Delta Kappa Epsilon (secret society)

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Delta Kappa Epsilon
ΔΚΕ
Official Crest of Delta Kappa Epsilon
Founded June 22, 1844; 171 years ago
No. 12 Old South Hall, Yale University, New Haven,Connecticut
Type Social
Scope International
Motto Kerothen Philoi Aei

(“Friends From The Heart, Forever”)

Colors      Azure(Blue/Navy),
Or (Gold),
and      Gules (Crimson)
Symbol Rampant Lion
Publication The Deke Quarterly
Philanthropy Rampant Lion Foundation
Chapters 54
Headquarters P.O. Box 8360
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Homepage http://www.dke.org

Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D-K-E or “Deke”) is one of the oldest North American fraternities with 54 active chapters across the United States and Canada. The fraternity was founded at Yale College in 1844 by 15 sophomores that were disaffected by the existing houses on campus. They established a fellowship “where the candidate most favored was he who combined in the most equal proportions the gentleman, the scholar, and the jolly good fellow.”

The private gentleman’s club the DKE Club of New York was founded in 1885 and is currently in residence at the Yale Club of New York City.

Founding[edit]

The fraternity was founded June 22, 1844,[1] in room number 12 Old South Hall, Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut. At this meeting, the Fraternity’s secret and open Greek mottos were devised, as were the pin and secret handshake. The open motto is “Kerothen Philoi Aei” (“Friends from the Heart, Forever”).

The fifteen founders were:[2] William Woodruff Atwater, Dr. Edward Griffin Bartlett, Frederic Peter Bellinger, Jr., Henry Case, Colonel George Foote Chester, John Butler Conyngham, Thomas Isaac Franklin, William Walter Horton, The Honorable William Boyd Jacobs, Professor Edward VanSchoonhoven Kinsley, Chester Newell Righter, Dr. Elisha Bacon Shapleigh, Thomas DuBois Sherwood, Albert Everett Stetson, and Orson William Stow. This first Chapter was denoted Phi chapter.

The Objects of Delta Kappa Epsilon are:

The Cultivation of General Literature and Social Culture, the Advancement and Encouragement of Intellectual Excellence, the Promotion of Honorable Friendship and Useful Citizenship, the Development of a Spirit of Tolerance and Respect for the Rights and Views of Others, the Maintenance of Gentlemanly Dignity, Self-Respect, and Morality in All Circumstances, and the Union of Stout Hearts and Kindred Interests to Secure to Merit its Due Reward.[3]

Delta Kappa Epsilon administers a charitable organization called the Rampant Lion Foundation. DKE also has championed an organization call Restore Our Associational Rights (“ROAR”) which campaigns for the freedom of fraternities and Greek organizations in general to operate without interference and discrimination from university administrations or others.

The pin of Delta Kappa Epsilon shows the Greek letters ΔΚΕ on a white scroll upon a black diamond with gold rope trim and a star in each corner. DKE’s heraldic colours are azure (blue), or (gold), and gules (crimson). Its flag is a triband of those colours with a dexter rampant lion in the middle.

Chapters[edit]

The Yale Club’s main entrance on Vanderbilt Avenue, home of The Delta Kappa Epsilon Club of New York

Within three years of the founding at Yale, chapters were founded at Bowdoin,Princeton University, Colby College, and Amherst College. DKE has grown to 54 chapters and has initiated over 85,000 members across North America.

Traditionally an Eastern Seaboard fraternity, DKE’s Yale chapter had an early reputation as a Southerner’s fraternity. Two of the original founders were from the South and 13 out of 38 members of 1845 and 1846 were from the South. AlthoughVanderbilt University claims DKE’s first chapter in the South (Gamma chapter, supposedly founded in 1847), Vanderbilt University was not founded until 1873. Psi chapter at the University of Alabama was founded in 1847.

Syracuse University‘s chapter house was used as a safe harbor by Harriet Tubman,Sojourner Truth, and William Still during passage into Canada via the Underground Railroad.

