List of tallest structures in the world

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In 1974, the Warsaw radio tower was erected, at 646.38 m (2,121 ft) becoming the tallest structure in the world of its time. It collapsed in 1991 because an error occurred in exchanging the guy-wires

Tallest Structures in the world.

This article lists the tallest human-constructed structures, past and present, of any type. The tallest is the Burj Khalifa skyscraperat 829.8 m (2,722 ft). Listed are television broadcasting masts, tower-type structures (e.g. the CN Tower), high-rise buildings (e.g. the Willis Tower), oil platforms, electrical towers, bridge towers, etc. This list is organized by absolute height. See also List of tallest buildings and structures in the world, List of tallest freestanding structures in the world and List of tallest buildings in the world.

This list includes guyed masts, commonly used on sailing ships as support for sails, or on land as radio masts to support telecommunications equipment such as radio antennas aka “aerials”.

For lower heights, see:

Terminology[edit]

Outside the electronics industry there is often ambiguity between the terms tower and mast. A tower is a self-supporting or cantileveredstructure, while a mast is stabilised by stays or guys. Both broadcasting towers and masts provide limited occupied floor space and arenon-building structures, as opposed to regular buildings which have greater floor space for occupancy.

List by height[edit]

Structures (past or present) 600 m and taller (1,969 ft)[edit]

Name Pinnacle height Year Structure type Main use Country Town Remarks Coordinates
Burj Khalifa 829.8 m (2,722 ft) 2010 Skyscraper Office, hotel, residential United Arab Emirates UAE Dubai Tallest man-made structure in the world 25°11′50.0″N55°16′26.6″E
Warsaw Radio Mast 646.4 m (2,121 ft) 1972–1974 Guyed mast LF transmission PolandPoland GąbinKonstantynów,Masovian Voivodeship Insulated; collapsed on August 8, 1991 during guy wire exchange 52°22′3.74″N19°48′8.73″E
Tokyo Skytree 634.0 m (2,080.1 ft)[1] 2012 Steel tower Observation, VHF-UHF transmission  Japan Tokyo Topped out on March 18, 2011, tallest structure in Japan 35°42′36.5″N139°48′39″E
Shanghai Tower 632.0 m (2,073.5 ft)m 2013 Skyscraper Residential, observation China China Shanghai Under construction, topped out in August 2013. Tallest structure in China and second tallest skyscraper in the world. 31°14′7.8″N121°30′3.6″E
KVLY-TV mast 628.8 m (2,063 ft) 1963 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Blanchard, North Dakota Tallest mast in the world 47°20′31.85″N97°17′21.13″W
KRDK-TV mast 627.8 m (2,060 ft) 1998 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Galesburg, North Dakota Rebuilt after collapses on February 14, 1968 and April 6, 1997 47°16′45″N97°20′27″W
KXTV/KOVR tower 624.5 m (2,049 ft) 2000 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Walnut Grove, California Tallest structure in California 38°14′23.2″N121°30′05.7″W
Petronius Platform 610 m (2,000 ft) 2000 Offshore platform Oil drilling United States U.S. Petronius field, Gulf of Mexico Located appr. 210 kilometers (130 mi) southeast of New Orleans 29°06′30″N87°56′30″W
KATV tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1965 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Redfield, Arkansas was tallest structure in Arkansas, collapsed on January 11, 2008 34°28′24.0″N92°12′11″W
KCAU TV Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1965 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Sioux City, Iowa Tallest structure in Iowa (equal)[2] 42°35′11.0″N96°13′57″W
WECT tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1969 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Colly Township, North Carolina Demolished on September 20, 2012.[3]Was once the tallest structure in North Carolina 34°34′44.0″N78°26′12″W
Local TV Iowa Tower Alleman 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1972 Guyed mast VHF-TV, FM radio transmission United States U.S. Alleman, Iowa Tallest structure in Iowa (equal) 41°48′33.0″N93°36′53″W
Des Moines Hearst-Argyle Television Tower Alleman 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1974 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Alleman, Iowa Tallest structure in Iowa (equal) 41°48′35.0″N93°37′17″W
Diversified Communications Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1981 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Floyd Dale, South Carolina Tallest structure in S Carolina (equal) 34°22′03.0″N79°19′48″W
AFLAC Tower[4] 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1984 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Rowley, Iowa Tallest structure in Iowa (equal) 42°24′02.0″N91°50′37″W
WBTV-Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1984 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Dallas, North Carolina Tallest structure in N Carolina (equal) 35°21′51.0″N81°11′12″W
KTVO-TV Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) N/A Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Missouri Collapsed June 2, 1988 40°31′47″N92°26′29″W
Hearst-Argyle Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1985 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Walnut Grove, California 38°15′52.1″N121°29′25.5″W
WTTO Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1986 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Windham Springs, Alabama Tallest structure in Alabama 33°28′51.0″N87°24′03″W
WCSC-Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1986 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Awendaw, South Carolina Tallest structure in S Carolina (equal) 32°55′29.0″N79°41′57″W
KTVE-Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1987 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Bolding, Arkansas also known as SpectraSite Tower Bolding; tallest structure in Arkansas 33°04′41.0″N92°13′41″W
WCTV Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1987 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Metcalf, Georgia Tallest structure in Georgia 30°40′14.0″N83°56′26″W
WRAL HDTV Mast 609.6 m (2,000 ft) (orig. 609.3 m) 1991 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Auburn, North Carolina Rebuil of 2 masts which collapsed in December 1989 35°40′35.1″N78°32′07.2″W
TV Alabama Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1996 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Windham Springs, Alabama Tallest structure in Alabama 33°28′48.0″N87°25′50″W
KDLT Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 1998 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Rowena, South Dakota Tallest structure in South Dakota 43°30′18.0″N96°33′23″W
KMOS TV Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 2002 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Syracuse, Missouri Tallest structure in Missouri; also calledRohn tower . 38°37′36.0″N92°52′04″W
Winnie Cumulus Broadcasting Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 2005 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Winnie, Texas Tallest structure in Texas (equal)[5] 29°56′09.8″N94°30′39.4″W
Liberman Broadcasting Tower Era 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 2006 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Era, Texas Tallest structure in Texas (equal) 33°29′05.5″N97°24′44.8″W
WEAU-Tower 609.6 m (2,000 ft) 2012 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Fairchild, Wisconsin Tallest structure in Wisconsin; original built in 1966, collapsed during ice & wind storm on March 22, 2011; replacement, still at 2,000 feet, began service January 4, 2012 44°39′50.0″N90°57′41″W
Perry Broadcasting Tower 609.5 m (2,000 ft) 2004 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Alfalfa, Oklahoma Tallest structure in Oklahoma 35°15′03.8″N98°36′53.8″W
KY3 Tower[6] 609.4 m (1,999 ft) 2000 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Fordland, Missouri 37°10′26.0″N92°56′28.1″W
SpectraSite Tower Thomasville[6] 609.4 m (1,999 ft) 2002 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Thomasville, Georgia 30°40′50.3″N83°58′20.6″W
Pegasus Broadcasting Tower[6] 609.4 m (1,999 ft)  ? Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Metcalf, Georgia 30°40′52.0″N83°58′21″W
KLDE Tower[6] 609.3 m (1,999 ft) 1986 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Liverpool, Texas also known as Clear Channel Broadcasting Tower, TX 29°17′17.0″N95°13′54″W
WCKW/KSTE-Tower[6] 609.3 m (1,999 ft) 1988 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Vacherie, Louisiana Tallest structure in Louisiana; also known as Clear Channel Broadcasting Tower, LA. 29°57′11.0″N90°43′26″W
American Towers Tower Elkhart[6] 609.3 m (1,999 ft) 2001 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Elkhart, Iowa 41°49′48.0″N93°36′54.6″W
Salem Radio Properties Tower[6] 609.3 m (1,999 ft) 2002 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Collinsville, Texas 33°32′08.4″N96°49′55″W
Stowell Cumulus Broadcasting Tower[7] 609.3 m (1,999 ft)  ? Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Stowell, Texas Built, although mentioned in FCC-list as granted 29°41′52.5″N94°24′9.3″W
WLBT Tower 609 m (1,998 ft) 1999 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Raymond, Mississippi Tallest structure in Mississippi 32°12′49.9″N90°22′56.5″W
KYTV Tower 2[6] 608.4 m (1,996 ft) 1973 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Marshfield, Missouri also known as American Tower Management 37°13′09.4″N92°56′57.4″W
SpectraSite Tower Raymond[6] 608.4 m (1,996 ft)  ? Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Raymond, Mississippi 32°12′11.9″N90°23′34.8″W
Hoyt Radio Tower[6] 608.38 m (1,996.0 ft) 2003 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Hoyt, Colorado Tallest structure in Colorado 39°55′21.8″N103°58′20.2″W
Service Broadcasting Tower Decatur[6] 608.1 m (1,995 ft) 2000 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Decatur, Texas 33°23′12.0″N97°33′58″W
WTVD Tower[6] 607.8 m (1,994 ft) 1978 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Auburn, North Carolina 35°40′06.0″N78°31′58″W
Channel 40 Tower[6] 607.8 m (1,994 ft) 1985 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Walnut Grove, California 38°16′21.4″N121°30′21.6″W
Liberman Broadcasting Tower Devers[6] 607.7 m (1,994 ft) 2006 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Devers, Texas 30°01′02.2″N94°32′47.9″W
KHYS Tower 607.2 m (1,992 ft) 1997 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Devers, Texas dismantled 30°03′07.0″N94°31′39″W
Clear Channel Broadcasting Tower Devers[6] 607 m (1,991 ft) 1988 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Devers, Texas 30°03′06.0″N94°31′38″W
Media General Tower[6] 607 m (1,991 ft) 1987 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Awendaw, South Carolina 32°56′25.0″N79°41′44″W
Eastern North Carolina Broadcasting Tower[6] 606.2 m (1,989 ft) 1980 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Trenton, North Carolina 35°06′16.0″N77°20′11″W
WNCN Tower[8] 606.2 m (1,989 ft) 2000 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Garner, North Carolina 35°40′29.0″N78°31′39.0″W
KELO TV Tower[9] 605 m (1,985 ft) 1974 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Rowena, South Dakota 43°31′07.0″N96°32′06″W
WITN Tower[6] 605 m (1,985 ft) 1979 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Grifton, North Carolina also known as Gray Television Tower 35°21′56.0″N77°23′37.0″W
Noe Corp Tower[6] 604.7 m (1,984 ft) 1998 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Columbia, Louisiana 32°11′51.0″N92°04′14″W
Pappas Telecasting Tower[6] 603.6 m (1,980 ft) 2000 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Plymouth County, Iowa 42°35′12.0″N96°13′19.0″W
KHOU-TV Tower 602 m (1,975 ft) 1992 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Missouri City, Texas 29°33′41.0″N95°30′05″W
Richland Towers Tower Missouri City 601.3 m (1,973 ft) 2001 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Missouri City, Texas 29°34′16.0″N95°30′38″W
KSWB-TV Tower 601 m (1,972 ft) 1984 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. San Diego, California 32°41′47″N116°56′10″W
Abraj Al Bait Hotel Tower 601 m (1,972 ft) 2011 Skyscraper Hotel, residential Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Mecca Tallest structure in Saudi Arabia 21°25′08″N39°49′35″E
Senior Road Tower 600.7 m (1,971 ft) 1983 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Missouri City, Texas 29°34′35.0″N95°30′37″W
KTRK-TV Tower[10] 600.5 m (1,970 ft) 1982 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Missouri City, Texas 29°34′28.0″N95°29′38″W
Houston Tower Joint Venture Tower[6] 600.5 m (1,970 ft) 1985 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Missouri City, Texas 29°34′07.0″N95°29′58″W
American Towers Tower Missouri City[6] 600.5 m (1,970 ft) 2000 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Missouri City, Texas 29°33′45.1″N95°30′35.7″W
Fox-TV Tower[6] 600.4 m (1,970 ft) 1982 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Missouri City, Texas 29°34′29.0″N95°29′38″W
Mississippi Telecasting Tower[6] 600 m (1,969 ft) 1982 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Inverness, Mississippi 33°22′23.0″N90°32′25″W
WCNC-TV Tower[11] 600 m (1,969 ft) 1992 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Dallas, North Carolina 35°20′49.4″N81°10′14.2″W
Capstar Radio Tower[6] 600 m (1,969 ft) 2001 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Middlesex, North Carolina 35°49′54.0″N78°08′49″W
Canton Tower 600 m (1,969 ft) 2009 Concrete tower Observation, VHF-UHF transmission China China Guangzhou 23°06′32.55″N113°19′9.29″E
WPDE-TV Tower 600 m (1,969 ft) 1980 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Dillon, South Carolina 34°21′53.0″N79°19′49″W

