Phi Eta Mu

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Phi Eta Mu
Crest of the Fraternity Phi Eta Mu.jpg
Founded December 17, 1923; 93 years ago
University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus
Type Social
Scope International
 Puerto Rico
 United States
Tree Ficus elastica
Publication Anuario Phi Eta Mu
Headquarters San Juan
Puerto Rico
Homepage Phi Eta Mu website

Fraternity Phi Eta Mu (ΦΗΜ) is the first fraternity founded in Puerto Rico in 1923 at the University of Puerto Rico now University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus.[citation needed] All its founders were Puerto Ricans, born on the island of Puerto Rico.[1]


During the 1920s, the most important administrative posts in Puerto Rico were filled by direct appointment of the President of the United States. This had the effect of assigning to positions of great importance people who lacked the temperament or the right qualifications, but possessed the necessary appointments for political connections.[according to whom?] One of the most graphic examples of these actions[according to whom?] was the appointment of Charles St. John W. Dean of the University of Puerto Rico. His particular style caused a great discord between the administration of the university and students of the time, and under its purview the first student protest significance and, later, the first university strike at the University of Puerto Rico took place.

On October 16, 1923, a group of students of the College of Pharmacy, College of Liberal Arts and the Normal School (now Faculty of Education) of the University of Puerto Rico collectively owed $841.50. The distribution of this debt ranged from students who owed a dollar to students who owed $18.50. The dean of the College of Pharmacy, Esq. Lucas Luis Velez, St. John, informed the dean that students of this faculty had agreed not to pay their debts related to deposits of materials laboratory equipment. Students understood that they were in fact being required to pay for used equipment they were using at that time as if the equipment were new.

Upon hearing of this action, the dean suspended students of the College of Pharmacy who owed any money for whatever reason, and announced to the press of the island that he had learned that the students of that faculty intended to steal the laboratory equipment. These manifestations of the dean outraged students, who, along with the growing friction from events in the previous year, paved the way for a student movement.

On October 19, 1923, Atty. Juan B. Huyke, Education Commissioner, met with Governor Horace Mann Towner. After the interview, Huyke informed the press that he understood that “students had overstepped by adopting an attitude he considered an act of indiscipline”. Students were pressured through innuendos that public opinion and the Faculty of Pharmacy were against them. However, while this press conference was taking place, students were meeting with a prominent[according to whom?] faculty member, Prof. Victor Coll y Cuchi, who expressed his support.

Students of the College of Pharmacy received individual support of various students and the formal support of the Class of Fourth Year of the College of Law, chaired by Felix Ochoteco Jr. The Faculty of Law adopted a resolution which determined that the actions of Dean St. John “have not been conformed as per the due consideration to be afforded to students, and therefore expressed their solidarity with them in protest”.

On October 22, 1923 the board of trustees of the university met and agreed to require students to prepay for all equipment and tuition, as well as pay for any equipment broken during the academic year.

Students of the College of Pharmacy, who were still under suspension, were outraged upon learning about this decision of the board of trustees and made their displeasure public in the newspaper La Democracia.

Students requested a public apology from the dean. On October 24, 1923, in the face of an imminent student strike meeting, a General Board of the College of Law (the Board) was organized, integrated therein by Felix Ochoteco Jr., Pelayo Román Benítez, Arcilio Alvarado, Rafael Buscaglia and Emilio S. Belavar. This group carried out a strong campaign against the dean St.John. After information about these events reached the Commissioner of Education, and amidst the insistent rumors of a strike, the Dean ordered in November 1 the closure of that Faculty. In addition, the College of Pharmacy is also notified that if they continue with their attitude, they will face the same fate as the Faculty of Law.

On November 1, with riots in the College of Law, seven students from that college are expelled from the University. Students of the Board, preparing for a possible strike, create a commission for the purpose of raising funds, comprising this committee, among others, Isaias M. Crespo and Antonio R. Barceló.

A few days later a meeting was held where the board reported that the dean of the university would consider the problems solved if a resolution by the College of Law was approved whereby each student is compelled to report any act of protest performed or planned to be performed in the future. Students refused to approve the resolution. On November 5, 1923, to avoid a strike, the dean restored all students suspended and expelled and ordered resumption of classes at the university.

On 17 December 1923, the strike leaders Pelayo Román Benítez, Felix Ochoteco, Isaiah M. Crespo, P. Wilson Colberg, Alfonso Paniagua and Mario Polanco gathered under a gum tree in the grounds of the University of Puerto Rico and founded the fraternity Phi Eta Mu, for the purpose of granting protection and mutual loyalty in the face of repression from the university authorities. They managed thus to establish within the university one of the most serious and more solidly grounded student organizations ever.[citation needed] A profound and beautiful initiation ritual,[according to whom?] a wise constitution, a comprehensive set of regulations and a refined blend of traditions have placed the fraternity Phi Eta Mu in a place of excellence among Puerto Rican student organizations, a solid grouping of mind and spirit known to have succeeded the test of time.[citation needed]


The Honorable Fraternity Phi Eta Mu was installed on December 17, 1923, with the following group of young people as its founding members:

  • Wilson P. Colberg
  • Isaias M. Crespo
  • Felix Ochoteco, Jr.
  • Alfonso Paniagua
  • Mario Polanco
  • Pelayo Román Benítez

The late Dr. José Menéndez was presented at the meeting of December 17, 1923 and became the first neophyte of the Honorable Fraternity Phi Eta Mu, thus also becoming part of its first group of directors.


  • Aclaración y Crítica , 1941 by Antonio S. Pedreira; book
  • Paliques , 1952 by Nemesio Canales; book
  • Poemas de amor, poemas del paisaje, poemas de Dios , 1964 by Josefina Guevara Castañeira; audio
  • Edmundo Disdier interpreta a Edmundo Disdier , 1973 by Edmundo Disdier; audio

Phi Eta Kappa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Phi Eta Kappa (ΦΗΚ) is a fraternity at the University of Maine. Founded in 1906, Phi Eta Kappa has remained unaffiliated with any national organizations, choosing instead to preserve their local tradition. Since 1910 the “Green Wave,” as it is known, have been located in a fraternity house on College Avenue in Orono, Maine. There are currently over 1,000 living alumni of Phi Eta Kappa.


Phi Eta Kappa was founded as a for-profit organization owned by its members who bought stock in the fraternity. Sale of shares ceased circa 1942, and by 2001 the organization no longer knew who its shareholders were. Since the 1940s, funds for operations have come from rent charged to members, a mortgage on the fraternity house, and alumni donations.[1] In the 1980s, the fraternity encountered financial difficulties that were attributed to members who had not paid their bills.[2]

The fraternity house was closed temporarily in 1988 due to its deteriorating physical condition and concerns about poor behavior by its members.[2] Later that year it was rented to house the Pi Beta Phi sorority.[3] Subsequently, however, it was reopened for Phi Eta Kappa.

In 2001 the fraternity asked the Maine State Legislature to enact legislation to convert the fraternity to nonprofit status so it would no longer be required to pay the same taxes as a commercial business.[1]


Phi Eta Kappa emphasizes athletics. The fraternity has won the BC Kent Award multiple times. This award is given annually to the fraternity which has the highest combined point total for all intramural events. Phi Eta Kappa won the award nine consecutive years, from 1994-2002. Phi Eta Kappa alumni in professional sports include Mike Buck, who played four seasons as a quarterback in the NFL and holds most passing records at Maine; and Greg Panora, professional powerlifter, who holds the world record for combined bench, squat and deadlift (2481 lbs) for the 242 lb. weight class.

Notable alumni[edit]

Notable alumni include former Maine governor John H. Reed,[4] the late University of Maine president Winthrop Libby, successful businessmen and philanthropists Larry and Keith Mahaney, businessman Eldon Morrison, Maine Superior Court Justice E. Allen Hunter, Air Force test pilot Robert A. Rushworth, UMaine head football coach Jack Cosgrove, Clemson University head baseball coach Jack Leggett,[5] and Dartmouth College head baseball coach Bob Whalen.[5]

Phi Delta Theta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phi Delta Theta
Phi Delta Theta Crest.png
Founded December 26, 1848; 168 years ago
Miami University
Type Secret, Social
Scope International
Mission statement The cultivation of friendship among its members, the acquirement individually of a high degree of mental culture, and the attainment personally of a high standard of morality.
Motto One Man is No Man
Slogan Become the Greatest Version of Yourself
Colors      Azure      Argent
Flower White Carnation
Patron Greek divinity Pallas Athena and her Owl
Publication The Scroll
Philanthropy The ALS Association
Chapters 196 [1]
Members 251,000 [1] lifetime
Nicknames Phi Delts, Phis
Headquarters 2 South Campus Avenue
Oxford, Ohio
United States

Phi Delta Theta (ΦΔΘ), also known as Phi Delts or the Phis, is an international social fraternity founded at Miami University in 1848 and headquartered in Oxford, Ohio. Phi Delta Theta, along with Beta Theta Pi and Sigma Chi form the Miami Triad.[2] The fraternity has about 185 active chapters and colonies in over 43 U.S. states and five Canadian provinces and has initiated more than 251,000 men between 1848 and 2014.[3] There are over 142,000 living alumni. Phi Delta Theta chartered house corporations own more than 135 houses valued at over $141 million as of summer 2015.[4]There are nearly 100 recognized alumni clubs across the U.S. and Canada.

The fraternity was founded by six undergraduate students: Robert Morrison, John McMillan Wilson, Robert Thompson Drake, John Wolfe Lindley, Ardivan Walker Rodgers, and Andrew Watts Rogers, who are collectively known as The Immortal Six. Phi Delta Theta was created under three principal objectives: “the cultivation of friendship among its members, the acquirement individually of a high degree of mental culture, and the attainment personally of a high standard of morality”.[5] These cardinal principles are contained in The Bond of Phi Delta Theta, the document to which each member pledges on his initiation into the fraternity.

Among the best-known members of the fraternity are Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd President of the United States, Adlai Stevenson I, the 23rd Vice President of the United States, Baseball Hall of Fame member Lou Gehrig, actor Burt Reynolds, architect Frank Lloyd Wright, Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon, and John S. McCain Sr., U.S. Navy Admiral and grandfather of John McCain.



Room where Phi Delta Theta was founded. It is used by undergraduates of the parent chapter in recognition of achievement.

In 1839, Beta Theta Pi was founded at Miami University in Ohio. In protest against the president of the university, members of Beta Theta Pi and another fraternity, Alpha Delta Phi, blocked the entrances of the main educational and administrative building in what became known as the Great Snowball Rebellion of 1848.[6]

After the president expelled most of the students involved in the uprising, Phi Delta Theta was formed by six men staying in a dormitory the day after Christmas. Robert Morrison, a senior, proposed to classmate John McMillan Wilson that they form a secret society together; the two subsequently invited juniors Robert Thompson Drake and John Wolfe Lindley and sophomores Ardivan Walker Rodgers and Andrew Watts Rogers to join them. These men are known today as “The Immortal Six.” The first meeting was held in Wilson’s room at Old North Hall, now called Elliott Hall.[6]

During the early meetings, the Founders wrote The Bond of Phi Delta Theta, which is the fundamental law of the fraternity. It has remained unchanged ever since, and it is believed to be the only document of any fraternity of such a nature.[3] Morrison designed the shield form of the badge, with the eye as an emblem, while Wilson suggested the scroll with the Greek letters on it. The first branch of Phi Delta Theta was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio in 1848. Fearing punishment from the university, the activities of the fraternity were sub rosa for its first three years of existence. Phi Delta Theta also took an unusual step, unique among all fraternities, of splitting into two chapters at both Miami and Centre College, so their meetings would be smaller and attract less attention.[7] Eventually, as the organization attracted new individuals into their membership including prominent university officials, members began to openly wear their badges indicating their affiliation.

Early years[edit]

Phi Delta Theta held its first convention in 1851 in Cincinnati, Ohio when the organization had only four chapters. The event was attended by seven members. Despite the limited number, positive steps were taken for the establishment of new chapters by forming an expansion committee. It was also during the first convention where the chapter at Miami University was designated as the Grand Chapter whose duties were to oversee the overall fraternity operations. Subsequent conventions were held again in Cincinnati five years later; Bloomington, Indiana in 1858; and Danville, Kentucky in 1860. Another convention was held in 1864 in Bloomington during the American Civil War. The Civil War was difficult for all fraternities. Battles put fraternity brother against fraternity brother. Fifty Phis fought on the side of the Confederacy while 231 Phis fought for the Union Army.[8]

It was not until the 1868 Indianapolis convention that the first steps in the creation of an overall administration took place. The convention was regarded as the first “National Convention” as permanent convention rules were adopted during this time. Twelve years later, the most important of all Phi Delta Theta conventions took place. The Indianapolis Convention of 1880 established new ritual, insignia, and customs that are still used today.[9] Moreover, the convention saw the creation of the General Council, the governing body of the fraternity, with Walter B. Palmer, Emory-Vanderbilt 1877, and George Banta, Franklin-Indiana 1876, becoming the president and historian, respectively. The convention also called for the organization of groups of chapters into provinces, which were to be headed by province presidents.

50th Anniversary of Phi Delta Theta with Founders Morrison and Lindley in the fore front. From the 1898 Convention.

A housing movement began to form during this time. The movement arose out of necessity because it was pointed out that chapter meetings were being conducted in rented halls. Even though the housing movement had been gaining momentum, it was not until the 1892 convention that a resolution was passed that advocated that all chapters rent or own at least one house.[10] In the last two decades of the 19th century, over 50 chapter houses were acquired.

For a brief period a resolution was set forth to allow chapters to initiate women.[11] First proposed in 1869, this was considered a radical idea both from a fraternal standpoint and social one as well since women were not allowed to vote until 1920.[12] Although it was met with strong opposition, the issue would not be settled for several years.

During the two decades from 1870 to 1890, the growth of the fraternity was rapid, due principally to the efforts of Palmer and Banta. The two were given the title “Second Founders” for their work.[13] In the 1870s alone, 34 new chapters were established, but this was also a period of uncertainty because of the anti-fraternity sentiment held by many faculty in schools where Phi Delta Theta had chapters.[13] Several chapters became dormant because of this. The fraternity continued steady growth, and by 1889, there were 66 chapters in 27 states.

First half of the 20th century[edit]

With constant expansion into the western United States, Phi Delta Theta became an international fraternity when the organization’s first chapter in Canada was installed at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec on April 5, 1902. By 1918, there were 78 chapters with a membership of 77,000.

Members of Phi Delta Theta at West Point in 1917, before their deployment in the First World War

At the outbreak of World War I, college administrators urged its undergraduate members to stay in school. However, many were eager to enlist. The first Phis to fight in the war were members of the chapters at the University of Toronto and McGill University, the fraternity’s only Canadian chapters during that period. By the time the United States entered the war in 1917, over 5000 Phis served in the conflict with 155 of them losing their lives.[14] Because many of the undergraduate Phis put their studies on hold, many chapter houses either had limited occupants or none at all. To prevent losing houses pending the return of Phis from the war, many housing corporations consented to having the houses used as barracks or for YMCA programs.[14]

During the 1920s and 1930s, expansion was carefully controlled. Focus was placed on re-activating chapters whose charters were revoked years earlier.

World War II exacted a heavy toll on the membership and operations of the fraternity. Many undergraduate members joined the military, and 13 chapters were closed. As active membership declined, most of the Phi Delt houses were used as women’s residence halls or became makeshift military quarters. The fraternity tried its best to maintain up-to-date records regarding the status of members engaged in combat.[15] A newsletter, The Fighting Phi News, was sent to members whose contact information was known to the fraternity.

Over 14,000 Phis were known to have been in active service during the conflict.[16] Of that number, over 800 were killed or missing in action, the largest loss of any fraternity during the war.[16] An additional 8,000 veterans were initiated into the fraternity in the immediate subsequent years. Fifty Phi generals and admirals served in the United States and Canada during the conflict, the most for any fraternity.[16] Prominent among them were General Edward P. King, leader of the U.S. and Filipino forces in Bataan, Philippines; Admiral Robert L. Ghormley, commander of the Guadalcanal campaign; and Admiral John S. McCain, Sr., commander of carrier task forces in the Pacific. Members of Phi Delta Theta also received every major military decoration in both the United States and British Commonwealth forces, including the Medal of Honor (MOH) awarded to Leon Vance of the Army Air Corps and the Victoria Cross (VC) to Robert Hampton Gray, a Canadian naval aviator. Vance’s MOH was the last to be awarded before the D-Day landings, and Gray was both the last military personnel to receive the VC in the war and the last Canadian to lose his life during the war.

But the line will not be broken, because the fraternity’s life is continuous, with a mystic cord binding one generation to another.

Hilton U. Brown, past president of the fraternity speaking on the participation of Phis in WWII[17]

Members of the fraternity also played a crucial role on the homefront. Among those were Elmer Davis, the head of the Office of War Information; Byron Price, the head of the Office of Censorship; and Ted Gamble, the National Director of the War Finance Division.

When World War II ended, the fraternity experienced a surge in membership as many veterans attended college under the GI Bill. On December 15, 1945, the groundbreaking of the present-day General Headquarters building took place. One of the features of the headquarters was a permanent war memorial honoring all Phis who lost their lives during WWII and previous wars.

Second half of the 20th century[edit]

After the end of World War II, the fraternity was confronted with the social changes sweeping college campuses in the United States. Like many fraternities, Phi Delta Theta had a restrictive clause barring membership to African-Americans, Asians, Jews, and Muslims.[18] Specifically the term “white persons of full Aryan blood” was the subject of strong opposition among many members in light of Nazi ideology in the recently fought war, although there had been dissenting voices regarding this long before the clause became controversial among its members.[19] This clause was added to the Code of Phi Delta Theta in 1910. However, by the 1946 convention there was an open discussion regarding this topic. Impassioned sentiment from many alumni as well as undergraduates coupled with the changing demographic of the college scene caused Phi Delta Theta to re-examine its membership. Years of debate followed; however, by 1954, Phi Delta Theta eliminated the clause and became one of the first fraternities to eliminate any restriction based on race, color, or creed.[20]Only a year earlier, Phi Delta Theta had suspended its chapters at Amherst and Williams College for pledging minorities.[21]

The 1950s saw a period of rapid growth and an expansion of the internal operations of the fraternity. Twelve new schools were granted chapter status. An important change in leadership also occurred during this time. In 1955, Paul Beam, the executive vice president of the fraternity (the head of the fraternity’s daily operations) unexpectedly died. He had succeeded the position from Arthur R. Priest who had served 1923–37. Beam guided the fraternity through eight conventions and through the trials of World War II. Bob Miller, who was Beam’s assistant, was eventually chosen to take over by the General Council and assumed the office almost immediately. He would go on to serve for 36 years, which is currently the longest term served in that office.

Two important programs were developed during this period that would profoundly affect the fraternity’s services. Before Beam died, he and several province presidents proposed a leadership convention for undergraduate members. These conventions would cover topics ranging from chapter organization to effective leadership. The first such convention was set up in 1956. At the time, it only involved 16 chapters. From 1956 until 1987, these sessions were held on a regional basis. The gatherings would form the basis of the Leadership College founded in 1987. 1958 was an important year for the fraternity because an educational foundation was created, the main purpose of which was to provide scholarships to deserving students.

During the turbulent 1960s, Phi Delta Theta along with other social fraternities dealt with strong anti-fraternity sentiment from people who saw the Greek lettered communities as old world established institutions.[22] This sentiment was not without reason. Although Phi Delta Theta attempted to revise its restrictive membership codes in the wake of World War II, as late as 1961 the national office made headlines by rejecting the pledge of a Jewish student at Lake Forest College.[23]Later that same year the University of Wisconsin banned Phi Delta Theta from campus for barring Jews, African-Americans, and other minorities from membership.[24]

Despite an overall decline in fraternity membership during the late 1960s, Phi Delta Theta continued to expand through a carefully controlled process known as “colonization.” In 1968, a historic initiation took place when Robert Wise, Academy Award winning director of The Sound of Music and West Side Story, was initiated in the Franklin College chapter. Wise had completed all membership requirements in 1932 but was forced to withdraw from college due to a lack of funds. Roger D. Branigin, the Governor of Indiana at the time and Phi Delt member, presided over the ceremonies. 1969 was an eventful year for the fraternity as Neil Armstrong, a graduate from the Purdue University chapter, became the first man to walk on the moon. During the moon landing, Armstrong carried with him a fraternity badge, which he subsequently donated to the General Headquarters of the fraternity.[25] He also donated a small silk flag of the fraternity, which he carried with him on his Gemini flight in 1966.[25]

As war raged in Vietnam, Phis again served in the armed forces. With the emergence of new technology, a significant percentage opted to become fighter pilots. The Vietnam War saw a small dip in the Fraternity’s membership; however, by 1972, the fraternity had 140 active chapters with over 128,000 initiates. An important change was made during the 1970s that gave more autonomy to chapters in terms of membership selection. An amendment was passed wherein the unanimous vote rule to allow a college man to become a pledge was changed to allow individual chapters to decide on their own which method best suited their respective chapters.[26] In 1973, the fraternity celebrated its 125th anniversary. The special occasion was marked by the construction of the university gates at Miami University. To date, there are nine buildings on the campus that were either constructed by Phi Delta Theta or named after members.[27]

The 1980s saw the fraternity deal with issues such as hazing, rising insurance costs, and maintenance of individual chapter operations. The unofficial theme of the 1980 convention was “Eliminate Hazing.” The decade was marked by an increase of lawsuits dealing with hazing and alcohol abuse among many fraternities.[28] To deal with this issue, Phi Delta Theta instituted a comprehensive insurance policy to protect its chapters. During the 1980s, an important aspect of the fraternity was created: Leadership consultants. The consultants, who are recent college graduates, travel to assigned provinces and assist various chapters in many aspects of fraternity life and chapter operations. They also report the status of each visited chapter to the general headquarters.

An important leadership change occurred in the beginning of the 1990s when Robert Biggs became the fourth executive vice president of the fraternity after Robert Miller stepped down. During the decade, Phi Delta Theta and many other fraternities experienced a decline in membership.[29] The most important policy to be implemented by the fraternity during the decade was the decision made in 1997 to have all chapter facilities alcohol free by 2000.[30] It was an initiative that was strongly pursued by the 1996–98 General Council. The policy was in response to the growing insurance claims against the fraternity, 53% of which were alcohol-related, and a return to the core values of the organization.[31]

Governing bodies[edit]

All powers of the fraternity, both legislative and supreme, rests within the General Convention. The convention is a biennial event attended by representatives of undergraduate chapters, alumni chapters, and the various foundations. The purpose of the convention is to discuss and vote on a wide range of issues affecting the fraternity.[32] The convention is held in various cities across North America. It is also during the convention where the General Council is elected.

The General Council is the governing body of Phi Delta Theta. Its all-volunteer membership are elected every two years during the fraternity’s convention. Their chief responsibility is to act as the executive and administrative board of the fraternity.[32] Their duties include the granting and suspending of charters.

The General Headquarters (GHQ) is responsible for the daily operations of the fraternity. Among its many duties, GHQ collects dues, distributes supplies, and tries to maintain up-to-date information about all its members. Unlike other entities within the fraternity, the staff of GHQ are paid for their services. While the main offices of GHQ are held by members of the fraternity, support staff need not be members. The head of GHQ is the executive vice president, who acts as the secretary to the General Council.

Educational foundation and programs[edit]

Phi Delta Theta and many other fraternities have an educational foundation fund. Part of the Phi Delta Theta foundation’s aim is to award scholarships to deserving undergraduate members and those pursuing advanced degrees in various graduate schools. Each year, it provides over $150,000 in scholarships.[33] The foundation is also essential in supporting programs such as the Emerging Leaders Institute, the Leadership Consultant Program, and portions of the General Convention as well as The Scroll, the official magazine of the fraternity. The foundation, which was established in 1962 with only $4,708, has since grown to over $14 million.[33]

The Accolade[edit]

In 2004, the fraternity began a member development program for undergraduates called The Accolade. It is designed to enhance a member’s collegiate and overall fraternity experience. Some of the program’s personal development activities include goal-setting, time management, and career development. Although the program is intended for new undergraduate members, it is available to all members, including senior members and alumni. Although Phi Delta Theta is no longer part of the North American Interfraternity Conference, the fraternity was recognized by the conference for “Best Use of a Foundation Grant” for its support of The Accolade.[34]

Kleberg Emerging Leaders Institute[edit]

The Kleberg Emerging Leaders Institute (Kleberg) is an annual event held at the Fraternity’s headquarters during the summer where newly initiated undergraduates are given instruction in leadership classes, as well as participating in programs that help to improve their respective chapters.[35] It is attended by selected undergraduates from every chapter. It is mainly geared toward newly initiated members. The Institute was established after the Leadership College was dissolved. The event was renamed in honor of Tio Kleberg, Texas Tech ’69 after a one-million dollar donation in 2012.


