Kappa Kappa Kappa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the real-life fraternity. For the Indiana sorority, see Tri Kappa.
Kappa Kappa Kappa Society
The Kappa Kappa Kappa Seal
Founded July 13, 1842; 173 years ago
Dartmouth College
Type Social
Motto Tui Filii Dartmuthensi Tuoque Honori Fidelis
Colors Dartmouth Green
Chapters 1
Headquarters 1 Webster Avenue
Hanover, New Hampshire,USA
Homepage http://www.tri-kap.com/

Tri-Kap, view from front lawn looking west.

Kappa Kappa Kappa, known informally as Tri-Kap, is a local men’s fraternityat Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The fraternity was founded in 1842 and is the second-oldest fraternity at Dartmouth College. Tri-Kap is the oldest local fraternity in the United States.[not verified in body] It is located at 1 Webster Avenue, Hanover, New Hampshire.

Despite offers to establish additional branches at other institutions, the brotherhood of Tri-Kap has remading a vote on the organization’s leadership. The fracture resulted in the formation of Psi Upsilon, by those who supported John Tyler in the contest, and Kappa Kappa Kappa, by those who supported Harrison Hobart.[citation needed]

Tri-Kap was founded on July 13, 1842, by Harrison Carroll Hobart and two of his closest companions, Stephen Gordon Nash, and John Dudley Philbrick, all Class of 1842.[citation needed] The society was based on the principles of democracy, loyalty to Dartmouth, and equality of opportunity. Originally a literary and debate society, Tri-Kap officially became a social society in 1905 and has remained so ever since.[citation needed]

Tri-Kap was the first student society at Dartmouth with its own meeting place, a building called The Hall, which was originally located where the Hopkins Center for the Arts stands today. Opened on July 28, 1860, the Hall served as Tri-Kap’s home until the Society moved into the Parker House in 1894.[citation needed] Parker House was located where the modern-day Silsby Hall stands. In 1923, the Society moved into 1 Webster Avenue, where it resides to this day.[citation needed]

Tri-Kap became an official social society in 1905. Since this time Tri-Kap has remained popular on the Dartmouth campus as one of Dartmouth’s largest and most popular fraternities with over 60 brothers hailing from across the United States and around the world.

Notable alumni[edit]

Honorary alumni[edit]

  • Daniel Clark (1834), U.S. Senator from New Hampshire
  • Rufus Choate (1819), U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
  • Benjamin Franklin Flanders (1842), Governor of Louisiana
  • Daniel Webster (1801), U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, Congressman, Ambassador to France, and Secretary of State
  • Lewis Cass, Governor of Michigan, U.S. Senator, and presidential nominee
  • Levi Woodbury (1809), Governor of New Hampshire, U.S. Senator, Secretary of the Treasury, and U.S. Supreme Court Justice

Delta Kappa Epsilon (secret society)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Delta Kappa Epsilon
Official Crest of Delta Kappa Epsilon
Founded June 22, 1844; 171 years ago
No. 12 Old South Hall, Yale University, New Haven,Connecticut
Type Social
Scope International
Motto Kerothen Philoi Aei

(“Friends From The Heart, Forever”)

Colors      Azure(Blue/Navy),
Or (Gold),
and      Gules (Crimson)
Symbol Rampant Lion
Publication The Deke Quarterly
Philanthropy Rampant Lion Foundation
Chapters 54
Headquarters P.O. Box 8360
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Homepage http://www.dke.org

Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D-K-E or “Deke”) is one of the oldest North American fraternities with 54 active chapters across the United States and Canada. The fraternity was founded at Yale College in 1844 by 15 sophomores that were disaffected by the existing houses on campus. They established a fellowship “where the candidate most favored was he who combined in the most equal proportions the gentleman, the scholar, and the jolly good fellow.”

The private gentleman’s club the DKE Club of New York was founded in 1885 and is currently in residence at the Yale Club of New York City.


The fraternity was founded June 22, 1844,[1] in room number 12 Old South Hall, Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut. At this meeting, the Fraternity’s secret and open Greek mottos were devised, as were the pin and secret handshake. The open motto is “Kerothen Philoi Aei” (“Friends from the Heart, Forever”).

The fifteen founders were:[2] William Woodruff Atwater, Dr. Edward Griffin Bartlett, Frederic Peter Bellinger, Jr., Henry Case, Colonel George Foote Chester, John Butler Conyngham, Thomas Isaac Franklin, William Walter Horton, The Honorable William Boyd Jacobs, Professor Edward VanSchoonhoven Kinsley, Chester Newell Righter, Dr. Elisha Bacon Shapleigh, Thomas DuBois Sherwood, Albert Everett Stetson, and Orson William Stow. This first Chapter was denoted Phi chapter.

The Objects of Delta Kappa Epsilon are:

The Cultivation of General Literature and Social Culture, the Advancement and Encouragement of Intellectual Excellence, the Promotion of Honorable Friendship and Useful Citizenship, the Development of a Spirit of Tolerance and Respect for the Rights and Views of Others, the Maintenance of Gentlemanly Dignity, Self-Respect, and Morality in All Circumstances, and the Union of Stout Hearts and Kindred Interests to Secure to Merit its Due Reward.[3]

Delta Kappa Epsilon administers a charitable organization called the Rampant Lion Foundation. DKE also has championed an organization call Restore Our Associational Rights (“ROAR”) which campaigns for the freedom of fraternities and Greek organizations in general to operate without interference and discrimination from university administrations or others.

The pin of Delta Kappa Epsilon shows the Greek letters ΔΚΕ on a white scroll upon a black diamond with gold rope trim and a star in each corner. DKE’s heraldic colours are azure (blue), or (gold), and gules (crimson). Its flag is a triband of those colours with a dexter rampant lion in the middle.


The Yale Club’s main entrance on Vanderbilt Avenue, home of The Delta Kappa Epsilon Club of New York

Within three years of the founding at Yale, chapters were founded at Bowdoin,Princeton University, Colby College, and Amherst College. DKE has grown to 54 chapters and has initiated over 85,000 members across North America.

Traditionally an Eastern Seaboard fraternity, DKE’s Yale chapter had an early reputation as a Southerner’s fraternity. Two of the original founders were from the South and 13 out of 38 members of 1845 and 1846 were from the South. AlthoughVanderbilt University claims DKE’s first chapter in the South (Gamma chapter, supposedly founded in 1847), Vanderbilt University was not founded until 1873. Psi chapter at the University of Alabama was founded in 1847.

Syracuse University‘s chapter house was used as a safe harbor by Harriet Tubman,Sojourner Truth, and William Still during passage into Canada via the Underground Railroad.

Delta Kappa Epsilon’s first West Coast chapter was founded at the University of California, Berkeley on Halloween night, 1876. The DKE chapter at Colgate University (Hamilton, NY) is one of the only DKE chapters having a Temple building, one which only can be entered by Mu DKE members. The Lambda Chapter at Kenyon College in 1854 built the first fraternity lodge in America. The Delta Kappa Epsilon Club of New York was founded in 1885 and is currently in residence at the Yale Club of New York City.[4] Delta Kappa Epsilon became an international fraternity with the addition of the Alpha Phi chapter in 1898 at the University of Toronto, Canada.

As of May 2014, Delta Kappa Epsilon has twelve colonies, at University of South Carolina, McGill University (Montreal), University of Illinois, University of Texas, North Carolina State, Hampden-Sydney College, University of Delaware, Simon Fraser University, University of Edinburgh, Ithaca College, University of Oxford, and the University of Tennessee. However, both Edinburgh and Oxford have said they were “not aware” of the fraternity’s activities on their campuses, and Edinburgh formally requested that the university’s crest was not used by the fraternity.[5]

Notable members[edit]

President Theodore Roosevelt

Delta Kappa Epsilon members have included five of forty-four Presidents of the United States: Rutherford B. Hayes, Theodore Roosevelt, Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush. Vice President of the United States, Dan Quayle, became a DKE brother at DePauw University. Franklin D. Roosevelt was a member of the Alpha Chapter of DKE at Harvard and would be considered the sixth DKE brother to serve as President of the United States; however, the Harvard chapter was de-recognized by DKE International due to the chapter’s stance on dual membership with other fraternities.

In the election of 1876, the Republican Party chose between two DKE members, nominating Hayes rather than rival and fellow DKE James G. Blaine. Blaine also ran unsuccessfully for President.

Many American and Canadian politicians, businessmen, sports figures, and artists have been members, including Joe Paterno, Herb Kelleher, J.P. Morgan, Jr.,William Randolph Hearst, Cole Porter, Henry Cabot Lodge, Dick Clark, Tom Landry, and George Steinbrenner. DKE flags were carried to the North Pole by its discoverer, Admiral Robert Peary and to the Moon by astronaut Alan Bean.

During the Civil War, the first Union officer killed in battle was DKE member Theodore Winthrop of Phi. The dying Edwin S. Rogers (Theta) of Maine was attended to by a Confederate Psi from Alabama, who observed the DKE pin and sent it to the family.[6] During the Spanish–American War, the first American officer to be killed was a DKE member, Surgeon John B. Gibbs (Phi Chi). DKE member J. Frank Aldritch (Psi Phi) died when the USS Maine was sunk.

Yung Wing, the first Chinese graduate from an American university in 1854, was a member of the Phi Chapter of DKE. Later, his citizenship was revoked and he was denied reentry to the United States by the government of Theodore Roosevelt, another member of DKE.

The late Dick Clark donated $1 million to the Delta Kappa Epsilon Foundation of Central New York, which handles finances for the fraternity’s chapters across the U.S.[7]

Purpose of Chapters[edit]

One of Delta Kappa Epsilon’s focuses within each Chapter is on community service in addition to the social aspect that goes along with most collegiate academic Greek fraternities.

Each Chapter competes for a number of awards that include leadership, chapter improvements, and community service.[8]Each of these areas is used in awarding the overall award called the Lion Trophy.

The 2011 Lion Trophy winner was Psi chapter at the University of Alabama.[9] The chapter won this award in the wake of sponsoring a food drive to help give relief to the Tuscaloosa community devastated by tornadoes.[10] The 2012 winner of the Lion Trophy was the University of British Columbia, and 2013’s Lion Trophy went to both the Psi chapter and the Iota chapter at Centre College.


On June 6, 1892, a pledge was led blindfolded through the street during his fraternity initiation towards Moriarty’s Cafe, a popular student hang-out. He was told to run and did so at top speed. He ran into a sharp carriage pole, injuring himself. He was rendered unconscious, but the injury was not thought to be serious at the time. He suffered an intestine rupture and died five days later of peritonitis.[11][12][13][14]

In 1967, the New York Times reported on “frat-branding”—the alleged use of a hot branding iron to make a “D” shaped scar on new fraternity members. The fraternity’s then-president George W. Bush stated that they were “only cigarette burns.”[15]

In 1989, Colgate University banned all DKE activities after the officials found members guilty of hazing, blackballing and other violations of university regulations.[16] In 2005 Colgate University barred DKE from campus for refusing to sell its house to the school and join a new student-residence initiative. DKE filed a lawsuit charging that the school violated its right to free association as well as antitrust laws by monopolizing the student housing market.[17] In 2006 the Supreme Court of Madison County found that the fraternity had failed to state a cause of action and that its claim was “time-barred.”[18][19]

In December, 2008, the University of California, Berkeley dechaptered the local DKE chapter for alcohol, hazing and fire safety misconduct.[20] The chapter never closed, and continued in “rogue” status. Four years later, the chapter opted not to reapply for University recognition and continue as a rogue fraternity. In 2012, the chapter was visited by County Vice Enforcement Team for complaints about under-age drinking.[21] And on October 17, there were reports of 5 sex assaults at this chapter. The five individuals reported that they had been given “roofies” and sexually assaulted, however the reports went unconfirmed and no charges were pressed against the chapter nor its members.[22]

In October 2010, Yale’s DKE chapter came under fire after its members shouted inflammatory and misogynistic chants at an Old Campus pledge ritual.[23] These chants included, “No means yes, yes means anal.” and “My name is Jack. I’m a necrophiliac. I f— dead women and fill them with my semen.” The chapter’s president, Jordan Forney, apologized for the fraternity’s conduct, characterizing it as a “lapse in judgment.”[24] but Yale’s feminist magazine Broad Recognition called for administrative action against the leadership of DKE. By October 24, 2010, Dean Mary Miller of Yale College had strongly recommended to the DKE National Executive Director, Dr. Douglas Lanpher, that the chapter at Yale be put on probation indefinitely.[25] Instead, on May 17, 2011, the chapter was put on suspension for five years.[26] The order bars DKE from conducting any activities on the Yale campus during that time.[27]

In January 2011, the DKE chapter at the University of Alberta had its student group status suspended for three years due to alleged hazing activity.[28]

In November 2014, a DKE chapter in Edinburgh had the minutes leaked from a meeting in March 2014 by the University of Edinburgh student newspaper, The Student. The minutes allegedly made reference to comments that joked about raping the Edinburgh University Feminist Society.[29] The story gained traction in both national and international media, being picked up by The Independent, The Huffington Post, and Time magazine.

Delta Chi (law fraternity)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Delta Chi
Delta Chi Coat of Arms.png
Founded October 13, 1890; 125 years ago
Cornell University
Type Social
Scope United States, Canada
Motto Leges (Law)
Colors      Red      Buff
Flower White Carnation
Philanthropy V Foundation for Cancer Research
Chapters 137
Members 107,000[citation needed] collegiate
Headquarters 314 Church Street (P.O. Box 1817)
Iowa City, Iowa 52244-1817,USA
Homepage www.deltachi.org

Delta Chi (ΔΧ) (del-ta kai) or D-Chi is an international Greek letter college social fraternity formed on October 13, 1890, at Cornell University, initially as aprofessional fraternity for law students. On April 29, 1922, Delta Chi became a general membership social fraternity, eliminating the requirement for men to be studying law, and opening membership to all areas of study. Delta Chi became one of the first international fraternities to abolish “hell week”, when it did so on April 22, 1929. Delta Chi is a charter member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference (NIC). The Fraternity is headquartered at 314 Church Street in Iowa City, Iowa 52244. As of Spring 2011, Delta Chi has initiated over 107,000 members.

History of Delta Chi[edit]


Two incidents have been credited with providing the impetus for interest in the founding of what was to become Delta Chi. One was the election of a Phi Delta Phi as the Law School Editor of the Cornell Daily Sun (the student newspaper) and the second was the election of the law school junior class president. In the case of the class presidency, Alphonse Derwin Stillman had done some campaigning for a student named Iving G. Hubbs and was unaware of any effort being made on anyone else’s behalf. When the voting results were in, Charles Frenkel, a Phi Delta Phi, was declared the winner. Frustrated, Stillman began to ask around about the election. What he found was a law school that was dominated by one small, close-knit group—Phi Delta Phi.

According to Frederick Moore Whitney, there were two or three groups working on the idea of a new law fraternity that spring. After the class election, there were meetings held in Myron Mckee Crandall’s apartment as well as in Monroe Marsh Sweetland’s law office. It is not clear how these two groups came together, though there seem to have been some individuals who had attended both groups.

While the class officer elections and the Law School Editorship incidents may have provided the initial incentives for organization, it soon became clear that those involved were looking for much more: a common bond that would materially assist each in the acquisition of a sound education and provide each member enduring value. Over the summer of 1890, many of the details of the organization were worked out by Myron Mckee Crandall, who had stayed in Ithaca until after school opened. In regard to the adoption of the constitution, Albert Sullard Barnes wrote the following in his 1907 Quarterly article:

“As I recall it, after refreshing my recollection from the original minutes now in my possession, on the evening of October 13, 1890, six students in the Law School, Brothers John M. Gorham, Thomas J. Sullivan, F.K. Stephens, A.D. Stillman and the writer, together with Myron Crandall and O.L. Potter, graduate students, and Monroe Sweetland, a former Student in the Law School, met in a brother’s room and adopted the constitution and by-laws, and organized the Delta Chi Fraternity.”

The minutes from that meeting state, “Charter granted to Cornell Chapter,” indicating from the beginning the intent to start a national fraternity.

The name of the fraternity and the badge[edit]

The choosing of the name for the new fraternity is difficult to credit to any one person. In a letter dated November 7, 1919, Myron Mckee Crandall claimed to remember having a conference with Monroe Marsh Sweetland during the summer of 1890 concerning the naming of the fraternity. He also stated that Albert Sullard Barnes may have “had something to do about it.” Monroe Marsh Sweetland claimed he, and he alone, picked the name of “Delta Chi” and that he liked the way the two words sounded together. “Delta Tau Omega” and “Omega Chi” were also early names in consideration. Sweetland further said that he submitted the design and drawing for the first badge.

There seems to be no doubt that Barnes obtained the first badge, which he subsequently lost at a class reunion 25 years later. In an article published in Volume 5 Number 1 of the Quarterly, Barnes state that he had in his possession at that time, 1907, “. . .no less than seventeen designs. . .” for the badge. The badge that Barnes owned had gold letters and a diamond in the center. This badge was frequently borrowed by the other members for special occasions and while having their pictures taken.

The first departure from this design came when Brother Richard Lonergan, Cornell 1892, had his badge made retaining the diamond in the center but had the Delta mounted in black enamel. An early description of the badge stated that the Delta was jeweled or enameled to suit the owner with a diamond usually surmounting the center. The Chi was jeweled with one garnet on each arm.

The Ritual[edit]

The main work of composing the Ritual was done by Stillman between the summer and early fall of 1890. Supposedly the Ritual was read at a meeting when it was still incomplete and was submitted shortly thereafter at a meeting on October 20, 1890, where it was adopted. Since a committee on the Ritual including Alphonse Derwin Stillman and Albert Sullard Barnes was appointed on October 13, 1890, it seems probable that it was originally read at that meeting, and that Stillman was given some help in completing it. In Stillman’s own words:

“I looked upon that Ritual as temporary and that [it] would serve until some genius could devise something entirely original. The ritual contained many phrases that were not original and which, as I remember, I did not take the trouble to mark as quotations. The principal ideas are almost as old as civilization, and it was my idea that an entirely new ritual would be prepared.”

The original Ritual was written on both sides of some sheets of old style legal cap, and was signed by each new initiate. A rehearsal was held on November 14, 1890, and on November 26, 1890, Albert T. Wilkinson, Frank Bowman, and George Wilcox were initiated in short form. It was not until December 3, 1890, when Frederick Bagley was initiated, that the full initiation was used. The structure of the Delta Chi initiation ritual has remained virtually unchanged since it was used on November 26, 1890. Later, at the May 23, 1891 meeting, the motto and the colors would be adopted by the fraternity.

The emblem[edit]

The emblem of the Fraternity is a secret symbol for the fraternity, only initiated members can learn about the different aspects that make up the current emblem.


On October 13, 1890, Founders Myron Mckee Crandall, Owen Lincoln Potter, and Monroe Marsh Sweetland were placed on the Supreme Council and authorized to proceed with expansion plans. At that same meeting, Albert Sullard Barnes was appointed to work “Buffalo Law School” for possible expansion due to his association with a student there. The lack of enrollment at the school and the fact that the Phi Delta Phi Chapter there was doing poorly, delayed expansion to that school until later. Building Delta Chi into a true national fraternity began during the spring of 1891.

On April 14, 1891, John Francis Tucker of New York University went to Ithaca and earned the confidence and regard of the Cornell Chapter. He was initiated into Delta Chi that night and was sent back to prepare his associates for induction.

Although Stillman remembers Tucker (who was a member of Delta Upsilon) coming to find out about Delta Chi, Wilkinson tells the story with more confidence:

“At first the chapter and the fraternity were the same thing, and there were not separate officers. But in the spring of 1891, in the month of May, I think, we received a visit from John Francis Tucker of New York. We put up a big bluff, and treated him with great formality and instructed him to return to the place whence he came, and make formal application in writing for a charter from our ancient and honorable body. As soon as he departed, there was a hurry call for a meeting to organize a body to which he could apply and it was then that the first general officers of the fraternity, as distinct from the chapter, were elected. I cannot remember for the life of me who they were, except that I was Treasurer.”

When Tucker appeared the next spring, the national organization had to be reorganized in order to accommodate the applicant from N.Y.U. As it turned out, Tucker played a significant role in the development of the Fraternity. In a letter to Johnson dated February 22, 1892, he stated:

“As to Dickinson Law School, I have been at work at that school since last August and I think I now have six more pledges, I have worked up a chapter of 25 men at the Albany Law School and another 12 men at the University of Minnesota.”

In 1892 four more chapters were established, three of which exist today (the fourth Albany Law School—had its charter transferred in 1901 to Union College; the Union Chapter existed until 1994). Twelve chapters were founded within the first decade. On February 13, 1897, Delta Chi became an international fraternity with the installation of the Osgoode Hall Chapter in Toronto, Canada. Delta Chi’s first Convention was held in 1894 at the Michigan Chapter.