Structures (past or present) between 550 and 600 m (1,804 ft and 1,969 ft)[edit]

Name Pinnacle height Year Structure type Main use Country Town Remarks Coordinates
KDUH-TV Mast Hemingford 599 m (1,965 ft) 1969 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Hemingford, Nebraska collapsed on September 24, 2003 42°10′21.0″N103°13′59″W
American Towers Tower Liverpool[6] 598.3 m (1,963 ft) 1992 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Liverpool, Texas 29°17′56.8″N95°14′12.1″W
Media General Tower Dillon[6] 598 m (1,962 ft) 2001 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Dillon, South Carolina 34°22′05.0″N79°19′20″W
Duffy-Shamrock Joint Venture Tower[6] 597.4 m (1,960 ft) 1990 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Bertram, Texas 30°43′34.7″N97°59′24.1″W
AMFM Tower Collinsville[6] 597.4 m (1,960 ft) 2002 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Collinsville, Texas 33°33′37.0″N96°57′35″W
KOLR/KOZK Tower[6] 597.3 m (1,960 ft) (orig. 609.6 m) 1971 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Fordland, Missouri also known as KYTV Tower 1 37°10′11.0″N92°56′31″W
Cosmos Broadcasting Tower Winnabow[6] 595.6 m (1,954 ft) 1981 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Winnabow, North Carolina 34°07′54.0″N78°11′16″W
Spectra Site Communications Tower Robertsdale[6] 592.6 m (1,944 ft) 2001 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Robertsdale, Alabama 30°36′41.0″N87°36′26.4″W
CBC Real Estate Co. Inc Tower[6] 592.4 m (1,944 ft) 1985 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Dallas, North Carolina 35°21′44.5″N81°09′18.3″W
Cosmos Broadcasting Tower Grady[6] 589.8 m (1,935 ft) 1977 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Grady, Alabama 31°58′29.0″N86°09′44″W
American Towers Tower Columbia[6] 587.9 m (1,929 ft) 1986 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Columbia, Louisiana 32°05′42.6″N92°10′34.3″W
Sonsinger Management Tower[6] 587.6 m (1,928 ft) 1988 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Splendora, Texas also known as KKHT Radio Mast 30°13′54.0″N95°07′27″W
Cedar Rapids TV Tower[6] 587.3 m (1,927 ft) 1974 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Walker, Iowa 42°18′59.0″N91°51′31″W
Channel 6 Tower Eddy[6] 586.4 m (1,924 ft) 1981 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Eddy, Texas 31°16′25.0″N97°13′15″W
Entravision Texas Tower[6] 585.2 m (1,920 ft) 1998 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Greenwood, Texas 33°26′13.0″N97°29′06″W
Multimedia Associates Tower[6] 584 m (1,916 ft) 1999 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Rio Grande City, Texas 26°31′02.0″N98°39′08″W
American Towers Tower Randleman 583.4 m (1,914 ft) 2004 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Randleman, North Carolina 35°52′13.5″N79°50′24″W
KTUL Tower Coweta 581.8 m (1,909 ft) 1988 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Coweta, Oklahoma 35°58′08.0″N95°36′56″W
Pingan International Finance Centre 580 metres (1,903 ft) 2015 Unfinished skyscraper Office China China Shenzhen Skyscraper under-construction. Expected full height is 660 metres (2,165 ft). 22°32′11″N114°3′2″E
American Towers Tower Robertsdale 579.9 m (1,903 ft) 2004 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Robertsdale, Alabama 30°36′45.4″N87°38′41.6″W
Baldpate Platform 579.7 m (1,902 ft) 1998 Offshore platform Oil drilling United StatesU.S. Garden Banks, Gulf of Mexico Located about 193 km (120 mi) off Louisiana coast
WTVY-TV Tower 579.42 m (1,901.0 ft) 1978 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Bethlehem, Florida Tallest structure in Florida 30°55′12.0″N85°44′30″W
Clear Channel Broadcasting Tower Redfield 578.8 m (1,899 ft) 1985 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Redfield, Arkansas 34°26′31.0″N92°13′04″W
WFMY Tower[12] 575.9 m (1,889 ft) 2002 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Greensboro, North Carolina 35°52′13.5″N79°50′24″W
Cox Radio Tower 572.8 m (1,879 ft) 2000 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Shepherd, Texas 30°32′07.0″N95°01′05″W
Media General Tower Spanish Fort 572.7 m (1,879 ft) 1986 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Spanish Fort, Alabama 30°41′21.0″N87°49′49″W
WFTV Tower Saint Cloud 571.1 m (1,874 ft) 2000 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Saint Cloud, Florida 28°16′45.3″N81°01′24″W
Capstar Radio Operating Gray Court Tower[citation needed] 567.1 m (1,861 ft) 1980 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Gray Court, South Carolina demolished, no longer in FCC list
KLKN Tower 565.1 m (1,854 ft) 1965 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Genoa, Nebraska 41°32′28.0″N97°40′46″W
Pinnacle Towers Tower Princeton 561.3 m (1,842 ft) 1993 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Princeton, Florida 25°32′25.0″N80°28′06″W
WTVJ Tower Princeton 561.1 m (1,841 ft) 1993 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Princeton, Florida 25°32′25.0″N80°28′06″W
Pappas Partnership Stations Tower Gretna[citation needed] 559.6 m (1,836 ft) 1985 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Gretna, Nebraska 41°04′15.9″N96°13′32.3″W
KBIM Tower 559.02 m (1,834.1 ft) 1965 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Roswell, New Mexico 33°03′20.0″N103°49′14″W
Tulsa Tower Joint Venture Tower Oneta 559 m (1,834 ft) 1984 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Oneta, Oklahoma 36°01′15.0″N95°40′33″W
KTBS Tower 556.5 m (1,826 ft) 2003 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Shreveport, Louisiana 32°41′7″N93°56′1″W
CN Tower 553 m (1,814 ft) 1976 Concrete tower Observation, VHF-UHF transmission CanadaCanada Toronto, Ontario Tallest freestanding structure in the Western Hemisphere 43°38′33.22″N79°23′13.41″W

Structures (past or present) between 500 and 550 m (1,640 and 1,804 ft)[edit]