For many years, Phi Delta Theta had no official philanthropy. The fraternity, however, was long associated with the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Association (ALSA) because of Lou Gehrig, an alumnus who died of the disease. Amytrophic Lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating neuro-muscular disease and has since become known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. Although there had always existed a relationship between ALSA and Phi Delta Theta, it was not until November 2002 that the General Council made the partnership official.[36] Undergraduate and alumni chapters from all across North America regularly organize events to raise money for research.

Leadership Consultants[edit]

Phi Delta Theta, along with other Greek organizations, employ Leadership Consultants (LCs) to assist with undergraduate development. The LCs, formerly known as Traveling Secretaries and Chapter Consultants, help undergraduate chapters identify major problems and challenges. Then, along with chapter leaders, alumni advisors, and university officials, they develop plans and programs for solving them. LCs serve as liaison between the General Fraternity/GHQ and the chapters. The LCs also work to guide chapter members to realize leadership and achieve, more fully, the ideals, objectives, and values of the fraternity.


The Scroll[edit]

The Scroll of Phi Delta Theta is the official magazine for members of the fraternity. The award winning magazine has been published continuously since 1875. It is the second oldest continuously published fraternity magazine behind the official magazine of Beta Theta Pi, which was first published three years before.[37] Members receive lifetime subscriptions to The Scroll. The magazine covers topical issues relating to Phi Delta Theta and the wider fraternity world, news of prominent alumni, alumni club meeting reports, and undergraduate chapter reports. While its focus is Phi Delta Theta, readership is open to non-members. Since its inception, issues have been published 2–4 times a year.

The Palladium[edit]

The Palladium was the private magazine specifically for members of Phi Delta Theta. Unlike The Scroll, the Palladium was intended to be read by Phis only. The magazine covered topics such as fraternity policy, reports, and minutes to any conventions. It was published only once a year and was a supplement to the winter edition of The Scroll. The first issue was printed in 1894 and the last issue was released in the mid-1960s.

Pledge manual[edit]

The first three pledge manuals of the fraternity were written by Walter B. Palmer. The idea for the manual was conceived by J. Marshall Mayer (City College of New York, 1884), who at the time was the managing editor of the Scroll. The first pledge manual was printed in 1886 and contained only 56 pages. Since few copies were published and it is the first membership manual of any fraternity, it is regarded as one of the most rare and valuable books of its kind.[38] The 4th–6th editions were authored by Arthur R. Priest. Much of the present-day material is derived from these editions.

Role in the fraternity world[edit]

Phi Delta Theta has played a major role in the fraternity movement. Chief among these was being a founding member of the North American Interfraternity Conference, which was established in 1910 (an organization that they subsequently left in 2002), and leading the initiative to ban alcohol from Phi Delt houses. Throughout their history, the fraternity became a pioneer in establishing traditions as well as having individual members shape the formation of similar women’s organizations. The fraternity has also been the first fraternity to establish itself on over 25 campuses.[39]

Historical ties with fraternities[edit]

Delta Kappa Epsilon, then Sigma Chi[edit]

The Kappa chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon (DKE) was formed at Miami University after disagreement among Phi Delta Theta members over prohibiting alcohol. Several members left Phi Delta Theta and formed the Kappa chapter in 1852.[40][41] In 1854, two years later, another disagreement in this group led to another break-away. A schism over who would become Poet for the Erodelphian Literary Society led to the founding of Sigma Chi in 1855.[41][42][43]

W. W. W. Fraternity, and Delta Tau Delta[edit]

Two chapters of W. W. W. Fraternity (also known as Rainbow Fraternity) refused to join with other chapters of their fraternity in merging with Delta Tau Delta in 1885. Instead, the University of Texas chapter merged with the Phi Delta chapter there, and the Southwestern University chapter became a new chapter of Phi Delta Theta.[44]

Tau Kappa Epsilon[edit]

Started as the Knights of Classic Lore, Tau Kappa Epsilon (TKE) attempted to become the re-activated Illinois Epsilon chapter of Phi Delta Theta at Illinois Wesleyan University. After several failed attempts from 1902–1907, the Tekes decided to discontinue attempting to become part of Phi Delta Theta, and instead go it on their own.[45]

Phi Kappa Tau[edit]

The dorm room in Old North Hall (now Elliott Hall) in which Phi Delta Theta was founded was later home to Phi Kappa Tau founders William H. Shideler and Clinton D. Boyd.[46]

Theta Kappa Nu (Lambda Chi Alpha)[edit]

Charles Lamkin, a former international president of Phi Delta Theta, was instrumental in the formation of a new national fraternity called Theta Kappa Nu in 1924, and in recruiting some 30 local fraternities to become chapters of Theta Kappa Nu during its first two years. No mention was made in print of his work at the time (obviously a sensitive issue); but he was listed, along with the Four Founders of Theta Kappa Nu, as one of the first five to have a lifetime subscription to the fraternity’s magazine.[47] . Having chartered 55 chapters, Theta Kappa Nu merged with Lambda Chi Alpha in 1939.[48]

Historical ties with sororities[edit]

Phi Delta Theta has the distinction of having close connections with two sororities: Delta Gamma and Delta Zeta.[49] George Banta Sr., a Phi Delt from Franklin-Indiana, was instrumental in expanding the Delta Gamma sorority. For his efforts, he was the only man ever initiated into Delta Gamma.[50] Banta would later perform initiation ceremonies for new members of the sorority, including Lillian Vawter, his fiancée. Guy Potter Benton, a graduate of the Phi Delt chapter at Ohio Wesleyan University, was president of Miami University in 1902 when he helped with the founding of Delta Zeta. Dr. Benton aided in the preparation of a ritual, badge, and colors.[50] He was a great assistance to Delta Zeta and at one point chased down a man who stole the newly formed ritual of the sorority. For his work, Delta Zeta named him the Grand Patron of the sorority and is the only man to ever wear the Delta Zeta badge. To this day, an amiable friendship exists between Phi Delta Theta and these two sororities.[51]

Famous firsts[edit]

Phi Delta Theta instituted several policies and traditions that are not only still used by the fraternity today, but have also become standard among almost all fraternities, as well as sororities.[27][52]

  • First fraternity to adopt a pledge pin – adopted by the 1894 convention in Indianapolis, Indiana
  • First fraternity to adopt an alumnus pin – adopted by the 1894 convention in Indianapolis, Indiana
  • First fraternity to adopt a pledge manual – authored by Walter B. Palmer in 1886
  • First fraternity to adopt a National Day of Celebration – adopted by the General Council in 1889
  • First fraternity to adopt life subscriptions to the fraternity magazine – instituted by William Bates, the first editor of The Scroll in 1875
  • First national fraternity to expand west of the Mississippi River – a charter was given to Austin College in 1853
  • First fraternity to have a member walk on the moon – Neil Armstrong

Current issues[edit]

North American Interfraternity Conference (NIC)[edit]

In 2002, Phi Delta Theta, along with Kappa Sigma and Phi Sigma Kappa left the North-American Interfraternity Conference due to ideological differences.[53] Fraternity officials had been concerned of the direction of the conference for six years before leaving. Phi Delta Theta officials believed that the conference had been placing too much emphasis on individual undergraduates through specific programs such as leadership conferences rather than focusing on the fraternity movement as a whole. Phi Sigma Kappa has since re-joined the NIC.[54]

Alcohol free housing policy[edit]

In 1997, Phi Delta Theta spearheaded the initiative of having alcohol free housing within its chapters by the year 2000.[31]The policy has since been adopted by other fraternities including Theta Chi and Phi Gamma Delta (FIJI), although Theta Chi has discontinued their Alcohol Free Housing Policy as of July 2010.[55] However, unlike Phi Gamma Delta, Phi Delta Theta has no exemption policy allowing chapters that meet certain standards, such as a cumulative GPA higher than 3.0, to have alcohol in the chapter house.

Concern and criticism[edit]

When Phi Delta Theta announced the inception of an alcohol free housing policy, the announcement was met both by hope and skepticism. While some saw the banning of alcohol in housing facilities as a welcome return to the principles on which the fraternity was founded, others felt the drastic cultural shift would hurt social dynamics. The General Council and GHQ had expected resistance from both alumni and undergraduate members when it was first proposed.[31] Among the most vocal chapters against the policy were the University of Virginia chapter, where a faction split off from Phi Delta Theta and chose to form a separate local fraternity known as the Phi Society, and the University of the South chapter, which formed the Phi Society of 1883 rather than adopt the policy. Phi Delta Theta returned to the University of Virginia one year later and formed a new chapter. Phi Delta Theta has not returned to the University of the South.[56]

Alcohol free housing five year progress report[edit]

In 2005, the fraternity issued a progress report. Significant improvements have occurred in many areas of fraternity life and operations. Since the implementation of the alcohol free housing policy, the all undergraduate grade point average rose from 2.77 in 2000 to nearly 3.00 in 2005.[57] The insurance premiums of individual members have also gone down as risk management violations have decreased. Perhaps the most telling area is in membership, where Phi Delta Theta showed an increase of new members. In 2004, Phi Delta Theta had 3,102 new members while other fraternities averaged 2,415.[57] In 1990, chapters of Phi Delta Theta were 18% larger than the typical fraternity chapter. In 2004, they were 30% larger.[57]Also, in 2004, Phi Delta Theta was one of only 13 national/international fraternities to show an increase in total undergraduates from the previous year with an increase of 4.2%.[57] The significance of this is highlighted by the fact that Phi Delta Theta had fewer chapters than other fraternities. Competitively, Phi Delta Theta has remained a constant among others. In terms of new members, it ranked ninth in 1990, eighth in 2000, and ninth in 2004.[57] Many alumni members have credited the alcohol free housing policy in continuing this trend.[57]

Recent events[edit]

Events branch from community service orientation to philanthropy efforts.


Membership to Phi Delta Theta is open to all qualified men without concern for race, religion, or ethnicity. Initial membership to the fraternity is contingent upon receiving an invitation to an interested individual by members of an active chapter. A pledge of Phi Delta Theta is called a Phikeia. The typical pledge period lasts a minimum of eight weeks, although occasionally it is shortened or lengthened to fit university requirements or by approval of the General Council.[58] The pledge period is a time where the prospective member learns about the fraternity history, structure, traditions, organization as well as social etiquette. Phi Delta Theta has a strict policy against hazing and does not tolerate chapters who violate the policy.[59] Once initiated, a brother is entitled to all rights and privileges of fraternity membership unless he formally resigns or is expelled.[58]

Notable alumni[edit]

See List of Phi Delta Theta members
Famous Phis
Benjamin Harrison
23rd President of the U.S.
Neil Armstrong
First man to walk on the moon

Members of Phi Delta Theta have held numerous political positions in the United States, including the presidency, vice-presidency, and speakership of the House of Representatives. In Canada, fraternity members have served in many levels of government. Members have won major awards in science and entertainment, and have also gained prominence in areas such as architecture, medicine, and sports. Throughout the years, many prominent members have kept a vested interest in the events and operations of Phi Delta Theta. President Harrison, for example, participated in three Phi Delt banquets during his presidency while Medal of Honor recipient General Frederick Funston was the guest speaker at certain chapter installations.[60][61]

By the numbers[edit]

The number of members who have either been involved in armed conflict or have achieved prominence in their respective professions have been documented throughout the years.[62] As of November, 2014,[63] the following statistics are the involvement of its members in various fields:

14,000+ (initiated) members served in World War II 8 members have won a Pulitzer Prize
5000+ members served in World War I 9 members have won an Emmy Award
400+ members have played professional football 6 members are enshrined in the MLB Hall of Fame
286 members served in the Spanish–American War 6 members are enshrined in the NFL Hall of Fame
281 members served in the American Civil War 3 members have been NASA astronauts
200+ members have obtained the rank of General or Admiral 3 members have won an Academy Award
117 members have been United States Congressmen 3 members have won a Heisman Trophy
34 members have been state governors 3 members have served as justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
33 members have been United States Senators 2 members have been Canadian Premiers
15 members have stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame 1 member served as President of the United States
9 members have received the Medal of Honor or Victoria Cross 1 member served as Vice President of the United States
1 member has won the Nobel Prize

Sports awards named after members[edit]


Undergraduate chapters[edit]

See List of Phi Delta Theta chapters

Since 1848, Phi Delta Theta has granted nearly 260 charters across the United States and Canada. Today, there are over 196 chapters and colonies. To be granted a charter, a colony must complete certain requirements set forth by the General Council. Chief among these are recruiting a certain number of members and achieving a respectable cumulative grade point average among its members. Phi Delta Theta also has the longest continuous chapter of any fraternity in the United States, that chapter being the Kentucky Alpha-Delta Chapter at Centre College, which was established in 1850 and is still active today.[64] In 2011, Phi Delta Theta awarded the Outstanding Chapter House of the Year award to the California Delta chapter at the University of Southern California. The largest chapter of Phi Delta Theta is at the University of Florida with, on average, 150 active brothers and over 3300 initiated since the chapter was founded in 1925.

Alumni chapters[edit]

Currently, Phi Delta Theta has over 100 active alumni clubs. Although all the clubs are currently in North America, alumni clubs have been found all over the world throughout its history. At one point, there were over 165 alumni chapters, some as far away as China. The most Phis to ever assemble on foreign land for an alumni club meeting, before the fraternity became international in 1902, was in Manila, Philippines when 30 Phis gathered in 1899.[65] The alumni club in the Philippines lasted for nearly 40 years.

Phi Delta Psi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phi Delta Psi
Founded March 21, 1977; 39 years ago
Western Michigan University
Type Social
Motto All That We Put Into The Lives Of Others Comes Back Into Our Own
Colors Cardinal Red and Aztec Gold
Symbol Blazing Torch
Flower Red rose
Chapters 28
Nicknames Deuces, Flamethrowers, Phi-Men
Headquarters P.O. Box 3088
Southfield, Michigan

Phi Delta Psi (ΦΔΨ) is a social fraternity. It was founded March 21, 1977, on the campus of Western Michigan University.

Organizational philosophy[edit]

Phi Delta Psi was founded on the principles of eternal honor, perseverance, leadership, achievement and brotherhood. The founding fathers of the organization sought to create a fraternity that would meet the social, economic and political challenges of males. Phi Delta Psi places importance on their founders’ mantra of community service for the benefit of their universities, families, communities and the world.

Induction policy[edit]

The founders of Phi Delta Psi felt that an intake process should be conducted for the purpose of developing men capable of supporting the ideals of the organization. It is the policy of the organization to induct members based on “the intelligence of their mind and content of character rather than the thickness of their hide.”[1]

Phi Delta Gamma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phi Delta Gamma
Founded 1942
El Colegio,
Type Social
Scope  Puerto Rico
 United States
Nickname la Phi Delta
Headquarters Mayaguez
Puerto Rico

Phi Delta Gamma (ΦΔΓ) of Puerto Rico is the first Puerto Rican organization of Greek letters, which was founded in the western town of Mayagüez,on April 25, 1942.

Phi Delta Gamma originated from a high school fraternity, Alpha Iota Omega, which was founded in 1939.[1] When the brothers of Alpha Iota Omega enrolled in the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (Colegio de Agricultura y Artes Mecánicas) of Mayagüez, some were offered the opportunity to pledge one of the original Puerto Rican fraternities. The others reunited in the house of the brothers Gilberto Oliver Padilla and Otis Oliver Padilla. They decided to found a new fraternity on April 25, 1942, and to use the Greek letters Phi, Delta and Gamma.

The founding brothers are Gilberto Oliver Padilla, Otis Oliver Padilla, Raúl Romaguera, Ramón Antonio Frontera, Ignacio Beauchamp, José Ramón Ponce de León, Hilton Quintana, Angel Inserni, Rafael Ferrer Monge “El Cubano” (who also developed the shield, the first rulebook, and the motto of the fraternity), Rubén D’Acosta, Edgardo Olivencia, César Arana and Hernán Rodríguez.

These brothers established the first chapter as Alpha in Mayagüez. They had plans to expand the fraternity to all of Puerto Rico. In 1944, the first Phi Delta Gamma clubhouse was established in the Méndez Vigo street of Mayagüez.

In 1945, brother Otis Oliver commended to students Juan Mari Brás and Manuel Portela Lomba to take the Phi Delta Gamma fraternity to San Juan. They began the task of establishing the Beta chapter in the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras. Some of the founding brothers of the Beta chapter are Oscar Colón, Juan Mari Brás, Jean García, Ramón Vargas, Manuel Portela Lomba and Angel Amézaga. Thanks to this effort, the first convention of the Phi Delta Gamma was celebrated in 1945, in the Condado Hotel.

The Phi Delta Gamma members are known as “the originals”, because they changed the way a traditional fraternity may be; also, they were the first Greek letter fraternity, which originated in western Puerto Rico: town of Mayagüez. The Phi Deltas are renowned for their friendliness and honesty. Above all, the great brotherhood among its members is very characteristic of their family activities (which involve grandparents, parents, spouses, children, grandchildren, and even great-grandchildren).

Notable members[edit]

  • Juan Mari Brás, lawyer and political candidate for governor for the Puerto Rican Socialist Party
  • Luis Cabrera, actor
  • José Angel “Chiro” Cangiano, lawyer; entrepreneur (Lions of Ponce teams); writer; brother of Milly Cangiano
  • Manuel “Papo” Charbonnier, City of Río Piedras; Puerto Rico Sports Hall of Fame
  • Albert Cruz, WAPA TV sports newscaster
  • Alfredo Lamela Domenech, ex-professional basketball player (BSN) of Piratas de Quebradillas
  • Agustín “Tito” Lara, singer
  • José Ortiz, former Executive President of PRASA
  • Joaquín Porrata, radio sports analyst
  • Miguel Rivera, former member of the government of Puerto Rico
  • Manuel Díaz Saldaña, former comptroller of the government of Puerto Rico
  • Orlando “El Zurdo” Sanchez, aka ” El Playero Mayor”, domino national champion
  • Alfredo J. Santana Velázquez, bodybuilder with international awards
  • José Canals Vidal, retired Colonel, US armed forces
  • Luis “Luisito” Vigoreaux, Jr., television actor and producer
  • Ernesto Quesada Ojeda, Ass. District Attorney

Phi Beta Sigma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phi Beta Sigma
Phi Beta Sigma crest.png
Founded January 9, 1914; 103 years ago
Howard University
Type Social
Emphasis Service
Scope International
South Korea
Africa & Worldwide
Motto Culture For Service and Service For Humanity
Colors  Royal Blue   Pure White
Symbol Dove
Flower White Carnation
Publication The Crescent
Chapters 700+
Members 290,000+ lifetime
Nickname Phi Betas
Headquarters 145 Kennedy Street, NW
Washington, D.C.
United States
Phi Beta Sigma Seal.jpg

Phi Beta Sigma (ΦΒΣ) is a social/service collegiate and professional fraternity founded at Howard University in Washington, D.C. on January 9, 1914, by three young African-American male students with nine other Howard students as charter members. The fraternity’s founders, A. Langston Taylor, Leonard F. Morse, and Charles I. Brown, wanted to organize a Greek letter fraternity that would exemplify the ideals of Brotherhood, Scholarship and Service while taking an inclusive perspective to serving the community as opposed to having an exclusive purpose. The fraternity exceeded the prevailing models of Black Greek-Letter fraternal organizations by being the first to establish alumni chapters, to establish youth mentoring clubs, to establish a federal credit union, to establish chapters in Africa, and establish a collegiate chapter outside of the United States, and is the only fraternity to hold a constitutional bond with a predominantly African-American sorority, Zeta Phi Beta (ΖΦΒ), which was founded on January 16, 1920, at Howard University in Washington, D.C., through the efforts of members of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity.

The fraternity expanded over a remarkably broad geographical area in a short amount of time when its second, third, and fourth chapters were chartered at Wiley College in Texas and Morgan State College in Maryland in 1916, and Kansas State University in 1917. Today, the fraternity serves through a membership of more than 200,000 men in over 700 chapters in the United States, Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Caribbean. Although Phi Beta Sigma is considered a predominantly African-American Fraternity, its membership also consists of diverse college-educated men of African, Caucasian, Hispanic, Native American and Asian descent. According to its Constitution, academically-eligible male students of any race, religion, or national origin may join while enrolled at a college or university through collegiate chapters, or professional men may join through an alumni chapter if a college degree has been attained, along with a certain minimum number of earned credit hours.

Phi Beta Sigma is a member of the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) and the North-American_Interfraternity_Conference (IFC or NIC). The current International President is Jonathan A. Mason, and the fraternity’s headquarters are located at 145 Kennedy Street, NW Washington, D.C.


Genesis and founding (1910–1916)[edit]

The birthplace of SIGMA: the 12th Street YMCA in Washington, D.C.

In the summer of 1910, after a conversation with a recent Howard University graduate in Memphis, Tennessee, A. Langston Taylor formed the idea to establish a fraternity and soon after, enrolled into Howard University in Washington, D.C. Once there, Taylor began to set his vision of a brotherhood into action. In October 1913, Taylor and Leonard F. Morse had their initial conversation about starting a fraternity. As a result, Charles I. Brown was named as the third member of the founding group. By November 1913, a committee was established to begin to lay the foundation of what was to become Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity. Soon after the first committee meeting, Taylor, Morse, and Brown chose 9 associates to assist them with the creation of the fraternity. Those men were the first charter members of the organization.

On January 9, 1914, the permanent organization of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity was established in the Bowen Room of the 12th Street Y.M.C.A Building in Washington, D.C. On April 15, 1914, the Board of Deans at Howard University officially recognized Phi Beta Sigma and the following week The University Reporter, Howard University’s student publication, made known the news.

The first two years of the fraternity’s existence would see them organize and maintain a Sunday school program, led by A.H. Brown, open a library and art gallery to the public, the foundation of the Benjamin Banneker Research Society, and also the Washington Art Club.[1] In addition to their impact to the Washington, D.C. Community, the members of Sigma were also impacting the campus of Howard University. Abraham M. Walker was elected associate editor of the Howard University Journal. The following year, Walker and Founder A. Langston Taylor, were elected Editor-in-Chief and circulation manager respectively. Other members were also taking leadership positions as W.F. Vincent, William H. Foster, John Berry, Earl Lawson, among others, were presidents of the Debating Society, the college YMCA, the Political Science Club, and the Athletic Association respectively. On the athletic field, captain John Camper and J. House Franklin were standout football players for Howard University.

In the spring of 1915, the fraternity was seeking to further its intellectual pool. As a result, several affluent African-American scholars Dr. Edward P. Davis, Dr. Thomas W. Turner, T.M. Gregory, and Dr. Alain Leroy Locke, were inducted into the Fraternity. On March 5, 1915, Herbert L. Stevens was initiated, in turn making him the first Graduate member of Phi Beta Sigma.[2]

Founding photo of Alpha Chapter, Howard University, circa 1914

A year after the establishment of Phi Beta Sigma, the Fraternity saw that the scope of Sigma needed to be expanded beyond just Washington, D.C. and Howard University. On November 13, 1915, Beta Chapter was chartered at Wiley College in Marshall, Texas by graduate member Herbert Stevens. Beta chapter became the first chapter of any African-American Greek-lettered organization to be chartered south of Richmond, Virginia.[2] As Phi Beta Sigma continued its expansion in the Eastern and Southern United States, other national fraternities were beginning to take notice.

On December 28, 1916, Phi Beta Sigma hosted the fraternity’s first conclave in Washington, D.C. 200 members representing three collegiate chapters, Alpha, Beta and Gamma (established at Morgan State College) were in attendance. As a result of the 1916 conclave, an official publication for the Fraternity was authorized and member W.F. Vincent was elected as the National Editor.

World War I and the Sigma call to arms (1917–1919)[edit]

Phi Beta Sigma responded to a “Call to Arms” in 1917 as the United States entered the First World War. No definite study has ever been made as to the participation of Sigma brothers in World War I. However, the extent of their activity may be suggested by the fact that the Alpha chapter had about seventy members in uniform.[3] The troubles of membership, not only affected the Alpha Chapter. Other chapters of Sigma were so depleted that only the Alpha Chapter showed any signs of activity and the National Office ceased to function. The General Board was forced to re-organize as a result of death and other dislocations brought on by the war. Fraternity President I. L. Scruggs would ask Founder, and now the fraternity’s National Treasurer, A. Langston Taylor to contact the Brothers as soon as they re-appeared in civilian clothes.[4] It was through the efforts of Taylor that the fraternity was able to continue and proceed to operate financially as numerous Sigma men served on the European battle front.[4]

Incorporation and the founding of Zeta Phi Beta (1920–1933)[edit]

By February 1920, Phi Beta Sigma had expanded to Ten active chapters; including the Eta Chapter at The Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina (now North Carolina A&T State University).[5] As a result of the December 1919 Conclave, Phi Beta Sigma’s first conclave after the war, fraternity founder A Langston Taylor was given approval from the General Board to assist in the organization of what was to become the sister sorority to Phi Beta Sigma.