Delta Chi goes single membership[edit]

In 1909 in Ithaca, New York, the 15th Convention of Delta Chi adopted an amendment to the Constitution prohibiting dual-membership (i.e. initiating members of other fraternities, and prohibiting Delta Chi members from joining other fraternities). Founded as a professional law fraternity, Delta Chi had been initiating members of Delta Tau Delta, Sigma Alpha Epsilon,Alpha Tau Omega and the other general fraternities. As time passed, several chapters that had voluntarily refrained from initiating members of other fraternities began pushing for a change in the constitution to prevent dual memberships. The issue and ultimate decision cost the Fraternity the New York Law (1905), West Virginia (1908), Northwestern (1909) and Washington University in St. Louis (1909) Chapters.

Delta Chi becomes a general fraternity[edit]

The years after the 1909 decision were years of great change and unrest. The United States became involved in World War I with a majority of the members of the active chapters dropping their college courses and enlisting in the armed forces. Chapter houses became almost deserted, and a convention in August 1917 was unthinkable. At the end of the war, the college men returned to the universities to complete their courses. The chapter finances were generally in bad condition as were the houses. Attempting to rebuild, many chapters stretched the recruiting restrictions by initiating men who had no intention of studying law. In the 1919 May issue of the Quarterly, editor Roger Steffan, Ohio State ’13 became the torchbearer of the issue of general membership with his editorial: “Shall We Go On a General fraternity?” claiming that the majority of the chapters were “no longer even predominantly legal in their membership.”

Starting in 1919 in Minneapolis at the 20th Convention, the issue of becoming a general fraternity was hotly debated until 1921 in Columbus, Ohio at the 21st Convention. The convention was deadlocked on two amendments, for and against general membership respectively. For three days votes were held, until at last (on a swing vote by the Buffalo Alumni Chapter representative), the Wadsworth amendment was adopted. Ratified in 1922, the amendment made Delta Chi a general fraternity, no longer requiring its members to be law students at their respective universities and colleges.

1922 to the Present[edit]

In 1923 the old “XX” (until then, the 15-man governing body of the general fraternity) was abolished and replaced with an executive committee of seven. This board, composed of the “AA”, “CC”, “DD”, “EE”, and three members-at-large, was the governing body of the fraternity between Conventions. A new “XX” was created as an advisory body to the executive committee; its membership consisted of the “BB”s elected by each chapter.

The position of Executive Secretary was created in 1923 and provision made for a permanent central office that was finally established in 1929. The position of Director of Scholarship came into being in 1925 to lead the drive for general scholastic excellence. In 1927, one full-time Field Secretary was placed in direct contact with the chapters and, in 1935 a second one was added to the staff. By 1930, Delta Chi had grown to 36 chapters and in 1934 the Headquarters began publishing the Quarterly . During this era Delta Chi made two noteworthy contributions to the Greek letter fraternity world. The first of these was the Tutorial Advisor Plan—members of the faculty (preferably not members of the Fraternity) living in the house where they acted as tutors, advisors, and counselors.

In yet another way Delta Chi took the lead among Greek letter organizations. At the 1929, Estes Park Convention, Delta Chi unanimously voted to abolish “Hell Week.” (The following day another national organization, meeting in convention, also abolished hazing.)

The position of “EE” was also abolished at the 1929 Convention, and at the 1935 Convention, the executive board was increased to nine.

In 1937 the Pennsylvania State Chapter invited six chapters in neighboring states to meet with them. Dean C. M. Thompson, the “AA” at the time, saw the potential of such gatherings and promptly asked the Indiana Chapter to be host for the first Midwest Regional Conference. After that the Regional Conference plan blossomed. World War II was a temporary setback to this new plan but the need, desire, and concept were not forgotten. After the war, Delta Chi saw its conference program expand and become more purposeful.

After the Great Depression and on the verge of the United States entering World War II, the Fraternity celebrated its 50th anniversary with 35 chapters. Once again young men went off to war and many of the chapter houses were taken over by the military, as had been done during the First World War. It was the alumni dues program started in 1935 that provided the main source of revenue to the fraternity while the chapters were not in operation.

After the war, chapters resumed normal operations. By 1950, Delta Chi had 39 chapters. 1951 saw the retirement of O.K. Patton from the position of Executive Secretary that he had held part-time since 1929 on an official basis while he was a professor of Law at Iowa. Prior to that time he had effectively operated the central office since his election as “CC”.

When Patton was elected “CC” in 1923 he put the records in one room of a downtown Iowa City building and hired one part-time secretary. After the “general” membership question was resolved, Delta Chi grew from 21 to 36 chapters by 1929 and the records and related activities had expanded to four rooms and four secretaries. Effectively after the fact, Delta Chi established its Headquarters in Iowa City, where it has stayed.

In 1958, the size of the Executive Board was increased to include the “AA”, “CC”, “DD”, the immediate past “AA”, and Regional Representatives called Regents.

In 1960, the Fraternity employed its first, full-time executive, Harold “Buc” Buchanan, Wisconsin ’35. Up to this time the fraternity was run by volunteers or part-time employees. At the 1960 Convention, a “Building Loan Fund” was created. The original level of assessment proved too low and, in 1962, the Delta Chi Housing Fund was established to assume the function of the “Building Loan Fund.” Today, the Housing Fund has loans outstanding to chapters and colonies across the country.

Also at the 1962 Convention, the regional representatives were re-designated as ‘regents’ and the Executive Board was renamed the Board of Regents.

In 1969, the fraternity moved out of rented space into its first permanent facility. The property is wholly owned by Delta Chi and houses the archives of the fraternity and a staff of four directors, five traveling consultants and four clerical employees.

At the 1975 Chicago Convention, the Order of the White Carnation was created to honor alumni who give outstanding service to the fraternity in a meritorious but inconspicuous way. The first inductee into the Order was Victor T. Johnson, Purdue ’32. In 1983, Senator Henry “Scoop” Jackson, Washington ’34 was selected as the first Delta Chi of the Year in honor of his achievements in his chosen profession.[1]

Organizational goals[edit]

Delta Chi’s stated mission is to “promote friendship, develop character, advance justice, and assist in the acquisition of a sound education”[2]

Founding Fathers[edit]

The Founders of the Delta Chi Fraternity

  • Albert Sullard Barnes
  • Myron McKee Crandall
  • John Milton Gorham, (First “BB”)
  • Peter Schermerhorn Johnson
  • Edward Richard O’Malley
  • Owen Lincoln Potter, (First “AA”)
  • Alphonse Derwin Stillman
  • Thomas Allen Joseph Sullivan
  • Monroe Marsh Sweetland
  • Thomas David Watkins
  • Frederick Moore Whitney


In 2006, the members of The Delta Chi Fraternity named The V Foundation for Cancer Research as the fraternity’s official philanthropic organization. Since then, the brothers of Delta Chi have dedicated countless hours to their partnership with The V Foundation for Cancer Research. As of October 2015, Delta Chi has raised nearly $500,000 for the Foundation and generously donated three grants. [3]

Organization of the fraternity[edit]

Undergraduate officer positions[edit]

Delta Chi chapters and colonies have six permanent officer positions. While each position has strict definitions of responsibility, their duties may vary slightly from group to group.

  • A – The “A” is the president of the chapter or colony. He serves as presiding officer at chapter meetings and chapter events.[4]
  • B – The “B” is the vice president of the chapter or colony. He schedules and chairs executive committee meetings, and oversees all committees.[5]
  • C – The “C” is the secretary of the chapter or colony. He keeps record of chapter or colony meetings, and is responsible for completing necessary paperwork and online forms.[6]
  • D – The “D” is the treasurer of the chapter or colony. He is responsible for tracking chapter financial records and files, as well as collecting dues and creating a budget.[7]
  • E – The “E” is the alumni secretary. He is responsible for contacting and communicating with alumni. He also works on chapter or colony newsletters and other publications.[8]
  • F – The “F” is the Sergeant at Arms. The “F” works on developing and implementing safety precautions for chapter or colony events.[9]

Committee positions[edit]

Each chapter and colony is encouraged to have a functioning committee system. Each committee chairman has duties designated by Delta Chi. Committees include subjects such as recruitment,[10] educating new recruits,[11] philanthropy, scholarship, social events, housing, and others.

Support alumni positions[edit]

  • BB – The role of the “BB” is to mentor, advise and service as a liaison between student members and alumni. This position is required by Delta Chi Law to be a two-year term and served by a Delta Chi alumnus.[12]
  • Alumni Board of Trustees – The purpose of The Alumni Board of Trustees (ABT) is to lead, supervise and advise the chapter.[13]
  • Housing Corporation – The role of the Housing Corporation is to manage the chapter or colony housing facilities and all legal responsibilities of such management. Since a Housing Corporation is a separate, incorporated legal entity, it has no requirements set forth by Delta Chi Law.[14]

Chapters and colonies[edit]

For a listing of all Delta Chi chapters and colonies see List of Delta Chi chapters.

Delta Chi chapters are unique in naming. Most college fraternities and sororities are named in an alphabetical Greek system. This is not so with Delta Chi chapters and colonies, who are named by institution, and sometimes by self-naming. Therefore, the first ‘Alpha’ chapter was the Cornell Chapter.

Famous Delta Chis[edit]

Chi Phi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chi Phi
The Crest of the Chi Phi Fraternity
Founded December 24, 1824; 190 years ago
Princeton University
Type Social
Scope United States
Motto Truth, Honor and Personal Integrity
Colors Scarlet      and Blue
Symbol Chakett
Chapters 54
Colonies 6
Headquarters 1160 Satellite Blvd NW
Suwanee, Georgia, USA
Homepage http://chiphi.org

The Chi Phi (ΧΦ) Fraternity is an American College Social Fraternity that was established as the result of the merger of three separate organizations that were each known as Chi Phi. The earliest of these organizations was formed at Princeton in 1824. Today, Chi Phi has over 43,500 living alumni members from over 100 active and inactive Chapters and un-chartered Colonies. Currently Chi Phi has 54 active Chapters and 6 Colonies.

Early history[edit]

Chi Phi Society[edit]

“On Christmas Eve in 1824, an association was formed to promote the circulation of correct opinions upon Religion, Morals, Education & excluding Sectarian Theology and party Politics. It was the duty of each member to publish at least once a month in any convenient way some article designed to answer the above object. When at length it disbanded, its religious feature was absorbed and perpetuated by what is known now as the ‘Philadelphian Society’ organized in February, 1825, and said to be an offspring of the Nassau Hall Tract Society. The old Chi Phi constitution was discovered in 1854 by some undergraduates who emphasizing the social and disregarding the religious purpose reorganized the society into the modern Greek letter fraternity of the same initials. The majority of the religious societies founded in Princeton were less general in their scope but more efficient in their work than the old Chi Phi.” – from “Princeton” by Varnum Lansing Collins 1914

Chi Phi Society Founders[edit]

The Princeton Order[edit]

Records of the original Chi Phi Society were discovered in 1854 by John Maclean, Jr. of the class of 1858. Maclean found the records in his uncle’s (also named John Maclean, Jr.) paperwork, who happened to be president of the college at that time. Maclean joined with students Charles Smith DeGraw and Gustavus W. Mayer to form a new Chi Phi Fraternity that was based on some records of the original society but also with many characteristics that differed from the original society. While the Chi Phi Fraternity of today was actually founded in 1854, the members place great emphasis on the 1824 date because of many aspects that were carried over from the original records discovered in 1854. The names of the founders of the original society of 1824 were not even known to the 1854 founders; however, they were later discovered and published in the book “Princeton” by V.L. Collins in 1914. The Chi Phi Fraternity founded by Maclean was also short-lived. The group existed sub rosa only until 1859 when it was abandoned completely. However, before the Princeton chapter died off, it was able to successfully establish a second chapter at Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania in 1854. The chapter at Franklin and Marshall in turn planted a chapter at Gettysburg College in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.[1][2][3]

The Southern Order[edit]

The second Chi Phi Fraternity was founded at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill on August 21, 1858 by five undergraduate students. The Chi Phi Fraternity of the South was also the second exclusively southern Fraternity established prior to the Civil War and was very successful in planting six chapters prior to the outbreak of hostilities and nine afterwards, but prior to the merger with the Northern Order. All but the UNC chapter suspended operations as a result of the Civil War.[4]

Southern Order Founders[edit]

  • Rev. Augustus Moore Flythe – Class of 1859 – Episcopal Deacon and Missionary, New Bern, North Carolina
  • Capt. Thomas Capehart, CSA – Class of 1861 – Beginning in April 1861, served as a Lieutenant in the Bethel Regiment, 1st North Carolina Volunteers (Infantry), commanded by Col. D.H. Hill, afterwards a General in the CSA. In early 1862, he then became the Captain of Co. C, 3rd Battalion North Carolina Light Artillery. After the Seven Days fight, this organization disbanded on account of scarcity of horses and equipment and he was commissioned as a Captain in Wynn’s Cavalry (15th) Battalion, organized for State defense remaining as such until the surrender. He lived the remainder of his life as a wealthy planter in Vance Co., N.C. near the village of Kittrell, where the home he built in 1867 still stands and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
  • John Calhoun Tucker – Class of 1861 – Served as Private in Co. I (Burt Avengers raised in Hinds Co.), 39th Mississippi Infantry and died in service on December 28, 1862 near Port Hudson, Louisiana at the age of 23. At the surrender, only seven of his company were reported in service.
  • William Harrison Greene – Class of 1862 – Served as a Lieutenant in Co. G, 5th Alabama Infantry Regiment assigned to the Rodes Brigade and the Army of Northern Virginia throughout the War. He was wounded in the leg at Sharpsburg, Antietam, Maryland in September 1862. He later became a gentleman farmer at Wayside, Mississippi.
  • Dr. Fletcher Terry Seymour, M.D. – Class of 1862 – Served as a Private in the 6th Tennessee Infantry in 1862. He was honorably discharged on account of ill health and became a merchant and planter at Eurekaton, Tenn.

Secret Order of Chi Phi[edit]

On November 14, 1860, the third independent fraternity to be named Chi Phi was founded at Hobart College, Geneva by twelve men who took the initiatory oath and received a badge. The twelve men later became known throughout Chi Phi as the “Twelve Apostles”. The fraternity was officially known as the “Secret Order of Chi Phi” and the first chapter would be called the Upsilon chapter. The Secret Order of Chi Phi at Hobart planted four additional chapters, and then in 1865, negotiations began regarding a merger with the Princeton Order. Negotiations were completed on May 29, 1867, and chapters from both groups united as the Northern Order.[4]

Secret Order Founders[edit]

  • John William Jones (1861)
  • Alexander Johnson Beach (1862)
  • Amos Brunson (1862)[5]
  • George Gallagher Hopkins (1862)
  • Edward Storey Lawson (1862)
  • Samuel Watkins Tuttle (1862)
  • David Saxton Hall, Jr. (1863)
  • David Post Jackson (1863)
  • Harvey Nixon Loomis (1863)
  • William Henry Shepard (1863)
  • William Sutphen (1863)
  • Frank Bradshaw Wilson (1864)

Merger of the North and South[edit]

Following the end of the Civil War, on March 27, 1874, the North and South orders officially formed a united organization known as the Chi Phi Fraternity. At the meeting, three members from each order adopted a constitution and by-laws and established a date for the first convention, which was held in Washington, DC on July 23, 1874.[6][7][8]

Growth and Development[edit]

In June 1867, due to the disruption of the American Civil War, a group of Southern students led by Peter Mitchell Wilson, A-A ’69 and other students from the States of Louisiana and South Carolina, chartered the Theta Chapter of the Southern Order at the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland. This Chapter is thought to be the first international and only European Chapter of an American College Fraternity.

Except for a brief period in 1911, three Chi Phis (Joseph Mackey Brown, John Marshall Slaton and Nathaniel E. Harris) held the office of Governor in the State of Georgia from 1909 to 1917. Brown was vehemently opposed to Slaton’s pardon of Leo Frank in 1915 and since his death in 1932, Brown has been implicated as a conspirator in Frank’s lynching.[citation needed]

Chi Phi’s conservative expansion philosophy that only the old, well established schools were suitable for a Chapter led to the denial of a petition for a charter by a group of students at the University of Richmond in 1901. This group went on to found the Sigma Phi Epsilon Fraternity. During the subsequent fifty-three year period, Sigma Phi Epsilon chartered over 140 Chapters, while Chi Phi only chartered 14.


Further information: List of Chi Phi chapters

Notable members[edit]

Chi Heorot

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chi Heorot

Chi Heorot (often referred to simply as “Heorot” or “XH”) is a local fraternity atDartmouth College located in Hanover, NH.


Heorot was founded in 1897 as a local fraternity called Alpha Alpha Omega. In 1902 it was granted a charter as the Chi chapter of Chi Phi. Soon after, the fraternity moved to its present location on East Wheelock Street, and in 1927 sold off its eighteenth-century house and built the house that stands today. By the mid-1900s, the Dartmouth chapter of Chi Phi was having some issues with its national charter. Some of these disagreements are alleged to have regarded the admission of an African-American student into the Dartmouth chapter, in violation of Chi Phi rules at that time.[1] In 1968 the house finally dissociated from the national fraternity.

The house then became Chi Phi Heorot. After several suspensions by the College in the early eighties, it re-joined the national in 1982. However, in the winter of 1985 the brothers of Heorot attempted to turn the central hall on the first floor of the house into an ice hockey rink by flooding it and opening the doors to allow Hanover’s subzero winter temperatures to freeze the water. This caused the floor to fall through into the basement, resulting in costly damage that the national organization refused to help pay to fix. Because of this lack of support from the national, Heorot again opted to become a local fraternity, and the college assumed ownership of the property and house.


After its final dissociation from the national in 1985, the fraternity chose the name Chi Heorot, derived from the medieval poem Beowulf. Heorot is the great hall where warriors converge to tell their stories, described by the anonymous author in the following excerpt:

Then, as I have heard, the work of constructing a building
Was proclaimed to many a tribe throughout this middle earth.
In time – quickly, as such things happen among men –
It was all ready, the biggest of halls.
He whose word was law
Far and wide gave it the name ‘Heorot’.[2]
The men did not dally; they strode inland in a group
Until they were able to discern the timbered hall,
Splendid and ornamented with gold.
The building in which that powerful man held court
Was the foremost of halls under heaven;
Its radiance shone over many lands..[3]


Heorot draws a good deal of its brotherhood from a variety of varsity athletic teams; ice hockey, cross country and track, tennis, rowing, and skiing are all well represented. Notable alumni include Gerry Geran ’18, Adam Nelson ’97, and Andrew Weibrecht ’09, who have won Olympic medals in ice hockey, shot put, and ski racing respectively.[4] NHL hockey playersLee Stempniak, David Jones, Hugh Jessiman, Tanner Glass, Ben Lovejoy, J.T. Wyman and Matt Lindblad are all also members of the fraternity.

Chi Gamma Epsilon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chi Gamma Epsilon

Chi Gamma Epsilon House

Founded 1904 as Beta Gamma
Dartmouth College
Type Social
Scope Dartmouth College
Motto “Come As You Are”
Symbol Phoenix
Chapters 1
Headquarters 7 Webster Avenue
Hanover, New Hampshire, USA
Homepage http://www.dartmouthchigam.org

Chi Gamma Epsilon (ΧΓΕ) is a local fraternity at the American Ivy Leagueuniversity of Dartmouth College. “Chi Gam,” as it is commonly known, was formerly part of the Kappa Sigma fraternity, before breaking off for political reasons. On campus, Chi Gam is known for its dance parties such as Gammapalooza, its house pong game known as ship [1] and its commitment to community service. In past years Chi Gam gained a reputation as the “Baseball Frat,” although now the house is populated by a wide variety of different people, including members of the Dartmouth Lightweight Crew team, Dartmouth Swim team, and writers for The Dartmouth.

House History[edit]

Chi Gamma Epsilon began as the fraternal organization Beta Gamma in 1904. There were 11 founding members. In 1905, Beta Gamma was given national status as the Gamma Epsilon chapter of Kappa Sigma at Dartmouth College. From 1914 to 1916, the brothers raised enough money to build a small wooden house in an empty lot at 7 Webster Avenue. The house was razed in 1935 for need of a larger structure. By 1937, the new house was completed. Ives Atherton ’24 is credited with heading construction and gathering funds.

The house became a local fraternity in 1981 due to a dispute with the national organization and changed its name fromKappa Sigma to Kappa Sigma Gamma. The house further separated itself from the national organization by undergoing a name change to the current Chi Gamma Epsilon. The brothers voted upon this on March 31, 1987. In between the deliberation period, the house was called 7 Webster Ave. The Gamma Epsilon part of the name originates from the fact that the house was originally the Gamma Epsilon chapter of Kappa Sigma.

Notable Alumni[edit]

Chi Gamma Epsilon has a strong network of famous and influential alumni. Prime examples include John Donahoe ’82 (Chairman of PayPal and former CEO of eBay), Brad Ausmus ’91 (MLB pitcher, current manager of the Detroit Tigers),[2] Mike Remlinger ’87 (MLB pitcher 1991-2005), Ben Blum ’09 (World record holding rower), Russell Carson ’55 (General Partner of Welsh, Carson, Anderson & Stowe, member of Dartmouth Board of Trustees, individual Carson Hall is named after), and numerous world-team rowers.