Delta Kappa Epsilon’s first West Coast chapter was founded at the University of California, Berkeley on Halloween night, 1876. The DKE chapter at Colgate University (Hamilton, NY) is one of the only DKE chapters having a Temple building, one which only can be entered by Mu DKE members. The Lambda Chapter at Kenyon College in 1854 built the first fraternity lodge in America. The Delta Kappa Epsilon Club of New York was founded in 1885 and is currently in residence at the Yale Club of New York City.[4] Delta Kappa Epsilon became an international fraternity with the addition of the Alpha Phi chapter in 1898 at the University of Toronto, Canada.

As of May 2014, Delta Kappa Epsilon has twelve colonies, at University of South Carolina, McGill University (Montreal), University of Illinois, University of Texas, North Carolina State, Hampden-Sydney College, University of Delaware, Simon Fraser University, University of Edinburgh, Ithaca College, University of Oxford, and the University of Tennessee. However, both Edinburgh and Oxford have said they were “not aware” of the fraternity’s activities on their campuses, and Edinburgh formally requested that the university’s crest was not used by the fraternity.[5]

Notable members[edit]

President Theodore Roosevelt

Delta Kappa Epsilon members have included five of forty-four Presidents of the United States: Rutherford B. Hayes, Theodore Roosevelt, Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush. Vice President of the United States, Dan Quayle, became a DKE brother at DePauw University. Franklin D. Roosevelt was a member of the Alpha Chapter of DKE at Harvard and would be considered the sixth DKE brother to serve as President of the United States; however, the Harvard chapter was de-recognized by DKE International due to the chapter’s stance on dual membership with other fraternities.

In the election of 1876, the Republican Party chose between two DKE members, nominating Hayes rather than rival and fellow DKE James G. Blaine. Blaine also ran unsuccessfully for President.

Many American and Canadian politicians, businessmen, sports figures, and artists have been members, including Joe Paterno, Herb Kelleher, J.P. Morgan, Jr.,William Randolph Hearst, Cole Porter, Henry Cabot Lodge, Dick Clark, Tom Landry, and George Steinbrenner. DKE flags were carried to the North Pole by its discoverer, Admiral Robert Peary and to the Moon by astronaut Alan Bean.

During the Civil War, the first Union officer killed in battle was DKE member Theodore Winthrop of Phi. The dying Edwin S. Rogers (Theta) of Maine was attended to by a Confederate Psi from Alabama, who observed the DKE pin and sent it to the family.[6] During the Spanish–American War, the first American officer to be killed was a DKE member, Surgeon John B. Gibbs (Phi Chi). DKE member J. Frank Aldritch (Psi Phi) died when the USS Maine was sunk.

Yung Wing, the first Chinese graduate from an American university in 1854, was a member of the Phi Chapter of DKE. Later, his citizenship was revoked and he was denied reentry to the United States by the government of Theodore Roosevelt, another member of DKE.

The late Dick Clark donated $1 million to the Delta Kappa Epsilon Foundation of Central New York, which handles finances for the fraternity’s chapters across the U.S.[7]

Purpose of Chapters[edit]

One of Delta Kappa Epsilon’s focuses within each Chapter is on community service in addition to the social aspect that goes along with most collegiate academic Greek fraternities.

Each Chapter competes for a number of awards that include leadership, chapter improvements, and community service.[8]Each of these areas is used in awarding the overall award called the Lion Trophy.

The 2011 Lion Trophy winner was Psi chapter at the University of Alabama.[9] The chapter won this award in the wake of sponsoring a food drive to help give relief to the Tuscaloosa community devastated by tornadoes.[10] The 2012 winner of the Lion Trophy was the University of British Columbia, and 2013’s Lion Trophy went to both the Psi chapter and the Iota chapter at Centre College.