The creation of Zeta Phi Beta Sorority[edit]

Main article: Zeta Phi Beta

In the spring of 1919, Sigma Brother, Charles Robert Samuel Taylor shared with Arizona Cleaver his idea for a sister organization to the fraternity. Cleaver then presented this idea to fourteen other Howard Women; and with the help of Charles Taylor and Sigma Founder A. Langston Taylor, work began to establish the new sorority.[6] With permission from the Howard University administration, Zeta Phi Beta Sorority held its first official meeting on January 16, 1920. The founders and charter members of the Sorority consisted of Arizona Cleaver (Stemons), Viola Tyler (Goings), Myrtle Tyler (Faithful), Pearl Anna Neal, and Fannie Pettie (Watts). The five founders chose the name Zeta Phi Beta. The similar names of both Sigma and Zeta are intentional in nature as the ladies adopted the Greek letters ‘Phi’ and ‘Beta’ to “seal and signify the relationship between the two organizations”.[7]

“Arizona Cleaver was the chief builder and she asked fourteen others to join her. I shall never forget the first meetings held in dormitory rooms of Miner Hall. Miss Hardwick, the matron, never knew I was about until I was escorted out by Arizona, who was her assistant. I was Miss Hardwick’s favorite boy.”

Sigma Brother Charles R. Taylor
(On Arizona Cleaver & the organization of Zeta Phi Beta)[8]

The newly established Zeta Phi Beta Sorority was given a formal introduction at the Whitelaw Hotel by their Sigma Counterparts, Charles R. and A. Langston Taylor. The two Sigma Brothers had been a source of advice and encouragement during the establishment, and throughout the early days. of Zeta Phi Beta[9] As National Executive Secretary of Phi Beta Sigma, Charles Taylor wrote to all Sigma Chapters requesting they establish Zeta chapters at their respective institutions. With the efforts of Taylor, Zeta added several chapters in areas as far west as Kansas City State College; as far south as Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia; and as far north as New York City.[10]

Phi Beta Sigma’s contributions to the Harlem Renaissance[edit]

The literary works of Sigma Brother James Weldon Johnson, such as God’s Trombones, played a significant role in the Harlem Renaissance.
Sigma Brother A. Phillip Randolph was seen as a key intellectual player during the Harlem Renaissance.

The 1920s also witnessed the birth of the Harlem Renaissance- a flowering of African-American cultural and intellectual life which began to be absorbed into mainstream American culture. Phi Beta Sigma fraternity brother Alain LeRoy Locke is unofficially credited as the “Father of the Harlem Renaissance.” His philosophy served as a strong motivating force in keeping the energy and passion of the Movement at the forefront.[11] In addition to Locke, Sigma brothers James Weldon Johnson and A. Philip Randolph were participants in this creative emergence led primarily by the African-American community based in the neighborhood of Harlem in New York City.

On January 31, 1920, Phi Beta Sigma was incorporated in the district of Washington, D.C. and became known as Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Incorporated.

In November 1921, the first volume of the Phi Beta Sigma Journal was published. The journal was the official organ of the fraternity and Eugene T. Alexander was named its first editor. The following month, the fraternity held its 1921 Conclave at Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia. This conference saw the first ever inter-fraternity conference between Phi Beta Sigma and Omega Psi Phi. This would lead to the first inter-fraternity council meeting between the two organizations the following spring in Washington, D.C.

“When Taylor left the center of the stage, the main theme of the plot had been introduced. It would, of course, be developed, embellished, and varied in the years to come.”

Brother I.L. Scruggs[12]

In 1922, Founder Taylor called for the assembly of the Black Greek Lettered Organizations of Howard University to discuss the formation of a governing council. Although, the efforts of Taylor failed on that particular day, they would sow the seeds for what was to become the National Pan-Hellenic Council eight years later.

In March 1924, the name of the fraternity’s official publication, The Phi Beta Sigma Journal, was changed to The Crescent Magazine. The magazine’s name change was suggested by members of the Mu Chapter at Lincoln University, PA to reference the symbolic meaning of the crescent to the fraternity. At the 1924 conclave, the concept of the Bigger and Better Negro Business was introduced by way of an exhibit devoted to the topic. This would lead to the establishment of Bigger and Better Business as a national program at the 1925 conclave. At the 1928 Conclave, held in Louisville, Kentucky, the tradition of branding the skin with a hot iron, as a part of the initiation process was officially frowned upon.

Sigma and the Great Depression[edit]

At the 1929 Conclave held in New York City, Dr. Carter G. Woodson was invited as a guest speaker and saw the creation of The Distinguished Service Chapter. The fall of 1929 saw the crash of the nation’s stock markets. Like many others during this period, Phi Beta Sigma also suffered a common fate. With brothers faced with financial worries, some members were forced to leave their respective institutions and chapters became inactive. The Fraternity saw its income drastically shrink to the point of nearly disappearing completely. As a result of the bank closures, the remaining funds of the Fraternity were frozen.

“Negroes would warrant and get Support and Patronage from other races as well as the Negro race”

Arthur W. Mitchell[12]
6th International President of ΦΒΣ

As the nation came to terms with the Great Depression, Phi Beta Sigma and its members continued to implement programs to support the black community. In February 1930, the General Board met in New York City and appointed then vice president of the Eastern Region Dr. T. H. Wright as head of the new Bigger and Better Business program. The first objective of Phi Beta Sigma’s new program was to call upon colleges to provide business courses for its students. The fraternity went forward with its plans to implement the bigger and better business program and aid as many financially strapped chapters as possible through scholarships for brothers.

Later that year, at the 1930 Conclave held in Tuskegee, Alabama, northern region vice president C.L. Roberts suggested that instead of a yearly meeting, the annual conclaves should be held once every two years. It was also at this conclave that brother George Washington Carver delivered an impassioned and emotional speech to the brothers in attendance.

Social action and international expansion (1934–1949)[edit]

A porter for the Pullman Company Under the leadership of Sigma Brother A. Phillip Randolph, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was able to gain rights under federal law.

Fraternity brother A. Phillip Randolph, who organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, played a role in the amendments to the Railway Labor Act in 1934. As a result, railway porters were granted rights under federal law. This victory and the continuing work of Randolph and the BSCP led to the Pullman Company contract with the union, which included over $2 million in pay increases for employees, a shorter workweek, and overtime pay. 1934 also marked the birth of Social Action as a national program and the return of founder A. Langston Taylor to the forefront of Sigma. Brother Emmett May was elected as the first director of the social action initiative.

The 1935 Atlanta Conclave saw yet another meeting between Sigma and Omega Psi Phi fraternities. Omega founders Edgar Amos Love and Oscar James Cooper brought greetings to the brothers in attendance of the conference on behalf of the members of Omega Psi Phi. The following year, the general board approved the fraternity’s affiliation with the already established National Pan-Hellenic Council. in continuation of Sigma’s Social Action initiative, brothers of Sigma were actively involved the Chicago meeting of the National Negro Congress.

We live in daily hope that we shall one day learn the fate of our beloved brother and founder.

Founder Leonard F. Morse – 1949
(On The fate of Founder Charles I. Brown)[13]

As Phi Beta Sigma prepared for the Silver (25th) Anniversary, a special search was made for lost founder Charles I. Brown. The search would yield no results as to the fate or location of Founder Brown. The 1939 conclave marking the 25th anniversary of the fraternity was held on the campus of Howard University.

At the 1941 Conclave in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the fraternity became a permanent member of the National Negro Business League. At the same conclave Brother A. Phillip Randolph announced a proposed march on Washington, D.C., to protest racial discrimination in defense work and the armed forces. This proposed march would lead then president of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt to create the Committee on Fair Employment Practice and issue Executive Order 8802 which barred discrimination in governmental and defense industry hiring.

Due to the outbreak of the Second World War no Conclaves were held, although some brothers in various regions were able to assemble independently of the General Board. At the fraternity’s first spring conclave in 1944, the fraternity voted to support the United Negro College Fund. 1949 would mark the reunion of two of the founders of Sigma: A. Langston Taylor and Leonard F. Morse.

The 1940s and 1950s would show the continued expansion of Phi Beta Sigma. In 1949, the fraternity became an international organization with the chartering of the Beta Upsilon Sigma graduate chapter and the Gamma Nu Sigma graduate chapter in Monrovia, Liberia. The fraternity would extend its international chapters into Geneva, Switzerland, with the chartering of the Gamma Nu Sigma graduate chapter in 1955.

Sigma and the Civil Rights Movement (1950–1969)[edit]

Sigma Brother & Co-founder of the Black Panther Party, Huey P. Newton—Alameda County Court House Jail, Oakland, September 26, 1968

As the struggle for the civil rights of African Americans renewed in the 1950s, Sigma men held positions of leadership among various civil rights groups, organized protests, and proposed the famous March on Washington of 1963. In Atlanta, A. Phillip Randolph helped with the establishment of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957. Randolph and fraternity brother John Lewis would later be involved with the 1963 March on Washington, Randolph as a key organizer and Lewis as a speaker representing the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).

In 1961, Phi Beta Sigma brother James Forman joined and became the executive secretary of the then newly formed Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. From 1961 to 1965 Forman, a decade older and more experienced than most of the other members of SNCC, became responsible for providing organizational support to the young, loosely affiliated activists by paying bills, radically expanding the institutional staff, and planning the logistics for programs. Under the leadership of Forman and others, SNCC became an important political player at the height of the Civil Rights Movement.

During the Selma to Montgomery marches, Brothers Hosea Williams and John Lewis (U.S. politician) led a 54-mile protest march from Selma to the capital of Alabama: Montgomery. Lewis became known nationally for his prominent role in the marches and became a Congressman as a Democrat from Georgia. During police attacks on the peaceful demonstration Lewis was beaten mercilessly, leaving head wounds that are still visible today.

Phi Beta Sigma brother Huey P. Newton helped establish the revolutionary left-wing Black Panther Party. Originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, their goal was the protection of African-American neighborhoods from police brutality in the interest of African-American justice. As one of the many advocates of The Black Power Movement, the Black Panthers were considered part of one of the most significant social, political, and cultural movements in U.S. history. “The Movement[‘s] provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes permanently altered the contours of American Identity.”[14]

History (1970–2000)[edit]

In 1970, brother Melvin Evans was elected the first governor of the United States Virgin Islands. In 1979, Phi Beta Sigma celebrated its 65th anniversary Conclave in Washington, D.C. In 1983, Sigma brother Harold Washington became the first African-American mayor of the city of Chicago, Illinois. In 1986, the Fraternity opened the Phi Beta Sigma Federal Credit Union which is open to members of the Fraternity, members of the sister sorority, Zeta Phi Beta, their families, and their respective Regions and Chapters. With the establishment of the credit union, Phi Beta Sigma became the first NPHC organization to offer such an entity to its members.[citation needed]

In 1989, the Fraternity celebrated its Diamond Jubilee in Washington, D.C. Also in that year, brother Edison O. Jackson became the president of Medgar Evers College in Brooklyn, New York. In 1990, two Sigma brothers made significant firsts in their respective fields as Brothers Charles E. Freeman and Morris Overstreet were elected the first district judge of the Illinois Supreme Court and first African-American elected by popular vote to a statewide office in the state of Texas respectively. In 1995, the fraternity was the only NPHC organization involved with the planning and support of the Million Man March as brother Benjamin Chavis Muhammad served as national coordinator of the March.[citation needed]

21st century[edit]

Sigma Brother John Lewis speaks during the final day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado.

In 2001, Sigma brother Rod Paige became the first African American Secretary of Education. At the 2003 conclave, in Memphis, Tennessee, the fraternity added Projects S.W.W.A.C & S.A.T.A.P as national programs in attempts to combat cancer and teenage pregnancy.[15] In addition to those projects, the fraternity added Project Vote and the Phi Beta Sigma Capital Hill Summit under the social action umbrella.[15]At the 2007 conclave in Charlotte, North Carolina the fraternity introduced the Sigma Wellness initiatives as the latest national programs. The 2009 Conclave in New Orleans saw former President William Jefferson Clinton accept honorary member invitation to Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity.”[16]

Purpose of the fraternity[edit]

The founders deeply wished to create an organization that viewed itself as “a part of” the general community rather than “apart from” the general community. They believed that each potential member should be judged by his own merits rather than his family background or affluence… without regard of race, nationality, skin tone or texture of hair. They wished and wanted their fraternity to exist as part of even a greater brotherhood which would be devoted to the “inclusive we” rather than the “exclusive we.” The fraternity’s defiance of stereotypes that have plagued other organizations indeed goes back to the founders themselves with their careful and deliberate building of the fraternity by promoting a membership with diverse backgrounds.

From its inception, the Founders also conceived Phi Beta Sigma as a mechanism to deliver services to the general community. Rather than gaining skills to be utilized exclusively for themselves and their immediate families, the founders of Phi Beta Sigma held a deep conviction that they should return their newly acquired skills to the communities from which they had come. This deep conviction was mirrored in the Fraternity’s motto, “Culture For Service and Service For Humanity.”

Today, Phi Beta Sigma has blossomed into an international organization of leaders. The fraternity has experienced unprecedented growth and continues to be a leader among issues of social justice as well as proponent of the interests of minority communities, the needy, the oppressed, and the youth. No longer a single entity, the Fraternity has now established the Phi Beta Sigma Educational Foundation, the Phi Beta Sigma Housing Foundation, the Phi Beta Sigma Federal Credit Union, a notable youth auxiliary program, “The Sigma Beta Club,” and the Phi Beta Sigma Charitable Outreach Foundation.


Phi Beta Sigma’s Constitution states that race, religion, and national origin are not criteria for membership. Membership is predominantly African-American in composition, with members in over 650 collegiate and alumni chapters in the United States, District of Columbia, Germany, Switzerland, The Bahamas, Virgin Islands, South Korea, Japan and countries in Africa. Since its founding in 1914, more than 150,000 men have joined the membership of Phi Beta Sigma.[citation needed]

“Each one, was different in temperament, in ability, in appearance; but that was why they were chosen by the three founders. We felt that a fraternity composed of men who were all alike in habits, interest and abilities would be a pretty dull organization.”

Sigma Co-Founder Leonard F. Morse
(On The First Initiated Brothers of Phi Beta Sigma)[17]

A chapter name ending in “Sigma” denotes a graduate chapter. No chapter of Phi Beta Sigma is designated Omega, the last letter of the Greek alphabet, and deceased brothers are referred to as having joined The Omega Chapter.

Pledging and hazing culture[edit]

Through the years, members of Phi Beta Sigma have been involved in incidents related to hazing, although now denounced by the fraternity, incidents have been discovered of pledges being subjected to activities which in some case have resulted in serious injury and even death. Prior to 1990, the Crescent Club was the official pledge club of Phi Beta Sigma and potential candidates interested in becoming a member of the fraternity would join the pledge club before being fully initiated. In response to the increasing number of lawsuits stemming from allegations and incidents related to hazing, Phi Beta Sigma and other members of the National Pan-Hellenic Council jointly agreed to disband pledging as a form of admission.[18] In an attempt to eliminate Hazing from these organizations, each revised its orientation procedures and developed the Membership Intake Process.

In 2012, then Phi Beta Sigma International President Jimmy Hammock, along with the National Action Network, led by Sigma member Al Sharpton, launched a coalition whose aim was to combat hazing culture not just within the black Greek Lettered Organizations, but also the broader community at large. The coalition, also pledged their support of federal anti-hazing legislation that was being spearheaded by former United States House of Representatives member Frederica Wilson.[19][20] As part of the campaign, the fraternity developed anti-hazing training materials, held a town hall meetings, facilitated workshops and encouraged local chapters to participate in the annual National Anti-Hazing Awareness Day.[21]Phi Beta Sigma’s efforts to eliminate hazing from the fraternity continue as local chapters are now mandated to participate in anti-hazing awareness workshops.

Notable hazing incidents[edit]

In 1992, a pledge at Southern University (Baton Rouge) went blind after being intentionally hit on the head with a frying pan by a member of the fraternity.[22]

In 1998, a pledge at Southern Illinois University was struck in the chest by several members of the fraternity which caused him to suffer from a severe asthma attack.[23]

In 2006, seven Sigmas were arrested for beating pledges from the University of South Carolina.[24] One known pledge was hospitalized due to the severe beatings and torment.

In 2009, Donnie Wade Jr., a student at Prairie View A&M University, died of extreme exhaustion due to illegal hazing activity while he was pledging the fraternity. His family filed a $97 million lawsuit against the fraternity and the chapter was temporarily expelled from campus for several years.[25][26]

In 2014, a former Francis Marion University student won a $1.6 million lawsuit against the fraternity after suffering acute renal failure due to being severely beaten throughout his pledge process. Nine Phi Beta Sigma members were arrested.[27]

In 2015, the fraternity was kicked off the campus of Salisbury University until Spring 2017. The university had received several anonymous complaints of pledges being beaten with paddles, forced to drink alcohol, and being harassed.[28]

Notable members[edit]

Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity’s membership includes many notable members who are involved in the fields of arts and entertainment, business, civil rights, education, health, law, politics, science, and sports. The fraternity’s membership roster includes heads of state Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe, Kwame Nkrumah, William Tolbert, and William V.S. Tubman, the past presidents of Nigeria, the Republic of Ghana, and Liberia respectively. Other notable members include world-famous scientist George Washington Carver, the first black Rhodes Scholar Alain LeRoy Locke, co-founder of the Black Panther Party Huey P. Newton, organizer of the Million Man March Benjamin Chavis Muhammad, civil rights activists Hosea Williams and the Rev. Al Sharpton, musicians The Original Temptations, actor Terrence Howard, television personality Al Roker, professional athletes Jerry Rice, Emmitt Smith, Hines Ward, Richard Sherman and Ryan Howard, the Philadelphia Phillies first baseman and award-winning actor Blair Underwood.[29]

International Presidents[edit]

Listed below are the thirty-four International Presidents[30] since the 1914 institution of the office

  • Abram Langston Taylor, 1914-1916
  • Ivorite L. Scruggs, 1917-1919
  • William S. Savage, 1920-1921
  • Walter M. Clarke, 1921-1922
  • John W. Woodhous, 1923-1925
  • Arthur W. Mitchell, 1926-1934
  • Jesse W. Lewis, 1935-1936
  • James W. Johnson, 1937
  • George W. Lawrence, 1938-1940
  • Richard A. Billings, 1941-1944
  • George A. Parker, 1944-1947
  • Ras O. Johnson, 1948-1950
  • Felix J. Brown, 1951-1953
  • George L. Hightower, 1954-1955
  • George D. Flemmings; 1955-1957
  • Hutson L. Lovell, 1958-1959
  • Roswell O. Sutton, 1960-1962
  • Maurice A. Moore, 1963-1965,
  • Alvin J. McNeil, 1966-1970
  • Parlette L. Moore, 1971-1973
  • John E. Westberry, 1974-1976
  • Richard M. Ballard, Jr., 1977-1979
  • Charles B. Wright, 1980-1981
  • Demetrius Newton, 1981-1984
  • James T. Floyd 1984-1987
  • Moses C. McClendon, 1987-1989
  • Carter D. Womack, 1989-1993
  • William E. Stanley, Jr., 1993-1995
  • Carter D. Womack, 1995-1997
  • Peter M. Adams, 1997-2001
  • Arthur R. Thomas, 2001-2005
  • Paul L. Griffin, Jr., 2005-2009
  • Jimmy Hammock, 2009-2013
  • Jonathan A. Mason, Sr., 2013–Present


The city of Little Rock, Arkansas served as the location of the Phi Beta Sigma’s 2015 Conclave.

The Conclave is the legislative power of Phi Beta Sigma. During a conclave year, delegates representing all of the active chapters from within the seven regions of the Fraternity meet in the chosen city. The Conclave-or fraternity convention- is currently held biannually and usually co-hosted by the alumni and collegiate chapters of the chosen city. During the convention, members of the General Board – the administrative body of the fraternity-are elected and appointed. The General Board may act in the interest of the Fraternity when the Conclave is not in session. In addition, seminars, social events, concerts, an international Miss Phi Beta Sigma Pageant, Stepshow, and oratorical contests are also held during the week-long conference. Throughout the years, notable individuals such as George Washington Carver, Dr. Carter G. Woodson, and NFL quarterback Charlie Batch were speakers at past Conclaves.

The Current General board is composed of The International President, First Vice-President, Second-Vice President, Treasurer, General Counsel, a Distinguished Service Chapter Representative, the regional directors, the immediate past-president, two collegiate members at large, and director of collegiate affairs. The offices of Second-Vice President and collegiate member at large are reserved positions on the general board for collegiate (undergraduate) members to hold. In addition, the Editor of The Crescent Magazine, Director of publicity, and the National Executive Director make up the members of the General Board. The latter-mentioned members are appointed to their positions and do not hold voting powers.

Distinguished Service Chapter members[edit]

Established at the 1929 Conclave, the Distinguished Service Chapter is the highest honor bestowed on a member of Phi Beta Sigma. Membership in the Distinguished Service Chapter must be recommended and approved by the awardees Chapter, Region, and by the General Board of the Fraternity prior to entry. One must meet the following criteria in order to be considered for this honor:

  • Active in the Fraternity for at least ten years
  • Has distinguished himself in the Fraternity and/or in his respective communities for extending exemplary service.

Brother Jesse W. Lewis holds the distinction of being voted in as the DSC’s 1st member (1929).


The seven regions of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity both within the United States and Internationally.

Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity organizes its chapters according to their regions in the United States and abroad. The seven regions are each led by a regional director and a regional board. A comprehensive list of regions is shown below:[31]

  • Eastern (Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, the United States Virgin Islands, Africa, and Europe)
  • Great Lakes (Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Minnesota, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa)
  • Gulf Coast (Louisiana, New Mexico, and Texas)
  • Southeastern (North Carolina, South Carolina and all of Tennessee east of the 86th Longitude)
  • Southern (Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and the Bahamas, )
  • Southwestern (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma and all of Tennessee west of the 86th Longitude)
  • Western (Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, Japan, South Korea and Kuwait)

The national programs[edit]

Phi Beta Sigma National Programs[32]
Bigger and Better Business Project Vote
Project S.E.E.D. Phi Beta Sigma Capitol Hill Summit
National Program of Education Project S.A.T.A.P.P.
Project S.E.T. Sigma Wellness Project
Project S.W.W.A.C. The Sigma Beta Club
Clean Speech Movement Sigma Academy
Sleepout For The Homeless HIV/AIDS Awareness
Project S.A.D.A. Project S.A.S
Project S.E.R. Phi Beta Sigma National Marrow Donor Program
Sigma I.D. Day Phi Beta Sigma – “A Fraternity that Reads”
Phi Beta Sigma – “Buying Black and Giving Back”

Phi Beta Sigma aims their focuses on issues that greatly impact the African American community and the youth of the nation. The Phi Beta Sigma national programs of Bigger and Better Business, Education and Social Action are realized through the Fraternity’s overarching program, Sigma Wellness, adopted in 2007.[33]Through its national mentoring program for males ages 8–18, the organization provides opportunities for the development of young men as they prepare for college and the workforce.

The organization’s partnerships with the American Cancer Society, March of Dimes, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Boy Scouts of America and the Thurgood Marshall College Fund speaks to its mission to address societal ills including health disparities and educational and developmental opportunities for young males.

Bigger and Better Business[edit]

As told by Dr. I.L. Scruggs (excerpts from Our Cause Speeds On):

“Philadelphia, 1924, Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity ‘arrived’. We had a mob of people at this Conclave. There were representatives from twenty-eight chapters -and all the trimmings. The introduction of the Bigger and Better Negro Business idea was made by way of an exhibit devoted to this topic.
The Bigger and Better Negro Business idea was first tested in 1924 with an imposing exhibition in Philadelphia. This was held in connection with the Conclave. Twenty-five leading Negro Businesses sent statements and over fifty sent exhibits. The whole show took place in the lobby of the YMCA. Several thousand visitors seemed to have been impressed. The response was so great that the 1925 Conclave in Richmond, Virginia voted unanimously to make Bigger and Better Negro Business the public program of the Fraternity, and it has been so ever since.”
Phi Beta Sigma believes that the improvement and economic conditions of minorities is a major factor in the improvement of the general welfare of society. It is upon this conviction that the Bigger and Better Business Program rests. Since 1926, the Bigger and Better Business Program has been sponsored on a national scale by Phi Beta Sigma as a way of supporting, fostering, and promoting minority owned businesses and services.[34]

The Bigger and Better Business serves as an umbrella for other national initiatives involving business. The program’s goals include supporting minority businesses, increasing communication with sigma brothers involved with business, and instilling sound business principals and practices to members of the community. Project S.E.E.D. (Sigma Economic Empowerment Development) is the foremost Bigger and Better Business Program. The program was developed to help the membership focus on two important areas: Financial Management and Home ownership.