Alpha Sigma Phi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the fraternity in the Philippines, see Alpha Sigma Phi Philippines, Inc.
Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity
Alpha Sigma Phi Crest.png
Founded December 6, 1845; 169 years ago
Yale University
Type Social
Scope United States
Motto Causa Latet Vis Est Notissima

“The cause is hidden, the results well-known”

Colors Cardinal and Stone
Symbol Phoenix
Flower Cardinal rose and yellow tea rose
Chapters 100 active, 27 colonies, 2 interest groups, 129 total groups
Headquarters 710 Adams Street
Carmel, Indiana, USA
Homepage alphasigmaphi.org

Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity and Foundation (ΑΣΦ,[1][2] commonly abbreviated to Alpha Sig) is a fraternity with 91 active chapters, 29 colonies, and 5 interest groups.[3] Founded at Yale in 1845, it is the 10th oldest fraternity in the United States.

The fraternity practices many traditions. Its Latin motto is, Causa Latet Vis Est Notissima (“The cause is hidden, the results well-known”).[4] The fraternity’s official symbol is the phoenix, as the phoenix rises from the ashes of its old body, signifying the re-founding of the fraternity in the early 1900s. Due to active expansion efforts, Alpha Sigma Phi continues to offer services and opportunities to over 2,500 undergraduate students and 70,000 living alumni.[5]



Alpha Sigma Phi was founded by three men at Yale College in 1845 as a secret sophomore society composed of many of the school’s poets, athletes, and scholars.[6] Upon rising through the ranks of the school, members shared membership with Alpha Sigma Phi in Skull and Bones and Scroll and Key.[7]

The founders of Alpha Sigma Phi were:

Louis Manigault

Louis Manigault was the son of Charles I. Manigault, a wealthy rice planter from South Carolina who traced his ancestry to a Huguenot refugee who fled from Louis XIV‘s persecution and came to America in 1691. He served in the American Civil War as assistant to the Confederate Surgeon General. Moreover, he was a prominent plantation and slave owner in South Carolina.[8]
Stephen Ormsby Rhea was the son of John Rhea, an important cotton planter of Louisiana who helped open the disputed territory of West Floridaand made it a part of the U.S. and state of Louisiana.
Horace Spangler Weiser, of York, Pennsylvania, was a descendant of Conrad Weiser, also a refugee from Europe who became famous in theFrench and Indian War, representing several colonies in treaty negotiations with Native Americans.[6]

Manigault and Rhea met at St. Paul’s Preparatory School near Flushing, New York, where both were members of the same literary society and were preparing themselves for admission to Yale. Weiser attended a private school in New Haven, and he met Rhea early in his freshman year, who introduced him to Manigault.

Once at Yale, Manigault and Rhea became members of Yale’s Calliopean Literary Society, and Weiser was a member of the Linonian Literary Society. Manigault was very much interested in the class society system at Yale and noted the class fraternities provided experience for their members and prepared them for competition in literary contests. The sophomore class there had only one society, Kappa Sigma Theta, which displayed an attitude of superiority toward non-fraternity men.[7]

Manigault revealed to his friends Rhea and Weiser a plan for founding another sophomore society. Rhea agreed and enlisted Weiser to become the three founders of Alpha Sigma Phi. Their first official meeting was held in Manigault’s room on Chapel Street on December 6, 1845. The constitution and ritual were then written and the fraternity pin was designed. The first pledge class, of 14 members, was initiated on June 24, 1846.[6]

After the birth of Alpha Sigma Phi, an intense rivalry began with Kappa Sigma Theta. The rivalry expressed itself in their publications, Kappa Sigma Theta’s “The Yale Banger” and Alpha Sigma Phi’s “The Yale Tomahawk.” In 1852, the editors of The Tomahawk were expelled after violating faculty orders to cease publication. However, the rivalry between the organizations continued until 1858, when Kappa Sigma Theta was suppressed by the faculty.[7]

Beyond Yale[edit]

Mu Chapter at the University of Washington

The first charter was granted to University of Massachusetts, Amherst as Beta Chapter, but it only lasted about six months, at which time the parent chapter requested that it dissolve and return the constitution. However, a fragmentary document in the Yale library suggests that Beta was chartered in 1850 at Harvard but lived a very short life due to a wave of puritanism. The chapter at Harvard was revived in 1911 as Beta Chapter but only survived about 20 years; the charter was withdrawn due to Harvard’s anti-fraternity environment. When UMass Amherst was restored in 1854, it was designated as Delta Chapter. However, when the chapter at Marietta College was chartered in 1860, it too was given the Delta designation, despite the parent chapter being aware of this discrepancy.[6]

When the Civil War broke out across the United States, almost every member of Delta at Marietta enlisted in the Union Army.[citation needed]Three of the brothers gave their lives fighting for the Union cause. Former chapter presidents William B. Whittlesey and George B. Turner fell on the battle fields of Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain. They willed their personal possessions and their swords to the chapter, which treasured those mementos until the chapter closed in the mid-1990s.[7]

During the Civil War, the mother chapter at Yale was torn by internal dissension. Because less attention was being given to the sophomore class societies, some Alpha Sigma Phi members pledged to Delta Kappa Epsilon, a junior class society, and attempted to turn the control of Alpha Sigma Phi over to Delta Kappa Epsilon.[7] However, the attempt was thwarted by members of Alpha Sigma Phi who had pledged to the other two junior class societies. A conflict ensued, and the faculty suppressed Alpha Sigma Phi to end the disorder. However, the traditions of Alpha Sigma Phi were carried on by two new sophomore class societies, Delta Beta Xi and Phi Theta Psi. Louis Manigault sought to renew his loyalty and friendship with his brothers of Alpha Sigma Phi, and agreed with Rhea and Weiser to consider Delta Beta Xi its true descendant. They were unaware at the time that Delta Chapter at Marietta still existed as Alpha Sigma Phi.[7]


The second founders were:

  • Wayne Montgomery Musgrave, an honors graduate of New York University, Yale and Harvard. He provided the organizational spark that fanned Alpha Sigma Phi into national prominence.
  • Edwin Morey Waterbury, born in Geneseo, New York on September 26, 1884, son of Dr. Reuben A. and Frances Waterbury. Dr. Waterbury was an educator, and vice-principal of the New York State Normal School at Geneseo from 1873 to 1895.[7]

With the inactivation of Delta Beta Xi at Yale, Alpha Sigma Phi was kept alive only at Marietta by Delta. At Yale, four friends agreed in a conversation over a card game that an organization was needed that was open to all students, instead of representing only the sophomore or junior classes. The four friends were Robert L. Ervin, Benjamin F. Crenshaw, Arthur S. Ely, and Edwin M. Waterbury.[6]

Other members soon joined the group in their mission, the first of which were Fredrick H. Waldron and Wayne M. Musgrave. Ervin knew some of the alumni brothers of Delta at Marietta and asked them to send the first letter to Delta. On March 27, 1907, Ely, Crenshaw, Musgrave, Waldron, and Waterbury traveled to Marietta and were initiated into Alpha Sigma Phi. Upon returning to New Haven, they initiated the other friends they had recruited into the new Alpha chapter at Yale.[7]

Many of the old Alpha members returned to Yale upon hearing the news of the refounding, and helped acquire the fraternity’s first piece of real estate, the “Tomb”, a windowless two story building. No non-member was allowed entrance. No member could speak of the interior of the building, and were even expected to remain silent while passing by the exterior of the building.[7]


Theta Chapter at the University of Michigan

A new national organization was formed at an Alpha Sigma Phi conference at Marietta in 1907, and within a year there were three new chapters: Zeta at Ohio State, Eta at the University of Illinois, and Theta at the University of Michigan. In 1910 another convention was held with the members of the former chapters at Yale, Amherst and Ohio Wesleyan University, and a delegation from the YaleDelta Beta Xi fraternity. All of these pledged to anew their loyalty to a restored Alpha Sigma Phi, and soon afterward the chapters Mu at the University of Washington, Nu at University of California, Berkeley, and Upsilon at the Pennsylvania State University were added.[7]

Alpha Sigma Phi survived World War I fairly easily and even recruited many new members during those years. In the post-war era, Alpha Sigma Phi expanded at the rate of one chapter per year. In 1939, Phi Pi Phi merged with Alpha Sigma Phi, as the Great Depression left that fraternity with only five of its original twenty-one chapters. World War II hit Alpha Sigma Phi hard, with many brothers losing their lives due to the conflict, forcing many chapters to close.[6]

On September 6, 1946, Alpha Kappa Pi merged with Alpha Sigma Phi. Alpha Kappa Pi had never had a national office, but was still a strong fraternity. During the war, they had lost many chapters and realized the need for a more stable national organization. Alpha Sigma Phi expanded again in 1965 by five more chapters when it merged with Alpha Gamma Upsilon.[6]

The 1980s found a younger generation of leaders taking the reins of the fraternity. Keeping in mind one of its oldest traditions, being a fraternity run by undergraduates, the leadership and undergraduates began expanding in new directions. In 2006, Alpha Sigma Phi won the North-American Interfraternity Conference‘s Laurel Wreath Award for the Ralph F. Burns Leadership Institute for new members.[7]

Notable members[edit]


Name Chapter and Year Known For
Bradford G. Corbett Wagner 1958 Owner, Texas Rangers (1974–80)[9]
Fitz Eugene Dixon, Jr. Widener University1973 Owner, Philadelphia 76ers (1976–1981)
Ray Eliot University of Illinois1938 Head Football Coach, University of Illinois (1942–59) 3-time Big Ten Conference Champion & 2-time Rose Bowl Winner
Rich Duwelius The Ohio State University 1974 Olympic Gold Medalist – Volleyball, 1984 Summer Olympics
Bob Howsam University of Colorado 1938 President and General Manager, Cincinnati Reds “Big Red Machine” (1967–1977)
Billy “White Shoes” Johnson Widener University1971 American football player (1974–1988)
Press Maravich Davis and Elkins College 1941 Head Basketball Coach; University of Louisville, North Carolina State University, and Clemson University. Father of Pistol Pete Maravich, Basketball Hall of Fame
Bennie Oosterbaan University of Michigan 1927 3-time All-American football player (1924–1928), University of Michigan Head Football Coach (1948–1958) 3-time Big Ten Conference Champion & 1948 Associated Press Poll National Champion
Robin Reed Oregon State University 1926 Wrestling Gold medalist, 1924 Summer Olympics
Tom Watson Stanford University1971 Pro golfer, 8-time Major Winner, 3-time Vardon Trophy winner, & 10th all time in PGA tour wins

Arnold Palmer (golfer) Wake Forest University

Authors, editors, and publishers[edit]

Name Chapter and Year Known For
Harold T. P. Hayes Wake Forest University 1944 Editor, Esquire Magazine (1963–1973)
Reinhold Niebuhr Yale University 1913 Protestant theologian
Rick Santelli University of Illinois 1974 CNBC commentator, derivatives trader

Business leaders and entrepreneurs[edit]

Name Chapter and Year Known For
Warren Buffett University of Pennsylvania 1948 Chairman and CEO, Berkshire Hathaway (1970-), billionaire and philanthropist
Ratan Tata Cornell University 1962 Chairman and CEO, Tata Group (1991-2012), billionaire and philanthropist
Andrew McKelvey Westminster 1954 Chairman and CEO, Monster Worldwide, Inc. (1967–2006), billionaire and philanthropist
Jon Mittelhauser University of Illinois 1990 Co-founder, Netscape Communications, founding father of the Web browser[10]
Charles F. Feeney Cornell University 1953 Co-Founder, DFS Galleria


Name Chapter and Year Known For
Andrew Dickson White Yale 1850 First President – Cornell University (1866–1885)


Name Chapter and Year Known For
John Kasich The Ohio State University 1973 Congressman, Ohio (1983–2001), Governor of Ohio (2010-)
Andrew G. Douglas Toledo 1951 Justice, Ohio State Supreme Court (1985–2002)
Arthur Flemming Ohio Wesleyan University 1924 United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (1958–1961)
Skip Humphrey American University 1962 Minnesota Attorney General (1983–1999)
C. Everett Koop Dartmouth College 1934 Surgeon General of the United States (1982–1989)
Horace R. Kornegay Wake Forest 1942 U.S. Representative, North Carolina (1961–1969); Chairman, The Tobacco Institute (1982–1986)
Charles G. Oakman Michigan 1924 U.S. Representative, Michigan (1953–1955)
Ross Swimmer University of Oklahoma 1961 Special Trustee for American Indians at the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (2001-)
Frank Wolf Penn State 1960 U.S. Representative, Virginia (1981-)
Eric Swalwell University of Maryland, College Park 2001 U.S. Representative, California (2013-)
Samuel Bodman Cornell University 1957 United States Secretary of Energy (2005–2009)

Musicians, stage, and screen performers[edit]

Name Chapter and Year Known For
Robert Loggia Wagner College 1951 Actor, Mr. MacMillan in Big
Vincent Price Yale University 1930 Actor, The Inventor in Edward Scissorhands
Willard Scott American University 1946 TV personality, weatherman on The Today Show
Ted Cassidy West Virginia Wesleyan 1939 Actor, Lurch on The Addams Family
Andrew Kenny UNC Charlotte 2010 Actor, Stamp Kid in Juwanna Mann

Controversy over inclusion of women[edit]

In 1983, Tau Chapter of Stanford University split off from the national fraternity organization over controversy regarding that chapter’s inclusion of women as initiated members. The chapter had begun the tradition of initiating women some years earlier, but when a female member became president of the chapter, the national fraternity organization reacted with an immediate suspension and threat of charter revocation.[11] Tau Chapter became Alpha Sigma Co-Ed Fraternity thereafter, surviving independently for over ten years.[12]

Active chapters, colonies, and interest groups[edit]

See also

Alpha Phi Alpha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alpha Phi Alpha
The crest of Alpha Phi Alpha
Founded December 4, 1906; 108 years ago
Cornell University
Type Social
Emphasis Service
Scope International
Mission statement
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. develops leaders, promotes brotherhood and academic excellence, while providing service and advocacy for our communities.
Motto First of All, Servants of All,
We Shall Transcend All
Colors Old Gold and Black
Symbol Great Sphinx of Giza
Flower Yellow Rose
Publication The Sphinx
Chapters 800+
Members 290,000+ lifetime
Aims Manly Deeds,
Scholarship, and
Love for All Mankind
Headquarters National Headquarters: 2313 Saint Paul Street
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
Homepage APA1906.net

Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ) is the first African American, inter-collegiate Greek-lettered fraternity. It was founded on December 4, 1906 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Its founders are known as the “Seven Jewels“. It employs an icon from Ancient Egypt, theGreat Sphinx of Giza, as its symbol. Its aims are “manly deeds, scholarship, and love for all mankind,” and its motto is First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All. Its archives are preserved at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center.

Chapters were chartered at Howard University and Virginia Union University in 1907. The fraternity has over 290,000 members and has been open to men of all races since 1940. Currently, there are more than 730 active chapters in the Americas, Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, and Asia.

Alpha Phi Alpha evolved into primarily a service organization and provided leadership and service during the Great Depression,World Wars, and Civil Rights Movements. It addresses social issues such as apartheid, AIDS, urban housing, and other economic, cultural, and political issues of interest to people of color. The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial and World Policy Council are programs of Alpha Phi Alpha. It also conducts philanthropic programming initiatives with March of Dimes, Head Start, Boy Scouts of America, and Big Brothers Big Sisters of America.

Members of Alpha Phi Alpha include Jamaican Prime Minister Norman Manley, Nobel Prize winner Martin Luther King, Jr., OlympianJesse Owens, Justice Thurgood Marshall, United Nations Ambassador Andrew Young, singer Lionel Richie and Atlanta mayorMaynard Jackson.



The Arts Quad of Cornell Universityin 1919. Cornell University was the site of the founding of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., in 1905, although the organization would remain unnamed until 1906. (42.448510°N 76.478620°W)

At the start of the 20th century, African American students at American universities were often excluded from fraternal organizations enjoyed by the predominantly white student population.[1] During the 1905–06 school year, at Cornell, African American students organized the first Greek letter fraternity with the aim to provide an opportunity for association and mutual support among African-American students. At the outset, there was disagreement about the group’s purpose: some wanted a social and literary club where everyone could participate; others wanted a traditional fraternal organization. The society decided to work to provide a literary, study, social, and support group for all minority students who encountered social and academic racial prejudice. [1]

The original founding members were Henry A. Callis, Charles Henry Chapman, Eugene K. Jones, George Biddle Kelley, Nathaniel Allison Murray, Robert H. Ogle, and Vertner Woodson Tandy. The latter was replaced as a founder in 1952 by Eugene Kinckle Jones.[2]

The 1906 charter for ΑΦΑ’s Alpha chapter at Cornell University

On October 23, 1906, George Kelley proposed that the organization be known by the Greek letters Alpha Phi Alpha, and Robert Ogle proposed the colors black and old gold. The divisive issue of whether the terms “club” or “fraternity” should be used was still debated.[3] By December 4, 1906, the decision was made: “fraternity”. The earlier terms “club”, “organization”, and “society” were permanently removed.[3] Mrs. Annie C Singleton, played a pivotal part in helping the organization in its early years. She became the Mother of the fraternity as a result.[4]

Consolidation and expansion[edit]

The fraternity’s constitution was adopted on December 4, 1907, limiting membership to “Negro male” students and providing that the General Convention of the Fraternity would be created following the establishment of the fourth chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha.[5] The preamble states the purpose of Alpha Phi Alpha:

To promote a more perfect union among college men; to aid in and insist upon the personal progress of its members; to further brotherly love and a fraternal spirit within the organization; to discountenance evil; to destroy all prejudices; to preserve the sanctity of the home, the personification of virtue and the chastity of woman.[6]

The 1907 ΑΦΑ Constitution and Bylaws

Chapters of Alpha Phi Alpha are given Greek-letter names in order of installation into the Fraternity. No chapter is designated Omega, the last letter of the Greek alphabet and traditionally used for “the end”.[7] Deceased brothers are considered by brothers to have joined Omega Chapter.[8]

Founders Eugene Kincle Jones and Nathaniel Allison Murray chartered the second and third chapters, at Howard University and Virginia Union University, respectively, in December 1907. The charter at Howard made it the site of the organization of the first black Greek letter organization among historically black colleges.[9]

The purpose and objective of the fraternity within the articles of incorporation were declared “educational and for the mutual uplift of its members.”[5] The fraternity has established Alpha Phi Alpha Archives at Howard University’s Moorland-Spingarn Research Center to preserve the history of the organization.[10]

The fraternity chartered its first international chapter at the University of Toronto in 1908. Chapters have been chartered in London, Frankfurt,Monrovia, the Caribbean and South Korea.[11]

The first General Convention of Alpha Phi Alpha, held at Howard University in 1908

The first general convention assembled in December 1908 at Howard University in Washington, D.C., producing the first ritual and the election of the first General President of Alpha Phi Alpha, Moses A. Morrison.[12] Each newly elected General President is automatically considered one of the “100 most influential Black Americans.”[13][14]

The fraternity established its first alumni chapter Alpha Lambda in 1911 in Louisville, Kentucky. It was again incorporated as a national organization on April 3, 1914, under the laws of Congress within the District of Columbia, under the name and title of The Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity.[15]

Alpha Phi Alpha memberW. E. B. Du Bois was founder of the NAACP and its journal, The Crisis.

For more than 100 years, Alpha Phi Alpha and its members have had a voice and influence on politics and current affairs.[citation needed] The Crisis, the magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP), was started by fraternity member W. E. B. Du Bois in 1910.[citation needed][16][17] In 1914, The Sphinx, named after the Egyptian landmark, began publication as the fraternity’s journal.[18] The Crisis and The Sphinx are respectively the first and second oldest continuously published black journals in the United States.[18] The National Urban League‘s (NUL) Opportunity Journal was first published in 1923 under the leadership of Alpha founder Eugene K. Jones,[not in citation given][19] with fraternity brother Charles Johnson[not in citation given] as its executive editor.[20]

The Training Camp at Fort Des Moines during World War I was the result of the fraternity’s advocacy in lobbying the government to create anOfficers‘ training camp for black troops. Thirty-two Alpha men were granted commissions (four were made captains and many were first lieutenants). First Lieutenant Victor Daly was decorated with the Croix de Guerre for his service in France.[21] Today, the fort is a museum and education center which honors the U.S. Army’s first officer candidate class for African-American men in 1917.[22]

While continuing to stress academic excellence among its members, Alpha’s leaders recognized the need to correct the educational, economic, political, and social injustices faced by African Americans and the world community.[23] Alpha Phi Alpha has a long history of providing scholarships for needy students and initiating various other charitable and service projects. It evolved from a social fraternity to a primarily community service organization.[24]

Alpha Phi Alpha member and Harlem Renaissance entertainer Noble Sissle

History: 1919–1949[edit]

The fraternity’s national programs date back to 1919, with its “Go-To-High School, Go-to-College” campaign to promote academic achievement within the African-American community as its first initiative.[11]

The 1920s witnessed the birth of the Harlem Renaissance–a flowering of African-American art, literature, music, and culture which began to be absorbed into mainstream American culture. Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity brothers Charles Johnson, W. E. B. Du Bois, Noble Sissle, Countee Cullenand other members were entrepreneurs and participants in this creative upsurge led primarily by the African-American community based inHarlem, New York City. By the end of the 1920s, the fraternity had chartered 85 chapters throughout the United States and initiated over 3,000 members.[13]

I want the Fraternity to stand out in the affairs of the Nation.