Name Pinnacle height Year Structure type Main use Country Town Remarks Coordinates
SBA Towers Tower Hayneville 547.7 m (1,797 ft) 1989 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Hayneville, Alabama 32°08′30.2″N86°44′42.1″W
Channel 32 Limited Partnership Tower 547.7 m (1,797 ft) 1990 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Hayneville, Alabama 32°08′31.0″N86°44′42.0″W
KATC Tower Kaplan 546.6 m (1,793 ft) 1978 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Kaplan, Louisiana 30°02′20.0″N92°22′15″W
Cosmos Broadcasting Tower Egypt 546.5 m (1,793 ft) 1981 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Egypt, Arkansas 35°53′22.0″N90°56′08″W
Raycom Media Tower Mooringsport 545.8 m (1,791 ft) 1975 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Mooringsport, Louisiana 32°40′29.0″N93°56′01″W
Pinnacle Towers Tower Mooringsport 542.8 m (1,781 ft) 1985 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Mooringsport, Louisiana 32°39′58.0″N93°55′59″W
1 World Trade Center 541.3 m (1,776 ft) 2013 Skyscraper Office, VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. New York City Tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere 40°42′42″N74°0′45″W
Branch Young Broadcasting Tower 541 m (1,775 ft)  ? Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Branch, Louisiana 30°19′18″N92°16′58″W
Ostankino Tower 540.1 m (1,772 ft) 1967 Concrete tower Observation, VHF-UHF transmission RussiaRussia Moscow 2000 fire led to renovation, tallest structure in Russia 55°49′10.94″N37°36′41.79″E
KLFY TV Tower Maxie 540.1 m (1,772 ft) 1970 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Maxie, Louisiana 30°19′21.0″N92°22′40″W
Cusseta Richland Towers Tower[6] 538.2 m (1,766 ft) 2005 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Cusseta, Georgia 32°19′16.4″N84°47′28.2″W
Cox Radio Tower Braselton[6] 538 m (1,765 ft) 1984 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Braselton, Georgia 34°07′32.0″N83°51′32″W
American Towers Tower Eglin[6] 537.7 m (1,764 ft) 2001 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Elgin, South Carolina also known as WOLO TV Tower 34°06′58.4″N80°45′49.9″W
Alabama Telecasters Tower[6] 535.5 m (1,757 ft) 1995 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Gordonsville, Alabama 32°08′58.0″N86°46′51″W
WIMZ-FM-Tower 534.01 m (1,752.0 ft) 1963 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Knoxville, Tennessee also known as WBIR TV mast, tallest structure in world, 1963 36°08′05.49″N83°43′28.01″W
Capitol Broadcasting Tower Broadway 533.1 m (1,749 ft) 1985 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Broadway, North Carolina dismantled 35°30′45.0″N78°58′40″W
Capitol Broadcasting Tower Columbia 533.1 m (1,749 ft) 2000 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Columbia, North Carolina 35°30′44.0″N78°58′41″W
WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower 533 m (1,749 ft) 1962 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Cusseta, Georgia also known as WTVM TV mast, tallest structure in world, 1962–1963 32°19′25.09″N84°46′45.07″W
WAVE-Mast 530.05 m (1,739.0 ft) 1990 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. La Grange, Kentucky 38°27′23.0″N85°25′28″W
CTF Finance Centre 530 m (1,740 ft) 2015 Skyscraper Hotel, residential, office China China Guangzhou topped-out in 2014 23°07′13″N113°19′14″E
Louisiana Television Broadcasting Tower Sunshine 529.4 m (1,737 ft) 1972 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Sunshine, Louisiana 30°17′49.0″N91°11′37″W
Bullwinkle Platform 529.1 m (1,736 ft) 1989 Offshore platform Oil drilling United States U.S. Manatee Field,Gulf of Mexico Located about 260 kilometers (160 mi) southwest of New Orleans
Pinnacle Towers Tower Addis 528.8 m (1,735 ft) 1986 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Addis, Louisiana 30°19′35.0″N91°16′36″W
Richland Towers Tower Cedar Hill 527.6 m (1,731 ft) 2004 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Cedar Hill, Texas 32°35′02.7″N96°57′48.8″W
Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) 527.3 m (1,730 ft) 1974 Skyscraper Office, observation, VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. Chicago, Illinois Tallest building in world, 1974–1998 41°52′44.1″N87°38′10.2″W
World Trade Center, Tower 1 526.3 m (1,727 ft) 1973 Skyscraper Office, VHF-UHF transmission United States U.S. New York City destroyed on September 11, 2001 40°42′42″N74°0′45″W
WAFB Tower Baton Rouge 525.8 m (1,725 ft) 1965 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Baton Rouge, Louisiana 30°21′59.0″N91°12′47″W
Goldin Finance 117 525 metres (1,722 ft) 2015 Unfinished skyscraper Office China China Goldin Finance 117 Skyscraper under-construction. Expected full height is 596.6 metres (1,957 ft). 39°5′21″N117°4′49″E
WAEO Tower 524.5 m (1,721 ft) 1966 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Starks, Wisconsin destroyed on November 17, 1968 in aircraft collision
Media Venture Tower[6] 522.5 m (1,714 ft) 1999 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Fincher, Florida 30°40′07.0″N83°58′10″W
Media Venture Management Tower Fincher[6] 522.5 m (1,714 ft) 1999 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Fincher, Florida
Orlando Hearst Argyle Television Tower[6] 522.5 m (1,714 ft) 1980 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Orange City, Florida Height today 510.5 metres 28°56′16.0″N81°18′57.0″W
Pinnacle Towers Tower Moody[6] 522.4 m (1,714 ft) 1988 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Moody, Texas 31°18′54.0″N97°19′37″W
Clear Channel Broadcasting Tower Rosinton[6] 520.3 m (1,707 ft) 1981 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Rosinton, Alabama
Pacific and Southern Company Tower Lugoff[6] 520.2 m (1,707 ft) 1985 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Lugoff, South Carolina 34°05′50.0″N80°45′50″W
Young Broadcasting Tower Garden City[6] 519.7 m (1,705 ft) 1978 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Garden City, South Dakota 44°57′56.0″N97°35′23″W
Gray Television Tower Carlos[6] 519.7 m (1,705 ft) 1983 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Carlos, Texas 30°33′17.0″N96°01′52″W
South Dakota Public Broadcasting Network Tower[6] 516.7 m (1,695 ft) 1974 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Faith, South Dakota 45°03′14.0″N102°15′49″W
Spectra Site Communications Tower Orange City[6] 516.6 m (1,695 ft) 1984 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Orange City, Florida Height reduced to 512.7 metres 28°55′11.1″N81°19′07″W
Christmas Brown Road Tower[6] 516.6 m (1,695 ft) 2001 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Christmas, Florida 28°36′36.0″N81°03′34.0″W
Gray Television Tower Madill[6] 516.3 m (1,694 ft) 1984 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Madill, Oklahoma 34°01′58.0″N96°48′01″W
American Tower Christmas[6] 513.3 m (1,684 ft) 2001 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Christmas, Florida 28°34′53.0″N81°04′29″W
Richland Towers Bithlo[6] 512.7 m (1,682 ft) 2002 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Bithlo, Florida 28°35′12.6″N81°04′57.5″W
Northland Television Tower Rhinelander[6] 512.6 m (1,682 ft) 1979 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Rhinelander, Wisconsin 45°40′03.0″N89°12′29″W
Gray Television Tower Moody[6] 511.8 m (1,679 ft) 1978 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Moody, Texas 31°19′20.0″N97°19′03″W
KFVS TV Mast 511.1 m (1,677 ft) 1960 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Cape Girardeau County, Missouri Tallest structure in the world 1960–1961 37°25′44.5″N89°30′13.84″W
Taipei 101 509.2 m (1,671 ft) 2004 Skyscraper Office, observation, VHF-UHF transmission TaiwanTaiwan Taipei Tallest building in the world 2004–2007 25°02′01″N121°33′52″E
Cox Radio Tower Verna 508.1 m (1,667 ft) 1994 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Verna, Florida 27°24′31.2″N82°14′59.3″W
WMTW TV Mast 508.1 m (1,667 ft) 2001 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Baldwin, Maine 43°50′44.0″N70°45′41″W
American Towers Tower Cedar Hill[6] 506.2 m (1,661 ft) 1999 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Cedar Hill, Texas 32°35′20.0″N96°58′05.9″W
American Towers Tower Oklahoma City[6] 502 m (1,647 ft) 1999 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 35°35′52.1″N97°29′23.2″W
University of North Carolina Tower[6] 500.5 m (1,642 ft) 2000 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission United StatesU.S. Columbia, North Carolina 35°54′01.0″N76°20′44″W

Structures taller than 500 metres (1,640 ft) under construction[edit]

This is an incomplete list of structures under construction that are projected to be taller than 500 metres (1,640 ft) and have current height under 500 metres (1,640 ft). It does not include on-hold or topped-out structures.

Name Pinnacle height planned Year completion
expected
Structure type Country Town
Jeddah Tower 1,008 metres (3,307 ft) 2019 Skyscraper Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Jeddah
Suzhou Zhongnan Center 729 metres (2,392 ft) 2020 Skyscraper China China Suzhou
Wuhan Greenland Center 636 metres (2,087 ft) 2017 Skyscraper China China Wuhan
KL118 Tower 610 metres (2,001 ft) 2019 Skyscraper  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Pearl of the North 568 metres (1,864 ft) 2018 Skyscraper China China Shenyang
Lotte World Tower 555.7 metres (1,823 ft) 2016 Skyscraper South Korea South Korea Seoul
Nordstrom Tower 541 metres (1,775 ft) 2018 Skyscraper  United States New York City
Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center 530 metres (1,739 ft) 2018 Skyscraper China China Tianjin
China Zun 528 metres (1,732 ft) 2018 Skyscraper China China Beijing
Dalian Greenland Center 518 metres (1,699 ft) 2018 Skyscraper China China Dalian

On hold[edit]

Structures have once to completion, but however, they are halted for financial reasons or conflict.

Name Height City Floor count Year (est.) Const. start
Sky City (Changsha) 838 Meters Changsha 202 2017
India Tower 700 Meters Mumbai 126 2016 2010
Doha Convention Center Tower 551 Meters Doha 112 2015 2009
Pentominium 516 Meters Dubai 122 2015 2008
Busan Lotte World Tower 510.1 Meters Busan 107 2019 2009
Burj Al Alam 510 Meters Dubai 108 2015 2006
Al Quds Endowment Tower 495 Meters Doha 100 2017 2009
Jialing Fanying Tower 468 Meters Chongqing 99 2020 2012
Dubai Towers Doha 431 Meters Doha 88 2016 2007

List by continent[edit]

Current[edit]

The following table is a list of the current tallest structures by each continent (listed by geographic size):

Continent Structure Height Year[13] Country
Asia Burj Khalifa 829.8 m (2,722 ft) 2009 United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates
Africa Nador transmitter 380 m (1,247 ft) 1972 Morocco Morocco
North America KVLY-TV mast 629 m (2,064 ft) 1963 United States United States
South America Gran Torre Santiago 300 m (984 ft) 2012 Chile Chile
Europe Ostankino Tower 540.1 m (1,772 ft) 1967 Russia Russia
Australia VLF Transmitter Woodside 432 m (1,417 ft) 1971 Australia Australia
Oceania VLF transmitter Lualualei 458 m (1,503 ft) 1972 United States United States (Hawaii)

All time[edit]

The following table is a list of the all time tallest structures by each continent (listed by geographic size):

Continent Structure Height Year[13] Country
Asia Burj Khalifa 829.8 m (2,722 ft) 2009 United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates
Africa OMEGA transmitter Chabrier 428 m (1,404 ft) 1976 France Réunion (France)
North America KVLY-TV mast 629 m (2,064 ft) 1963 United States United States
South America Omega Tower Trelew 366 m (1,201 ft) 1971 Argentina Argentina
Europe Warsaw radio mast 646 m (2,119 ft) 1974 Poland Poland
Oceania VLF transmitter Lualualei 458 m (1,503 ft) 1972 United States United States (Hawaii)

Future[edit]

Contient Name Height Floor count Expected completion
Africa Nador transmitter 380 meters None 1972
Asia Azerbaijan Tower 1,051 meters 189 2019
Australia Naval Communication Station Harold E. Holt 389 meters None 1998
Europe Ostankino Tower 540 meters None 1967
North America KVLY-TV mast 628 meters None 1963
South America Buenos Aires Forum 1 Kilometer 200 2016

See also

Space elevator

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Diagram of a space elevator.  At the bottom of the tall diagram is the Earth as viewed from high above the North Pole.  About six earth-radii above the Earth an arc is drawn with the same center as the Earth.  The arc depicts the level of geosynchronous orbit.  About twice as high as the arc and directly above the Earth's center, a counterweight is depicted by a small square.  A line depicting the space elevator's cable connects the counterweight to the equator directly below it.  The system's center of mass is described as above the level of geosynchronous orbit.  The center of mass is shown roughly to be about a quarter of the way up from the geosynchronous arc to the counterweight.  The bottom of the cable is indicated to be anchored at the equator.  A climber is depicted by a small rounded square.  The climber is shown climbing the cable about one third of the way from the ground to the arc. Another note indicates that the cable rotates along with the Earth's daily rotation, and remains vertical.