The founders of Phi Beta Sigma were all educators in their own right. The genesis of the Education Program lies in the traditional emphasis that the fraternity places on Education. During the 1945 conclave in St. Louis, Missouri, the fraternity underwent a constitution restructuring which led to the birth of the Education as a National Program.

The National Program of Education focuses on programming and services to graduate and undergraduates in the fraternity. Programs such as scholarships, lectures, college fairs, mentoring, and tutoring enhance this program on local, regional and national levels.[35]

Project S.E.T. (Sigma Education Time) is focused on increasing grade point averages and graduation rates of collegiates throughout the nation. The program aims to help with job readiness, choosing a career path {3–5 year outlook}, interviewing techniques, negotiating and entrepreneurship.

The Sigma Beta Club provides mentoring, guidance, educational tutorial assistance and advise to young men between ages 6 to 18. Created in 1950, it was the first youth auxiliary group of any of the National Pan-Hellenic Council organizations.

Social action[edit]

Phi Beta Sigma has from its very beginning concerned itself with improving the general well-being of minority groups. In 1934, a well-defined program of Social Action was formulated and put into action. Elmo M. Anderson, then president of Epsilon Sigma Chapter (New York) formulated this program calling for the reconstruction of social order. It was a tremendous success. It fit in with the social thinking of the American public in those New Deal years.

In the winter of 1934, Sigma brothers Elmo Anderson, James W. Johnson, Emmett May and Bob Jiggets presented the Social Action proposition to the Conclave in Washington, D.C. The idea was adopted as a national program at the same conclave. Anderson is credited as “The Father of Social Action”.[36]

The fraternity’s five main social action programs are Project Vote, Sigma Wellness, Sigma Presence on Capitol Hill, and projects S.W.W.A.C. & S.A.T.A.P.P.

Project S.W.W.A.C. (Sigmas Waging War Against Cancer) is a concentrated and coordinated effort to reduce the incidence of cancer in the African American community. Through a partnership with the American Cancer Society, the goal of Project S.W.W.A.C. is to increase awareness, with a strong emphasis on early detection and prevention of prostate and colorectal cancer.[37] Project S.A.T.A.P.P. is a collaborative venture with the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation to address the alarming rise in teenage pregnancy. The Sigma Wellness Project is focused on living healthier lifestyles through education. The goal of Project Vote is to register and educate citizens and encourage members of the community to participate in the democratic process. The Sigma Presence on Capitol Hill Program is focused on presenting Sigma members the opportunity to discuss many of the critical issues facing our communities with members of the U.S. Congress.[37]

The Sigma Beta Club[edit]

In the early 1950s, Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity developed a youth auxiliary group. Under the direction of Dr. Parlett L. Moore the Sigma Beta Club was founded. While as National Director of Education, Brother Moore was concerned about our changing needs in our communities and recognized the important role that Sigma men could play in the lives of our youth. On April 23, 1954, the first club chapter was organized in Montgomery, AL. Throughout its existence, Sigma Beta Club has been an essential part of the total organizational structure of many of the Alumni chapters of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. and offers men of Sigma a unique opportunity to develop wholesome value, leadership skills, and social and cultural awareness of youth at a most critical stage in the youth’s personal development. The Sigma Beta Clubs’ principles of focus emphasize Culture, Athletics, Social and Educational needs. Sigma Beta Club programs are geared to meet the needs of its members, but at the same time provide them with a well-rounded outlook that is needed to cope with today’s society. Phi Beta Sigma is confident that investing in our youth today will produce effective leaders of tomorrow. Sigma Beta Clubs also provide services to youths in their communities. Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc.’s interest in fostering the development of youth into effective leaders has been realized in the establishment of strong and productive Sigma Beta Club all across the country.

The Phi Beta Sigma History Museum[edit]

The Sigma History Museum was a traveling exhibition created in 2001 by Sigma brothers Mark Pacich, Louis W. Lubin, Jr. and Ahab El’Askeni. The museum’s initial goal was to dispel the discrepancies of the Fraternity’s history, by collecting as many newspaper articles, Crescent Magazines, Conclave Journals, autographs, pictures, etc., as possible. With the help of many Sigma members, in addition to families and friends of Sigmas brothers, some impressive artifacts of the history of the Fraternity were discovered. Among those artifacts, pictures of Sigma Founder A. Langston Taylor; historical pictures from the 1914, 1915, and 1916 yearbooks at Howard University; original letters; Conclave banners; and interviews with Sigma Brother Decatur Morse, son of Sigma Founder Leonard F. Morse, Samuel Proctor Massie II, son of a Alpha Chapter charter member, Samuel P. Massie, Robert L. Pollard II, son of Sigma brother Col. Robert L. Pollard who joined Sigma in 1919, and Dr. Gregory Tignor, son of Sigma brother Madison Tignor who also joined Sigma in 1919. The exhibit has been displayed in many cities including; Orlando, Philadelphia, Detroit, Memphis, and Las Vegas.

“Culture For Service and Service For Humanity”

Phi Beta Sigma Motto

On July 16, 2014, as part of the fraternity’s centennial celebration, a permanent museum was opened at the Phi Beta Sigma International Headquarters in Washington D.C. As a result, Phi Beta Sigma became the first Historically Black Greek Lettered fraternity to open its own museum.[38]

The assets of the museum have grown since the initial display in 2000. The most coveted possession yet to be acquired are the first 2 issues of the Phi Beta Sigma Journal. The museum is only 14 issues away from having every Crescent magazine ever printed.[39]

Omega Psi Phi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Omega Psi Phi
Founded November 17, 1911; 105 years ago
Howard University
Type Social
Emphasis Service
Scope International
Motto Friendship is Essential to the Soul
Colors      Royal Purple
Old Gold
Symbol Lamp
Publication Oracle and Clarion Call
Chapters 750+
Cardinal Principles Manhood, scholarship, perseverance and uplift
Headquarters 3951 Snapfinger Parkway
Decatur, Georgia
United States of America
Homepage Omega Psi Phi Fraternity website

Omega Psi Phi Founders

The Alpha chapter of Omega Psi Phi in 1911.

Omega Psi Phi (ΩΨΦ) is an international fraternity with over 750 undergraduate and graduate chapters. The fraternity was founded on November 17, 1911 by three Howard University juniors, Edgar Amos Love, Oscar James Cooper and Frank Coleman, and their faculty adviser, Dr. Ernest Everett Just. Omega Psi Phi is the first predominantly African-American fraternity to be founded at a historically black university.[1]


Since its founding in 1911, Omega Psi Phi’s stated purpose has been to attract and build a strong and effective force of men dedicated to its Cardinal Principles of manhood, scholarship, perseverance, and uplift. Throughout the world, many notable members are recognized as leaders in the arts, academics, athletics, entertainment, business, civil rights, education, government, and science fields. A few notable members include Bill Cosby, Benjamin Mays, Bayard Rustin, Langston Hughes, Roy Wilkins, Benjamin Hooks, Vernon Jordan, Dr. Robert Henry Lawrence, Jr., Rev. Jesse Jackson, Rev. Dr. Mack King Carter, William H. Hastie (U.S. Virgin Islands) and L. Douglas Wilder, Representative James Clyburn, Earl Graves, Tom Joyner, Charles Bolden, Ronald McNair, General William “Kip” Ward, Michael Jordan, Shaquille O’Neal, Shammond Williams, Vince Carter, Steve Harvey, Rickey Smiley, Ray Lewis, Stephen A. Smith, and numerous presidents of colleges and universities. Over 250,000 men have been initiated into Omega Psi Phi throughout the United States, Bermuda, Bahamas, Virgin Islands, South Korea, Japan, Liberia, Germany, and Kuwait.[1] On the 2013 Super Bowl champion Baltimore Ravens, six players and GM Ozzie Newsome are members.[2]

In 1924, at the urging of fraternity member Carter G. Woodson, the fraternity launched Negro History and Literature Week in an effort to publicize the growing body of scholarship on African-American history.[3] Encouraged by public interest, the event was renamed “Negro Achievement Week” in 1925 and given an expanded national presence in 1926 by Woodson’s Association for the Study of Negro Life as “Negro History Week.”[3] Expanded to the full month of February from 1976, this event continues today as Black History Month.

Since 1945, the fraternity has undertaken a National Social Action Program to meet the needs of African Americans in the areas of health, housing, civil rights, and education. Omega Psi Phi has been a patron of the United Negro College Fund (UNCF) since 1955, providing an annual gift of $350,000,000 to the program.

Omega Psi Phi is a member of the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC), which is composed of nine predominately African-American Greek-letter sororities and fraternities that promote interaction through forums, meetings, and other media for the exchange of information, and engage in cooperative programming and initiatives throughout the world. The (NPHC) currently represents over 2.5 million members.[4]

Centennial Celebration[edit]

Omega Psi Phi celebrated its centennial during the week of July 27–31, 2011 in Washington D.C., becoming distinguished as only the third African-American collegiate fraternity to reach the century mark.[4] The Centennial Celebrationrecognized the impact of the Fraternity in communities over the past 100 years, honored Omega Men for achievement in all walks of life, reiterated Omega Psi Phi’s commitment to providing unparalleled community service and scholarship, and charted the Fraternity’s future activities.

Internationally Mandated Programs[edit]

Each Chapter administers Internationally Mandated Programs every year:[5]

Achievement Week – A week in November that seeks to recognize individuals who have made notable contributions to society. During the Achievement Week, a High School Essay Contest is held and the winner usually receives a scholarship award.

Omega Psi Phi chapter members marching in an Independence Day parade, Ypsilanti, Michigan

Scholarship – The Charles R. Drew Scholarship Program encourages academic progress among the organization’s undergraduate members. A portion of the fraternity’s budget is designated for the Charles R. Drew Scholarship Commission, which awards scholarships to members and non-members.

Social Action Programs – All chapters are required to participate in programs that uplift their society. Many participate in activities like: voter registration, illiteracy programs, mentoring programs, fundraisers, and charitable organizations such as American Diabetes Association, United Way, and the Sickle Cell Anemia Foundation.

Omega Psi Phi chapter members at the 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

Talent Hunt Program – Each chapter is required to hold a yearly talent contest, to encourage young people to expose themselves to the Performing Arts. Individuals who win these talent contests receive an award, such as a scholarship.

Memorial Service – March 12 is Omega Psi Phi Memorial Day. Every chapter of the Fraternity performs a ritualistic memorial service to remember members who have died.

Reclamation and Retention – This program is an effort to encourage inactive members to become fully active and participate in the fraternity’s programs.

College Endowment Funds – The fraternity donates thousands of dollars to Historically Black Colleges and Universities each year.

Health Initiatives – Chapters are required to coordinate programs that will encourage good health practices. Programs that members involve themselves in include HIV/AIDS awareness, blood drives, prostate cancer awareness, and sickle cell anemia awareness programs.

Voter Registration, Education and Motivation – Coordination activities that promote voter registration and mobilization.

NAACP – A Life Membership at Large in the NAACP is required by all chapters and districts.[6]


Omega Psi Phi recognizes undergraduate and graduate membership. College students must be working toward a bachelor’s degree at a four-year institution, have at least 31 semester credits, and maintain at least a 2.5 grade point average. For the graduate chapter, an applicant must already possess a bachelor’s degree.[7] The fraternity grants honorary membership to men who have contributed to society in a positive way on a national or international level. For example, Charles Young (March 12, 1864 – January 2, 1922) was the third African American graduate of West Point, the first black U.S. national park superintendent, the first African American military attaché, and the highest ranking black officer (Colonel) in the United States Army until his death in 1922.

National Pan-Hellenic Council membership[edit]

In 1930, Omega Psi Phi became one of 5 founding members of the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC). Today, the NPHC is composed of nine international black Greek-letter sororities and fraternities and promotes interaction through forums, meetings, and other mediums for the exchange of information, and engages in cooperative programming and initiatives through various activities and functions.[8]

Grand Basileus[edit]

Omega Psi Phi shoulder bag

Name Order Time in Office Ref.
Edgar Amos Love 1st Grand Basileus 1911–1912 [9][10]
Oscar J. Cooper 2nd Grand Basileus 1912–1913 [9][10]
Edgar Amos Love 3rd Grand Basileus 1913–1915 [9][10]
George E. Hall 4th Grand Basileus 1915–1916 [9][10]
James C. McMorries 5th Grand Basileus 1916–1917 [9][10]
Clarence F. Holmes 6th Grand Basileus 1917–1918 [9][10][11]
Raymond G. Robinson 7th Grand Basileus 1918–1920 [9][10][12]
Harold H. Thomas 8th Grand Basileus 1920–1921 [9][10]
J. Alston Atkins 9th Grand Basileus 1921–1924 [10][13][14]
John W. Love 10th Grand Basileus 1924[a] [10]
George L. Vaughn 11th Grand Basileus 1924–1926 [10][13]
Julius S. McClain 12th Grand Basileus 1926–1929 [10][12][15]
Matthew W. Bullock 13th Grand Basileus 1929–1932 [10]
Lawrence A. Oxley 14th Grand Basileus 1932–1935 [10][16]
William Baugh 15th Grand Basileus 1935–1937 [10][17]
Albert W. Dent 16th Grand Basileus 1937–1940 [10][17]
Z. Alexander Looby 17th Grand Basileus 1940–1945 [10][13][18]
Campbell C. Johnson 18th Grand Basileus 1945–1947 [10]
Harry Penn 19th Grand Basileus 1947–1949 [10]
Milo C. Murray 20th Grand Basileus 1949–1951 [10]
Grant Reynolds 21st Grand Basileus 1951–1953 [10][13][19]
John F. Potts 22nd Grand Basileus 1953–1955 [10][20][21]
Herbert E. Tucker, Jr. 23rd Grand Basileus 1955–1958 [10][22]
I. Gregory Newton 24th Grand Basileus 1958–1961 [10][16]
Cary D. Jacobs 25th Grand Basileus 1961–1964 [10][23]
George E. Meares 26th Grand Basileus 1964–1967 [13]
Ellis F. Corbett 27th Grand Basileus 1967–1970 [24]
James Avery 28th Grand Basileus 1970–1973 [23][25]
Marion Garnett 29th Grand Basileus 1973–1976 [26][27][28]
Dr. Edward Braynon, Jr. 30th Grand Basileus 1976–1979 [25][29][30][31]
Burnel E. Coulon 31st Grand Basileus 1979−1982 [25][30][32]
Dr. L. Benjamin Livingston 32nd Grand Basileus 1982–1984 [33]
Dr. Moses C. Norman 33rd Grand Basileus 1984–1990 [25][30][34]
Dr. C. Tyrone Gilmore, Sr 34th Grand Basileus 1990–1994 [9][25][30]
Dr. Dorsey Miller 35th Grand Basileus 1994–1998 [9][25][30]
Lloyd Jordan, Esq. 36th Grand Basileus 1998–2002 [9][25][30]
George H. Grace 37th Grand Basileus 2002–2006 [25]
Warren G. Lee 38th Grand Basileus 2006–2010 [30]
Dr. Andrew Ray 39th Grand Basileus 2010–2014 [35]
Antonio Knox 40th Grand Basileus 2014–present .

a. Finished unexpired term of Atkins[10]

List of Omega Psi Phi Grand Conclaves[edit]

Notable hazing incidents and controversies[edit]

In 1977, Robert Brazile, a student at the University of Pennsylvania, died at a fraternity house meeting due to injuries and beatings he sustained while pledging the fraternity.[36]

In 1978, Nathaniel Swimson, a student at North Carolina Central University, died during an off-campus initiation activity. He was asked to run several miles before he collapsed and died.[36]

In 1983, Vann Watts, a student at Tennessee State University, died of an alcohol overdose following an initiation party. It was reported that prior to his death, he was severely beaten and verbally assaulted by fraternity members.[37]

In 1984, a Hampton University student was killed during an Omega Psi Phi ritual. The family of the deceased student settled with the fraternity for an undisclosed amount as a result of his wrongful death.[38]

In 1986, Thomas Harold, a student at Lamar University, died as a result of running miles on Lamar’s track as part of a pledging task.[39][40]

In 1993, 24 Omegas were arrested for making pledges from University of Maryland at College Park eat vomit and dog biscuits, dropping hot wax on their necks, and beating them so badly that they needed medical attention.[41]

In 1999, Omega Psi Phi was court ordered to pay a former University of Louisville student nearly $1 million dollars for suffering kidney failure due to hazing activity in 1997.[42]

In 2001, Joseph T. Green, a student at Tennessee State University, died as result of an asthma attack he developed from being asked to run long distances while pledging. In 2002, his family filed a $15 million wrongful death lawsuit against the men of Omega Psi Phi Incorporated.[43] [44]

In 2009, a former pledge at the University of Houston (UH) settled with the fraternity for an undisclosed amount after being hit with a baseball bat, wood board, and TV antenna while pledging. The UH student wanted to join the fraternity because his father was a member. The chapter was placed on suspension following this incident. [45]

In 2014, the chapter at Valdosta State University was banned from campus until at least August 2022 due to severe hazing and violating the school’s code of conduct.[46]

In 2015, six Omega Psi Phi members at Johnson C. Smith University were arrested and charged with assault for severely beating pledges over a two-month span.[47]

In 2015, four Omega Psi Phi members at Saginaw Valley State University were arrested and charged for striking pledges with open hands and paddles. One known pledge sustained a serious injury after losing consciousness one night pledging.[48]

In 2015, a Florida Atlantic University student reported to the police she was gang-raped at an Omega Psi Phi “Oil Spill” step show after party. Inside the party, she stated she was suddenly and forcefully pulled behind curtains and raped by a group of men in a dark area.[49]

In 2016, the fraternity at Florida State University was suspended for severely abusing pledges and violating the university’s code of conduct.[50] Criminal charges are pending for members of the fraternity. That same year, the Cornell University chapter hosted a party to which several hundred people attended. At the end of the night, two visitors were stabbed and one died as they left, amidst several fights that broke out.[51]

Despite Omega Psi Phi taking an official stance against hazing and disorderly conduct, the fraternity continues to be plagued with many lawsuits and serious consequences due to mistreatment of potential members and fraternity misconduct.[52][53]

“Unofficial” practices[edit]

Like many fraternal organizations, Omega Psi Phi has a rich tradition of practices. While some traditions are naturally secret, many are freely expressed in public. A popular one is referring to members as “Que Dogs” or “Ques”. Another is the practice of members voluntarily undergoing branding of the letters, or variations and designs based on them (such as two linked Omega symbols), on their skin. The brands often are displayed in public as a matter of pride; some prospects first learn of the fraternity by seeing members bearing brands.[54]

Omega Phi Gamma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Omega Phi Gamma
Omega Phi Gamma Crest.jpg
Founded May 21, 1995; 21 years ago
University of Texas at Austin
Type Social
Scope Asian-interest
Motto “Bound by Honor,
Rise above All”
Colors      Ash Grey


Symbol Dragon
Chapters 5
Creed We, the brothers of Omega Phi Gamma, swear to uphold the traditions and ideas of our fraternity, to promote brotherhood among all, to display leadership among others, and individuality within ourselves

Omega Phi Gamma (ΩΦΓ, also known as Omegas or OPhiG) is an Asian-interest fraternity established in the Spring of 1995 at the University of Texas at Austin. They strive to promote brotherhood, leadership, and service within the Asian-American community, and continue to maintain the highest levels of excellence while encouraging the growth of strong and successful men.


Omega Phi Gamma was founded at the University of Texas at Austin in the fall of 1995. The founding fathers were originally brought together by their sister sorority, Sigma Phi Omega. The founders took the Sigma Phi Omega big brother program and merged it with close friends to form the original group of brothers.What they envisioned was an Asian American organization that truly promoted the principles of brotherhood and provided a balance between community service and social activity

Omega Convention 20th Anniversary and Texas A&M Charter Class Crossing Ceremony

The founding fathers came together for the first time on November 18, 1994. On December 2, 1994, the founders officially introduced themselves with a new fraternity tradition, the step show. During the spring of 1995, they began working on a charter from other already established Asian fraternities. However, they were unimpressed with the quality of the fraternities they visited, and so the founders voted unanimously to start a fraternity from scratch, Omega Phi Gamma.

After the founders created Omega Phi Gamma, one of its early members propose to create a brother fraternity and asked for support in building another fraternity from scratch which is now Delta Epsilon Psi, a South Asian interest fraternity. Alongside with Sigma Phi Omega and Delta Epsilon Psi they created the original Tri-fam and has one of the strongest bonds between organizations.

Founding Fathers[edit]

  • Alex Chang
  • Ting Chang
  • Tom Chang
  • Charlie Chang
  • Christian Fernandez
  • Michael Gong
  • Minh Ha
  • Jeff Ho
  • Nguyen Ho
  • Dave Lee
  • Matthew Lee
  • Michael Lee
  • Sung Lim
  • Hsin-Lei Liu
  • Thomas Nguyen
  • Andy Pan
  • William Reeves
  • Andrew To
  • Joseph Yu
  • Stephen Yuen

Founder, Thomas Nguyen (Middle) and Alpha class, Aiki Tran (left) on CNBC’s Restaurant Startup reality show

Unity Talent Show[edit]

Every fall semester during rush, the brothers of Omega Phi Gamma host one of the largest talents shows on campus as a way to promote unity among all organizations and perform their traditional step show to show new students all that they have to offer. Unity showcases the talents of various ethnic organizations on campus in order to promote cohesion and discover commonalities among diverse groups through friendly competition.

Omegas at Unity 2016


  • Omega Phi Gamma Endowment Scholarship

Omega Phi Gamma is the only fraternity at the University of Texas at Austin with an endowment scholarship program to help incoming students financially with their education. The Omega Phi Gamma Endowment Scholarship program is funded by the alumni of the fraternity to give back to students in financial need.

  • Philanthropy

As a service/social fraternity, Omega Phi Gamma partake in numerous community service events every year. As part of their annual philanthropic project, they raise funds for the Lance Armstrong Foundation as part of their Riding to Fight Cancer Week. Within this project, they participate in the Austin LIVESTRONG Challenge to raise awareness for the fight against cancer. The fraternity has raised over 10,000 dollars for the Lance Armstrong Foundation and the fight against cancer.

Actives and Alumnus from all chapters participate in the Livestrong bike ride to raise funds for cancer awareness

In addition to this, Omega Phi Gamma is prominently involved on campus and in the local community. The fraternity has been volunteering at local schools tutoring children, at the University United Methodist Church feeding the homeless, and most recently at Project 2016, a community service project sponsored by the University of Texas at Austin, fixing houses to be given to those less fortunate. They have also adopted a street as part of the Keep Austin Beautiful project.



Omega Delta Phi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Omega Delta Phi
The official crest of Omega Delta Phi.
Founded November 25, 1987
Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas
Type Social
Emphasis Service
Scope National
Motto Crescit Eundo It grows as it goes
Slogan One Culture, Any Race
Colors      Scarlet
Symbol Knight
Flower Silver Rose
Publication Seven Visions Magazine
Philanthropy Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA)
Chapters 58 Chapters [1]
Colonies 19 Colonies [1]
Nickname ODPhi or The Phi’s
Sacraments Unity, Honesty, Integrity, Leadership
Headquarters P.O. Box 91610
Phoenix, Arizona

Omega Delta Phi (ΩΔΦ), also known as O D Phi or The Phi’s, is an intercollegiate fraternity that was founded on November 25, 1987, by seven students attending Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. Its seven founders known as the “Men of Vision” to fraternity members wanted to create an organization to help students graduate. This initial organization became Omega Delta Phi Fraternity. Over the past twenty years the Fraternity has changed and adopted other values such as an emphasis on Community Service. Omega Delta Phi was named Fraternity of the Year for 2003, 2004, and 2005 by the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations (NALFO).[2] Although one of the Greek organizations that founded NALFO, Omega Delta Phi withdrew their membership in December 2008.[3]

Omega Delta Phi is a multicultural service/social fraternity that aims at graduating its members while giving back to the community. The Fraternity has established itself on over 60 campuses and is predominantly centered in Texas and the Southwest. However, the fraternity has been experiencing tremendous growth in the Midwest the last 10 years. Although founded mainly by Latinos, the fraternity has traditionally always been open to men of different backgrounds, as demonstrated through its “One culture, any race” philosophy.