Vertner W. Tandy,
ΑΦΑ Founder[25]

During the Great Depression, Alpha Phi Alpha and its members continued to implement programs to support the black community. The Committee on Public Policy, the Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation, and “The Foundation Publishers” were established at the 1933 general convention. The Committee on Public Policy took positions on numerous issues important to the black community. It investigated the performance of Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s New Deal agencies to assess the status of the black population, both as to treatment of agencies’ employees and in the quality of services rendered to American blacks.[26] Alpha men Rayford Logan and Eugene K. Jones were members of Roosevelt’s unofficial Black Cabinet, an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to the President.[27]

Part of a series on the
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity
Category | Wikiproject
General Presidents
Notable brothers
African American Firsts
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Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial
National Pan-Hellenic Council
North-American Interfraternity Conference
March of Dimes
Head Start
Boy Scouts of America
Big Brothers Big Sisters of America
Related Topics
Jena Six
Murray v. Pearson
Arizona SB 1070

The Education Foundation was created in recognition of the educational, economic, and social needs of African Americans in the United States. The foundation, led by Rayford Logan, was structured to provide scholarships and grants to African-American students. The Foundation Publishers would provide financial support and fellowship for writers addressing African-American issues. Historian and fraternity brother John Hope Franklin was an early beneficiary of the publishing company[13] and was the 2006 Kluge Prize recipient for lifetime achievement in the study of humanity.[28]

In 1933 fraternity brother Belford Lawson, Jr. founded the New Negro Alliance (NNA) in Washington D.C. to combat white-run business in black neighborhoods that would not hire black employees. The NNA instituted a then-radical Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work campaign, and organized or threatened boycotts against white-owned business. In response, some businesses arranged for an injunction to stop the picketing. NNA lawyers, including Lawson and Thurgood Dodson, fought back – all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States in New Negro Alliance v. Sanitary Grocery Co.[29] This ruling in favor of the NAACP became a landmark case in the struggle by African Americans against discriminatory hiring practices. Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work groups multiplied throughout the nation.[a][30] The fraternity sponsors an annual Belford V. Lawson Oratorical Contest in which collegiate members demonstrate their oratorical skills first at the chapter level, with the winner competing at the District, Regional and General Convention.[31]

The fraternity began to participate in voting rights issues, coining the well-known phrase A Voteless People is a Hopeless People as part of its effort to register black voters. The Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy said “Alpha Phi Alpha…developed citizenship schools in the urban South and with its slogan “A Voteless People is a Hopeless People” registered hundreds of blacks during the 1930s, decades before theSouthern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) launched their citizenship schools in the 1960s.” The slogan is still used in Alpha Phi Alpha’s continuing voter registration campaign.[11][32] Alpha Phi Alpha member and former Washington, D.C. mayor Marion Barry was the first chairman of the SNCC.[33]

Alphamen led the way in achieving competitive glory for the nation as well as racial pride for black America.

Harold Rudolph Sims[34]

Seven Alpha men represented the United States at the politically charged 1936 Summer Olympics: Jesse Owens, Ralph Metcalfe, Fritz Pollard, Jr., Cornelius Johnson, Archie Williams, Dave Albritton, and John Woodruff.[34] In 1938, Alpha Phi Alpha continued to expand and became an international organization when a chapter was chartered in London, England.[35]

Alpha Phi Alpha supported legal battles against segregation. Some of its members who were trial lawyers argued many of the nation’s major court cases involving civil rights and civil liberties. The case styled Murray v. Pearson (1935) was initiated by the fraternity and successfully argued by Alpha men Thurgood Marshall and Charles Houston to challenge biases at the university which had no laws requiring segregation in its colleges. The fraternity assisted in a similar case that involved fraternity brother Lloyd Gaines. In Gaines v. Canada, the most important segregation case since Plessy v. Ferguson, Gaines was denied admission to the Law School at the University of Missouri because he was black.[36] Alpha men Houston and Sidney Redmon successfully argued “States that provide only one educational institution must allow blacks and whites to attend if there is no separate school for blacks.”[citation needed]

In 1940, true to its form as the “first of first”, Alpha Phi Alpha sought to end racial discrimination within its membership. The use of the word “Negro” in the membership clause of the constitution which referred to “any Negro male student” would be changed to read “any male student.” The unanimous decision to change the constitution happened in 1945 and was the first official action by a BGLO to allow the admission of all colors and races.[37] Bernard Levin became the first non-black member in 1946,[38] and Roger Youmans became the first non-black member to address the fraternity at the 1954 general convention.[39][unreliable source?][40]

After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 and the nation’s entry into World War II, the fraternity fought to secure rights for its membership within the ranks of officers in the armed forces. The types of warfare encountered evidenced the nexus between education and war, with illiteracy decreasing a soldier’s usefulness to the Army that could only be addressed with the inclusion of a large number of college educated men among the ranks of officers. Alpha men served in almost every branch of the military and civilian defense programs during World War II. The leadership of the fraternity encouraged Alpha men to buy war bonds, and the membership responded with their purchases.[41] The fraternity’s long tradition of military service has remained strong. Alpha’s military leaders Samuel Gravely and Benjamin Hacker were followed by other fraternity members who lead and serve in the armed forces.

Paul Robeson

In 1946, fraternity brother Paul Robeson, in a letter to the editor published in The New York Times, referring to apartheid and South Africa’s impending request to annex South-West Africa, a League of Nations mandate, appealed:

to my fellow Americans to make known their protest against such conditions to the South African Ministry in Washington; to send to the Council on African Affairs, an expression of support for these grievously oppressed workers in South Africa; to keep the South African situation in mind against the time when General Smuts will come to the United Nations Assembly to demand the annexation of South West Africa, which means more Africans for him to exploit.[42]

In 1947, Alpha Phi Alpha awarded Robeson the Alpha Medallion for his “outstanding role as a champion of freedom.”[b][42]

History: 1950–1969[edit]

The general convention in 1952 was the venue for a significant historical action taken regarding the Seventh Jewel Founder. The decision “of placing Brother [Eugene] Jones in his true historical setting resulting from the leading role which he had played in the origin and development of the early years of the fraternity history” was made by a special committee consisting of Jewels Callis, Kelly and Murray and fraternity historian Charles H. Wesley. James Morton was removed as a founder, yet continues to be listed as one of the first initiates. This convention created the Alpha Award of Merit and the Alpha Award of Honor, for appreciation of the tireless efforts on behalf of African Americans, and were awarded to Thurgood Marshall and Eugene K. Jones.[43][44]

God grant from this assembly, this noble assembly of fraternity men, some of the leaders of our nation will emerge.

In 1956, the fraternity made a “pilgrimage[c] to Cornell in celebration of its Golden Jubileewhich drew about 1,000 members who traveled by chartered train from Buffalo, New York to Ithaca. Fraternity brother Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered the keynote speech at the 50th anniversary banquet, in which he spoke on the “Injustices of Segregation”. There were three living Jewels present for the occasion, Kelly, Callis and Murray.[46]

Alpha Phi Alpha memberThurgood Marshallsuccessfully argued the U.S. Supreme Court case styledBrown v. Board of Educationwhich declared segregation unconstitutional.

Alpha men were pioneers and at the forefront of the civil rights struggle renewed in the 1950s.[23] In Montgomery, Martin Luther King, Jr. led the people in the Montgomery Bus Boycott as a minister, and later as head of the SCLC. Birmingham saw Arthur Shores organize for civil rights in Lucy v. Adams. Thurgood Marshall managed the landmark US Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education, in which the Court decided against segregation in public schools. Marshall employed mentor and fraternity brother Charles Houston’s plan to use the de facto inequality of “separate but equal” education in the United States to attack and defeat the Jim Crow laws.[47] The actions by Alpha activists provoked death threats to them and their families, and exposed their homes as targets for firebombing.[48]

In 1961, Whitney Young became the executive director of the National Urban League. In 1963 the NUL hosted the planning meetings of civil rights leaders for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The Alpha Phi Alpha delegation was one of the largest to participate in the March on Washington.[49]

Birmingham, Alabama residents viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney and Alpha Phi Alpha member, on September 5, 1963. The bomb exploded the previous day.

In 1968, after the assassination of fraternity brother Martin Luther King, Jr., Alpha Phi Alpha proposed erecting a permanent memorial to King in Washington, D.C. The efforts of the fraternity gained momentum in 1986 after King’s birthday was designated a national holiday. They created the “Washington D. C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation, Inc to collect funds of $100 million for construction.[50]

History: 1970–2000[edit]

Beginning in the 1970s, new goals were being introduced to address the current environment. The older social programs and policies were still supported, however; under the direction of General President Ernest Morial the fraternity turned its attention to new social needs. This included the campaign to eliminate the ghetto-goal on numerous fronts with housing development and entrepreneurship initiatives.

Arguably the most recognized Alpha Phi Alpha member, Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech in front of theLincoln Memorial during the1963 March on Washington.

The Federal Housing Act (of 1963) requested non-profit organizations to get involved with providing housing for low-income families, individuals and senior citizens. Alpha Phi Alpha was poised to take advantage of this program with government in improving urban housing living conditions. The Eta Tau Lambda chapter created Alpha Phi Alpha Homes Inc. with James R. Williams as the chairman to address these needs in Akron, Ohio. In 1971, Alpha Homes received an $11.5 million grant from HUD to begin groundbreaking on Channelwood Villagewith the Henry Arthur Callis Tower as it centerpiece. Channelwood contains additional structures named after General Presidents James R. Williams and Charles Wesley, and streets named for fraternity founders Tandy and Ogle. The Alpha Towers in Chicago and three other urban housing developments in St. Louis, Missouri—the Alpha Gardens, Alpha Towne and Alpha Village saw completion through Alpha Phi Alpha leadership.[51]

In 1976, the fraternity celebrated its 70th Anniversary with dual convention locations: New York City and Monrovia. The fraternity launched theMillion Dollar Fund Drive with three prime beneficiaries—the United Negro College Fund (UNCF), the National Urban League and the NAACP. The Executive Director of the NAACP stated, “Alpha Phi Alpha provided the largest single gift ever received by the civil rights group.”[24]

In 1981, the fraternity celebrated its Diamond Jubilee in Dallas, Texas, featuring a presentation of the New Thrust Program consisting of theMillion Dollar Fund Drive, the Leadership Development and Citizenship Institutes, and the quest to obtain a national holiday for fraternity brother Martin Luther King, Jr.[52]

We will go to great lengths to lend our voices, our time, our expertise and our money to solve the problems that humankind must solve as we move into the 21st century.
— Henry Ponder, 28th General President ΑΦΑ[24]

As the 21st century approached, Alpha Phi Alpha’s long-term commitment to the social and economic improvement of humanity remained at the top of its agenda. The fraternity’s 28th General President, Henry Ponder, said “We would like the public to perceive Alpha Phi Alpha as a group of college-trained, professional men who are very much concerned and sensitive to the needs of humankind; We will go to great lengths to lend our voices, our time, our expertise and our money to solve the problems that humankind must solve as we move into the 21st century.”[24]

In 1996, The World Policy Council (WPC) was created as a think tank to expand the fraternity’s involvement in politics, and social and current policy to encompass important global and world issues.[13] The United States Congress authorized the Secretary of the Interior to permit Alpha Phi Alpha to establish a memorial to Dr. Martin Luther King on Department of Interior lands in the District of Columbia.[53]

Twenty-first century[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha member and Congressman Chaka Fattah

In 2006, more than 10,000 Alpha Phi Alpha members gathered in Washington, D.C. to participate in the fraternity’s centennial convention to lay the groundwork for another 100 years of service. The fraternity developed a national strategic plan which outlines the processes that Alpha Phi Alpha will utilize in its continuing efforts to develop tomorrow’s leaders, and promote brotherhood and academic excellence.[54] The Centenary Report of the World Policy Council was published in connection with the centenary of Alpha Phi Alpha.[55]

In 2007, General President Darryl Matthews addressed demonstrators at a protest rally touted as the new civil rights struggle of the 21st century. The rally for six black teenagers, the “Jena 6“, was a poignant reminder of incidents which punctuated the civil rights struggles begun in the 1950s.[56]

On the eve of the Inauguration of Barack Obama, the fraternity under the new leadership of 33rd General President Herman “Skip” Mason hosted a Martin Luther King Holiday program at the National Press Club “to honor yesterday’s ‘firsts’—those in history who paved the way for the nation to be able to celebrate the first African-American president.”[57] Alpha Congressman Chaka Fattah said “The life and legacy of Dr. King [was] a predicate for the election of Barack Obama,” “The two are inextricably linked.”[58] Alpha Phi Alpha responded to President Obama’s clarion call to Americans to remake America by implementing a public policy program to focus on saving America’s black boys.[59] General President Mason on behalf of the fraternity appealed to President Obama to create a “White House Council on Men and Boys” and partner with Alpha Phi Alpha to specifically address the needs of this group on a national level.[60]

Alpha Phi Alpha responded to the 2010 Haiti earthquake by sending a humanitarian delegation of Alpha men led by President Mason to Haiti on a fact-finding mission to assess the situation and develop a long-term support plan for the Haitian people. The organization views its future plan to ‘adopt’ a school in Haiti as “a great opportunity for the first black intercollegiate fraternity to stand in solidarity with the first independent black Republic.”[61]

The fraternity protested the passage of Arizona Senate Bill 1070 which it believes may lead to racial profiling by relocating its 2010 national convention from Phoenix, Arizona toLas Vegas, Nevada.[62] The bill makes it a misdemeanor state crime for an alien to be in Arizona without carrying legal documents, steps up state and local law enforcement offederal immigration laws, and cracks down on those sheltering, hiring and transporting illegal immigrants.[63][64] The bill has been called the broadest and strictest anti-illegal immigration measure in decades.[65]

With global expansion as a platform, the fraternity chartered new chapters in the eastern hemisphere at the 2010 National Convention in Las Vegas, NV. The two new chapters are in London, England and Johannesburg, South Africa, further expanding the fraternity’s global footprint.

In 2012, Herman “Skip” Mason was suspended from the Fraternity amid allegations of financial improprieties and was summarily removed as General President. Mason filed a lawsuit that contended the board of directors violated the fraternity’s constitution and by-laws when it suspended him. [1] The lawsuit which requested a temporary restraining order that would have, in effect, reinstated him as general president was denied.[66]

National programs[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha asserts that through its community outreach initiatives, the fraternity supplies voice and vision to the struggle of African Americans, the African diaspora, and the countless special problems that affect Black men.[24][67]

ΑΦΑ National Programs[68]
Mentoring World and National Affairs
Education Continuing the Legacy
Project Alpha Leadership Training Institute
Alpha Academy Go To High School, Go To College
Commission on Business A Voteless People is a Hopeless People
Alpha and the NAACP Alpha Head Start Academy
Cooperative Programs and Economic Development

The fraternity provides for charitable endeavors through its Education and Building Foundations, providing academic scholarships and shelter to underprivileged families.[5] The fraternity combines its efforts in conjunction with other philanthropic organizations such as Head Start, Boy Scouts of America, Big Brothers Big Sisters of America,[69] Project Alpha with the March of Dimes, NAACP, Habitat for Humanity, and Fortune 500 companies.

We must not shoot in the air, but accomplish results. Each chapter must put its part of the program over with interest and drive.

Lucius L. McGee,
10th General President ΑΦΑ[70]

Alpha’s “Designated Charity” benefits from the approximately $10,000, one-time contribution fund-raising efforts at the fraternity’s annual general convention.[24] The fraternity also has made commitments to train leaders with national mentoring programs.[5]

The Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation is a project of Alpha Phi Alpha to construct the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial on the National Mall in Washington D.C.[71]

Go-To-High School, Go-To-College[edit]

Established in 1922, the Go-To-High School, Go-To-College program is intended to afford Alpha men from the ΑΟ (Alpha Omicron) Johnson C. Smith University, with the opportunity to provide young participants with role models. The program concentrates on the importance of completing secondary and collegiate education as a path to advancement and to provide information and strategies to facilitate success.[68]

Voter Education/Registration Program[edit]

“A Voteless People is a Hopeless People” was initiated as a National Program of Alpha during the 1930s when many African Americans had the right to vote but were prevented from voting because of poll taxes, threats of reprisal, and lack of education about the voting process. Voter education and registration have since remained a dominant focus in the fraternity’s planning. In the 1990s the focus has shifted to promotion of political awareness and empowerment, delivered most often through use of town meetings and candidate forums.[68] Members are required to be registered voters, and to participate in the national voter registration program.[72]

The fraternity’s Nu Mu Lambda chapter of Decatur, Georgia, held a voter registration drive in DeKalb County, Georgia in 2004, from which Georgia Secretary of State Cathy Coxrejected all 63 voter registration applications on the basis that the fraternity did not follow correct procedures, including obtaining specific pre-clearance from the state to conduct their drive.

The Court finds and hereby DECLARES that the rejection of voter registration applications on the grounds that they were submitted in a bundle, or by someone who was not a registrar or deputy registrar, violates theNVRA.
— U.S. Court of Appeals, Wesley v. Cox.[73]

Nu Mu Lambda filed Charles H. Wesley Education Foundation v. Cathy Cox on the basis that the Georgia Secretary of State’s long-standing policy and practice of rejecting mail-in voter registration applications that were submitted in bundles and/or by persons other than registrars, deputy registrars, or the individual applicants, violated the requirements of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (NVRA) by undermining voter registration drives. A Senior U.S. District Judge upheld earlier federal court decisions in the case, which also found private entities have a right under the NVRA, to engage in organized voter registration activity in Georgia at times and locations of their choosing, without the presence or permission of state or local election officials.[74]

Project Alpha[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha, Iota Delta Lambda Chapter (Chicago) and the March of Dimes began a collaborative program called Project Alpha in 1980. The project consists of a series of workshops and informational sessions conducted by Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity brothers to provide young men with current and accurate information about teen pregnancyprevention. Alpha Phi Alpha also participates in the March of Dimes WalkAmerica and raised over $181,000 in 2006.[75]

Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial[edit]

The campaign to erect a permanent memorial to Martin Luther King, Jr. was one of the most ambitious projects in the history of the fraternity. In 1996, the United States Congress authorized with Public Law 104-333 and President Bill Clinton confirmed the fraternity’s request to establish a foundation (The Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation) to manage the memorial’s fundraising, design and construction.[71] Harry E. Johnson, the 31st general president of Alpha Phi Alpha, is the current president of the foundation. The National Park Service maintains the memorial site.

The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial is the first on the National Mall area to honor an African American, and King is the second non-President to be commemorated in such a way. On December 4, 2000, Alpha Phi Alpha laid a marble and bronze plaque to dedicate the 4-acre (16,000 m2) memorial site that borders the Tidal Basin, within the sightline of the Jefferson Memorial and Lincoln Memorial.[76] The ceremonial groundbreaking took place on November 13, 2006 and the fraternity’s goal was to dedicate the memorial in 2008 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of King’s death.[77]

The memorial was completed in 2011. A private ceremony for the brothers of Alpha Phi Alpha was held on August 26, 2011. A dedication ceremony opening the four-acre plot to the public had been scheduled to occur on August 28, 2011, but was delayed due to Hurricane Irene.[78] The memorial was formally dedicated on October 16, 2011 which culminated with a speech by President Barack Obama.[79]

World Policy Council[edit]

Main article: World Policy Council

General President Milton C. Davis established the World Policy Council in 1996 as a nonprofit and nonpartisan think tank with a mission as stated in its centenary report “to address issues of concern to our brotherhood, our communities, our Nation, and the world.”[13][55]

Organizing a World Policy Council, Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity suddenly made global headlines when the group asked Nigeria to release political prisoners.