Controversy[edit]

On June 6, 1892, a pledge was led blindfolded through the street during his fraternity initiation towards Moriarty’s Cafe, a popular student hang-out. He was told to run and did so at top speed. He ran into a sharp carriage pole, injuring himself. He was rendered unconscious, but the injury was not thought to be serious at the time. He suffered an intestine rupture and died five days later of peritonitis.[11][12][13][14]

In 1967, the New York Times reported on “frat-branding”—the alleged use of a hot branding iron to make a “D” shaped scar on new fraternity members. The fraternity’s then-president George W. Bush stated that they were “only cigarette burns.”[15]

In 1989, Colgate University banned all DKE activities after the officials found members guilty of hazing, blackballing and other violations of university regulations.[16] In 2005 Colgate University barred DKE from campus for refusing to sell its house to the school and join a new student-residence initiative. DKE filed a lawsuit charging that the school violated its right to free association as well as antitrust laws by monopolizing the student housing market.[17] In 2006 the Supreme Court of Madison County found that the fraternity had failed to state a cause of action and that its claim was “time-barred.”[18][19]

In December, 2008, the University of California, Berkeley dechaptered the local DKE chapter for alcohol, hazing and fire safety misconduct.[20] The chapter never closed, and continued in “rogue” status. Four years later, the chapter opted not to reapply for University recognition and continue as a rogue fraternity. In 2012, the chapter was visited by County Vice Enforcement Team for complaints about under-age drinking.[21] And on October 17, there were reports of 5 sex assaults at this chapter. The five individuals reported that they had been given “roofies” and sexually assaulted, however the reports went unconfirmed and no charges were pressed against the chapter nor its members.[22]

In October 2010, Yale’s DKE chapter came under fire after its members shouted inflammatory and misogynistic chants at an Old Campus pledge ritual.[23] These chants included, “No means yes, yes means anal.” and “My name is Jack. I’m a necrophiliac. I f— dead women and fill them with my semen.” The chapter’s president, Jordan Forney, apologized for the fraternity’s conduct, characterizing it as a “lapse in judgment.”[24] but Yale’s feminist magazine Broad Recognition called for administrative action against the leadership of DKE. By October 24, 2010, Dean Mary Miller of Yale College had strongly recommended to the DKE National Executive Director, Dr. Douglas Lanpher, that the chapter at Yale be put on probation indefinitely.[25] Instead, on May 17, 2011, the chapter was put on suspension for five years.[26] The order bars DKE from conducting any activities on the Yale campus during that time.[27]

In January 2011, the DKE chapter at the University of Alberta had its student group status suspended for three years due to alleged hazing activity.[28]

In November 2014, a DKE chapter in Edinburgh had the minutes leaked from a meeting in March 2014 by the University of Edinburgh student newspaper, The Student. The minutes allegedly made reference to comments that joked about raping the Edinburgh University Feminist Society.[29] The story gained traction in both national and international media, being picked up by The Independent, The Huffington Post, and Time magazine.

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Alpha Sigma Phi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the fraternity in the Philippines, see Alpha Sigma Phi Philippines, Inc.
Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity
ΑΣΦ
Alpha Sigma Phi Crest.png
Founded December 6, 1845; 169 years ago
Yale University
Type Social
Scope United States
Motto Causa Latet Vis Est Notissima

“The cause is hidden, the results well-known”

Colors Cardinal and Stone
Symbol Phoenix
Flower Cardinal rose and yellow tea rose
Chapters 100 active, 27 colonies, 2 interest groups, 129 total groups
Headquarters 710 Adams Street
Carmel, Indiana, USA
Homepage alphasigmaphi.org

Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity and Foundation (ΑΣΦ,[1][2] commonly abbreviated to Alpha Sig) is a fraternity with 91 active chapters, 29 colonies, and 5 interest groups.[3] Founded at Yale in 1845, it is the 10th oldest fraternity in the United States.

The fraternity practices many traditions. Its Latin motto is, Causa Latet Vis Est Notissima (“The cause is hidden, the results well-known”).[4] The fraternity’s official symbol is the phoenix, as the phoenix rises from the ashes of its old body, signifying the re-founding of the fraternity in the early 1900s. Due to active expansion efforts, Alpha Sigma Phi continues to offer services and opportunities to over 2,500 undergraduate students and 70,000 living alumni.[5]

History[edit]

Founding[edit]

Alpha Sigma Phi was founded by three men at Yale College in 1845 as a secret sophomore society composed of many of the school’s poets, athletes, and scholars.[6] Upon rising through the ranks of the school, members shared membership with Alpha Sigma Phi in Skull and Bones and Scroll and Key.[7]

The founders of Alpha Sigma Phi were:

Louis Manigault

Louis Manigault was the son of Charles I. Manigault, a wealthy rice planter from South Carolina who traced his ancestry to a Huguenot refugee who fled from Louis XIV‘s persecution and came to America in 1691. He served in the American Civil War as assistant to the Confederate Surgeon General. Moreover, he was a prominent plantation and slave owner in South Carolina.[8]
Stephen Ormsby Rhea was the son of John Rhea, an important cotton planter of Louisiana who helped open the disputed territory of West Floridaand made it a part of the U.S. and state of Louisiana.
Horace Spangler Weiser, of York, Pennsylvania, was a descendant of Conrad Weiser, also a refugee from Europe who became famous in theFrench and Indian War, representing several colonies in treaty negotiations with Native Americans.[6]

Manigault and Rhea met at St. Paul’s Preparatory School near Flushing, New York, where both were members of the same literary society and were preparing themselves for admission to Yale. Weiser attended a private school in New Haven, and he met Rhea early in his freshman year, who introduced him to Manigault.

Once at Yale, Manigault and Rhea became members of Yale’s Calliopean Literary Society, and Weiser was a member of the Linonian Literary Society. Manigault was very much interested in the class society system at Yale and noted the class fraternities provided experience for their members and prepared them for competition in literary contests. The sophomore class there had only one society, Kappa Sigma Theta, which displayed an attitude of superiority toward non-fraternity men.[7]

Manigault revealed to his friends Rhea and Weiser a plan for founding another sophomore society. Rhea agreed and enlisted Weiser to become the three founders of Alpha Sigma Phi. Their first official meeting was held in Manigault’s room on Chapel Street on December 6, 1845. The constitution and ritual were then written and the fraternity pin was designed. The first pledge class, of 14 members, was initiated on June 24, 1846.[6]

After the birth of Alpha Sigma Phi, an intense rivalry began with Kappa Sigma Theta. The rivalry expressed itself in their publications, Kappa Sigma Theta’s “The Yale Banger” and Alpha Sigma Phi’s “The Yale Tomahawk.” In 1852, the editors of The Tomahawk were expelled after violating faculty orders to cease publication. However, the rivalry between the organizations continued until 1858, when Kappa Sigma Theta was suppressed by the faculty.[7]

Beyond Yale[edit]

Mu Chapter at the University of Washington

The first charter was granted to University of Massachusetts, Amherst as Beta Chapter, but it only lasted about six months, at which time the parent chapter requested that it dissolve and return the constitution. However, a fragmentary document in the Yale library suggests that Beta was chartered in 1850 at Harvard but lived a very short life due to a wave of puritanism. The chapter at Harvard was revived in 1911 as Beta Chapter but only survived about 20 years; the charter was withdrawn due to Harvard’s anti-fraternity environment. When UMass Amherst was restored in 1854, it was designated as Delta Chapter. However, when the chapter at Marietta College was chartered in 1860, it too was given the Delta designation, despite the parent chapter being aware of this discrepancy.[6]

When the Civil War broke out across the United States, almost every member of Delta at Marietta enlisted in the Union Army.[citation needed]Three of the brothers gave their lives fighting for the Union cause. Former chapter presidents William B. Whittlesey and George B. Turner fell on the battle fields of Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain. They willed their personal possessions and their swords to the chapter, which treasured those mementos until the chapter closed in the mid-1990s.[7]

During the Civil War, the mother chapter at Yale was torn by internal dissension. Because less attention was being given to the sophomore class societies, some Alpha Sigma Phi members pledged to Delta Kappa Epsilon, a junior class society, and attempted to turn the control of Alpha Sigma Phi over to Delta Kappa Epsilon.[7] However, the attempt was thwarted by members of Alpha Sigma Phi who had pledged to the other two junior class societies. A conflict ensued, and the faculty suppressed Alpha Sigma Phi to end the disorder. However, the traditions of Alpha Sigma Phi were carried on by two new sophomore class societies, Delta Beta Xi and Phi Theta Psi. Louis Manigault sought to renew his loyalty and friendship with his brothers of Alpha Sigma Phi, and agreed with Rhea and Weiser to consider Delta Beta Xi its true descendant. They were unaware at the time that Delta Chapter at Marietta still existed as Alpha Sigma Phi.[7]