In the early 1990s, Omega Delta Phi chapters were established in university systems such as the Texas A&M University System, University of Texas System, New Mexico and Arizona systems. Later on, because of the increasing popularity of the Internet, the fraternity experienced growth and chapters were founded in cities such as the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex area, Houston, and Seattle. The fraternity established a short-lived international colony in Mexico City, Mexico as well.[4] In 2000, Omega Delta Phi founded an alumni association to provide a support group for its alumni base.[5] The fraternity now has several alumni chapters throughout the U.S. and Mexico[citation needed] The organization continues to grow beyond the Southwestern and Midwestern United States and now has chapters, colonies, and clubs on both the west and east coasts.



Omega Delta Phi was founded by the following seven individuals in the fall of 1987 at Texas Tech University:[6]

  • Joe Cereceres
  • Eugene Dominguez
  • Arturo Barraza
  • Juan Barraza
  • Tommy Hurtado
  • Dwight Christopher Forbes
  • Elliot Bazan

According to members of Omega Delta Phi, the fraternity was the brainchild of Joe Cereceres, the Original Dawg of the Phis. Joe Cereceres is credited as being the founder who came up with the idea of starting the fraternity. Cereceres, seeing how a male organization with a similar fraternal structure could be beneficial, began searching for others that would share in his vision. After getting together six other men they began to have weekly meetings. These meetings consisted of informal discussions about what they were going to do as a group. At the time not everyone was on board with starting a Fraternal organization because of the negative stigma that surrounded Fraternities. However, after many lengthy meetings the group decided that they could change that stigma through positive actions. They decided to focus on graduation and service as the main goals of their new organization. On November 25, 1987,[7] the group was officially recognized as a Fraternity and granted Charter status from Texas Tech University. In 1988 Omega Delta Phi initiated its first class with 12 new members that would later be known as the Charter Class.

Early history[edit]

Much of Omega Delta Phi’s early history dealt with finding an identity. It was at this time that many of the first traditions of the fraternity were born. The Crest, as well as the sacraments, and motifs were adopted during this time. It was also at this time that the practice of consumption of any alcohol while wearing Omega Delta Phi paraphernalia was forbidden. An identity issue that arose was whether or not the organization would identify itself as a social or service organization. In the end the organization identified itself as a “service/social” organization. During this early history, word has spread about Omega Delta Phi to another man named Jaime Mendez. Mendez seeing the potential in the organization started his own chapter of Omega Delta Phi at the University of Texas at El Paso. The chapter was founded without the consent of the original Texas Tech Chapter. After some minor controversy, the chapters reconciled their differences and set up an expansion strategy that spread across the country.[8]



Court-appointed special advocates[edit]


In 2009,[9] Omega Delta Phi became the second Greek Letter Organization[10] to officially partner with Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA).

CASA is a national organization that supports court-appointed advocates for abused or neglected children. While you must be 21 years of age to become a court-appointed advocate for a child in need, each undergraduate entity partners with their local CASA office to assist the philanthropic organization. The members of Omega Delta Phi provide CASA with both manpower at local CASA events and assist in raising funds for CASA.[11][12]

Given that most of the members of the fraternity are first-generation college students, Omega Delta Phi is keen on getting people in our communities to be advocates for our foster kids.

Annual conferences[edit]

National conference[edit]

Each summer, Omega Delta Phi hosts an annual conference where all entities and alumni are invited to attend. Brothers participate in meetings, workshops, networking sessions as well as showcases where teams from entities compete in various competitions. The National Alumni Association also has hosts their meetings, as well as the board of directors. Brothers also have a chance to hear from the future leaders of the fraternity during election years.

National conference hosting cities[edit]

National undergraduate conference[edit]

Each winter, Omega Delta Phi entities meet in a similar conference to the one during the summer, but on a smaller scale (known as “NUC”). The conference is heavily focused on meetings and workshops to prepare for the upcoming spring semesters.


Texas Tech Room[edit]

In the summer of 2002,[13] Texas Tech University, where the fraternity was founded in 1987, honored the fraternity by dedicating a conference room to Omega Delta Phi. Currently, the organization is collecting donations to fund a renovation of the room.[14]

NALFO Awards[edit]

Prior to leaving the NALFO council (Omega Delta Phi is currently a member of NIC), Omega Delta Phi received the following awards from NALFO.[15]


  • Campus Leadership Excellence- Undergraduate: Andrew Ortiz
  • Undergraduate Philanthropist of the Year: Andrew Ortiz (tie)
  • Rising Professional Alumni: Alex Alvarez
  • Undergraduate Chapter of the Year: Omega Delta Phi, Xi Chapter
  • Alumni/Graduate Chapter of the Year: DFW Alumni Association 2005
  • Alumni/Graduate Chapter of the Year: Omega Delta Phi, Dallas/Ft. Worth
  • Philanthropic Excellence – Alumni: Omega Delta Phi DFW Alumni Association
  • Philanthropic Excellence – Undergraduate: Omega Delta Phi – Lambda Chapter
  • Professional of the Year (tie): Andrew Ortiz, Omega Delta Phi
  • Organization (Fraternity) of the Year: Omega Delta Phi Fraternity, Inc


  • Alumni / Graduate Chapter of the Year: Omega Delta Phi, Dallas/Ft. Worth
  • Philanthropic Excellence (Graduate / Alumni): Omega Delta Phi, Dallas/Ft. Worth
  • Organizational Leadership Excellence: Alejandro Rios, Omega Delta Phi
  • Undergraduate Excellence: Darrell A. Rodriguez, Omega Delta Phi
  • Organization (Fraternity) of the Year: Omega Delta Phi Fraternity, Inc.


  • Undergraduate Chapter of the Year: Gamma Chapter
  • Rising Professional: David Ortiz
  • Outstanding Web Presence: Dallas Ft. Worth Alumni (
  • Community and Educational Planning: Pi Chapter
  • Alumni Chapter of the Year: Dallas/Ft. Worth Alumni
  • Organization (Fraternity) of the Year: Omega Delta Phi Fraternity, Inc.


  • Community and Education Planning: Alpha Beta Chapter Michigan State University – Young Knights


  • Academic Excellence – Graduate: David A. Ortiz
  • Alumnus – Alumnae of the Year: David A. Ortiz

Anti Trump Protest

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Protests against Donald Trump
Anti-Trump protests.jpg

From top to bottom:
Protestors in St. Paul, Minnesota, a protest near the United Nations Plaza in San Francisco, and Chicago, Illinois
Location United States, Canada, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Philippines, Australia, Israel, among other countries.
Methods Demonstration, riots, Internet activism, political campaigning, vandalism, arson

Presidential campaign
Thousands of protesters


  • Pre-inauguration
  • Women’s March
    500,000+ (Washington, D.C.)
    2–4 million (US)
    4–5 million (world)[6]
Injuries 43+[7][8][9]
Arrested 371+ [7]

Protests against Donald Trump, or anti-Trump protests, have occurred both in the United States and worldwide following Donald Trump‘s 2016 presidential campaign, his electoral win, and through his inauguration.



Campaign protests

A number of protests against Donald Trump’s candidacy and political positions occurred during his presidential campaign, including at political rallies.

Political rallies

During his presidential campaign, activists occasionally organized demonstrations inside Trump’s rallies, sometimes with calls to shut the rallies down;[10][11][12] fueled by some of Trump’s language,[13] protesters began to attend his rallies displaying signs and disrupting proceedings.[14][15] Following Trump’s election to the presidency, students and activists organized larger protests in several major cities across the United States, including New York, Boston, Chicago, Portland, and Oakland. Tens of thousands of protesters participated,[16][17][18] with many chanting “Not my president!” to express their opposition to Trump’s victory in the Electoral College. (He lost the popular vote by a margin of 2.1 percent.)[19]

There were occasional incidents of verbal abuse or physical violence, either against protesters or against Trump supporters. While most of the incidents amounted to simple heckling against the candidate, a few people had to be stopped by Secret Service agents. Large-scale disruption forced Trump to cancel a rally in Chicago on March 11, 2016, out of safety concerns.

Many protesters were part of organized groups such as Black Lives Matter.[20][21] They sometimes attempted to enter the venue or engage in activities outside the venue. Interactions with supporters of the candidate may occur before, during, or after the event.[22] At times, protesters attempted to rush the stage at Trump’s rallies.[23] At times, protests turned violent and anti-Trump protesters have been attacked by Trump supporters; this violence has received bipartisan condemnation.[24], People for Bernie, the Muslim Students’ Association, Assata’s Daughters, the Black Student Union, Fearless Undocumented Alliance, and Black Lives Matter were among the organizations who sponsored or promoted the protests at the March 11 Chicago Trump rally.[10][25][26][27]

There were reports of verbal and physical confrontations between Trump supporters and protesters at Trump’s campaign events.[28][29]

Fake News

Fox News incorrectly reported on a Craigslist advertisement that claimed to pay people $15 per hour, for up to four hours, if they took part in protests against Trump.[30] The fact checking website, rated a separate story titled “Donald Trump Protester Speaks Out: ‘I Was Paid $3,500 To Protest Trump’s Rally'” as “100 percent fabricated, as its author acknowledges.”[31] Paul Horner, a writer for a fake news website, took credit for the article, and said he posted the deceitful ad himself.[32]

Trump’s reactions

During the campaign, Trump was accused by some of creating aggressive undertones at his rallies.[33] Trump’s Republican rivals blamed him for fostering a climate of violence, and escalating tension during events.[34] Initially, Trump did not condemn the acts of violence that occurred at many of his rallies, and indeed encouraged them in some cases.[35][36]

In November 2015, Trump said of a protester in Birmingham, Alabama, “Maybe he should have been roughed up, because it was absolutely disgusting what he was doing.”[37] In December, the campaign urged attendees not to harm protesters, but rather to alert law enforcement officers of them by holding signs above their head and yelling, “Trump! Trump! Trump!”[38]Trump has been criticized for additional instances of fomenting an atmosphere conducive to violence through many of his comments. For example, Trump told a crowd in Cedar Rapids, Iowa that he would pay their legal fees if they engaged a protester.[39]

On February 23, 2016, when a protester was ejected from a rally in Las Vegas, Trump stated, “I love the old days—you know what they used to do to guys like that when they were in a place like this? They’d be carried out on a stretcher, folks.” He added, “I’d like to punch him in the face.”[40][41][42] Following criticism from the media over his language toward protesters, Trump began to backtrack and started encouraging supporters at rallies to not injure any protesters. He also admitted at his San Jose rally that he was wrong to make such inflammatory comments in the past.[43]


Fairly early in the campaign the United States Secret Service assumed primary responsibility for Trump’s security. They were augmented by state and local law enforcement as needed. When a venue was rented by the campaign, the rally was a private event and the campaign might grant or deny entry to it with no reason given; the only stipulation was that exclusion solely on the basis of race was forbidden. Those who entered or remained inside such a venue without permission were technically guilty of or liable for trespass.[21] Attendees or the press could be assigned or restricted to particular areas in the venue.[20]

In March 2016, Politico reported that the Trump campaign hired plainclothes private security guards to preemptively remove potential protesters from rallies.[44] That same month, a group calling itself the “Lion Guard” was formed to offer “additional security” at Trump rallies. The group was quickly condemned by mainstream political activists as a paramilitary fringe organization.

Timeline of protests against Donald Trump

The following is a timeline of protests against Donald Trump.

People taking part of the 2017 Women’s March on DC the day after Donald Trump’s inauguration.

File:Protesters Take to Parade Route.webm

Protesters at the inauguration of Donald Trump

Protests during Trump’s campaign[edit]


Protests against Trump began following the announcement of his candidacy in June 2015, especially after he said that illegal immigrants from Mexico were “bringing drugs, bringing crime, they’re rapists”.[1][2]


  • June 17 – At Trump’s first rally in New Hampshire, three protesters entered the rally and held up signs. This was the first documented protest of the campaign.[3][4]
  • June 29 – At a luncheon in Chicago, about 100 protesters gathered across from the City Club of Chicago to demonstrate.[1]


A protest against Trump at the future Trump International Hotel Washington, D.C. on July 9, 2015

  • July 9 – In Washington, D.C., a group of protesters gathered outside of the future Trump International Hotel Washington D.C. to demonstrate and “call for a worldwide boycott of Trump properties and TV shows”.[5]
  • July 10 – While Trump spoke at a Friends of Abe gathering, about 150 protesters gathered with signs and hitting piñatas made in Trump’s image. A smaller group of Trump supporters gathered near the protests and caused tension, with one Trump supporter beginning to jab at protesters.[6]
  • July 12 – Protesters interrupted Trump at a speech in Phoenix, Arizona, with a large sign and were later escorted out while Trump supporters chanted “U-S-A!“.[7]
  • July 23 – Trump arrived in Laredo, Texas, and was greeted by protesters while others gathered in support.[8]


  • August 11 – About 150 protesters gathered in Birch Run, Michigan outside of a rally at the Birch Run Expo Center, gathered by the Democratic Party of Michigan due to what they called “anti-immigrant, anti-veteran statements” made by Trump.[9]
  • August 25 – During a press conference, Univision anchor Jorge Ramos began to question Trump since before being called on. After being told “Sit down! you weren’t called” and “Go back to Univision”, Ramos continued to protest Trump’s plan to deport illegal immigrants and their children born into citizenship in the U.S. Trump motioned to his security, with Keith Schiller removing Ramos from the event. Trump later met with Ramos alone.[10][11][12]


  • September 3 – Trump’s chief of security, Keith Schiller, was filmed punching a protester.[13]


  • October 14 – In Richmond, Virginia, several clashes broke out between protesters and Trump supporters.[14]



  • December 4 – After being interrupted ten times during a speech in Raleigh, North Carolina, Trump ended his rally.[16]
  • December 12 – Multiple protesters heckled Trump during a rally in Aiken, South Carolina.[17]
  • December 22 – Trump’s speech was interrupted more than ten times at a rally in Grand Rapids, Michigan, with dozens of protesters being ejected. Trump characterized the protesters as “drugged out”, antagonized them by calling them “so weak for not fighting security”, and asked protesters why they interrupted him “in a group of 9,000 maniacs that want to kill them”.[18]



File:Trump Protest in Lowell Jan2016.webmhd.webm

Trump protest in Lowell, Massachusetts, January 2016

  • January 4 – Protesters interrupted Trump several times in Lowell, Massachusetts, with some chanting support for Bernie Sanders and the Black Lives Matter movement.[19]
  • January 8 – During Trump’s visit to Burlington, Vermont, about 700 protesters demonstrated in the City Hall Park.[20]



File:3 11 2016 Trump Rally at UIC Pavillion - Right after news of Trump's Postponement.webm

Trump rally at UIC Pavilion in Chicago on March 11, 2016, immediately after news of Trump’s cancellation of attendance of the event. Many protesters cheer “Bernie!” to show their support for Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders.

  • March 1 – Kashiya Nwanguma attended a Trump rally in Louisville, Kentucky, with two anti-Trump signs. She reported that Trump supporters ripped her signs away and shouted insults at her.[24]
  • March 10 – As Trump was being led by police from a rally in Fayetteville, North Carolina, a protester was punched by a Trump supporter. Charges of assault and battery were filed by the Cumberland County Sheriff’s Office.[25][26][27] A protester being led by police from a rally in Fayetteville, North Carolina, was sucker punched by John McGraw, a Trump supporter. McGraw later told the media that the next time he saw the protester, “we might have to kill him.”[28]McGraw was subsequently charged with assault and battery.[25][27][29] On Meet the Press, Trump said that he had instructed his team to look into paying McGraw’s legal fees and said, “He obviously loves his country.”

2016 Donald Trump Chicago rally protest

On March 11, 2016, the Donald Trump presidential campaign cancelled a planned rally at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), in Chicago, Illinois, citing “growing safety concerns” due to the presence of thousands of protesters in and outside of his rally.[5][6]

Thousands of anti-Trump demonstrators responding to civic leaders’ and social media calls to shut the rally down had gathered outside the arena, and several hundred more filled seating areas within the UIC Pavilion, where the rally was to take place. When the Trump campaign announced that the rally would not take place, there was a great deal of shouting and a few small scuffles between Trump supporters and anti-Trump protesters.

Prelude[edit source]

Plans to protest the Trump rally were launched a week in advance by a variety of community and student groups who largely organized via social media. Some 43,000 undergraduate and graduate students had signed a petition asking UIC to cancel the rally by March 6.[7] That same day, Latino leaders in the city, led by Democratic U.S. Representative Luis Gutierrez of Chicago, issued a call to their constituents to join them in a protest outside of the UIC Pavilion, where the rally was to take place.[8] One of many student-based protests was first proposed by 20-year-old Chicago political activist and Bernie Sanders supporter Ja’Mal Green, who had posted to Facebook a week urging others to “get your tickets to this. We’re all going in!!!! #SHUTITDOWN.”[9] Green told reporters that the plan was for protestors to make noise when Trump appeared, “and then rush the stage.”[10] While “activist groups did try to disrupt the event, … many protesters said that they learned of the demonstrations on social media and went of their own accord.”[11] confirmed that it helped promote the protest and paid for printing protest signs and a banner.[9][12] Among those who took part in organizing the protest included members of the UIC faculty, People for Bernie, the Fearless Undocumented Association, Black Lives Matter, Assata’s Daughters, BYP100, College Students for Bernie, and Showing Up for Racial Justice, with “black, Latino and Muslim young people” at the “core” of the crowds of protesters.[13][14][15][16][17]

Incident[edit source]

File:3 11 2016 Trump Rally at UIC Pavillion - Right after news of Trump's Postponement.webm

Video of Trump rally at UIC Pavilion in Chicago on March 11, 2016 immediately after news of Trump’s cancellation of attendance of the event. Many protesters cheer “Bernie!” to show their support for Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders.

File:Trump Cancels Chicago Rally As Clashes Break Out.webmhd.webm

Voice of America video of the clashes at the UIC Pavilion

The protests had begun 24 hours prior to the event with a vigil outside of UIC Pavilion. The vigil lasted until the rally was scheduled to begin.[18]

Thirty minutes after the rally was scheduled to begin, a representative of the Trump campaign came on stage and announced that the rally was postponed. The crowd immediately cheered and chanted “We dumped Trump!” and “We shut it down!”[14] As Trump supporters shouted “We want Trump!”, arguments, several fistfights,[2] and small scuffles[19] broke out between the groups.[14] Two police officers and at least two civilians were injured during the protests. Five people were arrested, including Sopan Deb, a CBS News reporter who was covering Trump’s campaign.[2] Protesters said that they were protesting against racism and Trump’s policies.[20] Some of the demonstrators were also members of the group Black Lives Matter.[20][21][22] A smaller number of protesters were seen carrying flags representing various groups and countries, including Mexico.[23][24]

John Escalante, the interim superintendent of the Chicago Police Department (CPD), said about 300 officers were on hand for crowd control.[2] A CPD spokesman said the department had never told the Trump campaign that there was a security threat, and added that the department had sufficient manpower on the scene to handle any situation.[25]

The Trump campaign postponed the rally. The CPD and other law-enforcement authorities “were not consulted and had no role in canceling the event.”[19] Trump initially claimed he had conferred with Chicago Police but later said that he made the decision himself: “I didn’t want to see people get hurt [so] I decided to postpone the rally.”[26][27][28][29][30]

Arrests[edit source]

Arrest being made at the protest

Four individuals were arrested and charged in the incident. Two were “charged with felony aggravated battery to a police officer and resisting arrest”, one was “charged with two misdemeanor counts of resisting and obstructing a peace officer”, and the fourth “was charged with one misdemeanor count of resisting and obstructing a peace officer”.[31] Sopan Deb, a CBS reporter covering the Trump campaign, was one of those arrested outside the rally. He was charged with resisting arrest;[32] Chicago police ultimately dropped the charges.[33]

Reactions and aftermath[edit source]

File:Trump, Sanders Trade Blame Over Campaign Rally Disruptions.webmhd.webm

Voice of America video about Trump and Sanders’ responses to the postponed Chicago rally

After the event was postponed, Green described the cancellation of the event as a “win,” saying that “our whole purpose was to shut it down… we had to show him that our voice in civil rights was greater than his voice. The minority became the majority today.”[10] Mayor Rahm Emanuel praised the Chicago Police Department’s work to restore order.[2]

Trump blamed Sanders for the clashes in Chicago, insisting that the protesters were “Bernie’s crowd” and that a protester who charged the stage at an event in Dayton, Ohio the following day was a “Bernie person”, calling on Sanders to “get your people in line.”[12][34]Sanders subsequently denounced Trump as a “pathological liar” who leads a “vicious movement”, and said that “while I appreciate that we had supporters at Trump’s rally in Chicago, our campaign did not organize the protests.” Sanders blamed Trump for propagating “birther” conspiracy theories and for promoting “hatred and division against Latinos, Muslims, women and people with disabilities.”[34]

Presidential candidates[edit source]

Republican[edit source]

Rivals for the Republican presidential nomination criticized Trump. Senator Ted Cruz of Texas said, “When you have a campaign that affirmatively encourages violence, you create an environment that only encourages that sort of nasty discourse.”[35] John Kasich, Governor of Ohio, issued a statement saying, “Tonight, the seeds of division that Donald Trump has been sowing this whole campaign finally bore fruit, and it was ugly.”[2] Senator Marco Rubio of Florida attributed blame for the events at various parties, including the protesters, the media, and the Democratic Party, but “reserved his harshest words” for Trump, condemning him for inciting supporters who have punched and beaten demonstrators and likening him to “Third World strongmen”.[36]

Democratic[edit source]

Clinton, one of two Democratic presidential candidates in the 2016 election, said in a statement that the Trump campaign’s “divisive rhetoric” was of “grave concern” and said, “We all have our differences, and we know many people across the country feel angry. We need to address that anger together.”[37] The morning after the incident, Clinton said, “The ugly, divisive rhetoric we are hearing from Donald Trump and the encouragement of violence and aggression is wrong, and it’s dangerous. If you play with matches, you’re going to start a fire you can’t control. That’s not leadership. That’s political arson.”[38] Bernie Sanders, the other Democratic candidate, tweeted: “We will continue to bring people together. We will not allow the Donald Trumps of the world to divide us up.”[39]

Media[edit source]

Conservative media described protest actions as an infringement on Trump’s freedom of speech. National Review editor Rich Lowry called the protest an indefensible “mob action” and wrote that “the spectacle … will probably only help” Trump, since he “thrives on polarization and has sought to turn up the temperature of his rallies with his notorious suggestions that protesters should get roughed up.” Fox News host Jeanine Pirro characterized the protesters as “abject anarchists” who had infringed upon Trump’s right to free speech by “responding to activist calls at #SHUTITDOWN.”[40][41]

Other media outlets stated that such protest actions were predictable due to Trump’s rhetoric. Rachel Maddow of MSNBC said that Trump’s violent rhetoric at campaign rallies resulted in the escalation of tensions: “Anybody who tells you that there is no connection between the behavior of the mob at these events and the behavior of the man at the podium leading the mob at these events is not actually watching what he’s been saying from the podium.”[42] Jelani Cobb wrote in the New Yorker that “[t]he image of protesters clashing with Trump supporters in Chicago … is the logical culmination of what we’ve seen throughout his Presidential campaign” as “the idea of fighting to take the country back” promoted by Trump’s campaign “went from figurative to literal.”[43]

  • March 12 – Thomas Dimassimo, a 32-year-old man, attempted to rush the stage as Trump was speaking at a rally in Dayton, Ohio. Dimassimo was stopped by Secret Service agents and subsequently charged with misdemeanor disorderly conduct and inducing panic.[37]
  • March 13 – Trump refused to take responsibility for clashes at his campaign events, criticized protesters who have dogged his rallies, and demanded that police begin to arrest rally protesters.[38] His Kansas City rally was interrupted repeatedly by protesters in the arena while protesters outside the event were pepper sprayed by police.[39][40] In an effort to dissuade future protesters, Trump may begin to request that protesters be arrested “[b]ecause then their lives are going to be ruined.”[40]
  • March 17 – During an interview with CNN, Trump predicted “you’d have riots” if were denied the Republican nomination despite having the most delegates at the convention.[41]
  • March 18 – Between 500 and 600 people engaged in a standoff outside of a rally in Salt Lake City, Utah. Police officers formed a human barricade to separate the two groups, who largely remained nonviolent. Toward the end of the rally, protesters tore down a security tent at a Trump rally in Utah and threw rocks at rally attendees as they left. Two people unsuccessfully attempted to breach the entrance of the venue. Secret Service officers secured the inside of the venue and roughly 40 police officers in riot gear repelled the protesters from entering the building.[42] No arrests were made.[43][44]
  • March 19 – Thousands of anti-Trump protesters in New York chanted “Fuck Trump!” and “Donald Trump! Go away!” as they rallied around the Trump International Tower building near 60th St. and Columbus Circle. The group was followed by dozens of NYPD officers who lined the streets with metal barricades and blocked the protesters path as they tried to cross busy intersections. After violence broke out, police pepper-sprayed the crowd, whom police refused to let cross the street.[45] During a simultaneous protest, protesters blocked a highway leading to Trump’s Fountain Hills, Arizona rally, leading to three arrests.[46] During a separate rally in Tucson, Arizona later that night, a black Trump supporter was arrested after punching and stomping a white protester who had donned a Ku Klux Klan hood.[47]


Protests in New York City on April 14, 2016. One banner reads “Fuck UR Wall”, denouncing Trump’s policy on immigration.

