps prevent colds and strengthens the lungs.  Stimulates the intellect and is a good stone for artists, writers, and scientists,

  • Egyptian:  The Egyptians believed topaz got its golden color from Ra, the mighty Sun god, and considered it a powerful protective amulet.
  • Greek:  The ancient Greeks believed topaz had the power to make the wearer invisible and give them super-human strength.
  • Roman:  Friendship.  Sacred to Jupiter.

Turquoise

The sky, friendship, protection, and love.  Associated with the planets Venus and Neptune, and the element of earth.  In many cultures, the stone is regarded as a messenger of good fortune, success, love, and health.  Because it often changes color from blue to green, turquoise was thought to predict the weather and illness, warn of poison, if given as a token of love it will fade if the recipient’s love fades.  Some believe that only blue turquoise has magical powers. Since the fourteenth century, the harnesses of horses have been decorated with turquoise to protect the animal and the rider from falls and other injury.  Worn as an amulet for protection, strength, healing, courage, love, beauty, and peace.  Turquoise connects the Earth and sky.

Strengthens the lungs, circulation, blood, nervous system, and helps regenerate tissue.  Protects against traumatic injuries,  Healers should wear this stone because it will increase their power.  Enhances creativity, meditation, communication, and gives peace of mind.

  • Apache:  Believed it helped hunters and warriors aim accurately.
  • Asian:  Used as protection against the evil eye.
  • European:  Turquoise rings are given as forget-me-not gifts.
  • Hindu: Turquoise is worn on the little finger to bring wealth and success.
  • Native American:  Turquoise is the main sacred stone of many Native American tribes.  Turquoise brings together the spirits of the sky
    and the sea, which gives it it’s many powers.  Some myths say the most powerful turquoise is found in the ground at the end of the rainbow.
  • Mexican:  Turquoise was the stone of the gods and people were not allowed to wear it.
  • Navajo:  The Navajo believed that if a person cast turquoise into a river and prayed to the gods for rain, the rain would come.  Turquoise carvings of horses and sheep are kept by the Navajo as powerful guardians against evil spirits.
  • Pueblo:  As an offering to the gods, they buried pieces under the floors of their newly built homes.

Zircon

Intuition, truth, stability, and righteousness.  Known in ancient times as hyacinth or jacinth.  Long considered a powerful stone of protection, used to keep away the devil and protect against poison, and farmer’s used it to ensure a good harvest and guard against lightning.

Used to cure insomnia, depression, cramps, wounds, and the heart.

White zircon has the same meanings and magical powers as diamond.  Yellow zircon is used in love amulets.  Orange zircon is a symbol of beauty and is used as an amulet to protect traveler’s.  Brown zircon is a symbol of the Earth and an attribute of Earth gods and goddesses.  Green zircon is used in amulets to bring wealth and good luck.  Red zircon is used for protection and healing, and symbolizes wealth, strength, and courage.

An all around healer.  Strengthens the mind, balances the pituitary gland, and aids bowel problems.  Balances the emotions and helps with  self-esteem.

  • European:  In the Middle Ages, zircon was a symbol of wisdom and honor and believed to bring prosperity to its owner.
  • Hindu:  Poets write of the Kalpa Tree, the precious gift of the gods, which was covered with fruit made of gems and had leaves of zircon.