Simeon Booker Jet[80]

The Council is headed by Ambassador Horace Dawson and communicates its position through white paperswhich are disseminated to policymakers, politicians, scholars, journalists, and chapters of the fraternity. Since its founding the Council has issued five reports on topics such as the AIDS crisis, Middle East conflict, andNigerian politics.[13][80] The fifth report was published in 2006 and examines the Millennium Challenge,Hurricane Katrina and extraordinary rendition.[55]

Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation, Inc.[edit]

The Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation, Inc. is the non-profit charitable arm of the fraternity, which focuses on scholarship, programs, and training and development of the membership. The Education Foundation encompasses the implementation of Go-to-High School, Go-to-College, Project Alpha, voter education / registration efforts, The Belford V. Lawson Oratorical Contest, The John Hope Franklin Collegiate Scholars Bowl, The Hobart Jarrett Debate Competition, Leadership Development Institutes, and the professional and personal development thrusts of the fraternity via Alpha University.[81]

Pan-Hellenic membership[edit]

The fraternity maintains dual membership in the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) and the North-American Interfraternity Conference (NIC). The NPHC is composed of nine international black Greek-letter sororities and fraternities, and Alpha Phi Alpha is the only member founded at an Ivy League school. The council promotes interaction through forums, meetings, and other mediums for the exchange of information, and engages in cooperative programming and initiatives through various activities and functions.[82]

The NIC serves to advocate the needs of its member fraternities through enrichment of the fraternity experience; advancement and growth of the fraternity community; and enhancement of the educational mission of the host institutions.[83]


The chief significance of Alpha Phi Alpha lies in its purpose to stimulate, develop, and cement an intelligent, trained leadership in the unending fight for freedom, equality and fraternity. Our task is endless.

Henry A. Callis,
ΑΦΑ Founder
6th General President[84]

Alpha Phi Alpha’s membership is predominantly African-American in composition with brothers in over 680 college and graduate chapters in the United States, District of Columbia, the Caribbean, Bermuda, Europe, Asia and Africa. Since its founding in 1906, more than 185,000 men have joined the membership of Alpha Phi Alpha and a large percentage of leadership within the African-American community in the 20th century originated from the ranks of the fraternity.[85][86]

John A. Williams wrote in his book The King that God Did Not Save, which was a commentary on the life of Alpha Phi Alpha member Martin Luther King, Jr., “a man clawing out his status does not stop at education. There are attendant titles he must earn. A fraternity is one of them.”[49][55] The mystique of belonging to a Greek letter group still attracts college students in large numbers despite lawsuits that have threatened the very existence of some fraternities and sororities.[55]

Initial Membership Development Process (IMDP)[edit]

The period in which a candidate for membership in the fraternity engages in before applying and being initiated as a member. This period is the time the candidate learns the organization’s history, objectives, aims, and the tenacity of brotherhood.[87]

As of June 2013, the fraternity only inducts members through the Initial Membership Development Process (IMDP), and all membership development activities for the fraternity are overseen by the National Membership Services Director and conducted by regionally appointed Chief Deans. Pledging has been officially abolished as a means of obtaining membership in Alpha Phi Alpha and pledge “lines” have been officially abolished by the fraternity. Aspirants must not submit themselves, or agree to submit themselves, to any membership activities that are prohibited by the fraternity. Individuals involved in hazing face severe disciplinary action by the fraternity and are referred to the local legal authorities.[88]

Let there be no complaints about brutality. The emphasis should be upon history and purposes of the Fraternity rather than upon physical punishment.

Rayford Logan,
15th General President ΑΦΑ[89]

There are periods in the history of the fraternity where hazing was involved in certain pledge lines. The fraternity has never condoned hazing, but has been aware of problems with “rushing” and “initiations” dated as far back as the 1934 General Convention when the fraternity founders communicated their concern with physical violence during initiation ceremonies.[90] At the 1940 General Convention, a pledge manual was discussed that would contain a brief general history, the list of chapters and locations, the achievements of Alpha men, outstanding Alpha men, and pledge procedures.[91]

In 2001 and 2007, the chapters at Ohio State University and Oklahoma State University–Stillwater were suspended for two and five years respectively for hazing and incidents involving prospective members injured seriously enough to require medical care.[92][93] In 2010, the fraternity suspended new membership intake indefinitely in response to hazing activities in 2009 that again caused pledges to be hospitalized.[94] In 2012, the University of Florida chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha was also accused of hazing. The allegations claimed that members of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity repeatedly struck and paddled pledges hard enough to cause bruises, and one pledge was paddled so hard that he was unable to sleep on his back for several nights.[95]

Alpha Phi Alpha honorary member Hubert H. Humphrey was the 38th Vice President of the United States.

In the selection of candidates for membership, certain chapters had not escaped challenges of racial stereotyping and allegations of colorism. In a biography of Justice Thurgood Marshall, the authors recounted how certain chapters of the fraternity used a “brown paper bag test” and would not consider students whose skin color was darker than the bag.[96] General President Belford Lawson, Jr. lamented this attitude and condemned initiation practices of snobbery and exclusivity, and said “Jesus Christ could not make Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity today; they would blackball Him because He was not hot enough.”[97]

The fraternity once provided classifications for honorary and exalted honorary membership. Honorary members include Vice President Hubert Humphrey (who is Caucasian), jazz musician Duke Ellington, and activist W. E. B. Du Bois.[98] Frederick Douglass is distinguished as the only member initiated posthumously when he became an exalted honorary member of the fraternity’s Omega chapter in 1921. The Fraternity no longer has honorary membership, a practice that stopped in the 1960s.[99]

Notable members[edit]

First African American Accomplishments
by Alpha Phi Alpha Men[100]
Dennis Archer President–American Bar Association
Richard Arrington MayorBirmingham, Alabama
Edward Brooke State Attorney General,
U.S. Senator since Reconstruction
Willie Brown Mayor–San Francisco, California
Emanuel Cleaver Mayor–Kansas City, Missouri
E. Franklin Frazier President–American Sociological Association
Malvin Goode Reporter–American Broadcasting Company
Samuel Gravely Commandant of a U.S. Fleet
Charles Houston Editor–Harvard Law Review
David Dinkins Mayor–New York, N.Y.
Maynard Jackson Mayor–Atlanta, Georgia
Ted Berry Mayor–Cincinnati, Ohio
John Johnson Forbes 400
Ernest Morial Mayor–New Orleans, Louisiana
Thurgood Marshall Justice–U.S. Supreme Court
Samuel Pierce Board of Director for Fortune 500 company
Fritz Pollard Head coach–National Football League
Chuck Stone President–National Association of Black Journalists
Otha E. Thornton Jr. President–National Parent Teacher Association

The fraternity’s membership roster include activist Dick Gregory, Princeton Professor Cornel West, Congressman Charles B. Rangel, Department of Housing and Urban Development Secretary Samuel Pierce, entrepreneur John Johnson, athlete Mike Powell, musician Donny Hathaway, United Nations Ambassador Andrew Young, the first Premier of Bermuda Sir Edward T. Richards, and Atlanta Mayor Maynard Jackson.[101]

Roland Burris became the only black member of the 2009 U.S. Senate when he assumed the seat vacated by President Barack Obama.[102]

Alpha Phi Alpha memberMarc Morial is the CEO of the National Urban League.

Alpha men were instrumental in the founding and leadership of the NAACP (Du Bois),[103] People’s National Party (PNP) Norman Manley,[104] Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) (Jesse E. Moorland),[105] UNCF (Frederick D. Patterson),[106] and the SCLC (King, Walkerand Jemison). The National Urban League has had eight leaders in its more than 100 years of existence; six of its leaders are Alpha men: George Haynes, Eugene K. Jones, Lester Granger, Whitney Young, Hugh Price and Marc Morial.

We are counting on Alpha men to show their true colors.

Antonio M. Smith,
17th General President ΑΦΑ[107]

From the ranks of the fraternity have come a number of pioneers in various fields. Honorary member Kelly Miller was the first African American to be admitted to Johns Hopkins University. Todd Duncan was the first actor to play “Porgy” in Porgy and Bess. During the Washington run of Porgy and Bess in 1936, the cast—as led by Todd Duncan—protested the audience’s segregation. Duncan stated that he “would never play in a theater which barred him from purchasing tickets to certain seats because of his race.” Eventually management would give into the demands and allow for the first integrated performance at the National Theatre.[108]

Charles Houston, a Harvard Law School graduate and a law professor at Howard University, first began a campaign in the 1930s to challenge racial discrimination in the federal courts. Houston’s campaign to fight Jim Crow Laws began with Plessy v. Ferguson and culminated in a unanimous Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education.

Ron Dellums‘ campaign to end the racist, apartheid policies of South Africa succeeded when the House of Representativespassed Dellums’ anti-apartheid Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act calling for a trade embargo against South Africa and immediate divestment by American corporations.[d][109]

Alpha Phi Alpha member Edward Brooke is congratulated by PresidentGeorge W. Bush at the Ceremony for the 2004 Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, The East Room of the White House.

Martin Luther King, Jr. was a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, awarded “to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.” The Presidential Medal of Freedom, designed to recognize individuals who have made “an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors”, has been awarded to many members including Edward Brooke and William Coleman. The Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian award of the United States Congress, was awarded to Jesse Owens and Vice President Hubert Humphrey. The Spingarn Medal, awarded annually by the NAACP for outstanding achievement by a Black American, has been awarded to brothers John Hope Franklin, Rayford Logan and numerous fraternity members.

Premier Norman Manley was a Rhodes Scholar (1914), awarded annually by the Oxford-based Rhodes Trust on the basis of academic achievement and character. Randal Pinkett, Andrew Zawacki, and Westley Moore are other Rhodes Scholar recipients.

A portion of the Morial Convention Center Complex in New Orleans,namesake of Alpha Phi Alpha General President Ernest Morial

A number of buildings and monuments have been named after Alpha men such as the Eddie Robinson Stadium, Ernest N. Morial Convention Center, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Whitney Young Memorial Bridge, and the W. E. B. Du Bois library at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. The United States Postal Service has honored fraternity members W. E. B. Du Bois, Duke Ellington, Martin Luther King, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, Paul Robeson and Whitney Young with acommemorative stamp in their Black Heritage Stamp series.[110]

General Presidents of Alpha Phi Alpha[edit]

  • Moses A. Morrison, 1908–1909
  • Roscoe C. Giles, 1910
  • Frederick H. Miller, 1911
  • Charles H. Garvin, 1912–1913
  • Henry L. Dickason, 1914–1915
  • Henry A. Callis, 1915
  • Howard H. Long, 1916–1917
  • William A. Pollard, 1917–1918
  • Daniel D. Fowler, 1919
  • Lucius L. McGee, 1920
  • Simeon S. Booker, 1921–1923
  • Raymond W. Cannon, 1924–1927
  • Bert A. Rose, 1928–1931
  • Charles H. Wesley, 1932–1940
  • Rayford W. Logan, 1941–1945
  • Belford V. Lawson, Jr., 1946–1951
  • Antonio M. Smith, 1952–1954
  • Frank L. Stanley, 1955–1957
  • Myles A. Paige, 1957–1960
  • William H. Hale, 1961–1962
  • T. Winston Cole, Sr., 1963–1964
  • Lionel H. Newsom, 1965–1968
  • Ernest N. Morial, 1968–1972
  • Walter Washington, 1973–1976
  • James R. Williams, 1977–1980
  • Ozell Sutton, 1981–1984
  • Charles C. Teamer, 1985–1988
  • Henry Ponder, 1989–1992
  • Milton C. Davis, 1993–1996
  • Adrian L. Wallace, 1997–2000
  • Harry E. Johnson, 2001–2004
  • Darryl R. Matthews, Sr. 2005–2008
  • Herman “Skip” Mason, Jr., 2009 – April 2012
  • Aaron Crutison Sr. (Acting), April 2012 – December 2012
  • Mark S. Tillman, 2013–Present[111]

Egyptian symbolism[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha chose to use Egyptian symbolism more representative of the members’ African heritage. The Great Sphinx and Great Pyramids of Giza are fraternity icons. (29°58′33″N 31°07′49″E)

Alpha Phi Alpha utilizes motifs from Ancient Egypt and uses images and songs depicting the Her-em-akhet (Great Sphinx of Giza),pharaohs, and other Egyptian artifacts to represent the organization. The Great Sphinx of Giza was made out of one unified body of stone which represents the fraternity and its members. This is in contrast to other fraternities that traditionally echo themes from the golden age of Ancient Greece. Alpha’s constant reference to Ethiopia in hymns and poems are further examples of Alpha’s mission to imbue itself with an African cultural heritage. Fraternity brother Charles H. Wesley wrote, “To the Alpha Phi Alpha brotherhood, African history and civilization, the Sphinx, and Ethiopian tradition bring new meanings and these are interpreted with new significance to others.” The Great Pyramids of Giza, symbols of foundation, sacred geometry and more, are other African images chosen by Alpha Phi Alpha as fraternity icons.[112]

I have stood beside the Sphinx in Egypt in Africa in July on my third visit there, and I brought greetings to this silent historical figure in the name of Alpha Phi Alpha and I crossed the continent to Ethiopia.

Charles H. Wesley,
14th General President ΑΦΑ[113]

The fraternity’s 21st General President, Thomas W. Cole once said, “Alpha Phi Alpha must go back to her ultimate roots; only then can she be nurtured to full bloom.”[114] Fraternity members make pilgrimages to its spiritual birthplaces of Egypt to walk across the sands of the Giza Plateau to the Great Sphinx of Giza and the Great Pyramids of Giza, and to Ethiopia.[115]

Centennial celebration[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha Board Members at Centennial Banquet, July 2006 in Washington, D.C.

Alpha Phi Alpha declared 2006 the beginning of its “Centennial Era” as it readied for its Centenary, framed by the slogan First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All. These preparations consisted of nationwide activities and events, including the commissioning of intellectual and scholarly works, presentation of exhibits, lectures, artwork and musical expositions, the production of film and video presentations and a Centennial Convention July 25–30, 2006, in Washington, D.C.

The 2006 Centennial Celebration Kickoff launched with a “pilgrimage” to Cornell University on November 19, 2005. That event brought over 700 fraternity members who gathered for a day-long program. Members journeyed across campus and unveiled a new centennial memorial to Alpha Phi Alpha. The memorial—a wall in the form of a “J” in recognition of the Jewels—features a bench and a plaque and is situated in front of the university’s Barnes Hall.[116]

Alpha Phi Alpha Men: A Century of Leadership, is a historical documentary on Alpha Phi Alpha’s century of leadership and service. The film premiered February 2006 on PBS[23] as part of the 2006 Black History Month theme, “Celebrating Community: A Tribute to Black Fraternal, Social and Civic Institutions.”[117] In 2009, the fraternity donated its repository of interviews with prominent Alpha members that were collected for the documentary to Cornell University Library.[118]

Mr. Speaker, it is an honor and special privilege to address this great body on such an auspicious occasion. As a proud member of this fraternity, I feel special esteem in joining the entire House to recognize the historical significance of the centennial anniversary of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

The Centennial Convention, called Reflects on Rich Past, Looks Toward Bright Future, began on Capitol Hill with Congressman and fraternity member David Scott stating to the House of Representatives; “this week men from every discipline and geographic location convene to chart and plan for the fraternity’s future, celebrate its 100th anniversary, and reinvigorate its founding principles of scholarship, fellowship, good character, and the uplifting of humanity.” The House of Representatives passed House Concurrent Resolution 384, approved 422-0, which recognized and honored Alpha Phi Alpha as the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African Americans, its accomplishments and its historic milestone.[119]

Alpha Phi Alpha members were among the list of some of the 600 expected guests of lawmakers, prominent black leaders and civil rights veterans on the South Lawn of theWhite House as President George W. Bush talked about the reauthorization of the Voting Rights Act.

The resolution was co-sponsored by the eight members of the House of Representatives who are members of Alpha Phi Alpha which included Emanuel Cleaver, Robert Scott and Chaka Fattah. While in Washington, fraternity members such as National Urban League head Marc Morial and Congressman Gregory Meeks witnessed the renewal of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 by President George W. Bush in a signing ceremony at the White House. A tribute to Martin Luther King Jr. with an hour-long reflection at the site of the King Memorial was witnessed by Alpha’s General President(s) and a host of the fraternity members assembled for the convention. Grammy Award winning singer Lionel Richie gave a performance for his fraternity at the John F. Kennedy Center.[120]

The House of Alpha, The Centennial Exhibit of Alpha Phi Alpha, opened its doors at the convention. Herman “Skip” Mason served ascurator of the exhibit which has been described as a “fraternal masterpiece.” The featured materials are part of the records of Alpha Phi Alpha, local chapters and the personal collection of fraternity members.[121] Mason was inaugurated as the fraternity’s 33rd General President in January 2009.[122]

Black college Greek movement[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha delegate’s pin from the 1940 Pan-Hellenic convention of ΑΚΑ, ΑΦΑ and ΚΑΨ

Blacks call themselves Greek because “Greece was a culturally diverse pluralistic society of various ethnic and racial groups—much like the United States of today. However, the citizens were mostly dark-skinned black and brown people” according to journalist and Alpha member Tony Brown.[123] This is despite ancient Greek pottery and art depicting fair skinned people.

Alpha Phi Alpha is the first intercollegiate Greek-lettered fraternity in the United States established for people of African descent, and the paragon for the BGLOs that followed.[112] Indeed, Alpha’s founders researched and noted rumors of prior unsuccessful attempts to form African-American fraternities; for instance, while African-American Greek-letter societies might have begun in the year 1903 at Indiana University in Bloomingtonwhen a club called Alpha Kappa Nu Greek Club formed to “strengthen the black’s voice,” there were too few registrants to insure continued organization, and the unincorporated club disappeared after a short time. There is no record of any similar organization at Indiana University until Kappa Alpha Nu (now Kappa Alpha Psi) was issued a charter in 1911.[124]

Alpha Kappa Alpha was founded in 1908 at Howard as both the first African-American sorority and the first BGLO founded at a black college.[125]Four other BGLOs were in quick succession founded at Howard: Omega Psi Phi (1911), Delta Sigma Theta (1913), Phi Beta Sigma (1914) andZeta Phi Beta (1920). Sigma Gamma Rho (1922) and Iota Phi Theta (1963) were founded at Butler University and Morgan State Universityrespectively.[126]

In 1940, Alpha Phi Alpha, Alpha Kappa Alpha, and Kappa Alpha Psi hosted conventions in the Municipal Auditorium of Kansas City, Missouri and held a historic joint BGLO session.[127]

Notable hazing incidents[edit]

In 1989, Joel Harris, a student at Morehouse College, died as a result of severe physical abuse by members of the fraternity. Mr. Harris had plans to pursue business law after receiving his degree according to his mother.[128] His death prompted leadership of the fraternity to reaffirm their stance against all pledging activity in 1990.[129]

In 1992, Gregory R. Batipps, a student at the University of Virginia, died in a car accident after falling asleep at the wheel. He was sleep deprived due to hazing activity pledging the fraternity.[130]

In 2003, a student at Southern Methodist University, went into a coma after being coerced to drink large amounts of water. The chapter was temporarily expelled from campus and eight members were indicted.[131]

In 2013, 15 Alpha Phi Alpha members were arrested and plead guilty to assault charges after pledges at Jacksonville State University were beaten, humiliated, hospitalized, and forced to drink alcohol until they vomited. One of the pledges filed a civil suit against the fraternity.[132]

In 2013, four Alpha Phi Alpha members were arrested and plead guilty to severely beating pledges (misdemeanor charge) and violating Virginia State University’s code of conduct.[133][134]

In 2014, six Alpha Phi Alpha men at the University of Akron were arrested and charged with assault for severely beating pledges. One known pledge was hospitalized due to excessive bleeding.[135]

There are many lawsuits, suspensions, expulsions, and news stories in existence in regards to illegal hazing activity involving Alpha Phi Alpha.[136][137][138]

Documentary films[edit]

  • Alpha Phi Alpha Men: A Century of Leadership, 2006, Producer/Directors: Alamerica Bank/Rubicon Productions

Membership fees[edit]

Alumni $1366.00 College Freshman $1,276.00 College Sophomores $1,201.00 College Juniors $1,126.00 College Seniors $1,051.00 [139]

There is also a non-refundable administrative fee of $275.00 included in the above fees.[139]

See also

Dartmouth College Greek organizations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Αlpha Chi Αlpha, 2005.

Dartmouth College is host to many Greek organizations and a significant percentage of the undergraduate student body is active in Greek life. In 2005, the school stated that 1,785 students were members of a fraternity, sorority, or coeducational Greek house, comprising about 43 percent of all students, or about 60 percent of the eligible student body.[1] Greek organizations at Dartmouth provide both social and residential opportunities for students, and are the only single-sex residential option on campus. Greek organizations at Dartmouth do not provide dining options, as regular meals service has been banned in Greek houses since 1909.

Social fraternities at Dartmouth College grew out of a tradition of student literary societies that began in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The first social fraternities were founded in 1842 and rapidly expanded to include the active participation of over half of the student body. Fraternities at Dartmouth built dedicated residence and meeting halls in the early 1900s and in the 1920s, and then struggled to survive the lean years of the 1930s. Dartmouth College was among the first institutions of higher education todesegregate fraternity houses in the 1950s, and was involved in the movement to create coeducational Greek houses in the 1970s. Sororities were introduced to campus in 1977. In the early 2000s, campus-wide debate focused on whether or not the Greek system at Dartmouth would become “substantially coeducational”[citation needed], but most houses retain single-sex membership policies.[citation needed]

Currently, Dartmouth College extends official recognition to sixteen all-male fraternities, nine all-female sororities, and three coeducational fraternities. The Greek houses are largely governed through three independent councils, the Interfraternity Council, the Panhellenic Council, and the Coed Council. Dartmouth College has two cultural interest fraternities, and two cultural interest sororities, which do not participate in the major governing councils, but are member organizations of national associations. A chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa honor society is active, but there are no professional fraternities with active chapters at Dartmouth College.