  • April 14 – Hundreds of protesters gathered in a New York City Hyatt hotel against the wishes of the hotel staff.[48]
  • April 28 – Several hundred protesters in Costa Mesa, California, clashed with police and Trump supporters outside the OC Fair & Event Center, where Trump was holding a rally. Seventeen people were arrested and five police cars were damaged.[49]
  • April 29 – Around 1,000 to 3,000[50][51][52] protested in the area surrounding Burlingame, California, where Trump was to give a speech at the California GOP convention.[53] Protesters rushed security gates at one point.[54] Activists blocked a main intersection outside the event and vandalized a police car. Eventually, the police restored order in the area.[55] For safety reasons, Trump himself was forced to climb over a wall and enter through a back entrance of the venue.[56]


An effigy seen in San Diego on show of May 26, 2016, featuring Trump with the word “Bigot” taped on while wearing a sombrero and holding a Mexican flag

  • May 1 – Thousands of May Day demonstrators marched in downtown Los Angeles on Sunday, some speaking out in support of workers and immigrants, others criticizing Trump. LAPD Sergeant Barry Montgomery told The Los Angeles Times that no one was arrested. Some protesters carried a big inflatable figure of Trump holding a Ku Klux Klan hood in his right hand.[57]
  • May 7 – Protesters shouting “Love Trumps Hate” met Trump supporters before his second rally in Washington. Many protesters outside spoke out against Trump’s words and policy stances regarding women, Hispanics, and Muslims, including his plan to build a wall between the U.S. and Mexico. Later in the day, a group of protesters blocked a road near where Trump was supposed to speak, hoping to keep him from reaching the location. According to authorities, “a small number of arrests” were made.[58]
  • May 24 – Following a rally in Albuquerque, New Mexico, protesters began throwing rocks and bottles at police and police horses, smashed a glass door at the convention center, and burned a number of Trump signs and flags, filling the street with smoke.[59][60] Video footage of the incident also showed protesters jumping on top of several police cars.[61]
  • May 25 – Anti-Trump protesters were arrested after clashing with Trump supporters in Anaheim.[62]
  • May 27 – Anti-Trump protesters clashed with Trump supporters and with police after a Trump rally ended in San Diego. Protesters waved Mexican flags and signs supporting Bernie Sanders.[63] Some protesters were arrested when they attempted to push past railings separating them from the Convention Center where Trump was speaking.[64] The clashes, largely verbal and resulting in no injuries or property damage, began after the Trump rally ended and his supporters poured into the street. Individuals on both sides shouted and threw trash and the occasional punch, but no injuries or property damage were reported. Police then declared the protest an illegal assembly and ordered the crowd to disperse. Further arrests were made when some members of the crowd failed to disperse. A total of 35 people were arrested in that protest.[63][64][65]


  • June 2 – Protests and riots occurred outside a Trump rally in San Jose, California. During a series of protests, hundreds of anti-Trump protesters waving Mexican flags climbed on cars, and harassed supporters of Donald Trump. There were reports of violence including instances of bottles being thrown and assaults against Trump supporters.[66][67] A police officer was assaulted.[68][67][69] At least one American flag was burned by protesters.[70] Video footage went viral of a female Trump supporter being pelted by eggs thrown by protesters.[71]
  • June 3Vox suspended writer Emmett Rensin for allegedly inciting anti-Trump violence at protests.[72]
  • June 10 – Anti-Trump protesters and Trump supporters clashed outside a rally in Richmond, Virginia. One Trump supporter was punched and several protesters were pushed to the ground by police. Five people were arrested but only one was charged.
  • June 16 – A photographer for the Dallas Advocate was hit on head with a rock that had been thrown from a crowd outside a Dallas rally that included both Trump supporters and protesters.[73]
  • June 19 – During a rally in Las Vegas, Michael Sandford, a 19-year-old British national, was arrested for assault and held in the county jail until he was arraigned in federal court and charged with “an act of violence on restricted grounds”. He was accused of attempting to seize a police officer’s firearm and later claiming he intended to kill Trump. A British citizen, he was in the U.S. illegally and is being held without bond.[74][75] He has since then pleaded guilty to federal charges of being an illegal alien in possession of a firearm and disrupting an official function.[76]


  • July 1 – Three people were arrested after a conflict occurred between Trump supporters and anti-Trump protesters outside the Western Conservative Summit. According to The Gazette, a man grabbed pro-Trump bumper stickers from a woman selling them outside Denver‘s convention center, ripped some of them, and threw them in her face. A pushing match then ensued, with many people spilling into the street.[77]


  • August 4 – Protesters stood silently among seated attendees at a Portland, Maine Trump rally, and held up pocket Constitutions, in reference to Khizr Khan‘s DNC speech days earlier. The protesters were ejected from the rally.[78]
  • August 19 – Protesters harassed, pushed, and spit on Trump supporters outside a fundraising event in Minneapolis.[79]
  • August 31 – A group of approximately 500 people protested in downtown Phoenix, Arizona chanting and hitting a Trump piñata. There were no arrests, although police had to usher two anti-Trump protesters off the sidewalk where speech-goers for a Trump rally entered the Phoenix Convention Center, saying that the protesters were causing conflict with the Trump supporters.[80]



#GrabYourWallet (also, Grab Your Wallet)[1] is an organization and social media campaign that is an umbrella term for economic boycotts against companies that have any connections to President Donald Trump in response to the leak of a lewd conversation between Donald Trump and Billy Bush on the set of Access Hollywood where he infamously said “grab them by the pussy”.[2][3] The movement has particularly targeted the ride-sharing app Uber and President Trump’s daughter Ivanka Trump‘s clothing and shoe line that was notably carried by Nordstrom before being indefinitely discontinued due to poor sales as a result of the boycott.

History[edit source]

GrabYourWallet founder Shannon Coulter speaks at Day Without a Woman San Francisco, March 2017.

GrabYourWallet started on October 11, 2016 via Twitter by a San Francisco marketing strategist named Shannon Coulter,[1][6][7] with the help of Sue Atencio.[8] Coulter created a list of stores that carried Trump products after the Access Hollywood tape came out.[6] The news from the tape made Coulter physically ill for a few days.[9] Coulter went on Twitter where she was able to talk about her “deep ambivalence” about spending money at a place that sold Trump products.[9] She stated that she wanted “to be able to shop with a clear conscience,”[7] and did not feel comfortable purchasing items from those who do business with anyone in the Trump family.[10] The name, “GrabYourWallet” is a reference to both Trump’s comments about women and people using their buying power to influence companies.[10]Coulter emphasizes that the movement is non-partisan and says, “This is a human decency thing. It’s about the divisiveness and disrespectfulness of Donald Trump.”[11]

Within a month, one company,, dropped Ivanka Trump‘s brand from their website.[12] Interior design company, Bellacor, dropped the Trump Home brand in November.[13] Both of these companies did contact supporters of the boycott campaign after dropping the Trump lines.[13] By February 2017, 18 companies had stopped carrying Trump brand merchandise.[11]

After Trump was elected President, Coulter created a spreadsheet of companies that do business with Trump family members and distributed the information online and via social media.[1] The sheet also provides alternatives to stores on the boycott list,[14] and has contact information so that consumers can “express their outrage.”[15] #GrabYourWallet as a movement grew larger after the election.[14][8]Part of the reason is that the campaign became part of the broader anti-Trump movement.[2] Working on the campaign has almost become a full time job for Coulter.[2]

Nancy Koehn of Harvard Business School told PBS NewsHour that though boycotting business is not new, the scope of #GrabYourWallet is unprecedented.[10] She also said that the boycott is unique because it is in “resistance or opposition to the current administration.”[10]

On Twitter, more than a combined 626 million impressions have amassed.[16] Twitter users use the hashtag, #GrabYourWallet and some independently tweet at businesses carrying Trump merchandise.[6] Captiv8, a social media influence study group, has found that most engagements with the hashtag come from California and New York.[2]

Counter-boycotts[edit source]

Forbes dubbed it the “Trump effect” and “GrabYourWallet effect”, given that when people boycott companies, his supporters pledge to start buying those products and vice versa.[15][17] Trump supporters started boycotting Nordstrom after they dropped Ivanka Trump’s line of clothes.[10]

Supporters of Trump took to to make Ivanka Trump’s fragrance the best selling fragrance on the site for a week.[18]

Notable boycott targets[edit source]

Uber[edit source]

The app Uber was targeted for its alleged relation to Executive Order 13769 which has also been referred to as “Muslim ban”.[19] As taxi drivers to JFK Airport went on strike in solidarity with Muslim refugees, Uber removed surge pricing to the airport where Muslim refugees had been detained upon entry. Uber was also targeted because CEO Travis Kalanick was on an Economic Advisory Council with President Trump.[20] As a result, a social media campaign called #deleteuber arose and approximately 200,000 users deleted the app.[21] This campaign made Kalanick resign from the Council.[22] An email with a statement sent to who deleted their accounts stated that the company would be assisting refugees and that CEO Kalanick did not join the Council as an endorsement of President Trump.[23]

Ivanka Trump[edit source]

Ivanka Trump, 2016

In the beginning of the proposed boycott, Nordstrom stated that if costumers stopped buying Ivanka Trump‘s line, as a business decision they would stop carrying it (which they did in February 2017). Nordstrom also acknowledged that customers would counter-boycott if they dropped the line.[24] Before the inauguration of President Trump, Ivanka Trump had announced she would be resigning from her fashion brand.[25] Sales of Ivanka Trump’s line started falling before the 2016 election.[26] And in February 2017 President Trump expressed his ire at Nordstrom via Twitter and White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer called the business decision a “direct attack on President Trump”.[27] President Trump’s tweet caused Nordstrom’s shares to temporarily fall, before soaring by 7%.[28]

Macy’s customers have also asked that the company drop Ivanka Trump’s line.[29]

Ivanka Trump also faced criticism from Coulter when she promoted her $10,800 gold bracelet to fashion writers after wearing it on an interview about her father on 60 Minutes.[8]

Controversy[edit source]

In February 2017, President Trump’s spokeswoman Kellyanne Conway formally endorsed Ivanka Trump’s products on Fox News by saying she is giving the brand a “free commercial” telling viewers to buy Ivanka Trump’s products.[30] The statement was seen as a violation of federal ethics laws.[31]

Company lists related to #GrabYourWallet[edit source]

Primary targeted companies[edit source]

Trump-related companies not targeted[edit source]

These companies have been identified by as companies that will not be boycotted though they have a connection to President Trump or family members business.[32]

  • Washington Post is owned by Jeff Bezos, CEO of (which indirectly sells Trump products), but the Washington Post has not been targeted since it did critical reporting of President Trump.[2]
  • Facebook has not been targeted because the scope of its user base and CEO Mark Zuckerberg has criticized President Trump.
  • Home Depot is not being boycotted because it discontinued sales of Trump Home products.
  • Delta Airlines has not been targeted because they do not directly have any business ties to President Trump, though there have been political controversies with certain passengers aboard Delta flights.
  • Paypal has not been directly targeted, though co-founder Peter Thiel has endorsed Trump, because he is no longer involved with the company.
  • Carrier Corporation has not been boycotted, though then-president-elect Trump got directly involved in keeping 1,000 jobs from moving to Mexico, because they don’t do monthly or continued business with any Trump family member.

Companies that cut ties with Trump family as result[edit source]

  • October 18 – Dozens of women, some of whom were victims of sexual assault, gathered in front of Trump Tower on a Tuesday morning to begin a series of protests across the nation pushing women to leave the Republican party and un-endorse Donald Trump. Dressed in black, the protesters sat in front of Trump Tower holding signs such as “Grab my pussy, muthafucker I dare you” and “Don’t tread on my pussy”.[84]
  • October 26 – Trump’s star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame was destroyed with a sledgehammer and a pickaxe.[85]


  • November 5 – During a rally at the Reno-Sparks Convention Center in Reno, Nevada, Trump was rushed off stage by Secret Service agents when someone yelled “gun” while others tried to take a protester’s anti-Trump sign. The protester was questioned and found to have no weapons on him. Trump returned minutes later to resume his rally.[86][87]

Post-election protests[edit]

March against Trump in Saint Paul, Minnesota on November 9

Following the announcement of Trump’s election victory, large protests broke out across the United States including other countries such as Canada, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Philippines, Australia, Israel with some continuing for several days, and more protests planned for the following weeks and months.

November 2016[edit]

Protest outside Trump Tower, Chicago on November 9, 2016

  • November 9
Protests against Donald Trump that occurred in cities on November 9, 2016

According to several sources, thousands of protesters took to the street in Chicago. Chicago Tribune explains that the protest was “relatively peaceful” and was “devoid of any of the heavy vandalism of effigy burning that occurred elsewhere.” Five people were arrested altogether.[88][89][90]

Protests also occurred at various universities, including:

High school and college students walked out of classes to protest.[97][113] The protests were mostly peaceful, although at some protests fires were lit, flags were burned, and a Trump piñata was burned.[114][115][116] Celebrities such as Madonna, Cher, and Lady Gaga took part in New York.[117][118][119] Some protesters took to blocking freeways in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Portland, Oregon, and were dispersed by police in the early hours of the morning.[120][121] One protester was hit by a car.[122] In a number of cities, protesters were dispersed with rubber bullets, pepper spray and bean-bags fired by police.[123][124][125] While protests ended at 3:00 a.m. in New York City, calls were made to continue the protests over the coming days.[126]

  • November 10

Protesters gathered at Trump Tower in New York on November 10.

File:Madison WI protest Donald-HD.webm

Protests in Madison, Wisconsin

“Love Trumps Hate” was a common slogan, as here at the Idaho State Capitol.

As Trump held the first transition meeting with President Obama at the White House, protesters were outside.[127] Protests continued in cities across the United States. International protests were held in London, Vancouver, and Manila.[128][129]Former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani called protesters “a bunch of spoiled cry-babies.”[130] Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti expressed understanding of the protests and praised those who peacefully wanted to make their voices heard.[131]

In Austin, Texas, a young girl rallied protesters behind the mantra: “I am a female, I am mixed race, I am a child and I cannot vote. But that will not stop me from getting heard” after which chants of “Love is love, and love trumps hate” followed.[132][133][134][135] In Los Angeles, protesters continued blocking freeways.[136] A peaceful protest turned violent when a small group began rioting and attacking police in Portland, Oregon.[137] The protests in Portland attracted over 4,000 people and remained largely peaceful, but took to the highway and blocked traffic.[138] Acts of vandalism including a number of smashed windows, vandalized vehicles, and a dumpster fire caused police to declare a riot.[138][139] Protesters tried to retain the peaceful nature of the protest and chanted “peaceful protest”.[140]

Protests were held in the following cities:

Numerous petitions were started to prevent Trump from taking office; including a petition started by Elijah Berg of North Carolina requesting that faithless electors in states that Trump won vote for Clinton instead, which surpassed three million signatures.[151]

  • November 11

Protests occurred in the following cities:

Protests also occurred at the following schools:

A protest also occurred at the U.S. embassy in Tel Aviv, Israel.[185][186] The American and Mexican national soccer teams also posed together in a Unity Wall in response to Trump’s election before their World Cup qualifying match in Columbus, Ohio.[187]

Michael Moore at the march against Trump, New York City, 12 November 2016

  • November 12
File:Protests in Los Angeles.webm

News report about the protests in Los Angeles on November 12 from Voice of America

During a peaceful march in Oregon in the early hours of November 12, one protester was shot by an unknown assailant.[188] Police in Portland, Oregon, said that they arrested over than twenty people after protesters refused to disperse.[189]

Protesters at an anti-Trump rally in Indianapolis on November 12th

On the first weekend day after the election, a march of over 10,000 people in Los Angeles went from MacArthur Park and shut down the busy Wilshire Blvd corridor.[190][191] In New York City, another crowd cited by NBC News as 25,000[192]marched from Union Square to Trump Tower.[193][194][195] In Chicago, thousands of people marched through The Loop.[196] In Indianapolis, about 500 people gathered at the Statehouse, then proceeded to march downtown.[197] Protesters split off into several groups, some of which moved to the streets and blocked traffic.[198] Some protesters were allegedly throwing rocks at police officers, who responded by firing non-lethal weapons.[199]

International protests also occurred in cities such as Berlin, Germany, Melbourne, Australia and Perth, Australia and Auckland, New Zealand.[200][201][202][203]

  • November 13

Protests continued in the following cities:

International protests have occurred in cities including Toronto, Canada, where about a thousand people gathered in Nathan Phillips Square.[209][210]

  • November 14
File:WATCH - Anti-Trump protest in Washington suburb.webm

Anti-Trump protest in Silver Spring, Maryland[211]

A group of 40 protesters in Washington, D.C. staged a sit-in at the office of prospective Senate minority leader Charles Schumer, in an effort to change Democratic leadership and prevent the party’s collaboration with Trump. Seventeen arrests were made at that sit-in.[212]

At a small protest at Ohio State University, protest leader Timothy Adams was attacked from behind and knocked down to the steps he was standing on, breaking his bullhorn and glasses.[213][214]

Several school districts experienced walkouts from high school students, many of them too young to have voted.[215]

  • November 15
File:Wilson High School Students Protest Trump.webm

Wilson High School students protest outside Trump Hotel in Washington, D.C. News report from Voice of America.

Protests occurred in the following cities and universities:

  • November 16

Student protests continued for a third day in Montgomery County, Maryland.[219]

Students around the country walked out of classes in an effort to push their schools to declare themselves a “sanctuary campus” from Trump’s planned immigration policy of mass deportations.[231] The Stanford, Rutgers, and St. Mary’s protests on November 15 were among the first.[226] Rutgers President Robert Barchi responded that the school will protect the privacy of its undocumented immigrants.[232] California State University Chancellor Timothy P. White made a similar affirmation.[233] Iowa State University reaffirmed continuation of their already existing policy.[234]

Around 350 Harvard University faculty members signed a letter urging the administration to denounce hate speech, protect student privacy, reaffirm admissions and financial aid policies and to make the university a sanctuary. One of the first to sign the letter was Henry Louis Gates Jr.[235]

The letters of Trump’s name were removed from three buildings in Manhattan, including Trump Place due to angered residents.[236]

  • November 17

Protest in Mission District, San Francisco, California on November 17

  • November 18
File:Protest against Donald Trump in Chapel Hill 3.ogg

Anti-Trump protest in Chapel Hill, North Carolina on November 18

Various protests occurred in Augusta, Maine,[244] Chapel Hill, North Carolina,[245]Cleveland, Ohio,[246][247] Prince George’s County, Maryland,[248] Sacramento, California,[249] and Washington, D.C.[250]

Vice President-elect Mike Pence attended the musical Hamilton in New York City, where he was addressed by the cast.[251]

  • November 19

Protesters in Chicago on November 19, Marching toward Trump Tower Chicago

Protesters at an anti-Trump rally in San Francisco

File:Philadelphia anti Trump Rally - unedited footage.webm

Philadelphia anti-Trump Rally on November 19, 2016

  • November 20
  • November 21
  • November 22

Students at Christopher Newport University protested.[272]

  • November 23

Protest in Minneapolis, Minnesota on November 23

A protest occurred in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The protesters called for President Obama to pardon all immigrants before the end of his term.[273]

  • November 25

On Black Friday, protesters blocked entrances to stores on the Magnificent Mile in Chicago.[274]

  • November 26

A small protest occurred at Pioneer Courthouse Square in Portland, Oregon. Protester Bobby Lang said, “It’s either sit in horror or go out and do things.”[275]

  • November 27

A protest occurred at the Nebraska State Capitol building.[276] The crowd was estimated at around 200 people.[277]

December 2016[edit]

International reactions

File:Cortège complet manifestation anti Trump - Paris 19 novembre 2016 protest french Clinton.webmhd.webm

Protesters against Trump in Paris, France

  •  China – On November 14, 2016, the Chinese Consulate in San Francisco warned “Chinese exchange students, visiting students, teachers and volunteers” to avoid participating in the protests.[54]
  •  Turkey – The Government of Turkey warned its citizens who may be traveling to the United States to “be careful due to protests” and that occasionally “the protests turn violent and criminal while protesters [are] detained by security forces” while also stating that “racists and xenophobic incidents increased in USA”.[55]

Stop Trump movement

The Stop Trump movement, also called the anti-Trump, Dump Trump, or Never Trump movement,[1] was the informal name for the effort on the part of some Republicans and other prominent conservatives to prevent front-runner and now President of the United States Donald Trump from obtaining the Republican Party presidential nomination, and, following his nomination, the presidency, for the 2016 United States presidential election. Although Trump’s campaign drew a substantial amount of criticism, he was ultimately sworn in as president.

The movement gained momentum following Trump’s wins in the March 15, 2016, Super Tuesday primaries, including his victory over U.S. Senator Marco Rubio in Florida.[2][3][4][5] After U.S. Senator Ted Cruz dropped out of the race following Trump’s primary victory in Indiana on May 3, 2016, Trump became the presumptive nominee, while internal opposition to Trump remained as the process pivoted towards a general election.[6]

Following unsuccessful attempts by some delegates at the Republican National Convention to block his nomination, Trump became the Republican Party’s 2016 nominee for President of the United States on July 18, 2016. Some members of the Stop Trump movement endorsed alternative candidates in the general election, such as Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, Libertarian nominee Gary Johnson, independent conservative Evan McMullin, and American Solidarity Party nominee Mike Maturen.[7][8]

These efforts ultimately failed when Trump won the general election on November 8. According to exit polls, Trump received 90% of the GOP vote, while Clinton won 89% of Democratic voters.[9]


Trump entered the Republican primaries on June 16, 2015, at a time when Governors Jeb Bush and Scott Walker and Senator Marco Rubio were viewed as the early frontrunners.[10] Trump was generally considered a longshot to win the nomination, but his large media profile gave him a chance to spread his message and appear in the Republican debates.[11][12] By the end of 2015, Trump was leading the Republican field in national polls.[13] Despite Trump’s enduring strength in the polls, his rivals continued to attack each other rather than Trump.[14] In this atmosphere, some Republicans, such as former Mitt Romney adviser Alex Castellanos, called for a “negative ad blitz” against Trump,[14] and another former Romney aide founded Our Principles PAC to attack Trump.[15] After Trump won the New Hampshire and South Carolina primaries, many Republican leaders called for the party to unite around a single leader to stop Trump’s nomination.[16]

Erickson meeting[edit]

On March 17, 2016, notable conservatives under the leadership of Erick Erickson met at the Army and Navy Club in Washington D.C. to discuss strategies for preventing Trump from securing the presidential nomination at the Republican National Convention in July. Among the strategies discussed were a “unity ticket”,[17] a possible third-party candidate and a contested convention, especially if Trump did not gain the 1,237 delegates necessary to secure the nomination.[18]

The meeting was organized by Erick Erickson, Bill Wichterman, and Bob Fischer. Around two dozen people attended.[19][20]Consensus was reached that Trump’s nomination could be prevented, and that efforts would be made to seek a unity ticket, possibly comprising U.S. Senator Ted Cruz and Ohio Governor John Kasich.[19]


By political organizations[edit]

Our Principles PAC and Club for Growth were involved in trying to prevent Trump’s nomination. Our Principles PAC has spent more than $13 million on advertising attacking Trump.[21][22] The Club for Growth spent $11 million in an effort to prevent Trump from becoming the Republican Party’s nominee.[23]

By Republican delegates[edit]

In June 2016, activists Eric O’Keefe and Dane Waters formed a group called Delegates Unbound, which CNN described as “an effort to convince delegates that they have the authority and the ability to vote for whomever they want.”[24][25][26] The effort involved the publication of a book, Unbound: The Conscience of a Republican Delegate by Republican delegates Curly Haugland and Sean Parnell. The book argues that “delegates are not bound to vote for any particular candidate based on primary and caucus results, state party rules, or even state law.”[27][28]

Republican delegates Kendal Unruh and Steve Lonegan led an Free the Delegates effort among fellow Republican delegates to change the convention rules “to include a ‘conscience clause’ that would allow delegates bound to Trump to vote against him, even on the first ballot at the July convention.”[29] Unruh described the effort as “an ‘Anybody but Trump’ movement”. According to The Washington Post, Unruh’s efforts started with a conference call on June 16 “with at least 30 delegates from 15 states”. Regional coordinators for the effort were recruited in Arizona, Iowa, Louisiana, Washington and other states.[30] By June 19, hundreds of delegates to the Republican National Convention calling themselves Free the Delegates had begun raising funds and recruiting members in support of an effort to change Party convention rules to free delegates to vote however they want – instead of according to the results of state caucuses and primaries.[31] Unruh, a member of the convention’s Rules Committee and one of the group’s founders, planned to propose adding the “conscience clause” to the convention’s rules effectively unhinging pledged delegates. She needed 56 other supporters from the 112-member panel, which determines precisely how Republicans select their nominee in Cleveland.[32] However, the Rules Committee voted down, by a vote of 84–21, a move to send a “minority report” to the floor allowing the unbinding of delegates, thereby defeating the “Stop Trump” activists and guaranteeing Trump’s nomination. The committee then endorsed the opposite option, voting 87–12 to include rules language specifically stating that delegates were required to vote based on their states’ primary and caucus results.[33]

By individuals[edit]

Mitt Romney, the Republican nominee for president in 2012, was a major leader amongst anti-Trump Republicans.