A space elevator is conceived as a cable fixed to the equator and reaching into space. A counterweight at the upper end keeps the center of mass well above geostationary orbit level. This produces enough upward centrifugal force from Earth’s rotation to fully counter the downward gravity, keeping the cable upright and taut. Climbers carry cargo up and down the cable.

File:Space elevator in motion viewed from above north pole.ogv

Space elevator in motion rotating with Earth. Viewed from above North Pole. A free-flying satellite (green dot) is shown in geostationary orbit slightly behind the cable.

A space elevator is a proposed type of space transportation system.[1] Its main component is a ribbon-like cable (also called a tether) anchored to the surface and extending into space. It is designed to permit vehicle transport along the cable from a planetary surface, such as the Earth’s, directly into space or orbit, without the use of large rockets. An Earth-based space elevator would consist of a cable with one end attached to the surface near the equator and the other end in space beyondgeostationary orbit (35,800 km altitude). The competing forces of gravity, which is stronger at the lower end, and the outward/upward centrifugal force, which is stronger at the upper end, would result in the cable being held up, under tension, and stationary over a single position on Earth. Once the tether is deployed, climbers would repeatedly climb the tether to space by mechanical means, releasing their cargo to orbit. Climbers would also descend the tether to return cargo to the surface from orbit.[2]

The concept of a space elevator was first published in 1895 by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.[3] His proposal was for a free-standing tower reaching from the surface of Earth to the height of geostationary orbit. Like all buildings, Tsiolkovsky’s structure would be under compression, supporting its weight from below. Since 1959, most ideas for space elevators have focused on purelytensile structures, with the weight of the system held up from above. In the tensile concepts, a space tether reaches from a large mass (the counterweight) beyond geostationary orbit to the ground. This structure is held in tension between Earth and the counterweight like an upside-down plumb bob.

On Earth, with its relatively strong gravity, the required specific strength for the cable material is very high. Current technology is not capable of manufacturing cable materials that are both strong and light enough for a space elevator on Earth. However, in 2000, the recently discovered carbon nanotubes were first identified as possibly being able to meet the specific strength requirements for an Earth space elevator.[2] This sparked a surge of interest and development in space elevators focusing on carbon nanotubes and the similar boron nitride nanotubes. In 2014, diamond nanothreads were first synthesized.[4] Since they have strength properties similar to carbon nanotubes, diamond nanothreads were quickly seen as a candidate material as well.[5] Nanotubes and diamond nanothreads both hold promise as materials to make an Earth-based space elevator possible.

The concept is also applicable to other planets and celestial bodies. For locations in the solar system with weaker gravity than Earth’s (such as the Moon or Mars), the strength-to-density requirements are not as great for tether materials. Currently available materials (such as Kevlar) are strong and light enough that they could be used as the tether material for elevators there.

History[edit]

Early concepts[edit]

The key concept of the space elevator appeared in 1895 when Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was inspired by the Eiffel Tower in Paris. He considered a similar tower that reached all the way into space and was built from the ground up to the altitude of 35,790 kilometers, the height of geostationary orbit.[7] He noted that the top of such a tower would be circling Earth as in a geostationary orbit. Objects would attain horizontal velocity as they rode up the tower, and an object released at the tower’s top would have enough horizontal velocity to remain there in geostationary orbit. Tsiolkovsky’s conceptual tower was a compression structure, while modern concepts call for a tensile structure (or “tether”).

20th century[edit]

Building a compression structure from the ground up proved an unrealistic task as there was no material in existence with enough compressive strength to support its own weight under such conditions.[8] In 1959 another Russian scientist, Yuri N. Artsutanov, suggested a more feasible proposal. Artsutanov suggested using a geostationary satellite as the base from which to deploy the structure downward. By using a counterweight, a cable would be lowered from geostationary orbit to the surface of Earth, while the counterweight was extended from the satellite away from Earth, keeping the cable constantly over the same spot on the surface of the Earth. Artsutanov’s idea was introduced to the Russian-speaking public in an interview published in the Sunday supplement ofKomsomolskaya Pravda in 1960,[9] but was not available in English until much later. He also proposed tapering the cable thickness so that the stress in the cable was constant. This gives a thinner cable at ground level that becomes thickest at the level of geostationary orbit.

Both the tower and cable ideas were proposed in the quasi-humorous Ariadne column in New Scientist, December 24, 1964.

In 1966, Isaacs, Vine, Bradner and Bachus, four American engineers, reinvented the concept, naming it a “Sky-Hook,” and published their analysis in the journal Science.[10]They decided to determine what type of material would be required to build a space elevator, assuming it would be a straight cable with no variations in its cross section, and found that the strength required would be twice that of any then-existing material including graphite, quartz, and diamond.

In 1975 an American scientist, Jerome Pearson, reinvented the concept yet again, publishing his analysis in the journal Acta Astronautica. He designed[11] a tapered cross section that would be better suited to building the elevator. The completed cable would be thickest at the geostationary orbit, where the tension was greatest, and would be narrowest at the tips to reduce the amount of weight per unit area of cross section that any point on the cable would have to bear. He suggested using a counterweight that would be slowly extended out to 144,000 kilometers (89,000 miles), almost half the distance to the Moon as the lower section of the elevator was built. Without a large counterweight, the upper portion of the cable would have to be longer than the lower due to the way gravitational and centrifugal forces change with distance from Earth. His analysis included disturbances such as the gravitation of the Moon, wind and moving payloads up and down the cable. The weight of the material needed to build the elevator would have required thousands of Space Shuttle trips, although part of the material could be transported up the elevator when a minimum strength strand reached the ground or be manufactured in space from asteroidal or lunar ore.

In 1979, space elevators were introduced to a broader audience with the simultaneous publication of Arthur C. Clarke‘s novel, The Fountains of Paradise, in which engineers construct a space elevator on top of a mountain peak in the fictional island country of Taprobane (loosely based on Sri Lanka, albeit moved south to the Equator), and Charles Sheffield‘s first novel, The Web Between the Worlds, also featuring the building of a space elevator. Three years later, in Robert A. Heinlein‘s 1982 novel Friday the principal character makes use of the “Nairobi Beanstalk” in the course of her travels. In Kim Stanley Robinson‘s 1993 novel Red Mars, colonists build a space elevator on Mars that allows both for more colonists to arrive and also for natural resources mined there to be able to leave for Earth. In David Gerrold‘s 2000 novel, Jumping Off The Planet, a family excursion up the Ecuador “beanstalk” is actually a child-custody kidnapping. Gerrold’s book also examines some of the industrial applications of a mature elevator technology. In a biological version, Joan Slonczewski‘s novel The Highest Frontier depicts a college student ascending a space elevator constructed of self-healing cables of anthrax bacilli. The engineered bacteria can regrow the cables when severed by space debris.

After the development of carbon nanotubes in the 1990s, engineer David Smitherman of NASA/Marshall’s Advanced Projects Office realized that the high strength of these materials might make the concept of a space elevator feasible, and put together a workshop at the Marshall Space Flight Center, inviting many scientists and engineers to discuss concepts and compile plans for an elevator to turn the concept into a reality.

In 2000, another American scientist, Bradley C. Edwards, suggested creating a 100,000 km (62,000 mi) long paper-thin ribbon using a carbon nanotube composite material.[12]He chose the wide-thin ribbon-like cross-section shape rather than earlier circular cross-section concepts because that shape would stand a greater chance of surviving impacts by meteoroids. The ribbon cross-section shape also provided large surface area for climbers to climb with simple rollers. Supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Edwards’ work was expanded to cover the deployment scenario, climber design, power delivery system, orbital debris avoidance, anchor system, surviving atomic oxygen, avoiding lightning and hurricanes by locating the anchor in the western equatorial Pacific, construction costs, construction schedule, and environmental hazards.[2][13][14][15]

21st century[edit]

To speed space elevator development, proponents have organized several competitions, similar to the Ansari X Prize, for relevant technologies.[16][17] Among them areElevator:2010, which organized annual competitions for climbers, ribbons and power-beaming systems from 2005 to 2009, the Robogames Space Elevator Ribbon Climbing competition,[18] as well as NASA’s Centennial Challenges program, which, in March 2005, announced a partnership with the Spaceward Foundation (the operator of Elevator:2010), raising the total value of prizes to US$400,000.[19][20] The first European Space Elevator Challenge (EuSEC) to establish a climber structure took place in August 2011.[21]

In 2005, “the LiftPort Group of space elevator companies announced that it will be building a carbon nanotube manufacturing plant in Millville, New Jersey, to supply various glass, plastic and metal companies with these strong materials. Although LiftPort hopes to eventually use carbon nanotubes in the construction of a 100,000 km (62,000 mi) space elevator, this move will allow it to make money in the short term and conduct research and development into new production methods.”[22] Their announced goal was a space elevator launch in 2010. On February 13, 2006 the LiftPort Group announced that, earlier the same month, they had tested a mile of “space-elevator tether” made of carbon-fiber composite strings and fiberglass tape measuring 5 cm (2.0 in) wide and 1 mm (approx. 13 sheets of paper) thick, lifted with balloons.[23]

In 2007, Elevator:2010 held the 2007 Space Elevator games, which featured US$500,000 awards for each of the two competitions, (US$1,000,000 total) as well as an additional US$4,000,000 to be awarded over the next five years for space elevator related technologies.[24] No teams won the competition, but a team from MIT entered the first 2-gram (0.07 oz), 100-percent carbon nanotube entry into the competition.[25] Japan held an international conference in November 2008 to draw up a timetable for building the elevator.[26]