Refounding[edit]

The second founders were:

  • Wayne Montgomery Musgrave, an honors graduate of New York University, Yale and Harvard. He provided the organizational spark that fanned Alpha Sigma Phi into national prominence.
  • Edwin Morey Waterbury, born in Geneseo, New York on September 26, 1884, son of Dr. Reuben A. and Frances Waterbury. Dr. Waterbury was an educator, and vice-principal of the New York State Normal School at Geneseo from 1873 to 1895.[7]

With the inactivation of Delta Beta Xi at Yale, Alpha Sigma Phi was kept alive only at Marietta by Delta. At Yale, four friends agreed in a conversation over a card game that an organization was needed that was open to all students, instead of representing only the sophomore or junior classes. The four friends were Robert L. Ervin, Benjamin F. Crenshaw, Arthur S. Ely, and Edwin M. Waterbury.[6]

Other members soon joined the group in their mission, the first of which were Fredrick H. Waldron and Wayne M. Musgrave. Ervin knew some of the alumni brothers of Delta at Marietta and asked them to send the first letter to Delta. On March 27, 1907, Ely, Crenshaw, Musgrave, Waldron, and Waterbury traveled to Marietta and were initiated into Alpha Sigma Phi. Upon returning to New Haven, they initiated the other friends they had recruited into the new Alpha chapter at Yale.[7]

Many of the old Alpha members returned to Yale upon hearing the news of the refounding, and helped acquire the fraternity’s first piece of real estate, the “Tomb”, a windowless two story building. No non-member was allowed entrance. No member could speak of the interior of the building, and were even expected to remain silent while passing by the exterior of the building.[7]

Expansion[edit]

Theta Chapter at the University of Michigan

A new national organization was formed at an Alpha Sigma Phi conference at Marietta in 1907, and within a year there were three new chapters: Zeta at Ohio State, Eta at the University of Illinois, and Theta at the University of Michigan. In 1910 another convention was held with the members of the former chapters at Yale, Amherst and Ohio Wesleyan University, and a delegation from the YaleDelta Beta Xi fraternity. All of these pledged to anew their loyalty to a restored Alpha Sigma Phi, and soon afterward the chapters Mu at the University of Washington, Nu at University of California, Berkeley, and Upsilon at the Pennsylvania State University were added.[7]

Alpha Sigma Phi survived World War I fairly easily and even recruited many new members during those years. In the post-war era, Alpha Sigma Phi expanded at the rate of one chapter per year. In 1939, Phi Pi Phi merged with Alpha Sigma Phi, as the Great Depression left that fraternity with only five of its original twenty-one chapters. World War II hit Alpha Sigma Phi hard, with many brothers losing their lives due to the conflict, forcing many chapters to close.[6]

On September 6, 1946, Alpha Kappa Pi merged with Alpha Sigma Phi. Alpha Kappa Pi had never had a national office, but was still a strong fraternity. During the war, they had lost many chapters and realized the need for a more stable national organization. Alpha Sigma Phi expanded again in 1965 by five more chapters when it merged with Alpha Gamma Upsilon.[6]

The 1980s found a younger generation of leaders taking the reins of the fraternity. Keeping in mind one of its oldest traditions, being a fraternity run by undergraduates, the leadership and undergraduates began expanding in new directions. In 2006, Alpha Sigma Phi won the North-American Interfraternity Conference‘s Laurel Wreath Award for the Ralph F. Burns Leadership Institute for new members.[7]

Notable members[edit]

Athletics[edit]