Dartmouth Hall, circa 1834.

Social fraternities at Dartmouth College grew out of a tradition of student literary societies that began in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The first such society at Dartmouth, the Social Friends, was formed in 1783. A rival organization, called the United Fraternity, was founded in 1786. A chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was established at Dartmouth in 1787, and counted among its members Daniel Webster, class of 1801.[2] These organizations were, in large part, the only social life available to students at the College. The organizations hosted debates on a variety of topics not encountered in the curriculum of the day, and amassed largelibraries of titles not found in the official College library. Both the Social Friends and the United Fraternity created libraries in Dartmouth Hall, and met in a room called Society Hall inside Dartmouth Hall. In 1815, the College decided to intervene in the hotly contestedrecruitment battle between the Social Friends and the United Fraternity by restricting each society to recruit only from separate halves of the new student class. In 1825, the College began simply assigning new students to one society or the other. Interest in the literary societies declined in the 1830s and 1840s. The College library and instructional curriculum had expanded to include much of what the literary societies had supported, and new Greek letter societies began to appear on campus.[3]

The second physical plant of Kappa Kappa Kappa, located at 22 North College Street and occupied by the fraternity from 1894 to 1924. The fraternity added the “goat room” (meeting room) at the rear.[4]

In 1841, two factions of the United Fraternity split off from the literary society. One of the new societies called itself Omega Phi and on May 10, 1842, obtained a charter as the Zeta chapter of Psi Upsilon. The other faction to split from the United Fraternity organized itself on July 13, 1842, as Kappa Kappa Kappa, a local fraternity. More Greek organizations were founded, and by 1855, 64% of students, mostly upperclassmen, were members of the Greek letter societies on campus.[3] Initially, the original Greek letter societies would not extend invitations of membership to first year students. Two separate Greek letter organizations were created exclusively for freshmen: Kappa Sigma Epsilon and Delta Kappa. These societies would dissolve in 1883, when the fraternities of the upper classes began to pledgefreshmen.[5] A chapter of Phi Beta Kappa survived at Dartmouth, but by the 1830s had established its role as a strictly literary society by dropping requirements of secrecy for membership and activities.[6] The new, social Greek organizations distinguished themselves from Phi Beta Kappa and the previous literary societies in several ways. The new fraternities were self-selective and exclusive. Each organization developed its own secret rituals and procedures. Most of the societies began to invest in creating their own meeting halls, either upstairs rooms in buildings on Main Street, or free-standing structures near campus. There were 11 active Greek organizations at Dartmouth College in 1900.[a]

Expansion of the fraternity system[edit]

Dartmouth Beta House circa 1920, would later become home to the Tucker Foundation.

The fortunes of the fraternity system at Dartmouth followed a boom and bust pattern in the early twentieth century. Several organizations purchased frame houses or built their own between 1899 and 1907, including Beta Theta Pi, Kappa Kappa Kappa, Phi Delta Alpha, andPsi Upsilon. The economic expansion of the 1920s created a boom in the fortunes of the fraternities, allowing many to build new brick residences near campus, including Zeta Psi, Kappa Kappa Kappa, Phi Sigma Kappa, Sigma Nu, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Chi Phi, Theta Delta Chi, Phi Gamma Delta, Sigma Chi, Gamma Delta Chi, and Delta Tau Delta. It was during this period that Webster Avenue developed as “fraternity row”.[3] The new residences were built without significant dining facilities, as the Trustees of the College had banned fraternities from serving regular meals in their chapter houses and had limited the number of resident brothers by the fall semester of 1909.[7] College administrators also challenged the fraternities to become more engaged in College life and less focused on their fraternity life during this time. College President Ernest Martin Hopkins personally decided to abolish freshman rush in 1924.[5]

Delta Tau Delta, shown here circa 1915, would in 1960 become today’s Bones Gate fraternity.

As did the nation, fraternities at Dartmouth went through difficult times during the Great Depression. The decade of the 1930s saw almost no building projects at all in the fraternity system, and many houses could no longer afford regular maintenance. One of the great tragedies at Dartmouth College occurred on a winter night in 1934, when nine members of Theta Chi died from carbon monoxidepoisoning after a metal chimney on a dilapidated coal furnace in the basement of the chapter house broke in the night.[8] In 1935, Dartmouth historian and professor Leon Burr Richardson asserted in a survey that, in light of the national suffering, the fraternity chapters should ask themselves if they had “any excuse for existence.”[5] Four fraternities dissolved during the Great Depression (Alpha Sigma Phi,Alpha Tau Omega, Lambda Chi Alpha, and Sigma Alpha Mu), and two (Phi Kappa Sigma and Alpha Chi Rho) merged to pool scarce resources in order to survive. All of the surviving fraternities closed for the duration of World War II, as the campus was largely (although not exclusively) used to educate, train, and house Navy sailors and Marines in the V-12 Navy College Training Program.[9][10]

The fraternities of Dartmouth College were directly involved in the African-American Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s. In 1952, the Dartmouth chapter of Theta Chi was derecognized by its national over a dispute regarding minority membership. The Dartmouth chapter reorganized as a local fraternity named Alpha Theta. A campus-wide referendum held in 1954 on the issue of desegregation of fraternities resulted in a majority in favor of requiring fraternities on campus to eliminate racially discriminatory membership policies by the year 1960, and to secede from national groups that retained such policies in their charters. This became a binding obligation imposed on the fraternities by the college administration, and several fraternities at Dartmouth dissociated from their national organizations, including the chapters of Phi Sigma Kappa (1956),[11]Delta Tau Delta (1960), Phi Delta Theta (1960), Sigma Chi (1960), and Sigma Nu (1963).

National social changes also affected Greek societies at Dartmouth in the 1960s and 1970s. Many began to question the value of belonging to a national fraternal organization. The Dartmouth chapters of Chi Alpha Rho, Chi Phi, Delta Upsilon, Phi Gamma Delta, Phi Kappa Psi, and Sigma Phi Epsilon all disaffiliated from their national fraternities in the 1960s. As political activism increased, fraternities were increasingly seen as anachronistic, and in 1967, the faculty voted 67-16 to adopt a proposal to abolish fraternities at Dartmouth. The proposal was rejected by the Board of Trustees.[12]

Coeducation to the present[edit]

Coeducation would dramatically change all social life at Dartmouth College, including the fraternity system. The College first began admitting women as full-time students in 1972. By the fall of 1973, five local fraternities (Alpha Theta, Foley House, The Tabard, Phi Tau, and Phi Sigma Psi) had all decided to adopt a coeducational membership policy and admit women as full members. The first sorority on campus, Sigma Kappa, was founded in 1977. Many alumni expressed strong concerns that the need for housing for new sororities would inevitably lead to financial pressure and the possible dissolution of existing fraternities at the College. In response, the Trustees imposed a moratorium limiting the campus to no more than six recognized sororities.[13] Converting from an all-male to a coeducational membership policy was not enough to save at least one Greek organization on campus. In 1981, the Harold Parmington Foundation reorganized itself as a new coeducational fraternity Delta Psi Delta, but the organization never attracted many new members and was finally forced to dissolve in the spring of 1991. In addition, Foley House disassociated from the Greek system in Fall 1984, transitioning into an affinity house as part of the College’s residential living programs. It moved off Webster Avenue to a new location on West Street (where it is still in operation as of the 2013-14 academic year).

During the 1980s and 1990s, College administrators introduced new initiatives to hold the Greek organizations on campus more accountable for their actions and to offer more social alternatives to the predominantly single-sex Greek system. In 1982, the administration announced that Greek organizations would have to comply with a set of “minimum standards”, enforced through annual reviews, in order to remain in good standing with the College. These standards included not only health and safety regulations regarding the conditions of the Greek houses, but requirements for Greek-sponsored activities deemed beneficial to the College community at large.[12] The College introduced Undergraduate Societies to campus in 1993, as a residential and social alternative to Greek organizations. Similar to the Greek houses in many respects, Undergraduate Societies were required to have open, coeducational membership policies. Panarchy voted to change its status to an undergraduate society and was joined the following year by a newly formed society, called Amarna.[14] In the fall of 1993, Student Assembly President Andrew Beebe, class of 1993, argued in favor of the coeducation of the entire Greek system in his remarks at fall Convocation.[15] During that same academic term, College President James O. Freedman predicted that the Greek system at Dartmouth would be coeducational within 10 years.[13]

In 1999, the college administration announced a “Residential and Social Life Initiative” to improve campus life. Speculation that all single-sex fraternities and sororities would be required to adopt coeducational membership policies led to intense campus debate. In a survey conducted by The Dartmouth newspaper, 49% of the student body responded, and 83% of those respondents were in favor of retaining a single-sex Greek system at Dartmouth.[16] In a December, 2006 interview, College President Jim Wright admitted that it had been “a serious mistake” to announce the Student Life Initiative in the manner in which it was presented to the campus, but expressed that in his opinion, “the Greek system at Dartmouth now is stronger than it’s ever been.”[17]


The single-sex male-only fraternities at Dartmouth College are largely organized and represented to the College through the Interfraternity Council (IFC). The Interfraternity Council is a student-led governance organization that assists the member Greek organizations with finances, public relations, programming, judicial administration, recruitment, and academic achievement. Alpha Phi Alpha is not a member of the IFC, but is a member of the National Pan-Hellenic Council. Lambda Upsilon Lambda is also not a member of the IFC, but is a member of the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations.[18]

Alpha Delta (ΑΔ)[edit]

Not to be confused with the unrelated Alpha Delta National Fraternity

Alpha Delta, 2007

Alpha Delta (“AD”) was initially founded by members of the Gamma Sigma Society. In 1847, the society became the Dartmouth chapter ofAlpha Delta Phi, a national fraternity.[12] The house dissociated from its parent corporation in 1969 and renamed itself The Alpha Delta Fraternity. Alpha Delta is well known for being part of the inspiration behind the movie National Lampoon’s Animal House. The screenplay, co-written by Chris Miller, class of 1963, was inspired by a pair of short stories Miller wrote in National Lampoon in 1974 and 1975 (“The Night of the Seven Fires” and “Pinto’s First Lay”) about his experiences as a member of Alpha Delta. In November 2006, Miller published a 336 page memoir of his experiences in the fraternity under the title The Real Animal House: The Awesomely Depraved Saga of the Fraternity That Inspired the Movie.[19] Alpha Delta was derecognized by Dartmouth College on April 13, 2015.[20]

Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ)[edit]

The Theta Zeta chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha was founded as the first historically African-American fraternity at Dartmouth College in 1972. The first members of the fraternity traveled to Boston, Massachusetts on the weekends of the 1971 spring academic term to attend pledge events at the Sigma chapter. The Dartmouth chapter was chartered as the 381st chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha on May 12, 1972. Early chapter meetings on campus were held in both the Choates dormitories andCutter-Shabazz Hall. The fraternity secured their own house in 1982, a duplex structure that, since renovated, today houses the Delta Delta Delta sorority. Facing smaller membership, the fraternity decided to relocate to a smaller house near the western end of Webster Avenue in the late 1980s, and in 1992, the fraternity again relocated to College-owned apartment housing. The Dartmouth chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha sponsors an annual step performance known as the Green Key StepShow.[21] Notable alumni of the chapter include National Football League all-star Reggie Williams, class of 1976,[22] and current Executive Vice President of Baseball Operations in Major League Baseball,Jimmie Lee Solomon, class of 1978.[23][24]

Alpha Chi Alpha (ΑΧΑ)[edit]

Alpha Chi Alpha, 2007

Alpha Chi Alpha (“Alpha Chi”) was founded in 1956 as the Phi Nu chapter of Alpha Chi Rho, a national fraternal organization. A previous Phi Nu chapter of Alpha Chi Rho at Dartmouth had merged with the Kappa chapter of Phi Kappa Sigma in 1935 to become Gamma Delta Chi, a local fraternity still in existence at Dartmouth. The second Phi Nu chapter of Alpha Chi Rho is unrelated to the first chapter. The men of Alpha Chi Rho again broke away from the national group in 1963 and became a local fraternity named Alpha Chi Alpha.[25] The Dartmouth chapter objected to a clause in the national fraternity organization’s constitution that required all Alpha Chi Rho brothers to “accept Jesus as their lord and savior.” The land and house used by the Alpha Chi Alpha fraternity are owned by the college. Dartmouth invested $1.3 Million in renovations completed in the fall of 2004, which included the razing of the “Barn” structure that was used as social space by the brothers of Alpha Chi Alpha to make way for a new expanded basement and main floor area.[26] Renovations on the Alpha Chi Alpha physical plant were completed in 2005.[27]

Dartmouth Beta (ΒΑΩ)[edit]

Dartmouth Beta House, 2009

Dartmouth Beta (“Beta”) was founded in 1858 as a local fraternity at Dartmouth’s Chandler Scientific School named Sigma Delta Pi. Sigma Delta Pi was the second Chandler fraternity and the seventh fraternity founded at the College. The fraternity changed its name to Vitruvian (a tribute to the Roman architect Vitruvius) in 1871 and later established two short-lived chapters at other schools. In 1889, the local brotherhood decided to join a national fraternity and the organization soon became the Alpha Omega chapter of Beta Theta Pi. It built a house (now South Fairbanks Hall) designed by Beta graduate, Charles A. Rich of Lamb & Rich in 1904, and it built its second house, on Webster Avenue, in 1933. Notable alumni of the organization include but not limited to: Former U.S. Representative from New HampshireFrank G. Clarke, Author Norman Maclean, Former Governor of New Hampshire Walter R. Peterson ’47, Businessman Alan Reich ’52, Former Dartmouth President David T. McLaughlin ’54, Owner of the Cincinnati Bengals Mike Brown ’57,[28] Founder of the Big East Conference Dave Gavitt ’59,[29] Former Athletic Director of Syracuse University Jake Crouthamel ’60,[30] Member of College Football Hall of Fame and Chief Executive Officer of the Hanover Company Murry Bowden ’71, Professional Poker Player Chip Reese ’73,[31] Politician Joel Hyatt ’72, US Congressmen John Carney ’78, College Football Coach Buddy Teevens ’78, Former NFL football Coach Dave Shula’81,[32] former NFL Quarterback Jeff Kemp ’81,[32] Olympic Skier Tiger Shaw ’85, former NFL Quarterback Jay Fiedler ’94, Actor Brian J. White ’96.[33] Beta Theta Pi was suspended by the College on three occasions in the 1990s. An incident of hazing in 1994 led to a year-long period of derecognition.[34] In the summer of 1995, a member of Beta Theta Pi read a poem aloud during a house meeting that was deemed to be racist andsexist, and resulted in many calling for derecognition of the fraternity.[35] In 1996, a Coed Fraternity Sorority Council judiciary committee found Beta Theta Pi guilty of six violations of College and fraternity policies.[34] The College derecognized Beta Theta Pi permanently on December 6, 1996.[36] The Hanover Police Department reported that the brothers of Beta Theta Pi did an estimated $15,000 in damage to the property soon after hearing of the permanent derecognition decision.[37] It returned to campus as a local fraternity, Beta Alpha Omega, in the fall of 2008.

Bones Gate (BG)[edit]

Bones Gate, 2007

Bones Gate (“BG”) was founded in 1901 as the Gamma Gamma Chapter of the Delta Tau Delta fraternity.[38] In 1960 the Gamma Gamma chapter dissociated from Delta Tau Delta when the national organization sought to officially bar minorities from membership. The new local fraternity at Dartmouth went unnamed until 1962, when the brothers adopted the name “Bones Gate”[38] after an English tavern well-known to the members.[39] Well known television director and BG alumnus Tucker Gates founded the Earl Anthony Appreciation Society in the basement tube room during the winter of 1982, combining two of his favorite activities; watching the Pro Bowlers Tour on TV and drinking Budweiser from a quart bottle. In the summer of 2005, the Bones Gate residence underwent significant structural renovations to bring the building up to the College’s Minimum Standards. Improvements included an enclosed fire escape running from the basement to the third floor, a new bathroom on the ground floor, and the rehabilitation of all other bathrooms.[40] The brothers of Bones Gate strive to live by their credo of welcoming friends to their house: “This Gate Hangs High and Hinders None. Refresh, Enjoy and Travel On.”[41]

Gamma Delta Chi (ΓΔΧ)[edit]

Gamma Delta Chi, 2007

Gamma Delta Chi (“GDX”) can trace its history to two fraternities on the Dartmouth College campus, Phi Kappa Sigma and Alpha Chi Rho. Gamma Delta Epsilon, a local fraternity, was founded in 1908, disbanded in 1912, but was reformed in 1921. In 1928, the Gamma Delta Epsilon house sought to establish itself as a chapter of a national fraternity and obtained a charter from the Phi Kappa Sigma national fraternity, becoming its Kappa Chapter. Epsilon Kappa Alpha, was established as a local fraternity on the Dartmouth campus in 1915. As with Gamma Delta Epsilon, Epsilon Kappa Alpha sought to become a chapter of a national fraternity and was granted a charter as the Phi Nu chapter of Alpha Chi Rho in 1918.[12] The Dartmouth chapters of Alpha Chi Rho and Phi Kappa Sigma found themselves in similar financial situations in 1934. Both chapters owned prime lots near campus that lacked adequate residential structures. The two fraternities decided to share their resources and in 1935 merged to become a new local fraternity, Gamma Delta Chi.[42] The lot formerly owned by Alpha Chi Rho was sold to the Church of Christ at Dartmouth where a new church building was constructed, and the revenue from the land sale supported the construction of a new house at Gamma Delta Chi’s current location.[43] (The Alpha Chi Rho national fraternity would later re-establish a Phi Nu chapter at Dartmouth in 1956 as a separate fraternity from Gamma Delta Chi. This second Phi Nu chapter would dissociate from the Alpha Chi Rho national in 1963 to become a local fraternity named Alpha Chi Alpha.) In the 1960s Gamma Delta Chi was especially well known for its antique fire engine, which transported brothers and their dates to football games; and for its Sunday morning fogcutter parties, open to all who had survived the previous night’s activities.

Theta Delta Chi (ΘΔΧ)[edit]

Theta Delta Chi, 2007

Theta Delta Chi (“Theta Delt, TDX”) was founded at Dartmouth College in 1869 as the Omicron Deuteron chapter of the national fraternity, and was the eighth fraternity founded at Dartmouth.[12] Theta Delta Chi was the scene of a famous murder in June, 1920. Henry Maroney, class of 1920, was shot to death in his room at Theta Delta Chi by Robert Meads, class of 1919. Meads was reportedly the central figure in a large-scale bootlegging operation at the College during the early years of Prohibition. An already intoxicated Maroney reportedly stole a quart of Canadian whisky from Meads. Later that same night, Meads found Maroney in his room at the fraternity and shot him through the heart. Meads was convicted of a lesser charge of manslaughter and given a sentence of 15 to 20 years hard labor.[44][45] The sensational murder is reportedly the source of the nickname given to the Theta Delta Chi residence: the “Boom Boom Lodge”.[46] Theta Delta Chi has several distinguished alumni, including Robert Frost, who attended Dartmouth for a time in 1892.[47]

Kappa Kappa Kappa (ΚΚΚ)[edit]

Tri-Kap, 2007

Kappa Kappa Kappa (“Tri-Kap”) is a local fraternity founded on July 13, 1842.[48] Currently, it is the oldest local fraternity in the nation and the second permanent Greek-letter fraternal society established at Dartmouth College. The organization has no affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan, which was founded after Kappa Kappa Kappa was founded and unfortunately adopted the Latin initials “KKK”, similar to the Greek alphabet letters Kappa Kappa Kappa. According to legend, Kappa Kappa Kappa sued the Ku Klux Klan for defamation of name, but lost because the judge ruled that the similarity in the initials of the organizations was sheer coincidence. Kappa Kappa Kappa was the first society at Dartmouth to have a freestanding fraternity building in Hanover and one of the first in the country.[49] Some prominent alumni include Channing Cox (1901), Dr. Bob, (1902) Nick Lowery (1978), and Peter Robinson (1979).