At a luncheon in February 2016 attended by Republican governors and donors, Karl Rove discussed the danger of Trump securing the Republican nomination in July, and that it may be possible to stop him, but that there was not much time left.[34][35]

Early in March 2016, Mitt Romney, the 2012 Republican presidential nominee, directed some of his advisors to look at ways to stop Trump from obtaining the nomination at the Republican National Convention (RNC). Romney also spoke publicly urging voters to vote for the Republican candidate most likely to prevent Trump from acquiring delegates in state primaries.[36] A few weeks later, Romney announced that he would vote for Ted Cruz in the Utah GOP caucuses. On his Facebook page, he posted “Today, there is a contest between Trumpism and Republicanism. Through the calculated statements of its leader, Trumpism has become associated with racism, misogyny, bigotry, xenophobia, vulgarity and, most recently, threats and violence. I am repulsed by each and every one of these.”[37][38][39] Nevertheless, Romney said early on he would “support the Republican nominee,” though he didn’t “think that’s going to be Donald Trump.”[40]

U.S. Senator Lindsey Graham shifted from opposing both Ted Cruz and Donald Trump, to eventually supporting Cruz as a better alternative to Trump. Commenting about Trump, Graham said “I don’t think he’s a Republican, I don’t think he’s a conservative, I think his campaign’s built on xenophobia, race-baiting and religious bigotry. I think he’d be a disaster for our party and as Senator Cruz would not be my first choice, I think he is a Republican conservative who I could support.”[41][42]In May, after Trump became the presumptive nominee, Graham announced he would not be supporting Trump in the general election, stating “[I] cannot, in good conscience, support Donald Trump because I do not believe he is a reliable Republican conservative nor has he displayed the judgment and temperament to serve as Commander in Chief.”[43]

In October 2016, some individuals made third-party vote trading mobile applications and websites to help stop Trump; for example a Californian that wants to vote for Clinton will instead vote for Jill Stein, and in exchange a Stein supporter in a swing state will vote for Clinton.[44] The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in the 2007 case Porter v. Bowen established vote trading as a First Amendment right.

Former Republican Presidents George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush both refused to support Trump’s candidacy in the general election.[45][46]

List of Republicans who opposed the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016

Public officials[edit]

Former Presidents[edit]

Former President George H. W. Bush

Former President George W. Bush

Former 2016 Republican presidential primary candidates[edit]

All candidates signed a pledge to eventually support the party nominee. The following have refused to honor it.

Former federal cabinet-level officials[edit]

Former Secretary of State Colin Powell

Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice



Ohio Governor John Kasich


Former Massachusetts Governor and 2012 nominee for President Mitt Romney

U.S. Senators[edit]

Arizona Senator and 2008 nominee for President John McCain


U.S. Representatives[edit]

Nevada U.S. Representative and 2016 nominee for U.S. Senate Joe Heck

Sitting at the time of the Trump campaign

Host of Morning Joe on MSNBC and former U.S. Representative from Florida Joe Scarborough


Former State Department officials[edit]

Former Defense Department officials[edit]

Former National Security officials[edit]

Other former federal government officials[edit]

Former Chief of Staff to the Vice President and founder of The Weekly Standard Bill Kristol

Statewide officials[edit]


State legislators[edit]


Municipal officials[edit]

Other notable individuals[edit]

Republican Party figures[edit]

Ben Shapiro, conservative commentator

George Will, conservative commentator

Conservative academics, journalists and commentators[edit]

Business leaders[edit]

Meg Whitman, current HP and former eBay CEO

Republican groups[edit]

General election opposition[edit]

Portrait of rival presidential candidate Hillary Clinton
Portrait of rival presidential candidate Gary Johnson
Hillary Clinton and Gary Johnson were considered the main alternatives to Trump in the general election.

Trump was widely described as the presumptive Republican nominee after the May 3 Indiana primary,[6] notwithstanding the continued opposition of groups such as Our Principles PAC.[47] Many GOP leaders endorsed Trump after he became the presumptive nominee, but other Republicans looked for ways to defeat him in the general election.[48]Stop Trump members such as Mitt Romney, Eric Erickson, William Kristol, Mike Murphy, Stuart Stevens, and Rick Wilson pursued the possibility of an independent candidacy by a non-Trump Republican.[48]Potential candidates included Senator Ben Sasse, Governor John Kasich, Senator Tom Coburn, Congressman Justin Amash, Senator Rand Paul, retired Marine Corps General James Mattis, retired Army General Stanley McChrystal, former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, businessman Mark Cuban, and 2012 Republican nominee Mitt Romney.[48][49] However, many of these candidates rejected the possibility of an independent run, pointing to difficulties such as ballot access and the potential to help the Democratic candidate win the presidency.[48] One potential strategy would involve an independent candidate gaining enough electoral votes to deny a majority to either of the major party candidates, sending the three presidential candidates with the most electoral votes to the U.S. House of Representatives under procedures established by the Twelfth Amendment.[50][51] Some anti-Trump Republicans stated that they would vote for Hillary Clinton in the general election.[52]

On May 3, 2016, one of the biggest anti-Trump groups, the “Never Trump PAC”, circulated a petition to collect the signatures of conservatives opposed to voting for Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election.[53][54] As of August 19, 2016, over 54,000 people had signed the petition.[55] Gary Johnson‘s campaign in the Libertarian Party attracted attention as a possible vehicle for the Stop Trump movement’s votes in the general election after Trump became the Republican Party’s presumptive nominee.[56][57][58] In late May, Craig Snyder, a former Republican staffer, launched the “Republicans For Hillary PAC”, “aimed at convincing Republicans to choose Hillary Clinton over […] Donald Trump in November.”[59] Also, the grassroots effort, called “Republicans for Clinton in 2016”, or R4C16, joined the effort in defeating Trump.[60]

William Kristol, editor of The Weekly Standard, promoted National Review staff writer David A. French of Tennessee as a prospective candidate.[61][62][63] French opted not to run.[64][65] On August 8, Evan McMullin, a conservative Republican, announced that he would mount an independent bid for president, with support of the Never Trump movement.[66] McMullin was backed by Better for America, a Never Trump group,[67] and was supported by former Americans Elect CEO Kahlil Byrd and Republican campaign-finance lawyer Chris Ashby.[66]


Reactions to the Stop Trump movement were mixed, with other prominent Republicans making statements in support of preventing Trump from receiving the Republican nomination. Following his withdrawal as a candidate for President, U.S. Senator Marco Rubio expressed hope that Trump’s nomination could be stopped, adding that his nomination “would fracture the party and be damaging to the conservative movement.”[68]

Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus dismissed the potential impact of Mitt Romney’s efforts to block Trump at the convention.[36] Sam Clovis, a national co-chairman for Trump’s campaign, said that he would leave the Republican Party if it “comes into that convention and jimmies with the rules and takes away the will of the people”.[41] Ned Ryun, founder of conservative group American Majority, expressed concern about a contested convention, should Trump have the most delegates, but fail to reach the 1,237 necessary to be assured the nomination. Ryun speculated that a contested convention would result in Trump running as a third-party candidate, making it unlikely that Republicans would win the presidency in the November general election, adding that it would “blow up the party, at least in the short term”.[69][70]

New Jersey governor Chris Christie expressed his opinion that the efforts to stop Trump will ultimately fail. Relatively shortly after his endorsement of Trump, he criticized the people who condemned his endorsement, including the Stop Trump movement, stating that his critics had yet to support any of the remaining GOP candidates. He said, “I think if you’re a public figure, you have the obligation to speak out, and be ‘for’ something, not just ‘against’ something. … When those folks in the ‘Stop Trump’ movement actually decide to be for something, then people can make an evaluation … if they want to be for one of the remaining candidates, do what I did: Be for one of the remaining candidates.”[71]

Trump said that if he were deprived of the nomination because of falling just short of the 1,237 delegates required, that there could be “problems like you’ve never seen before. I think bad things would happen” and “I think you’d have riots.”[5][72][73] Trump made prior comments suggesting that he might run as an independent candidate if he were not to get the Republican nomination.[36]

Roger Stone, a political consultant who served as an advisor for Donald Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign, and who remains a “confidant” to Trump,[74][75] put together a group called “Stop the Steal” and threatened “Days of Rage” if Republican party leaders try to deny the nomination to Trump at the Republican National Convention in Cleveland.[76][77]Stone also threatened to disclose to the public the hotel room numbers of delegates who oppose Trump.[77]

Developments following the election[edit]

After Trump won the election, two Electoral College electors launched an effort to convince fellow electors who are allocated to Trump not to vote for him.[78]

On December 11, Rep. Jim Himes (D-CT) wrote on Twitter that the Electoral College should not elect Trump. “We’re 5 wks from Inauguration & the President Elect is completely unhinged. The Electoral College must do what it was designed for.”[79]On December 12, in an interview on CNN‘s New Day, Himes said that he was troubled by several actions by the president-elect. The issue that “pushed me over the edge” was Trump’s criticism of the CIA and the intelligence community. The Congressman did admit that Trump won “fair and square,” but he said that Trump proved himself unfit for public office. He cited the intentions behind the creation of the electoral college and he argued that it was created for an instance such as the election of Trump.[80]

Efforts to persuade more electors to vote against Trump ultimately failed, and Trump won 304 electors on December 19. Trump’s electoral lead over Clinton even grew because a larger number of electors defected from her: Trump received 304 of his 306 pledged electors, Clinton 227 of her 232.

January 2017

Protests during Trump’s presidency

  • January 20 – Fifty women from El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juárez, demonstrated against the proposed wall and the Trump Administration immigration policies by standing on the US/Mexico border, linked by hands and braiding scarves or hair together between 7am and 9am.[290][291] The women were part of an organization called Boundless Across Borders.

Inauguration protests

Several thousands of people, many of them dressed in purple (the symbolic color of anti-bullying) formed a human chain on the sidewalk across the Golden Gate Bridge to peacefully oppose the inauguration of Donald Trump

File:Protesters Take to Parade Route.webm

Protesters at the inauguration of Donald Trump

A large number of protests were planned in connection with the inauguration of Donald Trump as the President of the United States of America on January 20, 2017.[56] Security preparation for Trump’s inauguration gathered a total of nearly 28,000 security personnel to participate in Washington, D.C.[57] Anti-Trump protesters, mostly dressed in black, attempted to disrupt the inauguration and clashed with police in various parts of downtown Washington D.C.

On the eve of the inauguration, January 19, protestors gathered outside the National Press Building in Washington D.C. where the DeploraBall was held. Although the protest was mostly peaceful, several members threw debris at attendees, hitting one man in the head.[58] Police responded with teargas and pepper spray,[59] scattering the crowd.

On the day of the Inauguration, January 20, a group of around 100 protesters smashed windows of businesses in downtown Washington and tipped over garbage cans.[60] The protesters also blocked entryways to the event and chained themselves to barricades, attempting with little success to prevent Trump supporters from gathering near the inaugural parade route.[57] Along the parade route, hundreds of demonstrators gathered at designated protest sites, waved signs and chanted anti-Trump slogans. Occasional clashes between police and demonstrators occurred,[61] with masked protesters throwing rocks and chunks of concrete at police.[62] Rioting continued late into the afternoon near Pennsylvania Avenue.[63] A limousine was tagged with graffiti, its windows were shattered, and it was later set on fire.[64] The limo was owned by a Muslim immigrant, and its driver was hospitalized.[65] The fire spread to a Fox News crew SUV which was parked behind the limo.[66] 230 people were arrested, and of those, 217 were charged at the federal level with felony rioting, which, if convicted, is punishable by up to 10 years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000.[67] Six officers suffered minor injuries.

Washington, D.C.[edit]

On the eve of the inauguration, January 19, protestors gathered outside the National Press Building in Washington D.C. where the DeploraBall was held. Several protesters threw debris at attendees, hitting one man in the head.[82] Police responded with teargas and pepper spray,[83] scattering the crowd.

Limo smashed in Washington DC

On the day of the Inauguration, January 20, a group of around 100 protesters smashed windows of businesses in downtown Washington and tipped over garbage cans.[84] The protesters also blocked entryways to the event and chained themselves to barricades, attempting with little success to prevent Trump supporters from gathering near the inaugural parade route.[80] Along the parade route, hundreds of demonstrators gathered at designated protest sites, waved signs and chanted anti-Trump slogans. Occasional clashes between police and demonstrators occurred,[85] with masked protesters throwing rocks and chunks of concrete at police.[86] Rioting continued late into the afternoon near Pennsylvania Avenue.[87] A limousine was tagged with graffiti, its windows were shattered, and it was later set on fire.[88] The limo was owned by a Muslim immigrant, and its driver was hospitalized.[89] The fire spread to a Fox News crew SUV which was parked behind the limo.[90] 230 people were arrested, and of those, 217 were charged at the federal level with felony rioting, which, if convicted, is punishable by up to 10 years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000.[91] Six officers suffered minor injuries.[92]


On Friday January 20, 2017, in the morning, anti-Trump protesters blocked the headquarters of Uber in San Francisco because the CEO of the company is seen as a “collaborator” with Trump.[93] Around 16 people were arrested in the demonstration which created human chains to block the offices.[93] Other companies blocked Friday morning in San Francisco were the Wells Fargo headquarters and Caltrain tracks.[93]

In Los Angeles, thousands turned out for a peaceful protest on Friday, despite the rain.[94] Demonstrators rallied outside of Los Angeles City Hall.[95]

LaBeouf, Rönkkö & Turner[edit]

Artists LaBeouf, Rönkkö & Turner started live-streaming a planned four-year protest, titled HEWILLNOTDIVIDE.US, at 9 a.m. on the morning of the inauguration on January 20.[96] Participants were invited to deliver the words “He will not divide us” into a camera mounted to a wall “as many times, and for as long as they wish”, in what the artists described as “a show of resistance or insistence, opposition or optimism, guided by the spirit of each individual participant and the community.”[97]The footage was broadcast on a 24/7 feed, which the artists announced would run for four years, or the duration of Trump’s presidency.[96] The initial host of the artwork, the Museum of Moving Images in New York, abandoned their involvement with the project after three weeks, citing public safety concerns.[98] The installation became especially contentious after white supremacists started yelling “1488” to the camera and because of increased “loitering” in the area around the museum,[99]with the museum receiving threats of violence.[96] The artists, meanwhile claimed that the museum had “bowed to political pressure” in ceasing their involvement with the project, adding that there had been no incidents of violence that they were aware of. More than a million people viewed the live-stream before it was shut down.[99] The exhibit relocated on February 18, 2017, to a wall outside the El Rey Theater in Albuquerque, New Mexico.[100]

2017 Women’s March

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the movement as a whole. For an individual listing of protests, see List of 2017 Women’s March locations.
2017 Women’s March
Women’s March on Washington
Part of the women’s rights movement and protests against Donald Trump
Women's March Washington, DC USA 33.jpg

Demonstrators at the Women’s March on Washington in Washington, D.C.
Date January 21–22, 2017
Location Worldwide, with flagship march in Washington, D.C.
Goals “Protection of our rights, our safety, our health, and our families – recognizing that our vibrant and diverse communities are the strength of our country”[3]

Methods Protest march
Lead figures
Estimated 500,000 people (Washington, D.C., marches)[7]
Estimated 3,300,000 – 4,600,000 in the United States [8]Estimated up to 4.8 million worldwide[9][10][11]
Official websites:

The Women’s March[10][12][13][a] was a worldwide protest on January 21, 2017, to protect legislation and policies regarding human rights and other issues, including women’s rights, immigration reform, healthcare reform, the natural environment, LGBTQ rights, racial equality, freedom of religion,[17] and workers’ rights. While the march was billed as pro-woman, the rallies were also aimed at Donald Trump, immediately following his inauguration as President of the United States, largely due to statements and positions attributed to him regarded by many as misogynistic or otherwise reprehensible.[10][18] It is the largest single-day demonstration in U.S. history.[19][20] The march drew at least 500,000 people in Washington, and some estimates put worldwide participation at 4.8 million.[9][10][11][21] At least 408 marches were planned in the U.S. and 168 in 81[9] other countries.[22]

The first protest was planned in Washington, D.C., and is known as the Women’s March on Washington.[23] It was organized as a grassroots movement to “send a bold message to our new administration on their first day in office, and to the world that women’s rights are human rights“.[24] The Washington March was streamed live on YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter.[25]

Officials who organized the marches later reported that 673 marches took place worldwide, on all seven continents, including 29 in Canada, 20 in Mexico,[10] and one in Antarctica.[26] In Washington D.C. alone, the protests were the largest political demonstrations since the anti–Vietnam War protests in the 1960s and 1970s, with both protests drawing in similar numbers.[27][28] The Women’s March crowds were peaceful, and no arrests were made in Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles,[b] New York City, and Seattle, where an estimated combined total of 2 million people marched.[30]

Following the march, the organizers of the Women’s March on Washington posted the “10 Actions for the first 100 Days” campaign for joint activism to keep up the momentum from the march.[31][32]



On November 9, 2016, the day after Donald Trump was elected President of the United States,[33] in reaction to Trump’s election and political views,[c][35] Teresa Shook of Hawaii created a Facebook event and invited friends to march on Washington in protest. Similar Facebook pages created by Evvie Harmon, Fontaine Pearson, Bob Bland (a New York fashion designer), Breanne Butler, and others quickly led to thousands of women signing up to march.[36][37][38][39] Harmon, Pearson, and Butler decided to unite their efforts and consolidate their pages, beginning the official Women’s March on Washington.[36] To ensure that the march was led by women of differing races and backgrounds, Vanessa Wruble, co-founder and Head of Campaign Operations, brought on Tamika D. Mallory, Carmen Perez and Linda Sarsour to serve as National Co-Chairs alongside Bland.[36][40] Former Miss New Jersey USA Janaye Ingram served as Head of Logistics.[41] Organizers stated that they were “not targeting Trump specifically” and that the event was “more about being proactive about women’s rights”. Sarsour called it “a stand on social justice and human rights issues ranging from race, ethnicity, gender, religion, immigration and healthcare”.[4][42] Still, opposition to and defiance of Trump infused the protests,[43] which were sometimes directly called anti-Trump protests.[44]

National co-chairs[edit]

The four co-chairs were Linda Sarsour, the executive director of the Arab American Association of New York; Tamika Mallory, a political organizer and former executive director of the National Action Network; Carmen Perez, an executive director of the political action group The Gathering for Justice; and Bob Bland, a fashion designer who focuses on ethical manufacturing.[4][5] Vanessa Wruble, co-founder and co-president of Okayafrica, serves as Head of Campaign Operations.[40] Gloria Steinem, Harry Belafonte, LaDonna Harris, Angela Davis and Dolores Huerta served as honorary co-chairs.[6][45]

Planned Parenthood partnered with the march by providing staff and offering knowledge related to planning a large-scale event.[46] Planned Parenthood president Cecile Richards asserted that the march would “send a strong message to the incoming administration that millions of people across this country are prepared to fight attacks on reproductive healthcare, abortion services and access to Planned Parenthood, [which] hopes that [in the future] many of the protesters will mobilize in its defense when Trump and congressional Republicans make their attempt to strip the organization of millions in federal funding”. The national organizing director stressed the importance of continuing action at a local level and remaining active after the event.[4]

Policy platform[edit]

On January 12, the march organizers released a policy platform addressing reproductive rights, immigration reform, religious discrimination,[47] LGBTQ rights, gender and racial inequities, workers’ rights, and other issues.[1][2] “Build bridges, not walls” (a reference to Trump’s proposals for a border wall) became popular worldwide after the Trump’s inaugural address,[48][49] and was a common refrain throughout the march.[50]

The organizers also addressed environmental issues: “We believe that every person and every community in our nation has the right to clean water, clean air, and access to and enjoyment of public lands. We believe that our environment and our climate must be protected, and that our land and natural resources cannot be exploited for corporate gain or greed—especially at the risk of public safety and health.”[2]


While organizers had originally expected over 200,000 people,[51] the march ended up drawing between 440,000[52] to 500,000 in Washington D.C.[7] The Washington Metro system had its second-busiest day ever with over a million trips taken, second only to the first inauguration of Barack Obama.[53] The New York Times reported that crowd scientists estimate that the Women’s March was three times the size of the Trump inauguration, which they estimate at 160,000 attendees.[51] However, The Washington Post and The New York Times have stated that it is difficult to accurately calculate crowd size[54][55] and other estimates of the Trump inauguration range from 250,000 to 600,000 people.[56][57]

An estimated 3,300,000 – 4,600,000 people participated in the United States[58] and up to 4.8 million did worldwide.[10][9][11][21]

Washington, D.C.[edit]

Name origin[edit]

Logo for the Women’s March on Washington

Originally billed as the “Million Women March”,[59] the organizers eventually chose to call the event the Women’s March on Washington after the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, a historic civil rights rally on the Mall where Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech.[60] The rally also paid tribute to the 1997 Million Woman March in Philadelphia, in which hundreds of thousands of African American women are said to have participated.[61]

Logistics planning[edit]

Because of scheduling conflicts at the Lincoln Memorial,[62] a permit was secured on December 9 to start the march on Independence Avenue at the southwest corner of the Capitol building and continue along the National Mall.[63]

By January 20, 2017, 222,000 people had RSVP’d as going to the Washington, D.C., march and 251,000 had indicated interest.[64][65] On January 16, 2017, Fox News reported that authorities were expecting “a crowd of almost 500,000 people”,[66] and the permit for the march issued by the National Park Service was revised by the head of D.C.’s Homeland Security department to half a million people[67]—significantly more than the estimated attendance at President Donald Trump‘s inauguration ceremony the previous day.[68][69]


In late December, organizers announced that over 100 organizations would provide assistance during the march and support the event across their social media platforms.[70] By January 18, more than 400 organizations were listed as “partners” on the March’s official website.[71][72]

Planned Parenthood (which has received federal funding since 1970, when President Richard Nixon signed into law the Family Planning Services and Population Research Act) and the Natural Resources Defense Council were listed as the two “premier partners”.[71] Other organizations listed as partners included the AFL–CIO, Amnesty International USA, the Mothers of the Movement, the National Center for Lesbian Rights, the National Organization for Women,, Human Rights Watch, Code Pink, Black Girls Rock!, the NAACP, the American Indian Movement, Emily’s List, Oxfam, Greenpeace USA, and the League of Women Voters.

On January 13, New Wave Feminists, an anti-abortion feminist group, was granted partnership status by the event’s organizers. However, after the organization’s involvement was publicized in a piece in The Atlantic, New Wave Feminists was removed from the partners page on the march’s website.[76] Other anti-abortion groups that had been granted partnership status, including Abby Johnson‘s And Then There Were None (ATTWN) and Stanton Healthcare, were subsequently unlisted as partners as well. Although no longer partners, New Wave Feminists still took part in the official march, alongside other anti-abortion groups such as ATTWN, Students for Life of America, and Life Matters Journal.[d]


The official list of speakers included Gloria Steinem, America Ferrera and Scarlett Johansson. Others speakers were Sophie Cruz, Angela Davis, and Michael Moore, as well as Cecile Richards, Ilyasah Shabazz, Janet Mock, LaDonna Harris, Janelle Monáe, Maryum Ali, Rabbi Sharon Brous, Sister Simone Campbell, Ashley Judd, Melissa Harris-Perry, Randi Weingarten, Van Jones, Kristin Rowe-Finkbeiner, Roslyn Brock, Muriel Bowser, Tammy Duckworth, Kamala Harris, Donna Hylton and Ai-jen Poo.