In 2008 the book Leaving the Planet by Space Elevator by Dr. Brad Edwards and Philip Ragan was published in Japanese and entered the Japanese best-seller list.[27] This led to Shuichi Ono, chairman of the Japan Space Elevator Association, unveiling a space-elevator plan, putting forth what observers considered an extremely low cost estimate of a trillion yen (£5 billion/ $8 billion) to build one.[26]

In 2012, the Obayashi Corporation announced that in 38 years it could build a space elevator using carbon nanotube technology.[28] At 200 kilometers per hour, the design’s 30-passenger climber would be able to reach the GEO level after a 7.5 day trip.[29] No cost estimates, finance plans, or other specifics were made. This, along with timing and other factors, hinted that the announcement was made largely to provide publicity for the opening of one of the company’s other projects in Tokyo.[30]

In 2013, the International Academy of Astronautics published a technological feasibility assessment which concluded that the critical capability improvement needed was the tether material, which was projected to achieve the necessary strength-to-weight ratio within 20 years. The four-year long study looked into may facets of space elevator development including missions, development schedules, financial investments, revenue flow, and benefits. It was reported that it would be possible to operationally survive smaller impacts and avoid larger impacts, with meteors and space debris, and that the estimated the cost of lifting a kilogram of payload to GEO and beyond would be $500.[31][32]

In 2014, Google X’s Rapid Evaluation R&D team began the design of a Space Elevator, eventually finding that no one had yet manufactured a perfectly formed carbon nanotube strand longer than a meter. They thus decided to put the project in “deep freeze” and also keep tabs on any advances in the carbon nanotube field.[33]

Physics[edit]

Apparent gravitational field[edit]

A space elevator cable rotates along with the rotation of the Earth. Therefore, objects attached to the cable will experience upward centrifugal force in the direction opposing the downward gravitational force. The higher up the cable the object is located, the less the gravitational pull of the Earth, and the stronger the upward centrifugal force due to the rotation, so that more centrifugal force opposes less gravity. The centrifugal force and the gravity are balanced at GEO. Above GEO, the centrifugal force is stronger than gravity, causing objects attached to the cable there to pull upward on it.

The net force for objects attached to the cable is called the apparent gravitational field. The apparent gravitational field for attached objects is the (downward) gravity minus the (upward) centrifugal force. The apparent gravity experienced by an object on the cable is zero at GEO, downward below GEO, and upward above GEO.

The apparent gravitational field can be represented this way:: Ref[34] Table 1

The downward force of actual gravity decreases with height: gr=-G\cdot M/r^{2}
The upward centrifugal force due to the planet’s rotation increases with height: a=\omega ^{2}\cdot r
Together, the apparent gravitational field is the sum of the two:[citation needed]
g=-G\cdot M/r^{2}+\omega ^{2}\cdot r

where

g is the acceleration of apparent gravity, pointing down (negative) or up (positive) along the vertical cable (m s−2),
gr is the gravitational acceleration due to Earth’s pull, pointing down (negative)(m s−2),
a is the centrifugal acceleration, pointing up (positive) along the vertical cable (m s−2),
G is the gravitational constant (m3 s−2 kg−1)
M is the mass of the Earth (kg)
r is the distance from that point to Earth’s center (m),
ω is Earth’s rotation speed (radian/s).

At some point up the cable, the two terms (downward gravity and upward centrifugal force) are equal and opposite. Objects fixed to the cable at that point put no weight on the cable. This occurs at the altitude of geostationary orbit. This altitude (r1) depends on the mass of the planet and its rotation rate. Setting actual gravity equal to centrifugal acceleration gives:: Ref[34] page 126

r_{1}=(G\cdot M/\omega ^{2})^{1/3}

On Earth, this distance is 35,786 km (22,236 mi) above the surface, the altitude of geostationary orbit.: Ref[34] Table 1

On the cable below geostationary orbit, downward gravity is greater than the upward centrifugal force, so the apparent gravity pulls objects attached to the cable downward. Any object released from the cable below that level will initially accelerate downward along the cable. Then gradually it will deflect eastward from the cable. On the cable abovethe level of stationary orbit, upward centrifugal force is greater than downward gravity, so the apparent gravity pulls objects attached to the cable upward. Any object released from the cable above the geosynchronous level will initially accelerate upward along the cable. Then gradually it will deflect westward from the cable.

Cable section[edit]

Historically, the main technical problem has been considered the ability of the cable to hold up, with tension, the weight of itself below any given point. The greatest tension on a space elevator cable is at the point of geostationary orbit, 35,786 km (22,236 mi) above the Earth’s equator. This means that the cable material, combined with its design, must be strong enough to hold up its own weight from the surface up to 35,786 km (22,236 mi). A cable which is thicker in cross section at that height than at the surface could better hold up its own weight over a longer length. How the cross section area tapers from the maximum at 35,786 km (22,236 mi) to the minimum at the surface is therefore an important design factor for a space elevator cable.

To maximize the usable excess strength for a given amount of cable material, the cable’s cross section area will need to be designed for the most part in such a way that thestress (i.e., the tension per unit of cross sectional area) is constant along the length of the cable.[34][35] The constant-stress criterion is a starting point in the design of the cable cross section as it changes with altitude. Other factors considered in more detailed designs include thickening at altitudes where more space junk is present, consideration of the point stresses imposed by climbers, and the use of varied materials.[36] To account for these and other factors, modern detailed cross section designs seek to achieve the largest safety margin possible, with as little variation over altitude and time as possible.[36] In simple starting-point designs, that equates to constant-stress.

In the constant-stress case, the cross-section follows this differential equation:[citation needed]

\sigma \cdot dS=g\cdot \rho \cdot S\cdot dr[34]

or

dS/S=g\cdot \rho /\sigma \cdot dr

or

dS/S=\rho /\sigma \cdot (G\cdot M/r^{2}-\omega ^{2}\cdot r)\cdot dr: Ref[34] equation 6

where

g is the acceleration along the radius (m·s−2),
S is the cross-section area of the cable at any given point r, (m2) and dS its variation (m2 as well),
ρ is the density of the material used for the cable (kg·m−3).
σ is the stress the cross-section area can bear without yielding (N·m−2=kg·m−1·s−2), its elastic limit.

The value of g is given by the first equation, which yields:

\Delta \left[\ln(S)\right]{}_{r_{0}}^{r_{1}}=-\rho /\sigma \cdot \Delta \left[G\cdot M/r+\omega ^{2}\cdot r^{2}/2\right]{}_{r_{0}}^{r_{1}},

the variation being taken between r0 (ground) and r1 (geostationary).[34]

Between these two points, this quantity can be expressed as:[citation needed] \Delta \left[\ln(S)\right]=\rho /\sigma \cdot g_{0}\cdot r_{0}\cdot (1+x/2-3/2\cdot x^{1/3}), or

S_{0}=S_{1}.e^{\rho /\sigma \cdot g_{0}\cdot r_{0}\cdot (1+x/2-3/2\cdot x^{1/3})}: Ref[34] equation 7

where x=\omega ^{2}\cdot r_{0}/g_{0} is the ratio between the centrifugal force on the equator and the gravitational force.[34]

Cable material[edit]

To compare materials, the specific strength of the material for the space elevator can be expressed in terms of the characteristic length, or “free breaking length”: the length of an un-tapered cylindrical cable at which it will break under its own weight under constant gravity. For a given material, that length is Lc = σ/(ρ g0), where σ, ρ and g0 are a defined above. The free breaking length needed is given by the equation

\Delta \left[\ln(S)\right]=\rho /\sigma \cdot g_{0}\cdot r_{0}\cdot (1+x/2-3/2\cdot x^{1/3}),

where x=w^{2}\cdot r_{0}/g_{0}. If one does not take into account the x factor (which reduces the strength needed by about 30 percent), this equation also says that the section ratio equals e (exponential one) when:

\sigma =\rho \cdot r_{0}\cdot g_{0}.

If the material can support a free breaking length of only one tenth this, the section needed at a geosynchronous orbit will be e10 (a factor of 22026) times the ground section.

Structure[edit]

One concept for the space elevator has it tethered to a mobile seagoing platform.

There are a variety of space elevator designs. Almost every design includes a base station, a cable, climbers, and a counterweight. Earth’s rotation creates upward centrifugal force on the counterweight. The counterweight is held down by the cable while the cable is held up and taut by the counterweight. The base station anchors the whole system to the surface of the Earth. Climbers climb up and down the cable with cargo.

Base station[edit]

Modern concepts for the base station/anchor are typically mobile stations, large oceangoing vessels or other mobile platforms. Mobile base stations have the advantage over the earlier stationary concepts (with land-based anchors) by being able to maneuver to avoid high winds, storms, and space debris. Oceanic anchor points are also typically in international waters, simplifying and reducing cost of negotiating territory use for the base station.[2]

Stationary land based platforms have simpler and less costly logistical access to the base. They also have an advantage of being able to be at high altitude, such as on top of mountains. In an alternate concept, the base station could be a tower, forming a space elevator which comprises both a compression tower close to the surface, and a tether structure at higher altitudes.[8] Combining a compression structure with a tension structure reduces loads from the atmosphere at the Earth end of the tether, and reduces the distance into the Earth’s gravity field the cable needs to extend, and thus reduces the critical strength-to-density requirements for the cable material, all other design factors being equal.

Cable[edit]

Carbon nanotubes are one of the candidates for a cable material

A space elevator cable must carry its own weight as well as the additional weight of climbers. The required strength of the cable will vary along its length. This is because at various points it has to carry the weight of the cable below, or provide a downward force to retain the cable and counterweight above. Maximum tension on a space elevator cable is at geosynchronous altitude so the cable must be thickest there and taper carefully as it approaches Earth. Any potential cable design may be characterized by the taper factor – the ratio between the cable’s radius at geosynchronous altitude and at the Earth’s surface.[37]

The cable must be made of a material with a large tensile strength/density ratio. For example, the Edwards space elevator design assumes a cable material with a specific strength of at least 100,000 kN/(kg/m).[2] This value takes into consideration the entire weight of the space elevator. An untapered space elevator cable would need a material capable of sustaining a length of 4,960 kilometers (3,080 mi) of its own weight at sea level to reach a geostationary altitude of 35,786 km (22,236 mi) without yielding.[38] Therefore, a material with very high strength and lightness is needed.