Name Chapter and Year Known For
Bradford G. Corbett Wagner 1958 Owner, Texas Rangers (1974–80)[9]
Fitz Eugene Dixon, Jr. Widener University1973 Owner, Philadelphia 76ers (1976–1981)
Ray Eliot University of Illinois1938 Head Football Coach, University of Illinois (1942–59) 3-time Big Ten Conference Champion & 2-time Rose Bowl Winner
Rich Duwelius The Ohio State University 1974 Olympic Gold Medalist – Volleyball, 1984 Summer Olympics
Bob Howsam University of Colorado 1938 President and General Manager, Cincinnati Reds “Big Red Machine” (1967–1977)
Billy “White Shoes” Johnson Widener University1971 American football player (1974–1988)
Press Maravich Davis and Elkins College 1941 Head Basketball Coach; University of Louisville, North Carolina State University, and Clemson University. Father of Pistol Pete Maravich, Basketball Hall of Fame
Bennie Oosterbaan University of Michigan 1927 3-time All-American football player (1924–1928), University of Michigan Head Football Coach (1948–1958) 3-time Big Ten Conference Champion & 1948 Associated Press Poll National Champion
Robin Reed Oregon State University 1926 Wrestling Gold medalist, 1924 Summer Olympics
Tom Watson Stanford University1971 Pro golfer, 8-time Major Winner, 3-time Vardon Trophy winner, & 10th all time in PGA tour wins

Arnold Palmer (golfer) Wake Forest University

Authors, editors, and publishers[edit]

Name Chapter and Year Known For
Harold T. P. Hayes Wake Forest University 1944 Editor, Esquire Magazine (1963–1973)
Reinhold Niebuhr Yale University 1913 Protestant theologian
Rick Santelli University of Illinois 1974 CNBC commentator, derivatives trader

Business leaders and entrepreneurs[edit]

Name Chapter and Year Known For
Warren Buffett University of Pennsylvania 1948 Chairman and CEO, Berkshire Hathaway (1970-), billionaire and philanthropist
Ratan Tata Cornell University 1962 Chairman and CEO, Tata Group (1991-2012), billionaire and philanthropist
Andrew McKelvey Westminster 1954 Chairman and CEO, Monster Worldwide, Inc. (1967–2006), billionaire and philanthropist
Jon Mittelhauser University of Illinois 1990 Co-founder, Netscape Communications, founding father of the Web browser[10]
Charles F. Feeney Cornell University 1953 Co-Founder, DFS Galleria

Education[edit]

Name Chapter and Year Known For
Andrew Dickson White Yale 1850 First President – Cornell University (1866–1885)

Government[edit]

Name Chapter and Year Known For
John Kasich The Ohio State University 1973 Congressman, Ohio (1983–2001), Governor of Ohio (2010-)
Andrew G. Douglas Toledo 1951 Justice, Ohio State Supreme Court (1985–2002)
Arthur Flemming Ohio Wesleyan University 1924 United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (1958–1961)
Skip Humphrey American University 1962 Minnesota Attorney General (1983–1999)
C. Everett Koop Dartmouth College 1934 Surgeon General of the United States (1982–1989)
Horace R. Kornegay Wake Forest 1942 U.S. Representative, North Carolina (1961–1969); Chairman, The Tobacco Institute (1982–1986)
Charles G. Oakman Michigan 1924 U.S. Representative, Michigan (1953–1955)
Ross Swimmer University of Oklahoma 1961 Special Trustee for American Indians at the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (2001-)
Frank Wolf Penn State 1960 U.S. Representative, Virginia (1981-)
Eric Swalwell University of Maryland, College Park 2001 U.S. Representative, California (2013-)
Samuel Bodman Cornell University 1957 United States Secretary of Energy (2005–2009)

Musicians, stage, and screen performers[edit]

Name Chapter and Year Known For
Robert Loggia Wagner College 1951 Actor, Mr. MacMillan in Big
Vincent Price Yale University 1930 Actor, The Inventor in Edward Scissorhands
Willard Scott American University 1946 TV personality, weatherman on The Today Show
Ted Cassidy West Virginia Wesleyan 1939 Actor, Lurch on The Addams Family
Andrew Kenny UNC Charlotte 2010 Actor, Stamp Kid in Juwanna Mann

Controversy over inclusion of women[edit]

In 1983, Tau Chapter of Stanford University split off from the national fraternity organization over controversy regarding that chapter’s inclusion of women as initiated members. The chapter had begun the tradition of initiating women some years earlier, but when a female member became president of the chapter, the national fraternity organization reacted with an immediate suspension and threat of charter revocation.[11] Tau Chapter became Alpha Sigma Co-Ed Fraternity thereafter, surviving independently for over ten years.[12]

Active chapters, colonies, and interest groups[edit]

See also