Lambda Upsilon Lambda (ΛΥΛ)[edit]

Lambda Upsilon Lambda, known more formally as La Unidad Latina, Lambda Upsilon Lambda Fraternity, Inc. was established at Dartmouth in 1997.[50] The Psi Chapter of Lambda Upsilon Lambda is the College’s first historically Latino fraternity. The fraternity has no physical plant. Lambda Upsilon Lambda sponsors Noche Dorada, an annual semi-formal dinner that features a guest speaker invited to the campus to address issues of Latino culture. The fraternity also supports the Brazil Project, in conjunction with the Sigma chapter at Wesleyan University, which supports thirteen families in Brazil.[51]

Sigma Alpha Epsilon (ΣΑΕ)[edit]

Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 2007

Sigma Alpha Epsilon (“SAE”) at Dartmouth College was founded in 1903 as a local fraternity named Chi Tau Kappa. In 1908, the fraternity sought to associate itself with a national fraternity and was granted a charter from Sigma Alpha Epsilon to became the New HampshireAlpha chapter.[12] With funding support from the national organization, the fraternity acquired a house on School Street that had previously been the residence of a College professor. By 1916, the fraternity had moved to a wood house on College Street north of the Green. The fraternity would replace the structure entirely with a new brick residence built between 1928 and 1931, one of the final fraternity building projects started on campus before the Great Depression.[3] Sigma Alpha Epsilon members are encouraged by their national organization to emulate the tenets of The True Gentleman, a statement written by John Walter Wayland.[52] Notable alumni of the chapter include theUnited States Secretary of the Treasury Henry M. Paulson, Jr., class of 1968,[53] and benefactor to Dartmouth College Barry MacLean, class of 1960.[54]

Sigma Phi Epsilon (ΣΦΕ)[edit]

Sigma Phi Epsilon, 2007

Sigma Phi Epsilon (“Sig Ep”) at Dartmouth College was founded on April 22, 1908, as the local fraternity Omicron Pi Sigma. In 1909, the local fraternity became New Hampshire Alpha Chapter of Sigma Phi Epsilon. By the late 1960s, the house had become disenchanted with the national organization and felt that the Dartmouth membership would be better served as a local fraternity. The brothers voted to dissociate from the national organization on January 18, 1967. A vote of the alumni of the New Hampshire Alpha chapter on February 1, 1967, supported the decision. The new local fraternity adopted the name Sigma Theta Epsilon (which was also used by an unrelatednational fraternity). The Sigma Phi Epsilon national continued to communicate with the local Sigma Theta Epsilon fraternity at Dartmouth, and by 1981 was willing to offer significant financial support for building renovations in exchange for reaffiliation. Convinced that the national organization had reformed in its commitment to the individual chapters, the local fraternity voted to rejoin Sigma Phi Epsilon on February 18, 1981.[55] The national Sigma Phi Epsilon organization is known for its Balanced Man Program, an ongoing program of development through which members challenge themselves and to use their different talents and backgrounds to help each other become balanced men (having a Sound Mind in a Sound Body) and balanced servant leaders for the world’s communities. Members of Sigma Phi Epsilon become members the moment they join the fraternity, without having to endure a traditional pledge period. However, they commit to taking on a series of personal and leadership development challenges for the rest of their time as an undergraduate. The New Hampshire Alpha Chapter of Sigma Phi Epsilon was actually the first chapter to adopt the Balanced Man Program.[56]Prominent alumni of the New Hampshire Alpha chapter include Theodor S. Geisel, class of 1925, better known as “Dr. Seuss” and former Chairman of Dartmouth’s Board of Trustees and CEO of Freddie Mac, Charles E. Haldeman.[57]

Sigma Nu (ΣΝ)[edit]

Sigma Nu, 2007

Sigma Nu (“Sig Nu”) at Dartmouth College was originally formed in 1903 as the Pukwana Club, an organization that was created as a reaction to the perceived elitism of Greek organizations at the time. The club’s concept was based on the love for the traditions of Dartmouth, faithful friendship, and honorable dealings. In 1907, the Pukwana Club joined the national fraternity system after it received a charter to become the Delta Beta chapter of Sigma Nu. Sigma Nu’s “Way of Honor” principle was very similar to the principles expressed in the Pukwana Club’s original charter. The first residence for Sigma Nu at Dartmouth was purchased and refurbished in 1911. Known as the Green Castle, it served as chapter headquarters until the current house was built in 1925. In response to the national fraternity’s segregationist membership policies, the fraternity went local in 1963, becoming Sigma Nu Delta. In 1984, after the national fraternity’s policies were changed, the fraternity reaffiliated with the national.[58] In the summer of 2007, the Sigma Nu residence underwent significant structural renovations to bring the building up to the College’s Minimum Standards and improve living facilities. Improvements included an enclosed fire escape running from the first floor to the third floor, a redone kitchen and bathroom, new flooring, a new study room, and alterations to bedrooms. Prominent alumni include acting Solicitor General of the United States Neal Katyal ’91.

Phi Delta Alpha (ΦΔΑ)[edit]

Phi Delta Alpha, 1986

Phi Delta Alpha (“Phi Delt”) was founded in 1884 as the New Hampshire Alpha chapter of Phi Delta Theta, a national fraternity. Early meetings of the fraternity were held in the Tontine Building on Main Street. The meeting location moved to the Currier Building in 1887 when the Tontine Building burned down. Phi Delta Theta began construction on a new house in 1898, and the building was completed in 1902, designed by Charles Rich of Lamb & Rich. In January 1960, the Dartmouth chapter broke away from the national because the national would not allow minorities to pledge the house. The new, local fraternity replaced the last letter in its name with Alpha.[59] In March 2000, the fraternity was derecognized by the College. One of the primary reasons for the punishment was that four members of Phi Delta Alpha started a fire in the Chi Gamma Epsilon basement next door. Rig. Under the leadership of Gig Faux, class of 1984, Phi Delta Alpha applied to the College for rerecognition in fall 2002. The first rush class was formed in the winter of 2003.[60] Current General Electric Chief Executive Officer, Jeffrey Immelt, class of 1978, is a former president of Phi Delta Alpha.[61] Other influential alumni include current Dartmouth trustees R. Bradford Evans ’64 and William W. Helman IV ’80, former Dartmouth trustee Peter Fahey ’68, billionaire oilman Trevor Rees-Jones ’74, and Pulitzer winners Nigel Jaquiss ’84 and Joseph Rago ’05. In January 2010, a fire damaged the fraternity’s physical plant. No one was harmed, but the house was closed for renovations until June 2010.

Chi Gamma Epsilon (ΧΓΕ)[edit]

Chi Gamma Epsilon, 2007

Chi Gamma Epsilon (“Chi Gam”) was founded in 1905 as the Gamma Epsilon chapter of Kappa Sigma, a national fraternity. The Dartmouth chapter dissociated from the national fraternity in 1987.[12] The disputes with the national organization were primarily over the amount of loans the national organization could offer the local chapter. Initially, the new local fraternity adopted the name Kappa Sigma Gamma, but the national fraternity took offense to the likeness of the names. After a period simply being known by its address, 7 Webster Avenue, the fraternity came upon the name by which it is now known. Chi Gamma Epsilon made national headlines in 1998 for co-sponsoring a “ghetto” theme party with the sisters of Alpha Xi Delta sorority that many found to be offensive for its racial stereotypes of African-Americans.[62] Several Chi Gamma Epsilon/Kappa Sigma alumni brothers found fame in Major League Baseball careers, including all-star players Brad Ausmus, class of 1991, and Mike Remlinger, class of 1987, and former Baltimore Orioles General Manager Jim Beattie, class of 1976. Other prominent brothers include Vivid Entertainment President William Asher, class of 1984.[63] and eBay Inc. CEOJohn Donahoe.[64]

Chi Heorot (ΧH)[edit]

Chi Heorot, 2007

Chi Heorot (“Heorot”, “XH”) was founded in 1897 as a local fraternity named Alpha Alpha Omega, and in 1902 was granted a charter as the Chi chapter of the Chi Phi Fraternity. In 1903, the fraternity moved to its present location, and in 1927 it sold off its eighteenth-century house and built the house that stands today. In 1968, the house dissociated from the national fraternity, and adopted the name Chi Phi Heorot.[12] The “Heorot” in Chi Phi Heorot comes from the medieval poem Beowulf, in which Heorot is the great hall where warriorsconverge to tell their stories. After several suspensions by the College in the early 1980s, it re-joined the Chi Phi national in 1981. This was short-lived; in 1987, because of damage done to the house that the College insisted upon having repaired for safety reasons but the Chi Phi national refused to help finance, the Dartmouth brotherhood again opted to become a local fraternity. In exchange for financing renovations to the structure, the College assumed ownership of the property and house. In its second incarnation as a local fraternity, the brotherhood chose the name Chi Heorot.[65] Notable alumni include Gerry Geran ’18, Adam Nelson ’97, and Andrew Weibrecht ’09, allOlympic medalists.[66]

Psi Upsilon (ΨΥ)[edit]

Psi Upsilon, 2007

The Zeta Chapter of Psi Upsilon International Fraternity (“Psi U”) was founded at Dartmouth in 1842, the first fraternity at Dartmouth College. In 1907, Psi Upsilon built the wood frame house it still occupies, designed by noted New Jersey theater architect and Dartmouth alumnus Fred Wesley Wentworth. Several additions during the latter half of the twentieth century greatly improved the structure, which houses around twenty brothers each year. The house most recently underwent substantial renovations during the spring of 2006. F. Scott Fitzgerald famously enjoyed the 1938 Winter Carnival in the Psi Upsilon chapter house.[67] The Zeta chapter creates an ice pond in its yard every winter and is known as the “keg jumping fraternity” for its most-popular Winter Carnival activity. Prominent alumni of the Zeta chapter of Psi Upsilon includes former United States Vice President Nelson Rockefeller ’30, and billionaire hedge fund manager of Lone Pine Capital Steve Mandel ’78.[68][69]

Zeta Psi (ΖΨ)[edit]

Zeta Psi, 2007

Zeta Psi (“Zete”) at Dartmouth College was founded in 1853 as the Psi Epsilon chapter of the national fraternity, and was the fifth fraternity founded at the College. The fraternity became inactive in 1863, but was revived from 1871 through 1873 after which it again became inactive. The current Psi Epsilon Chapter of Zeta Psi at Dartmouth was established in 1920. In 2001, the Dartmouth chapter was derecognized by the College because “the fraternity harassed specific fellow students and violated ethical standards that Dartmouth student organizations agree to uphold, by periodically creating and circulating among Zeta Psi members ‘newsletters‘ that purported to describe situations, some of them of a sexual nature, of various members of the fraternity and other students.”[70] Zeta Psi, meanwhile, countered that “nothing could be further from the truth… Dartmouth College lacks jurisdiction to punish Psi Epsilon of Zeta Psi’s for alleged violations of its own rules or regulations,”.[71] From 2001 to 2006, Zeta Psi continued to operate as an independent fraternity, not officiallyrecognized by Dartmouth College. In January 2007, Dartmouth College announced an agreement that would allow Zeta Psi to reorganize on campus as early as 2009. Part of the agreement dictated that the organization “go dark”, with no activities or recruiting, for a period of two years.[72] During these two years, alumni raised millions of dollars and the physical plant was entirely gutted and renovated, with a three-story addition being constructed on the west-side of the house. Also, the basement was enlarged. On October 12, 2009, the Psi Epsilon Association of Zeta Psi Fraternity (Dartmouth Zete’s alumni association) announced that 35 undergraduates had joined the newly re-recognized fraternity. As of January 2011, after only little more than a year, Zete has around 60 brothers and counting.[citation needed]


The single-sex female-only sororities at Dartmouth College are largely organized and represented to the College through the Panhellenic Council. The Panhellenic Council is a student-led governance organization that assists the member Greek organizations by promoting values, education, leadership, friendships, cooperation and citizenship. Alpha Pi Omega and Sigma Lambda Upsilon are not members of the Panhellenic Council, but are members of the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations.[18]

Alpha Xi Delta (ΑΞΔ)[edit]

Alpha Xi Delta, 2011

The Theta Psi chapter of Alpha Xi Delta (“AXID”) was founded as Delta Pi Omega in 1997. On January 6, 1997, the local sorority was officially recognized by the College, and on July 2, 1997, the sisters voted to affiliate with the Alpha Xi Delta national sorority. On February 21, 1998, the local organization’s petition was approved by the national with a charter as the Theta Psi chapter.[73] Alpha Xi Delta initially occupied the house currently home to Beta Theta Pi, until it was announced in 2008 that Beta was repossessing the house and that the sorority would have to relocate elsewhere.[74] In the fall of 2009, they moved into a newly renovated house. Since the Theta Psi chapter’s founding in 1997, Alpha Xi Delta has graduated multiple Rhodes Scholars.[75] The Dartmouth chapter of Alpha Xi Delta sorority’s national philanthropy is “Autism Speaks”.[76] They also volunteer for The Upper Valley Haven, a local group that provides shelter and education to families.[77][78]

Alpha Pi Omega (ΑΠΩ)[edit]

Alpha Pi Omega was established by women at Dartmouth College in May 2001. The organization was chartered as the Epsilon Chapter of the national historically Native American sorority in 2006, and was officially recognized by the college as a full chapter beginning with the fall 2006 academic term. The sorority has college-owned housing on campus. Alpha Pi Omega has a six-week-long pledge period known as the Honey Process.[51] For college governance purposes, the Epsilon Chapter associates locally with the local member societies of the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations.[18]

Alpha Phi (ΑΦ)[edit]

Alpha Phi was recognized on March 3, 2006, as the Dartmouth College colony of the international sorority.[79] The colony officially became a chapter on April 28, 2007. Alpha Phi first participated in formal recruitment in September 2007. Philanthropy is important to the sisters at Alpha Phi, who host an annual campus-wide Red Dress Gala to raise money for women’s cardiac care. Sisters also volunteer in various local community service events. Alpha Phi has a close-knit sisterhood, and sisters participate in termly bonding events, like apple-picking and jewelry studio workshops, as well as weekly events, such as chapter meetings and sisterhood dinners. Mixers, semi-formal and formal events are also a part of Alpha Phi’s programming calendar.

Delta Delta Delta (ΔΔΔ)[edit]

Delta Delta Delta, 2007

Delta Delta Delta (“Tri-Delt”) at Dartmouth College was founded as the Gamma Gamma chapter of the national sorority in 1984. The house was the first Greek organization to secede from the Co-ed Fraternity Sorority Council in the spring of 2000,[80] a move that eventually precipitated the dissolution of that organizing body as other Greek organization on campus followed suit. Delta Delta Delta remains a member of the Panhellenic Council, which represents the interests of the sororities on campus.[18]

Epsilon Kappa Theta (ΕΚΘ)[edit]

Epsilon Kappa Theta, 2007

Epsilon Kappa Theta (“EKT,” “Theta”) at Dartmouth College was founded in January 1982 as the Epsilon Kappa colony of the Kappa Alpha Theta national sorority. Epsilon Kappa was the 100th colony of the sorority. The sorority initially met in a wide variety of locations, including the basement of the college president’s house. In 1984, the sorority moved into Brewster Hall, a College-owned house that had previously been used as an International House and later as temporary housing for the Alpha Chi Omega sorority. In 1992, the sisters of the Epsilon Kappa chapter of Kappa Alpha Theta found the strict national rules and the primarily Christian religious readings and rituals of the organization to be antithetical to the spirit of feminism and inclusivity that the chapter desired. The national organization was unhappy with the colony’s decision to disobey their rules and their failure to follow the sorority’s rituals. On May 4, 1992, the Dartmouth chapter notified the Kappa Alpha Theta national organization of its unanimous vote to disaffiliate and become a local sorority. The national organization revoked the charter of Epsilon Kappa. The Dartmouth women chose the new name Epsilon Kappa Theta.[81] The current Epsilon Kappa Theta residence is a Victorian house over 100 years old.[82]

Kappa Delta (ΚΔ)[edit]

Kappa Delta (“KD”), a national sorority, colonized the Eta Xi chapter on the Dartmouth campus in 2009. The Dartmouth Panhellenic Council approved the sorority on May 25, 2009. The Council considered the large pledge classes at other sororities on campus in deciding to authorize another sorority.[83] The sorority recruited its first members in the summer of 2009, and Kappa Delta held its first formal rush during the fall 2009 academic term, offering membership bids to 37 women.[84] Kappa Delta’s new 23-bedroom house at 1 Occom Ridge was built over the 2013–2014 school year and was completed in the Fall of 2014. It contains a formal room, gourmet kitchen, a library, and two bedrooms on the first floor, in addition to 21 more single bedrooms located on the second and third floors. K∆ has one of the strongest sisterhoods on Dartmouth College campus, and the sisterhood is involved in numerous philanthropic endeavors, including working with the Girl Scouts of United States of America, Prevent Child Abuse America, The New Hampshire Children’s Trust, and the Confidence Coalition. Each term, ΚΔ also participates in a “You Make Me Smile” campaign where sisters write encouraging messages on balloons and hand them out across campus to raise spirits before finals week. Along with weekly sisterhood meetings and events, like movie and spa nights, sisters attend formal and semi-formal dances, barbecues, and sisterhood retreats.

Kappa Delta Epsilon (ΚΔΕ)[edit]

Kappa Delta Epsilon, 2007

Kappa Delta Epsilon (“KDE”) is a local sorority founded in the fall of 1993 by the Panhellenic Council at Dartmouth. After the dissolution of the Xi Kappa Chi local sorority in the spring of 1993, the Panhellenic Council decided that there was a need for a new sorority to replace it. Fifty women joined the new sorority in the first rush in the fall of 1993.[85] The Kappa Delta Epsilon physical plant was extensively remodeled by the college during the summer of 2003. The newly remodeled building contains a main meetings room, kitchen, two bedrooms and a back porch on the first floor. The second and third floors contain all bedrooms which house about thirteen more resident sisters. The basement consists of the fireplace room, the pub room, and the sisters-only room.[86]

Kappa Kappa Gamma (ΚΚΓ)[edit]

Kappa Kappa Gamma, 2007

The Epsilon Chi chapter of Kappa Kappa Gamma (“KKG”, “Kappa”) was founded at Dartmouth on December 30, 1978, and was the second sorority at Dartmouth College.[12] The sisters of Kappa Kappa Gamma sponsor events for the campus, go on sister retreats, holdbarbecues, and have formal and semi-formal dances. They have weekly house meetings in order to communicate news and issues about the house, to catch up on the week’s events, and to spend time with their fellow sisters. Philanthropy is an important part of the Epsilon Chi chapter’s activities. The sisters cook dinners on a regular basis for David’s House, an institution that supports and houses families of sick children at a local hospital, in a joint effort with the brothers of Sigma Alpha Epsilon.[87] Kirsten Gillibrand, class of 1988 and the first Dartmouth alumna elected to the United States House of Representatives, was an officer of Kappa Kappa Gamma as an undergraduate.[88]

Sigma Delta (ΣΔ)[edit]

Sigma Delta, 2007

Sigma Delta (“Sigma Delt”) was the first sorority at Dartmouth College, founded in May 1977 as a chapter of the national sorority Sigma Kappa. In April 1981, Sigma Kappa moved into a residence formerly inhabited by the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity. The local chapter at Dartmouth began to have differences with the national organization concerning religion in sorority rituals and an emphasis on men in national sorority songs. The Dartmouth chapter dissociated from the national organization in the fall of 1988, becoming Sigma Delta. The classes of 1989, 1990, and 1991 that formed the new local sorority dedicated the new organization to principles of “strength, friendship, and acceptance of difference”. Since reorganizing as a local sorority, Sigma Delta has hosted at least one open party each term in addition to service events.[89] Actress Connie Britton (89′) was a member of the first local class and served as Sisterhood Chair during her sophomore summer.[90]

Sigma Lambda Upsilon (ΣΛΥ)[edit]

Sigma Lambda Upsilon, more formally known as Sigma Lambda Upsilon/Señoritas Latinas Unidas Sorority, Inc., was established by four women at Dartmouth College in 2003, as the Alpha Beta chapter of the national, historically-Latina sorority. The sorority has no physical plant or designated College-owned housing. The Dartmouth chapter supports several activities including philanthropic events, formal dinners, and a Summer Book Club.