For comparison, metals like titanium, steel or aluminium alloys have breaking lengths of only 20–30 km. Modern fibre materials such askevlar, fibreglass and carbon/graphite fibre have breaking lengths of 100–400 km. Nanoengineered materials such as carbon nanotubes and, more recently discovered, graphene ribbons (perfect two-dimensional sheets of carbon) are expected to have breaking lengths of 5000–6000 km at sea level, and also are able to conduct electrical power.[citation needed]

For high specific strength, carbon has advantages because it is only the 6th element in the periodic table. Carbon has comparatively few of the protons and neutrons which contribute most of the dead weight of any material. Most of the interatomic bonding forces of any element are contributed by only the outer few electrons. For carbon, the strength and stability of those bonds is high compared to the mass of the atom. The challenge in using carbon nanotubes remains to extend to macroscopic sizes the production of such material that are still perfect on the microscopic scale (as microscopic defects are most responsible for material weakness). [39] [40] [41] [42] As of 2014, carbon nanotube technology allowed growing tubes up to a few tenths of meters.[43]

A seagoing anchor station would also act as a deep-water seaport.

In 2014, diamond nanothreads were first synthesized.[4] Since they have strength properties similar to carbon nanotubes, diamond nanothreads were quickly seen as candidate cable material as well.[5]

Climbers[edit]

A conceptual drawing of a space elevator climber ascending through the clouds.

A space elevator cannot be an elevator in the typical sense (with moving cables) due to the need for the cable to be significantly wider at the center than at the tips. While various designs employing moving cables have been proposed, most cable designs call for the “elevator” to climb up a stationary cable.

Climbers cover a wide range of designs. On elevator designs whose cables are planar ribbons, most propose to use pairs of rollers to hold the cable with friction.

Climbers must be paced at optimal timings so as to minimize cable stress and oscillations and to maximize throughput. Lighter climbers can be sent up more often, with several going up at the same time. This increases throughput somewhat, but lowers the mass of each individual payload.[44]

As the car climbs, the cable takes on a slight lean due to the Coriolis force. The top of the cable travels faster than the bottom. The climber is accelerated horizontally as it ascends by the Coriolis force which is imparted by angles of the cable. The lean-angle shown is exaggerated.

The horizontal speed, i.e. due to orbital rotation, of each part of the cable increases with altitude, proportional to distance from the center of the Earth, reaching low orbital speed at a point approximately 66 percent of the height between the surface and geostationary orbit (a height of about 23,400 km). A payload released at this point will go into a highly eccentric elliptical orbit, staying just barely clear from atmospheric reentry, with the periapsis at the same altitude as LEO and the apoapsis at the release height. With increasing release height the orbit becomes less eccentric as both periapsis and apoapsis increase, becoming circular at geostationary level.[45][46] When the payload has reached GEO, the horizontal speed is exactly the speed of a circular orbit at that level, so that if released, it would remain adjacent to that point on the cable. The payload can also continue climbing further up the cable beyond GEO, allowing it to obtain higher speed at jettison. If released from 100,000 km, the payload would have enough speed to reach the asteroid belt.[36]

As a payload is lifted up a space elevator, it gains not only altitude, but horizontal speed (angular momentum) as well. The angular momentum is taken from the Earth’s rotation. As the climber ascends, it is initially moving slower than each successive part of cable it is moving on to. This is the Coriolis force: the climber “drags” (westward) on the cable, as it climbs, and slightly decreases the Earth’s rotation speed. The opposite process occurs for descending payloads: the cable is tilted eastwards, thus slightly increasing Earth’s rotation speed.

The overall effect of the centrifugal force acting on the cable causes it to constantly try to return to the energetically favorable vertical orientation, so after an object has been lifted on the cable the counterweight will swing back towards the vertical like an inverted pendulum.[44] Space elevators and their loads will be designed so that the center of mass is always well-enough above the level of geostationary orbit[47] to hold up the whole system. Lift and descent operations must be carefully planned so as to keep the pendulum-like motion of the counterweight around the tether point under control.[48]

Climber speed is limited by the Coriolis force, available power, and by the need to ensure the climber’s accelerating force does not break the cable. Climbers also need to maintain a minimum average speed in order to move material up and down economically and expeditiously.[citation needed] At the speed of a very fast car or train of 300 km/h (190 mph) it will take about 5 days to climb to geosynchronous orbit.[49]

Powering climbers[edit]

Both power and energy are significant issues for climbers—the climbers need to gain a large amount of potential energy as quickly as possible to clear the cable for the next payload.

Various methods have been proposed to get that energy to the climber:

  • Transfer the energy to the climber through wireless energy transfer while it is climbing.
  • Transfer the energy to the climber through some material structure while it is climbing.
  • Store the energy in the climber before it starts – requires an extremely high specific energy such as nuclear energy.
  • Solar power – power compared to the weight of panels limits the speed of climb.[50]

Wireless energy transfer such as laser power beaming is currently considered the most likely method. Using megawatt powered free electron or solid state lasers in combination with adaptive mirrors approximately 10 m (33 ft) wide and a photovoltaic array on the climber tuned to the laser frequency for efficiency.[2] For climber designs powered by power beaming, this efficiency is an important design goal. Unused energy must be re-radiated away with heat-dissipation systems, which add to weight.

Yoshio Aoki, a professor of precision machinery engineering at Nihon University and director of the Japan Space Elevator Association, suggested including a second cable and using the conductivity of carbon nanotubes to provide power.[26]

Counterweight[edit]

Several solutions have been proposed to act as a counterweight:

  • a heavy, captured asteroid;[7]
  • a space dock, space station or spaceport positioned past geostationary orbit; or
  • a further upward extension of the cable itself so that the net upward pull is the same as an equivalent counterweight;
  • parked spent climbers that had been used to thicken the cable during construction, other junk, and material lifted up the cable for the purpose of increasing the counterweight.[36]

Extending the cable has the advantage of some simplicity of the task and the fact that a payload that went to the end of the counterweight-cable would acquire considerable velocity relative to the Earth, allowing it to be launched into interplanetary space. Its disadvantage is the need to produce greater amounts of cable material as opposed to using anything that has mass.

Launching into deep space[edit]

An object attached to a space elevator at a radius of approximately 53,100 km will be at escape velocity when released. Transfer orbits to the L1 and L2 Lagrangian points can be attained by release at 50,630 and 51,240 km, respectively, and transfer to lunar orbit from 50,960 km.[51]

At the end of Pearson’s 144,000 km (89,000 mi) cable, the tangential velocity is 10.93 kilometers per second (6.79 mi/s). That is more than enough to escape Earth’s gravitational field and send probes at least as far out as Jupiter. Once at Jupiter, a gravitational assist maneuver permits solar escape velocity to be reached.[34]

Extraterrestrial elevators[edit]

A space elevator could also be constructed on other planets, asteroids and moons.

A Martian tether could be much shorter than one on Earth. Mars’ surface gravity is 38 percent of Earth’s, while it rotates around its axis in about the same time as Earth. Because of this, Martian stationary orbit is much closer to the surface, and hence the elevator would be much shorter. Current materials are already sufficiently strong to construct such an elevator.[52] Building a Martian elevator would be complicated by the Martian moon Phobos, which is in a low orbit and intersects the Equator regularly (twice every orbital period of 11 h 6 min).

On the near side of the Moon, the strength-to-density required of the tether of a lunar space elevator exists in currently available materials. A lunar space elevator would be about 50,000 kilometers (31,000 mi) long. Since the Moon does not rotate fast enough, there is no effective lunar-stationary orbit, but the Lagrangian points could be used. The near side would extend through the Earth-Moon L1 point from an anchor point near the center of the visible part of Earth’s Moon.[53]

On the far side of the Moon, a lunar space elevator would need to be very long—more than twice the length of an Earth elevator—but due to the low gravity of the Moon, can also be made of existing engineering materials.[53]

Rapidly spinning asteroids or moons could use cables to eject materials to convenient points, such as Earth orbits;[54] or conversely, to eject materials to send a portion of the mass of the asteroid or moon to Earth orbit or a Lagrangian point. Freeman Dyson, a physicist and mathematician, has suggested[citation needed] using such smaller systems as power generators at points distant from the Sun where solar power is uneconomical.

A space elevator using presently available engineering materials could be constructed between mutually tidally locked worlds, such as Pluto and Charon or the components of binary asteroid Antiope, with no terminus disconnect, according to Francis Graham of Kent State University.[55] However, spooled variable lengths of cable must be used due to ellipticity of the orbits.

Construction[edit]

The construction of a space elevator would need reduction of some technical risk. Some advances in engineering, manufacturing and physical technology are required.[2] Once a first space elevator is built, the second one and all others would have the use of the previous ones to assist in construction, making their costs considerably lower. Such follow-on space elevators would also benefit from the great reduction in technical risk achieved by the construction of the first space elevator.[2]

Prior to the work of Edwards in 2000[12] most concepts for constructing a space elevator had the cable manufactured in space. That was thought to be necessary for such a large and long object and for such a large counterweight. Manufacturing the cable in space would be done in principle by using an asteroid or Near-Earth object for source material.[56][57] These earlier concepts for construction require a large preexisting space-faring infrastructure to maneuver an asteroid into its needed orbit around Earth. They also require the development of technologies for manufacture in space of large quantities of exacting materials.[58]

Since 2001, most work has focused on simpler methods of construction requiring much smaller space infrastructures. They conceive the launch of a long cable on a large spool, then deployment of it in space.[2][12][58] The spool is initially parked in a geostationary orbit above the planned anchor point. When a long cable is dropped “downward” (toward Earth), it is balanced by a mass being dropped “upward” (away from Earth) for the whole system to remain on the geosynchronous orbit. Earlier designs imagined the balancing mass to be another cable (with counterweight) extending upward, with the main spool remaining at the original geosynchronous orbit level. Most current designs elevate the spool itself as the main cable is paid out, a simpler process. When the lower end of the cable is so long as to reach the Earth (at the equator), it can be anchored. Once anchored, the center of mass is elevated more (by adding mass at the upper end or by paying out more cable). This adds more tension to the whole cable, which can then be used as an elevator cable.

One plan for construction uses conventional rockets to place a “minimum size” initial seed cable of only 19,800 kg.[2] This first very small ribbon would be adequate to support the first 619 kg climber. The first 207 climbers would carry up and attach more cable to the original, increasing its cross section area and widening the initial ribbon to about 160 mm wide at its widest point. The result would be a 750-ton cable with a lift capacity of 20 tons per climber.