File:Activist Gloria Steinem Tells Women's March Protesters 'Put Our Bodies Where Our Beliefs Are'.webm

Gloria Steinem addressing crowds at the Women’s March on Washington

Speaking at the march, Steinem commented: “Our constitution does not begin with ‘I, the President.’ It begins with, ‘We, the People.’ I am proud to be one of thousands who have come to Washington to make clear that we will keep working for a democracy in which we are linked as human beings, not ranked by race or gender or class or any other label.”[4]

Ferrera stated, “If we – the millions of Americans who believe in common decency, in the greater good, in justice for all – if we fall into the trap by separating ourselves by our causes and our labels, then we will weaken our fight and we will lose. But if we commit to what aligns us, if we stand together steadfast and determined, then we stand a chance of saving the soul of our country.”[82]

Johansson called for long-term change: “Once the heaviness [of the election] began to subside, an opportunity has presented itself to make real long-term change, not just for future Americans, but in the way we view our responsibility to get involved with and stay active in our communities. Let this weight not drag you down, but help to get your heels stuck in.”[82]

The youngest presenter at the Washington D.C. march, 6-year-old Sophie Cruz, said, “Let us fight with love, faith and courage so that our families will not be destroyed,” and ended her speech saying, “I also want to tell the children not to be afraid, because we are not alone. There are still many people that have their hearts filled with love. Let’s keep together and fight for the rights. God is with us.” Cruz repeated her speech in Spanish.[83]

Alicia Keys performed at the rally saying, “We are mothers. We are caregivers. We are artists. We are activists. We are entrepreneurs, doctors, leaders of industry and technology. Our potential is unlimited. We rise.” Angela Davis said, “We recognize that we are collective agents of history and that history cannot be deleted like web pages.” Maryum Ali also spoke, saying, “Don’t get frustrated, get involved. Don’t complain, organize.”[82]

Calling for participation following the march to maintain the momentum, Michael Moore urged marchers to engage in “100 days of protest” of the Trump administration.[84] He established The First 100 Days of Resistance, a website that offers a plan to implement the marchers’ goals, and asked that people join the coalition “to stop Trump’s hate-filled agenda and continue to advance the cause of racial, social, environmental and economic justice”. Saying the Democratic Party needs new leadership, Moore also urged marchers to run for office.[85]

Pussyhat Project[edit]

Sewn and knit pussyhats being worn on a plane to Washington D.C.

The Pussyhat Project was a nationwide effort initiated by Krista Suh and Jayna Zweiman of Los Angeles to create pink hats to be worn at the march for visual impact. In response to this call, crafters all over the US began making these hats using patterns provided on the project website for using either a knitting method, crocheting and even sewing patterns.[86][87] The project’s goal was to have one million hats handed out at the Washington March.[87] The hats are made using pink yarns or fabrics and were originally designed to be a positive form of protest for Trump’s inauguration by Krista Suh. Suh, from Los Angeles, wanted a hat for the cooler climate in Washington, D. C. and made herself a hat for the protest, realizing the potential: “we could all wear them, make a unified statement”.[88] One of the project founders, Jayna Zweiman, stated “I think it’s resonating a lot because we’re really saying that no matter who you are or where you are, you can be politically active.”[87] Suh and Zwieman worked with the owner of a local knitting supply shop called The Little Knittery to come up with the original design. The project launched in November 2016 and quickly became popular on social media with over 100,000 downloads of the pattern to make the hat.[89]

The name refers to the resemblance of the top corners of the hats to cat ears and attempts to reclaim the derogatory term “pussy“, a play on Trump’s widely reported 2005 remarks that women would let him “grab them by the pussy”.[90][91] Many of the hats worn by marchers in Washington, D.C., were created by crafters who were unable to attend and wished them to be worn by those who could, to represent their presence. Those hats optionally contained notes from the crafters to the wearers, expressing support. They were distributed by the crafters themselves, by yarn stores at the points of origin, carried to the event by marchers, and also distributed at the destination.[92] The production of the hats caused a shortage of pink wool knitting yarn.[93] On the day of the march, NPR compared the hats to the “Make America Great Again” hats worn by Trump supporters, in that both represented groups that had at one point been politically marginalized; both sent “simultaneously unifying and antagonistic” messages; and both were simplistic in their conveyances.[94]

Other U.S. locations[edit]

Across the United States, there were a total of 408 planned marches.

United States[edit]

Listed below are 676 marches in the U.S. in support of the 2017 Women’s March.

State Cities Photo Approximate attendance Notes
Womens March on Washington.jpg
500,000[2][3] Virginia Governor Terry McAuliffe announced that he would attend the march instead of the inaugural parade. McAuliffe said he would be marching in Washington with his wife Dorothy, Lt. Gov. Ralph Northam and Cecile Richards, president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.[4]
 Alabama Birmingham 5,000–10,000[5] The march started at Kelly Ingram Park.[6]
Huntsville 100 Protesters assembled on a street corner.[7]
Mentone[8] 70+[9] Protestors assembled at the intersection of Alabama Highway 89 and 117. About 50 people of the total population of 360 showed up.[10]
Mobile 900–1,000[11] Protesters assembled in Public Safety Memorial Park and the march lasted approximately 30 minutes.[11]
 Alaska Adak 10[12] Ten people demonstrated at the westernmost city in the Aleutian Islands.[12]
Anchorage 3,500[12][13] Thousands protested at the Delaney Park Strip.[12]
Bethel 40–80[12][14] Participants had signs in both English and Yup’ik.[14]
Craig 25 “Dozens of people came out for the Women’s March in Craig, Saturday Jan. 21, 2017.” (pics 11, 58, 62-65 of 65)[15]
Cordova[16] 100+[17]
Fairbanks 2,000[18] People rallied in subzero temperatures.[12]
Gustavus[16] 100s (hundreds) [19] The march began at the “Welcome to Gustavus” sign by the airport and ended at the Sunnyside at 4 Corners[20]Approximately 100 of the town’s 400 residents showed up. Photos and video of Gustavus march.[21][22]
Haines[16] 150[13] The march took place in cold and windy conditions.[15][23]
Homer[12] 900[13][24]
Juneau[16] 1,000 Protesters gathered at the Alaska State Capitol.[25][26]
Ketchikan 220[13][27]
Kodiak 330[13][28] Protesters began in the high school parking lot, looped around downtown and ended at the library.[29]
Kotzebue[16] 35–36[citation needed] Photos at blog of march, but number of participants not stated (photos show roughly 35 people). Conditions were extremely cold.[30][31]
Moose Pass 15[15]
Nome 100[13][32]
Palmer[16] 900–1,000[33]
Seldovia[16] 45 [24]
Seward 54–70[citation needed]
Sitka[16] 700[13]
Skagway[23] 112 Organizer Annie Kidd Matsov stated that turnout was much higher than expected.[23]
Soldotna[16] 200–322 Participants started at the library and marched along part of the Kenai Spur Highway that looped back to the library. The march was followed by a community gathering in the library.[34]
Talkeetna[16] 80[13]
Unalakleet 38[12] Demonstrators marched in the village.[12] The temperature in Unalakleet was −40 degrees Fahrenheit with the wind chill factor.[12]
Utqiagvik (Barrow) Dozens[13]
Valdez[16] 100–140[35]
 Arizona Flagstaff 1,200–2,000[36] Despite nearly two feet of snow, a biting wind and initial guesses that Flagstaff’s ‘March for Love’ would only attract 200 people, the Flagstaff Police Department estimated that up to 2,000 people attended.
Green Valley 400[37] Possibly “the largest rally in Green Valley history”, the rally occupied all four corners and medians at intersection of Esperanza Boulevard and La Canada Drive.[37]
Protestor at Women's March, Phoenix AZ, USA Jan 21, 2017.jpg
20,000[36] The march progressed from the Capitol south to Jefferson, east to 15th Avenue, north to Monroe Street, west to 17th Avenue and back to the Capitol. Speakers at rallies before and after the march included State Rep. Athena Salman (Tempe), U.S. Rep. Ruben Gallego, disability-rights activist Jennifer Longdon, who noted that moments after Trump was sworn in as the 45th president of the United States, the White House website was overhauled to remove pages dedicated to disabilities, civil rights, and LGBT issues, Jodi Liggett, Planned Parenthood‘s vice president of public affairs, and Maricopa County Recorder Adrian Fontes.[36]
Prescott 1,200[38] Protesters marched around the Courthouse.[39]
Tucson Tucson Rally Panoramic .JPG.jpg 15,000[36][40][41] The demonstration was peaceful,[36] whith no incidents or arrests reported.[42]
Yuma Scheduled[43] March to be held on February 5 to give time for more local organization.
Other Arizona towns Marches were also held in Ajo, Sedona, Jerome, Gold Canyon, and Bisbee.[36]
 Arkansas Bentonville 500+ Participants gathered in the Bentonville square.[44]
Fayetteville 100+ Hundreds rallied outside of the Washington County Courthouse.[45]
Little Rock 7,000[46][47] Protesters marched to the Arkansas State Capitol Building.
 California Albany 500[48]
Avalon 44[49]
Berkeley 200–1,000[50]
Beverly Hills[51] 250–300[citation needed]
Bishop 580[52]
Borrego Springs 140–150[citation needed]
Burbank 300[53]
Chico 100s (hundreds) “Hundreds” marched through Downtown Chico.[54]
Compton A rally was held in Compton.[55]
El Centro 100 A rally was held at Cardenas Market.[56]
Encinitas 50[57]
Eureka 2017 Women's March.jpg
5,000–8,000[58][59] Thousands Flood Eureka’s Streets in Solidarity With Women’s March on Washington[58] Thousands Gather for Women’s March on Eureka[59]
Fairfax 25–60[citation needed]
Fort Bragg 2,500–2,800[60]
Fresno 2,000[61] Protesters gathered at an intersection in North Fresno.[61]
Gualala[62] 300[63]
Hemet 100+[64]
Kings Beach[65] 500–800[66]
Laguna Beach 100s (hundreds)[67][68]
Long Beach 200[71]
Lompoc 300[72][73]
Los Angeles
Demonstrators fill streets, sidewalks, and plazas on a sunny day. A tall, white building stands in the background.
750,000 The Los Angeles Police Department stated that “well past” 100,000 people attended the march, but did not attempt to make a more specific estimate. Officials stated that the march was the largest in Los Angeles since a 2006 immigration march attended by 500,000 people.[74]The Los Angeles Daily News reported that 750,000 people were in the crowd.[75] Organizers also said that 750,000 people had participated in the march.[76]
Modesto 1,000[77] The march was planned less than a week in advance, and drew a crowd of nearly 1,000 people.[78]
Monterey Bay 1,500[79]
Mt. Shasta 400[80]
Napa 3,000+[81] Protesters lined up roads in downtown Napa.
Nevada City 100[82]
Oakhurst 200[61] Protesters lined the road to Yosemite National Park from Oakhurst, near Madera, California.
Oakland Women's March, 1-21-17 (32328542731).jpg
Ontario 200[84]
Palm Desert < 1,000[85] Merged with the Palm Springs Women’s March.[86]
Palmdale 24[87]
Pasadena 500+[88]
Redding 300[89]
Redondo Beach 1,800[90]
Redwood City 5,000 The rally was “inspired by and held in solidarity with” Saturday’s Women’s March on Washington, organizers said. Joan Baez performed and Rep. Anna Eshoo, D-Menlo Park, and state Sen. Jerry Hill, D-San Mateo spoke.[91]
Ridgecrest 180–200[92]
Riverside 4,000 Thousands marched along the Downtown Main Street Mall.[93][94]
Sacramento Women's March - Jim Heaphy - 08.jpg
20,000[95] 20,000 Marched from Southside Park to the California State Capitol.
San Bernardino 80[96]
San Clemente 100s (hundreds)[97] One organizer said that 652 had attended.[97]
San Diego
Marchers with signs walk down a street from right to left. Buildings and palm trees stand in the background.
40,000–50,000 Two marches were held. One march in downtown San Diego had an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 attend, and another in neighboring San Marcos, California had an estimated 10,000 attend.[98][99] A march with 50 senior citizens took place at the Seacrest Village retirement center.[100]
San Francisco
Women's March Civic Center.jpg
100,000–150,000[101][102] The rally was held at Civic Center Plaza, where San Francisco City Hall was lit pink in observance of the protest.[103]Performer and activist Joan Baez serenaded the crowd with “We Shall Overcome” in Spanish.[104]
San Jose
San Jose Women's March (32412917466).jpg
San Luis Obispo 7,000–10,000[107] Protesters marched through downtown.[108]
San Marcos 3,000–10,000[109][99]
Santa Ana 20,000–25,000[110][68]
Santa Barbara 6,000 More than 6,000 protestors rallied in De La Guerra Plaza. Both women and men participated.[111][112]
Santa Cruz
15,000+[113] Several people commented that it was the largest march in Santa Cruz history.[114]
Santa Rosa 5,000 People marched through downtown Santa Rosa. Former representative Lynn Woolsey and Representative Jared Huffman spoke.[115]
Seaside 1,500–2,000[79]
2017 Women's March in Sonoma, California - Stierch.jpg
3,000 Marchers proceeded around the historic Sonoma Plaza, blocking traffic for over an hour.[116]
South Lake Tahoe 500–700 Marched from the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino in Stateline, Nevada to South Lake Tahoe Senior Center.[117][118]
Women's March, Ukiah, California.jpg
2,000 Attendees gathered at Alex R. Thomas Jr. Plaza. Joelle Schultz, director of Ukiah’s Planned Parenthood, address the crowd along with local activists.[119]
Vallejo 40 Protesters marched from the Vallejo Ferry Building to City Hall.[120]
Ventura 2,500[121][122]
Visalia 500[123] A demonstration occurred at Blain Park.[61]
Walnut Creek
Walnut Creek Women's March (32092413170).jpg
10,000[124] Streets were closed as thousands marched in downtown Walnut Creek. Speakers included Nancy Skinner, Eric Swalwell, Steve Glazer and Mark DeSaulnier.[124]
Watsonville 300–500[citation needed]
Willits 60[69]
Yucca Valley 100[125]
 Colorado Alamosa[126] 350[citation needed]
Aspen 500[127]–1,000[128] Protesters marched to Wagner Park.[129]
Carbondale 200–300[130]
Colorado Springs 7,000[131] People marched through downtown Colorado Springs.[131]
Cortez 400–504[132]
Crested Butte[133] 350–400[134]
Democracy in Action (32072236320).jpg
100,000–200,000[135] A protest occurred at the Civic Center.[135]
Durango 100s (hundreds)[136]
Glenwood Springs[137] 100[citation needed] “In Colorado, thousands attended a march in Denver, including at least two busloads of women from the Roaring Fork Valley; 200-300 men and women marched in Carbondale; others marched in Glenwood Springs.”[138]
Grand Junction 1,000[139]
Lafayette 66–112[citation needed]
Ridgway 50[citation needed]
Silverton 33[citation needed]
Steamboat Springs 1,000 Protesters started marching at Bud Werner Memorial Library and ended at Third Street. A rally was then held at the Routt County Courthouse.[140]
Telluride[141] 200–1,000[49] Olympic skier Gus Kenworthy noted that half the residents of the town participated.[49]
 Connecticut East Haddam 100–500 Hundreds rallied in East Haddam, near New London, Connecticut.[142]
Hartford 10,000 The march had the support of Governor Dannel Malloy.[143][144]
New Haven 200[145]
Old Saybrook[146] 1,000 Participants marched down Main Street and gathered in front of Town Hall.[147][148]
Salisbury 500[149]
Stamford 5,000 People marched peacefully in Stamford, Connecticut, after a rally in the Mill River Park.[150]The protesters marched around the city blocks surrounding the Trump Parc Stamford building, a building owned by the Trump Organization,[151] in a display of resistance to President Donald Trump’s policies. The number of demonstrators was reportedly four times larger than organizers expected.[150]
 Delaware Lewes 250+ People walked along Lewes Beach in Cape Henlopen State Park in solidarity.[152]
Newark 1,000 People participated in a 2.4-mile march.[153]
Boca Raton 120 A “Stand up for American Values” rally organized by the local Democratic club was held at the corner of Glades Road and St. Andrews Boulevard.[154]
Daytona Beach 100s (hundreds) A few hundred protesters assembled at a bandstand in town and sang Give Peace a Chance.[155]
Fernandina Beach 1,000–1,300[156] The local newspaper gave a “rough estimate” of 1,000 attendees at the downtown march, while the Fernandina Beach police chief estimated 1,300.[156][157] The Fernandina Beach News-Leader wrote that the rally “may have been the largest number of people to participate in a march on Amelia Island since federal troops invaded in March 1862.”[156]
Gainesville 1,500 People rallied along Newberry Road.[158]
Jacksonville 2,000–3,000[159] Thousands marched through the streets to the Jacksonville Landing.[160]
Key West 3,200 Crowds marched down Duval Street to Mallory Square. Marion County Commissioner Heather Carruthers spoke at the event and organizer Jamie Mattingly led the crowds in a rendition of John Lennon’s Imagine.[161][162]
Melbourne 500 A demonstration was held on the Eau Gallie Causeway[163]
Miami Beach[citation needed]
Miami 10,000+ The demonstration at Bayfront Park in Miami, Florida reached capacity of more than 10,000 and demonstrators began flooding the streets.[164][165]
Naples 2,500 Protesters gathered at Cambier Park and then marched through the streets.[166]
New Smyrna Beach 1,000 Protesters marched across the North Causeway.[155]
Ocala 300[167] Rally at the downtown square
Orlando Lake Eola Women's March.jpg 1,000s (thousands)[168] The demonstration was held at Lake Eola Park, in Downtown.[168]
Panama City 500[169] A rally was held at McKenzie Park, followed by a protest march down Harrison Avenue.
Pensacola 2,000[170] A demonstration was held at the Plaza de Luna.
Sarasota 10,000 Author Stephen King participated in the march.[171]
St. Augustine 2,000+[172] Marchers walked across Bridge of Lions and a rally was held in the Plaza de la Constitucion.[173]
St. Petersburg 20,000+ Over 20,000 people marched in downtown St. Petersburg, making it the largest demonstration in the city’s history.[174][175]
Tallahassee 14,000+[176] Over 14,000 people of the capital’s communities showed up to protest. Despite forecasts for heavy rain, the crowd poured into the Railroad Square Arts location before marching up the road to the Florida A&M University Recreation center. Most of the protesters turned out for the march, and due to the small indoor venue, less than a tenth of those attending were able to view the speakers rally. This may be the largest protest in Florida’s capitol history.
West Palm Beach 5,000–7,000[177][178] The event was at the Meyer Amphitheatre.[154]
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia Athens 700[179] A rally was held at the Classic Center venue near the Athena statue.
Womens-march-07881 (32298946482).jpg
60,000[180] John Lewis attended the Atlanta rally, which saw more than 60,000 march to the Georgia State Capitol.[180]
Augusta 600[181]
Savannah 1,000+ Hundreds of protesters converged upon Johnson and Wright Squares.[182]
Statesboro 200 A march on at Georgia Southern University drew around 200 participants, who marched from Sweetheart Circle to the Rotunda, where they then held a rally.[183]
Zebulon 35 “The 35 folks who braved a storm in Zebulon, Georgia.”[184]
 Guam Hagåtña 100+ Participants marched in the Fanohge Famalao’an: Guåhan March in solidarity.[185]
 Hawaii Hilo 1,500–2,000[186]
Honolulu (Oahu) 3,000–8,000[187][188] Thousands of people marched.[189]
People stand and sit on a green lawn before a sunny sky.
1,500–2,000[190][191] The march was assembled at University of Hawaii Maui College.[192]
Kawaihae 50[193]
Kona 3,000–3,500[194]
Lihue (Kauai) 1,500[195][196]
 Idaho Boise 5,000[197] The march took place in initially heavy snow that turned to rain.
Driggs 1,000+[198][199]
Idaho Falls 500[200]
Ketchum 1,150+[201]
Moscow 2,500+ Titled “Women’s March on the Palouse“, the event was centered in Moscow, ID near Washington State University and University of Idaho. The march started at Moscow City Hall and ended at East City Park.[202]
Pocatello 1,000–1,200[203][204]
Sandpoint 800–1,000[205]
Stanley 30[206]
 Illinois Carbondale 800–1,000[207][208]
Champaign-Urbana 5,000[209] 5,000 people gathered at West Side Park in downtown Champaign.
Women's March Chicago January 21, 2017 (32405023806).jpg
250,000[210] Organizers for the sister march in Chicago, Illinois, initially prepared for a crowd of 22,000.[211] An estimated 250,000 protesters[212] gathered in Grant Park for an initial rally to be followed by a march, with attendance far more than expected.[213] As a result, the official march was cancelled, although marchers then flooded the streets of the Chicago Loop.[214] Liz Radford, an organizer, informed the crowd, “We called, and you came. We have flooded the march route. We have flooded Chicago.”[213]
Elgin 200–1,000
Galesburg 100–500[215]
Maryville 40–50[citation needed]
Peoria 1,500–2,000[216][217][218] The rally was held from 10 am to noon at the Gateway Building.[219] Among the speakers were state representative Jehan Gordon-Booth. A follow-up Facebook group was formed to maintain organization for future rallies.[217]
Rockford 1,000[220] Rally in Downtown.
Springfield 1,000+[221] Dick Durbin spoke to the rally at the Old State Capitol.
 Indiana Evansville 200+ Hundreds gathered at the Four Freedoms Monument along the downtown waterfront on January 20.[222][223]
Fort Wayne 1,000 An estimated 1,000 people rallied in the Allen County Courthouse Square Saturday afternoon to support women’s rights, celebrate diversity and send a message to the White House.[224]
2017 women's march - Indianapolis - Lori Byrd-McDevitt.jpg
4,500–5,000[225] The protest at the Indiana State Capitol[226] is the largest rally in recent memory.[227]
Lafayette 800[228] An estimated 800 people rallied at the Tippecanoe County Courthouse.[229]
Paoli 67 Photo showing 67 participants, but no number stated.[230]
South Bend 1,000+[231][232]
St. Mary of the Woods[233] 200 “More than 200 people from Terre Haute and beyond attended the one-hour event.”[234]
Terre Haute 200 Around 200 people protested, first at Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College, then at the Vigo County Courthouse, and then by a march through Downtown Terre Haute.[235]
Valparaiso 260–500[236]
 Iowa Bettendorf 100s (hundreds) Several hundred people from around the Quad Cities region participated.[237] The crowd overflowed onto the lawn of the United Steelworkers local where the rally was held.[238]
Decorah Women's March.jpg
800–1,000[239] Protesters marched to the Winneshiek County Courthouse.
Des Moines
Des Moines Womens March, January 21 2017.jpg
26,000[240] The march near the Iowa State Capitol included women, men and children supporting women’s rights and healthcare, environmental issues, and immigration[240]
Dubuque 400[241]
Iowa City
Women's March (Iowa City) 02.jpg
1,000[242] Over a thousand people marched a half-mile to the Old Capitol Building, where State Rep. Mary Mascher, D-Iowa City addressed the crowd.
 Kansas Topeka
Women's March Topeka, KS 2017 (32072046960).jpg
Wichita 3,000 Protesters marched to City Hall.[245]
 Kentucky Lexington 5,000[246]
Louisville 5,000[247] People showed up at Louisville’s Metro Hall for The Rally To Move Forward in Louisville, Kentucky.[247] Congressman John Yarmuth from Louisville was scheduled to speak.[248]
Murray 700[249]
Pikeville 100[250]
 Louisiana Monroe A march was held through downtown Monroe.[251]
New Orleans 10,000–15,000[252]
Shreveport 100s (hundreds) Hundreds of people marched around the Caddo Parish Courthouse in Shreveport to demonstrate their solidarity with the Women’s March on Washington.[253]
 Maine Augusta 10,000+[254] There were 5,000 people registered to attend the rally in Augusta. In fact, 10,000 people attended, making this the largest Women’s March in the state. The crowd assembled for speeches at the State House.[255]
Brunswick 300[256]
Eastport[257] 111[258] “Over 100 people from 13 communities walked in the march in Eastport, which started in front of the schools at 10 a.m. and ended at the Fish Pier parking lot.”[258]
Ellsworth 60[citation needed]
Gouldsboro[259] 25–45[citation needed]
Fort Kent[259] “Another sister march in Portland drew 10,000 marchers, with smaller demonstrations taking place in Brunswick, Sanford, Tenants Harbor, Vinalhaven, Kennebunk, Ellsworth, Eastport, Lubec, Gouldsboro and Fort Kent.”[259]
Kennebunk[257] 100s (hundreds)[260]
Lubec[259] 100s (hundreds) [258]
Monhegan Island 22[citation needed]
Portland Portland Maine Women's March.jpg 10,000+ People marched in one of the largest protest marches ever held in Portland and drew far more people than expected. Portland police said the size of the orderly protest crowd was “of historic proportions”.[261]
Tenants Harbor[259] 50-60