Coeducational fraternities[edit]

The three coeducational fraternities at Dartmouth College are organized and represented to the College through the Coed Council. The Coed Council is a student-led governance organization that assists the member Greek organizations with public relations, programming, recruitment, and academic achievement.[18] All three coeducational fraternities at Dartmouth own the land and residence buildings they occupy.[91][92][93]

Alpha Theta (ΑΘ)[edit]

Alpha Theta, 2007

Alpha Theta was founded as a local fraternity named Iota Sigma Upsilon on March 3, 1920, by a group of seven students. In 1921 the fraternity received a charter as the Alpha Theta chapter of Theta Chi. John Sloan Dickey, later President of the College, joined the fraternity in 1928 and was elected house president only two weeks later, while still a pledge. Nine brothers of Theta Chi died in a tragic accident on the morning of February 25, 1934, when the metal chimney of the building’s old coal furnace blew out in the night and the residence filled with poisonous carbon monoxide gas.[8] Alpha Theta was one of the first collegiate fraternities in the United States to break from its national organization over civil rights issues. In 1951, while Dickey served as President of the College, the student body passed a resolution calling on all fraternities to eliminate racial discrimination from their constitutions. The Theta Chi national organization’s constitution contained a clause limiting membership in fraternity to “Caucasians” only. On April 24, 1952, the members of the Dartmouth chapter voted unanimously to stop recognizing the racial clause in Theta Chi’s constitution.[94] Upon learning that the Dartmouth delegation to Theta Chi’s national convention later that year planned to raise questions about the clause, the Alpha Theta chapter was derecognized by the national organization on July 25, 1952.[95] The house reincorporated as a local fraternity and adopted the name Alpha Theta. Alpha Theta was also one of the first all-male fraternities to admit female members. In 1972, Dartmouth admitted the first class of female students and officially became a coeducational institution. Alpha Theta also voted to become coeducational. After a few years, most of the women in the fraternity had become inactive and the house voted to become single-sex male-only again on November 10, 1976. The house returned to a coeducational membership policy in 1980.[96]

The Tabard (ΣΕΧ)[edit]

The Tabard, 2007

The Tabard at Dartmouth College was founded in 1857 as a local fraternity for students in the Chandler Scientific School named Phi Zeta Mu. In 1893, as the Chandler School was absorbed by Dartmouth, the house sought to associate itself with a national fraternity and was granted a charter as the Eta Eta chapter of Sigma Chi national fraternity. In April 1960, the Dartmouth chapter of Sigma Chi became the third fraternity on campus to dissociate from its national organization, following the 1954 Undergraduate Council referendum requiring fraternities to amend its national charters to end discrimination against minorities or go “local”.[97][98] The fraternity officially chose to use the name The Tabard, but retained use of the Greek letters ΣΧ for its local corporation use to include all living and deceased members of both the chapter’s national affiliation and the new local independent organization. The new name was inspired by The Tabard, a fictitious London inn described in the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer.[99] The Tabard was one of five Greek organizations at Dartmouth to become coeducational and admit women pledges when the College began admitting women students in 1972. The organization unofficially uses the Greek letters Sigma Epsilon Chi (ΣΕΧ), having inserted an “E” between the Sigma and Chi on a wrought iron railing above the front door of their residence. Prominent alumni of the Tabard include: its first president Stephen W. Bosworth, class of 1961 – U.S. Ambassador to South Korea, the Philippines, and Tunisia, as well as Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Dartmouth College; Gordon Campbell, class of 1970 – the 34thPremier of British Columbia; and Aisha Tyler, class of 1992 – an American actress, comedian, and author.[100]

Phi Tau (ΦΤ)[edit]

Phi Tau, 2007

Phi Tau was founded at Dartmouth College in 1905 as the Tau Chapter of Phi Sigma Kappa. While the national fraternity proved to be an early leader among its peers in the area of non-discrimination, mid-1950s Tau Chapter leaders led the demand for such post-war era changes. The pace of change was contentious: Phi Sigma Kappa had previously had occasional foreign student members at many chapters. Unlike other fraternities, it had also welcomed Catholics and Jews at a time when most fraternity members were Protestant. But it did not yet welcome Blacks. In a reactionary response to a short-lived policy that limited pledging of Black students between 1952–56, and in a move that allowed it to avoid unpaid debts to the national, Tau broke with Phi Sigma Kappa and reformed itself as Phi Tau on March 7, 1956, naming the national fraternity as racist.[11] Yet ironically, the Dartmouth chapter won the debate over the issue: the same discriminatory policy that caused Tau to withdraw was itself rescinded by the national fraternity at its Summer Convention just two months later, leaving Phi Sigma Kappa chapters free to pledge Black members. There has been no reconciliation, even though both groups remain progressive.[101] Today, Phi Tau prides itself on its progressiveness; when the house constitution was rewritten in 1956, references to gender were deliberately excluded, making the house officially coeducational even before Dartmouth College accepted women as students. Phi Tau is the only coeducational Greek organization at Dartmouth that has always had female members since first admitting them, and was the first Greek house at Dartmouth to add sexual orientation to its non-discrimination clause. Members of Phi Tau refer to one another as “brothers” regardless of gender. The fraternity is known for its quarterly “Milque and Cookies” party, featuring thousands of homemade cookies and milkshakes.[102] Phi Tau completely replaced their residence hall in 2002, at a cost of $1.8 million, funded in part by the sale of 1,675 square metres (0.4 acres) of land to the College.[93]

Reemerging Greek organizations[edit]

As of 2008, three derecognized or otherwise inactive Greek organizations are in the process of returning to campus.

Alpha Kappa Alpha (ΑΚΑ)[edit]

Alpha Kappa Alpha (AKA) at Dartmouth College was founded in 1983 as the Xi Lambda chapter of the national sorority. Alpha Kappa Alpha was the first historically African-American sorority at Dartmouth College. The College supported the sorority with dedicated apartment housing until it became defunct in the spring of 2003. The sorority had no members of the class of 2004 and was unable to recruit new members for subsequent classes because of a national moratorium on recruitment related to a hazing incident at another chapter.[103] In February 2008, it was announced that Alpha Kappa Alpha would return to campus and resume activity in the spring or fall of 2008.[104]

Defunct Greek organizations[edit]

Greek organizations at Dartmouth College that dissolved over the years have largely done so as a result of financial difficulties or critically low membership and interest.


The Zayin chapter of Acacia, a national fraternity, was founded at Dartmouth on March 31, 1906. The Acacia national organization never heard from the Dartmouth chapter again, and lacks records of any student members or activities that the chapter might have pursued. The national declared the chapter dissolved in 1908. Acacia was the first fraternity at Dartmouth to dissolve, and the Zayin chapter was the first Acacia chapter at any campus to close.[105]

Alpha Sigma Phi (ΑΣΦ)[edit]

Alpha Sigma Phi at Dartmouth College was originally founded in 1925, as a local fraternity named Sigma Alpha, The local fraternity became the Alpha Eta chapter of Alpha Sigma Phi, a national fraternity, in 1928. Faced with financial difficulties during the Great Depression, the Dartmouth chapter dissolved in 1936.[12] C. Everett Koop, class of 1937 andSurgeon General of the United States from 1982 to 1989, was a member of one of the final Alpha Sigma Phi pledge classes at Dartmouth.[106]

Alpha Tau Omega (ΑΤΩ)[edit]

Alpha Tau Omega was founded at Dartmouth College in 1915 as the local fraternity Sigma Tau Omega. In 1924, the local fraternity was granted a charter to become the Delta Sigma chapter of national fraternity Alpha Tau Omega. The Dartmouth chapter dissolved in 1936, at the height of the Great Depression.[12]

Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ)[edit]

Delta Kappa Epsilon, circa 1915

The Pi Chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon (“Deke”) was founded in 1853. It was the fourth social fraternity at Dartmouth College. Eight brothers of Delta Kappa Epsilon were famously involved in a 1949 murder of a fellow Dartmouth student. The men, after heavy drinking at three different fraternities, sought out a former member of the freshman football team. Finding him asleep in his dormitory room, but wearing a letter sweater that the eight men felt he did not deserve to be wearing, they beat him and he soon thereafter died of the injuries. Two Delta Kappa Epsilon brothers were brought to trial, fined, and given suspended sentences for the crime. In response to the murder, College President John Sloan Dickey announced that he felt it was important to reduce the influence of the fraternity system on campus.[107] The organization was renamed Storrs House in 1970 before dissolving entirely.[12]

Delta Sigma Theta (ΔΣΘ)[edit]

Delta Sigma Theta is an historically African-American sorority at Dartmouth College that was founded in 1982 as the Che-Ase Interest Group. At the time, the College had imposed a moratorium on the founding on new sororities, but when the moratorium was lifted, the group was recognized by the college as a sorority in the fall of 1984. The women contacted the Delta Sigma Theta national sorority and were granted a charter as the Pi Theta chapter in the spring of 1985.[108] Delta Sigma Theta provided an extensive array of public service through the Five-Point Thrust program.[109] Until the chapter’s dissolution, the sisters of Delta Sigma Theta had cosponsored the Step Show, an annual cultural dance performance, with the brothers of Alpha Phi Alpha. The sorority had occupied dedicated College-owned apartment housing until June, 2004, when all but one member of the Dartmouth chapter graduated. An attempt was made to recruit new members in the summer, and it succeeded, but not for long, as the chapter currently has no members at Dartmouth.[103]

Delta Upsilon (ΔΥ)[edit]

Delta Upsilon at Dartmouth College was originally founded as Epsilon Kappa Phi, a local fraternity, at Dartmouth College in 1920. In 1926, the local fraternity became the Dartmouth chapter of Delta Upsilon, a national fraternity. The fraternity dissociated from the national in 1966, and adopted the name Foley House. Foley House was one of the six local Greek organizations that became coeducational in 1972. In 1984, the organization decided to drop its association with the Greek system entirely and became one of the Affinity Housing programs offered by the College, available to any student interested in cooperative housing.[12]

Delta Phi Epsilon (ΔΦΕ)[edit]

Delta Phi Epsilon was founded at Dartmouth College in 1984 as the Epsilon Alpha chapter of the national sorority. The sorority was derecognized by the College in June, 1989, when it failed to maintain an active membership of at least 35 students.[110] The Dartmouth chapter made an effort to revive itself by separating from the national in 1990 to become Pi Sigma Psi, a local sorority, but dissolved soon thereafter.[12]

Delta Psi Delta (ΔΨΔ)[edit]

Delta Psi Delta was established at Dartmouth College in 1950 as the Dartmouth chapter of Tau Epsilon Phi, a national fraternity. The Dartmouth chapter dissociated from the national in 1969, and reformed itself as the Harold Parmington Foundation. Faced with falling membership in 1981, the fraternity reformed itself with a more traditional Greek letter name, Delta Psi Delta, and opened its membership to women as well as men. Faced with critically low enrollment, Delta Psi Delta finally dissolved in 1991.[12] The local, coeducational fraternity at Dartmouth was not associated with either the Canadian sorority[111] or the local fraternities at California State University, Chico[112] and Linfield College[113] also named Delta Psi Delta.

Zeta Beta Chi (ΖΒΧ)[edit]

Zeta Beta Chi was founded in 1984 as a local sorority named Alpha Beta. In 1986, the sorority gained a charter as the Dartmouth chapter of Delta Gamma, a national sorority. In 1997, the sorority voted to go local again, and reformed as Zeta Beta Chi. Plagued with low membership, the sorority was already on a marginal financial footing in 1998, when a College inspection during the summer discovered mercury contamination in the sorority’s basement, the former house of Arthur Sherburne Hardy. The College closed the building for the remainder of the year, negatively impacting fall rush. The sorority announced its dissolution in December 1998.[107]

Harold Parmington Foundation (HPF)[edit]

The Harold Parmington Foundation was a local fraternity founded in 1970 after the Dartmouth chapter of Tau Epsilon Phi dissociated from its national organization. The new local fraternity continued to reside in 15 Webster Avenue, the house now occupied by the Epsilon Kappa Theta sorority. With only one member each from the classes of 1983 and 1984, the fraternity reorganized itself as a coeducational fraternity named Delta Psi Delta.[114] A past president of the fraternity, Brian Dale, class of 1980, was one of the passengers on American Airlines Flight 11 that was hijacked and flown into the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City during the September 11, 2001 attacks.[114][115]

Kappa Alpha Psi (ΚΑΨ)[edit]

Kappa Alpha Psi at Dartmouth College was founded in 1987 as the Mu Chi chapter of the national fraternity. Kappa Alpha Psi was the second historically African-American fraternity at Dartmouth College. Its membership was active through at least the end of the 1990s. The Kappa Alpha Psi national currently lists the Mu Chi chapter as inactive.[116]

The brotherhood and physical plant of Lambda Chi Alpha in the 1922 Dartmouth College yearbook, The Aegis

Lambda Chi Alpha (ΛΧΑ)[edit]

Lambda Chi Alpha was founded at Dartmouth College in 1914 as the Theta Zeta chapter of the national fraternity. Faced with insurmountable financial stress during the Great Depression, the Dartmouth chapter dissolved in 1932.[12]

Xi Kappa Chi (ΞΚΧ)[edit]

Xi Kappa Chi was originally established at Dartmouth in 1980 as the Zeta Mu chapter of Alpha Chi Omega, a national sorority. The sorority dissociated from the national organization in 1990 and became a local sorority named Xi Kappa Chi. Faced with low membership in 1993, the local sorority considered an affiliation with Phi Mu, a national sorority, as a possibility of attracting more new members hesitant to rush a small local sorority. The Phi Mu national organization sent representatives to Dartmouth in April, 1993, but based on their report, the Phi Mu national council voted against a Dartmouth chapter. Xi Kappa Chi was dissolved by the Dartmouth Panhellenic Council in 1993.[117]

Pi Lambda Phi (ΠΛΦ)[edit]

The Pi chapter of the national fraternity Pi Lambda Phi was established at Dartmouth College in 1924. The membership of the Dartmouth chapter was predominantly Jewish. About half of the College’s fraternities at the time had national constitutions that explicitly forbade membership to Jews, and for many of the other chapters, it was an informal policy to exclude membership to Jewish students. The national constitution of Pi Lambda Phi expressly accepted members of all religions. Pi Lambda Phi was not initially accepted by the Dartmouth Greek community, and efforts in 1924 and 1925 to gain formal admission into the Interfraternity Council failed. The fraternity was finally recognized in the spring of 1927.[118] The fraternity’s first residence, purchased in 1924, was a building on South Street originally occupied by a Roman Catholic church. The fraternity would reside there until 1961, when it moved to a house north of Webster Avenue on Occom Ridge. The chapter dissolved in 1971.[3]

Sigma Alpha Mu (ΣΑΜ)[edit]

Sigma Alpha Mu was established at Dartmouth College in 1930 as the Sigma Upsilon chapter of the national fraternity. At the time, the Sigma Alpha Mu national limited membership in the organization to Jewish men. Sigma Alpha Mu placed more emphasis on the observances of Judaism than did the other predominantly Jewish fraternity on campus, Pi Lambda Phi, and had difficulty attracting the interest of most mainstream Jewish students on campus.[118] The Dartmouth chapter dissolved in 1935, during the Great Depression.[12]

Tau Epsilon Phi (ΤΕΦ)[edit]

Phi Gamma Delta, circa 1915

Tau Epsilon Phi was established at Dartmouth College in 1950 as the Epsilon Delta chapter of the national fraternity. The Dartmouth chapter dissociated from the national in 1969, and voted to call itself the Harold Parmington Foundation.[12]

Phi Gamma Delta (FIJI)[edit]

Phi Gamma Delta was founded at Dartmouth College as the Delta Upsilon chapter of the national fraternity in 1901. The Dartmouth chapter seceded from the national fraternity in 1965, and adopted the new name of Phoenix. The new local fraternity dissolved in 1971.[12]The fraternity has no association with the Phoenix all-female senior society founded at Dartmouth in 1984.

Phi Kappa Psi (ΦKΨ)[edit]

Phi Kappa Psi, circa 1915

Phi Kappa Psi (“Phi Psi”) traces its heritage at Dartmouth College to the Beta Psi local fraternity, founded in 1895. Beta Psi became the New Hampshire Alpha chapter of Phi Kappa Psi in 1896. The Dartmouth chapter dissociated from the national in 1967 as a result of the national’s reaction to the chapter’s pledging of a black pledge, adopting the new name Phi Sigma Psi. Phi Sigma Psi was one of the six fraternities that adopted a formal coeducational membership policy in 1972. In the late 1980s, the membership began referring to the organization as “Phi Psi/Panarchy”. The fraternity changed its name to The Panarchy in 1991.[119] In 1993, the College began a program for “undergraduate societies” as open-membership alternatives to the Greek system. In September 1993, the members of Panarchy voted to disaffiliate from the Greek system and became the first of two Undergraduate Societies.[120]

Alpha Chi Alpha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alpha Chi Alpha

Dartmouth ΑΧΑ house

Founded May 21, 1963
Dartmouth College
Type Social
Scope Dartmouth College
Motto “Fidelis et Suavis”
Colors Red and Black
Symbol White Horse
Flower The Ramos
Chapters 1
Headquarters 13 Webster Avenue
Hanover, New Hampshire,United States
Homepage http://www.alphachialpha.org

Alpha Chi Alpha (ΑΧΑ) is a fraternity at the American Ivy League university of Dartmouth College. Alpha Chi Alpha is a member ofDartmouth’s Greek system, which currently has fourteen fraternities, nine sororities and three co-ed undergraduate houses that fall under the umbrella of the Greek system.

Alpha Chi Alpha is referred to among Dartmouth students as simply Alpha Chi. The house which is located at 13 Webster Avenue on the Dartmouth College campus is a college-owned fraternity, meaning that the brothers do not own the land or house. This also means that Dartmouth College paid for $1.3 million in renovations (done during the summer of 2004), which included the razing of the “Barn” structure that was used as social space by the brothers of Alpha Chi to make way for a new expanded basement and main floor area which will act as new social space for the fraternity.

The house is nicknamed the “Magic Green Cottage” and the “Cheese Lodge” by its members and has the unique location on fraternity row directly across from the President’s House. The green-shingled structure includes a sand volleyball court adjacent to the house. Its perennial pledges are easily recognized by their “sirens” (red, baseball cap-like headwear), which they wear for the duration of their pledge term.

The house was begun in March 1917, when twelve Dartmouth men founded the Epsilon Kappa Alpha fraternity. In 1919, this lodge became the Phi Nu chapter of the national fraternity, Alpha Chi Rho. The house was located in the back of the present White Church.

Alpha Chi Rho flourished at Dartmouth for about ten years. In the early 1930s, however, the number of brothers declined drastically due to a number of new fraternities on campus and general financial difficulties caused by the Depression. It was at that time when Alpha Chi Rho, along with Lambda Chi Alpha, Phi Kappa Sigma, and Alpha Sigma Phi, who were each having difficulties of their own, joined together to create a new fraternity, Gamma Delta Chi. This house is still active today.

House history[edit]

Timeline of Events in AXA’s History
Important dates in the history of Alpha Chi Alpha
1919 Alpha Chi Rho (Phi Nu Chapter). National.
1935 Merged with ΑΣΦ, ΦΚΣ, & ΛΧΑ to becomeGamma Delta Chi.
1957 Phi Nu Chapter of AXP reformed by split from GDX.
1963 Became Alpha Chi Alpha (AXA).
1975 First Ever ‘Beach Party’.
1979 Bob Ceplikas ’78 builds third floor of house.
1997 The mysterious Great Fire of ’97 strikes.
2004 House undergoes college-sponsored, multimillion dollar renovation.

On March 9, 1957, twenty-four undergraduates bonded together and broke away from Gamma Delta Chi, which they thought was inadequate and misdirected. They reactivated the Phi Nu chapter of Alpha Chi Rho. The brotherhood moved to the present house on Webster Avenue, bought and repaired by the College. In this way, the fraternity was established. Tim Ryerson ’59 was the first President of the reactivated chapter.

Early in the spring of 1963, a committee met and recommended a break from the national. On May 21, 1963, the chapter voted to discontinue their ties with the national affiliation. It was determined that the brotherhood had no meaningful ties with the national. The national chapter required brothers to “accept Jesus as their lord and savior,” a tenet that brothers at the Dartmouth chapter strongly disagreed with. The ritual was meaningless to the brothers because of their general dislike for the national, and because they found such a requirement to be ridiculous. An overburdening financial obligation to the national may have been an additional consideration. The brotherhood voted to name the disaffiliated fraternity Alpha Chi Alpha and it has been in continual operation ever since.

13 Webster Avenue[edit]

Alpha Chi Alpha, panoramic view of newly renovated house.

The building was built in 1898. Professor Fred Emery purchased the vacant lot on May 5, 1896. Later owners sold the house to the college in March 1957, and it has been leased by the brotherhood ever since. The College, as the fraternity’s landlord, takes care of all major structural repairs.

Improvements have been made on the building from term to term, including a series of major renovations. The living room and the second floor above it were added in May 1963. The entire third floor is the result of the efforts of Bob Ceplikas ’78. During the summer of 1985, the College spent over $180,000 on major renovations.

The most recent renovations occurred in the summer and fall terms of 2004. Costing $1.3 million, the renovations involved the razing of a structure that was once known as the ‘Emory Barn,’ but soon referred to as simply ‘the Barn’. A concrete hallway, called ‘the Slide,’ was constructed at some point, adjoining the fraternity’s physical plant and the Barn. The Barn was one of the most distinctive social atmospheres on Dartmouth’s campus and cherished by the brotherhood. The second floor of the Barn, known as the Upstairs Barn, housed three brothers each term, and it became well known among the brotherhood as a unique melting-pot bonding experience. The basement, along with the new main floor area and recently refurbished tube room, have replaced the Barn and the old front room as the primary social spaces for the fraternity. Presently, since construction was completed in fall 2004, the newest reincarnation of Alpha Chi Alpha is able to house 21 brothers and host over 600 guests for the ‘Beach Party’ that the brothers put on each winter during Winter Carnival, and also for a ‘Pigstick BBQ’ each spring on the first Saturday in May.

Famous alumni[edit]

See also