Safety issues and construction challenges[edit]

Main article: Space elevator safety

For early systems, transit times from the surface to the level of geosynchronous orbit would be about five days. On these early systems, the time spent moving through the Van Allen radiation belts would be enough that passengers would need to be protected from radiation by shielding, which adds mass to the climber and decreases payload.[59]

A space elevator would present a navigational hazard, both to aircraft and spacecraft. Aircraft could be diverted by air-traffic control restrictions. All objects in stable orbits that have perigee below the maximum altitude of the cable that are not synchronous with the cable will impact the cable eventually, unless avoiding action is taken. One potential solution proposed by Edwards is to use a movable anchor (a sea anchor) to allow the tether to “dodge” any space debris large enough to track.[2]

Impacts by space objects such as meteoroids, micrometeorites and orbiting man-made debris, pose another design constraint on the cable. A cable would need to be designed to maneuver out of the way of debris, or absorb impacts of small debris without breaking.

Economics[edit]

With a space elevator, materials might be sent into orbit at a fraction of the current cost. As of 2000, conventional rocket designs cost about US$25,000 per kilogram(US$11,000 per pound) for transfer to geostationary orbit.[60] Current proposals envision payload prices starting as low as $220 per kilogram ($100 per pound),[61] similar to the $5–$300/kg estimates of the Launch loop, but higher than the $310/ton to 500 km orbit quoted[62] to Dr. Jerry Pournelle for an orbital airship system.

Philip Ragan, co-author of the book “Leaving the Planet by Space Elevator”, states that “The first country to deploy a space elevator will have a 95 percent cost advantage and could potentially control all space activities.”[63]

International Space Elevator Consortium (ISEC)[edit]

The International Space Elevator Consortium (ISEC) was formed to promote the development, construction, and operation of a space elevator as “a revolutionary and efficient way to space for all humanity”.[64] It was formed after the Space Elevator Conference in Redmond, Washington in July 2008 and became an affiliate organization with theNational Space Society[65] in August 2013.[64]

ISEC coordinates with the two other major societies focusing on space elevators: the Japanese Space Elevator Association[66] and EuroSpaceward.[67] ISEC supports symposia and presentations at the International Academy of Astronautics[68] and the International Astronautical Federation Congress[69] each year. The organization publishes a peer reviewed journal on space elevators called CLIMB.[64][70][71]

ISEC also conducts one-year studies focusing on individual topics. The process involves experts for one year of discussions on the topic of choice and culminates in a draft report that is presented and reviewed at the ISEC Space Elevator conference workshop. This review of the major conclusions allows input from space elevator enthusiasts as well as other experts. Topics that have concluded are: 2010 – Space Elevator Survivability, Space Debris Mitigation,[32] 2012 – Space Elevator Concept of Operations,[72] 2013 – Design Consideration for Tether Climbers,[73] 2014 – Space Elevator Architectures and Roadmaps,[74] and 2015 – Design Considerations for Space Elevator Earth Ports [to be published in Dec 2015].

Related concepts[edit]

The conventional current concept of a “Space Elevator” has evolved from a static compressive structure reaching to the level of GEO, to the modern baseline idea of a static tensile structure anchored to the ground and extending to well above the level of GEO. In the current usage by practitioners (and in this article), a “Space Elevator” means the Tsiolkovsky-Artsutanov-Pearson type as considered by the International Space Elevator Consortium. This conventional type is a static structure fixed to the ground and extending into space high enough that cargo can climb the structure up from the ground to a level where simple release will put the cargo into an orbit.[75]

Some concepts related to this modern baseline are not usually termed a “Space Elevator”, but are similar in some way and are sometimes termed “Space Elevator” by their proponents. For example, Hans Moravec published an article in 1977 called “A Non-Synchronous Orbital Skyhook” describing a concept using a rotating cable.[76] The rotation speed would exactly match the orbital speed in such a way that the tip velocity at the lowest point was zero compared to the object to be “elevated”. It would dynamically grapple and then “elevate” high flying objects to orbit or low orbiting objects to higher orbit.

The original concept envisioned by Tsiolkovsky was a compression structure, a concept similar to an aerial mast. While such structures might reach space (100 km, 62 mi), they are unlikely to reach geostationary orbit. The concept of a Tsiolkovsky tower combined with a classic space elevator cable (reaching above the level of GEO) has been suggested.[8] Other ideas use very tall compressive towers to reduce the demands on launch vehicles.[77] The vehicle is “elevated” up the tower, which may extend as high asabove the atmosphere, and is launched from the top. Such a tall tower to access near-space altitudes of 20 km (12 mi) has been proposed by various researchers.[77][78][79]

Other concepts for non-rocket spacelaunch related to a space elevator (or parts of a space elevator) include an orbital ring, a pneumatic space tower,[80] a space fountain, alaunch loop, a Skyhook, a space tether, and a buoyant “SpaceShaft”.[81]

List of tallest buildings in the world

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 828m tall Burj Khalifa in Dubaihas been the tallest building in the world since 2008.[1] The Burj Khalifa has been classified as Megatall.[2]

Tallest buildings in the world.

This list of tallest buildings in the world ranks skyscrapers by height. Only buildings with continuously occupiable floors are included, thus non-building structures, including towers, are not included (see List of tallest buildings and structures in the world).

Ranking criteria and alternatives[edit]

The international non-profit organization Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was formed in 1969 and announces the title of “The World’s Tallest Building” and sets the standards by which buildings are measured. It maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world.[3] The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m (2,717 ft).[3] The CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete, however, and some buildings listed within these list articles are not considered complete by the CTBUH.

In 1996, as a response to the dispute as to whether the Petronas Towers or the Sears Towerwas taller,[4] the council listed and ranked buildings in four categories:

  • height to structural or architectural top;
  • height to floor of highest occupied floor;
  • height to top of roof (removed as category in November 2009);[5] and
  • height to top of any part of the building.

Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. This naturally hurts the rankings of buildings without spires, or with antennas instead of spires, or with shorter spires. The most famous such discrepancy is that the Petronas Towers, with their spires, are ranked higher than the Willis Tower (formerly called the Sears Tower) with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers’ lower roofs and lower highest points (of spire/antenna).

However, this type of discrepancy has happened before, without resulting in a change of the criteria used to determine the world’s tallest building, which until 1996 was the height to the top of the tallest architectural element (spires, but not antennae). A famous historical case of this discrepancy was the rivalry between The Trump Building (then known as the Bank of Manhattan Building) and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building employed only a short spire and was 927 ft (283 m) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 125 ft (38 m) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world’s tallest building with a total height of 1,048 ft (319 m), despite having a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings’ spires are not counted in their heights. Upset by Chrysler’s victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of the Bank of Manhattan Building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world’s highest usable floor. They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 100 ft (30 m) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and essentially inaccessible.[6] At present the issue of identifying the tallest building is not contested, as Burj Khalifa tops the list by some margin, regardless of which criterion is applied.[7][8]

Tallest buildings in the world[edit]

This list includes all buildings (completed and architecturally topped out) which reach a height of 300 metres (984 ft) or more as assessed by their highest architectural feature. As of 2015, seven of the last eight buildings to have held the record as ‘tallest building in the world‘ are still found in the list, with the North Tower of the original World Trade Center being the exception after its destruction in the September 11 attacks of 2001.

bold †Denotes building that is or was once tallest in the world
Rank Building[A][9] City Country/region Height (m)[3] Height (ft) Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai  UAE 828 m 2,717 ft 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai  China 632 m[10] 2,073 ft 123 2015
3 Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower Mecca  Saudi Arabia 601 m[11] 1,971 ft 120 2012
4 Ping An Finance Centre Shenzhen  China 599 m 1,965 ft 115 2016[B]
5 Goldin Finance 117 Tianjin  China 596.5 m 1,957 ft 117 2016[B]
6 One World Trade Center New York City  United States 541.3 m 1,776 ft 104 2014
7 CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou  China 530 m[12] 1,740 ft 111 2016[B]
8 Taipei 101 Taipei  Taiwan 509 m[13] 1,670 ft 101 2004
9 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai  China 492 m 1,614 ft 101 2008
10 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong  Hong Kong 484 m 1,588 ft 118 2010
11= Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 452 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
11= Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 452 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
13 Zifeng Tower Nanjing  China 450 m 1,476 ft 89 2010
14 Willis Tower† (formerly the Sears Tower) Chicago  United States 442 m 1,451 ft 107 1974
15 KK100 Shenzhen  China 442 m 1,449 ft 100 2011
16 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou  China 440 m 1,440 ft 103 2010
17 Wuhan Center Wuhan  China 438 m 1,437 ft 88 2016[B]
18 Marina 101 Dubai  UAE 426.5 m 1,399 ft 101 2015[B]
19 432 Park Avenue New York City  United States 426 m 1,397 ft 88 2015[B]
20 Trump International Hotel and Tower[14] Chicago  United States 423 m 1,389 ft 98 2009
21 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai  China 420.5 m 1,380 ft 88 1999
22 Princess Tower Dubai  UAE 414 m 1,358 ft[15] 101 2012
23 Al Hamra Tower Kuwait City  Kuwait 413 m 1,354 ft 80 2011
24 Two International Finance Centre Hong Kong  Hong Kong 412 m 1,352 ft 88 2003
25 23 Marina Dubai  UAE 395 m 1,296 ft 89 2012
26 CITIC Plaza Guangzhou  China 391 m 1,283 ft 80 1997
27 Capital Market Authority Headquarters Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 385 m 1 263 ft 77 2015[B]
28 Shun Hing Square Shenzhen  China 384 m 1,260 ft 69 1996
29 Eton Place Dalian Tower 1 Dalian  China 383 m 1,257 ft 81 2015[B]
30 Burj Mohammed bin Rashid Abu Dhabi  UAE 381.2 m 1,251 ft 88 2014
31 Empire State Building New York City  United States 381 m 1,250 ft 102 1931
32 Elite Residence Dubai  UAE 380.5 m 1,248 ft 87 2012
33 Central Plaza Hong Kong  Hong Kong 374 m 1,227 ft 78 1992
34 Federation Tower (East Tower)[16] Moscow  Russia 374 m 1,226 ft 95 2015[B]
35 Dalian International Trade Center Dalian  China 370.1 m 1,214 ft 86 2016[B]
36 The Address the BLVD Dubai  UAE 368 m 1,207 ft 72 2016[B]
37 Bank of China Tower Hong Kong  Hong Kong 367 m 1,205 ft 70 1990
38 Bank of America Tower New York City  United States 366 m 1,200 ft 54 2009
39 Almas Tower Dubai  UAE 363 m 1,191 ft 68 2009
40= JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 1 Dubai  UAE 355 m 1,166 ft 82 2012
40= JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 2 Dubai  UAE 355 m 1,166 ft 82 2012
42 Emirates Office Tower Dubai  UAE 354.6 m 1,163 ft 54 2000
43 OKO Tower – South Tower Moscow  Russia 354 m 1,160 ft 85 2015
44 The Marina Torch Dubai  UAE 352 m 1,155 ft 86 2011
45 Forum 66 Tower 2 Shenyang  China 351 m 1,150 ft 68 2015[B]
46 The Pinnacle Guangzhou  China 350.3 m 1,149 ft 60 2012
47 Tuntex Sky Tower Kaohsiung  Republic of China 348 m 1,140 ft 85 1997
48 Aon Center Chicago  United States 346.3 m 1,136 ft 83 1973
49 The Center Hong Kong  Hong Kong 346 m 1,135 ft 73 1998
50 John Hancock Center Chicago  United States 344 m 1,128 ft 100 1969
51= ADNOC Headquarters Abu Dhabi  UAE 342 m 1,122 ft 76 2015[B]
51= Ahmed Abdul Rahim Al Attar Tower Dubai  UAE 342 m 1,122 ft 76 2015[B]
53 The Wharf Times Square Wuxi  China 339 m 1,112 ft 68 2014
54 Chongqing World Financial Center Chongqing  China 338.9 m 1,112 ft 78 2014
55 Mercury City Tower Moscow  Russia 338.8 m 1,112 ft 75 2012
56 Tianjin Modern City Office Tower Tianjin  China 338 m 1,109 ft 65 2015
57 Tianjin World Financial Center Tianjin  China 337 m 1,105 ft 79 2010
58= Twin Towers Guiyang, East Tower Guiyang  China 335 m 1,099 ft 74 2017[B]
58= Twin Towers Guiyang, West Tower Guiyang  China 335 m 1,099 ft 74 2017[B]
60 Shimao International Plaza Shanghai  China 333 m 1,094 ft 61 2005
61 Rose Tower Dubai  UAE 333 m 1,093 ft 72 2007
62 Minsheng Bank Building Wuhan  China 331 m 1,087 ft 68 2008
63= China World Trade Center Tower 3 Beijing  China 330 m 1,083 ft 74 2009
63= Ryugyong Hotel Pyongyang  North Korea 330 m 1,083 ft 105 1992[C]
65 Hon Kwok City Center Shenzhen  China 329.4 m 1,081 ft 80 2015
66 Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower Hanoi  Vietnam 328.6 m 1,078 ft 72 2012
67= Al Yaqoub Tower Dubai  UAE 328 m 1,076 ft 69 2013
67= Longxi International Hotel Huaxi Village  China 328 m 1,076 ft 72 2011
67= Wuxi Suning Plaza 1 Wuxi  China 328 m 1,076 ft 68 2014
70 The Index Dubai  UAE 326 m 1,070 ft 80 2010
71= The Landmark Abu Dhabi  UAE 324 m 1,063 ft 72 2012
71= Deji Plaza Phase 2 Nanjing  China 324 m 1,063 ft 62 2013
73 Yantai Shimao No.1 The Harbour Yantai  China 323 m 1,060 ft 59 2015[B]
74 Q1 Gold Coast  Australia 322.5 m 1,058 ft 80 2005
75 Wenzhou World Trade Center Wenzhou  China 322 m 1,056 ft 68 2010
76= Guangxi Finance Plaza Nanning  China 321 m 1,053 ft 68 2016[B]
76= Burj Al Arab Dubai  UAE 321 m 1,053 ft 60 1999
78 Nina Tower Hong Kong  Hong Kong 320.4 m 1,051 ft 80 2007
79 Sinar Mas Center 1 Shanghai  China 319.6 m 1,048 ft 66 2016[B]
80= Chrysler Building New York City  United States 318.9 m 1,046 ft 77 1930
80= Global City Square[17] Guangzhou  China 318.9 m 1,046 ft 67 2015[B]
82 New York Times Building New York City  United States 318.8 m 1,046 ft 52 2007
83 HHHR Tower Dubai  UAE 317 m 1,042 ft 72 2010
84 Chongqing IFS T1 Chongqing  China 316 m 1,037 ft 65 2016[B]
85 Nanjing International Youth Cultural Centre Tower 1[18] Nanjing  China 315 m 1,032 ft 68 2015
86 MahaNakhon Bangkok  Thailand 314.2 m 1,031 ft 75 2016[B]
87 Bank of America Plaza Atlanta  United States 312 m 1,024 ft 55 1992
88 Moi Center Shenyang  China 311 m 1,020 ft 75 2012
89 U.S. Bank Tower Los Angeles  United States 310.3 m 1,018 ft 73 1989
90= Menara Telekom Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 310 m 1,017 ft 55 2001
90= Ocean Heights Dubai  UAE 310 m 1,017 ft 82 2010
90= Fortune Center Guangzhou  China 309.4 m 1,015 ft 73 2015[B]
90= Pearl River Tower Guangzhou  China 309.4 m 1,015 ft 71 2011
94 Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotel Dubai  UAE 309 m 1,014 ft 56 2000
95 Stalnaya Vershina Moscow  Russia 308.9 m 1,013 ft 72 2015
96 Burj Rafal Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 308 m 1,010 ft 68 2013
97= Wanda Plaza 1[19] Kunming  China 307 m 1,008 ft 70 2016[B]
97= Wanda Plaza 2[20] Kunming  China 307 m 1,008 ft 70 2016[B]
99 Franklin Center Chicago  United States 306.9 m 1,007 ft 60 1989
100 Cayan Tower Dubai  UAE 306.4 m 1,005 ft 76 2013
101= East Pacific Center Tower A Shenzhen  China 306 m 1,004 ft 85 2012
101= One57 New York City  United States 306 m 1,004 ft 75 2013
101= The Shard London  United Kingdom 306 m 1,004 ft 73 2012
104 JPMorgan Chase Tower Houston  United States 305.4 m 1,002 ft 75 1982
105 Etihad Tower 2[21][22] Abu Dhabi  UAE 305.3 m 1,002 ft 79 2011
106 Northeast Asia Trade Tower Incheon  South Korea 305 m 1,001 ft 68 2010
107 Baiyoke Tower II Bangkok  Thailand 304 m 997 ft 85 1997
108 Wuxi Maoye City – Marriott Hotel Wuxi  China 303.8 m 997 ft 68 2014
109 Two Prudential Plaza Chicago  United States 303.3 m 995 ft 64 1990
110= Diwang International Fortune Center Liuzhou  China 303 m 994 ft 75 2015[B]
110= Chang Fu Jin Mao Tower Shenzhen  China 303 m 994 ft 68 2016[B]
110= KAFD World Trade Center[23] Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 303 m 994 ft 67 2015[B]
110= Jiangxi Nanchang Greenland Central Plaza 1[24] Nanchang  China 303 m 994 ft 59 2015
110= Jiangxi Nanchang Greenland Central Plaza 2[25] Nanchang  China 303 m 994 ft 59 2015
110= Heung Kong Tower Shenzhen  China 303 m 994 ft 61 2014
116 Leatop Plaza Guangzhou  China 303 m 993 ft 65 2011
117 Wells Fargo Plaza Houston  United States 302.4 m 992 ft 71 1983
118 Kingdom Centre Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 302.3 m 992 ft 41 2002
119 The Address Downtown Burj Khalifa Dubai  UAE 302.2 m 991 ft 63 2008
120 Gate of the Orient Suzhou  China 302 m 990 ft 68 2015
121 Moscow Tower Moscow  Russia 302 m 989 ft 76 2010
122 Greenland Puli Center[26] Jinan  China 301 m 988 ft 60 2015
123 We’ve the Zenith Tower A Busan  South Korea 301 m 987 ft 80 2011
124= Gran Torre Santiago Santiago  Chile 300 m 984 ft 62 2012
124= Abeno Harukas Osaka  Japan 300 m 984 ft 60 2014
124= Arraya 2 Kuwait City  Kuwait 300 m 984 ft 60 2009
124= Aspire Tower Doha  Qatar 300 m 984 ft 36 2007

Photo gallery[edit]

Alternative measurements[edit]

Height to pinnacle (highest point)[edit]

This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point. This measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are easily added, removed, and modified from a building and are independent of the overall structure.

This measurement only recently came to use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower (now called Willis Tower) in height. The former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latter’s antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof (now highest occupied floor) categories, and with the Petronas claiming the lead in the architectural height category.

Tallest buildings in the world by pinnacle height, including all masts, poles, antennae, etc. in 2014.

Rank Building City Country/region Height Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai  UAE 829.8 m 2,722 ft 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai  China 632 m 2,073 ft 121 2015
3 Abraj Al-Bait Towers Mecca  Saudi Arabia 601 m[11] 1,971 ft 120 2012
4 One World Trade Center New York City  United States 546.2 m 1,792 ft 104 2014
5 Willis Tower Chicago  United States 527.0 m 1,729 ft 108 1974
6 Taipei 101 Taipei  Taiwan 509.0 m 1,669 ft 101 2004
7 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai  China 494.4 m 1,614 ft 101 2008
8 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong  Hong Kong 484.0 m 1,588 ft 118 2010
9 John Hancock Center Chicago  United States 457.2 m 1,500 ft 100 1969
10= Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 452.0 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
10= Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 452.0 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
12 Zifeng Tower Nanjing  China 450.0 m 1,476 ft 89 2009
13 Empire State Building New York City  United States 443.2 m 1,454 ft 102 1931
14 Kingkey 100 Shenzhen  China 442 m 1,449 ft 100 2011
15 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou  China 440.5 m 1,445 ft 103 2009
16 Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago  United States 423.4 m 1,389 ft 96 2009
17 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai  China 421.0 m 1,381 ft 88 1998
18 International Finance Centre Hong Kong  Hong Kong 416.5 m 1,366 ft 88 2003
19 Princess Tower Dubai  UAE 414.0 m 1,358 ft[15] 101 2012
20 Al Hamra Tower Kuwait City  Kuwait 412.6 m 1,354 ft 80 2010
21 23 Marina Dubai  UAE 395 m 1,296 ft 89 2012
22 CITIC Plaza Guangzhou  China 391.0 m 1,283 ft 80 1997
23 Shun Hing Square Shenzhen  China 384.0 m 1,260 ft 69 1996
24 Tuntex Sky Tower Kaohsiung  Taiwan 378.0 m 1,240 ft 85 1997
25= Emirates Park Tower 1 Dubai  UAE 376.0 m 1,234 ft 77 2010
25= Emirates Park Tower 2 Dubai  UAE 376.0 m 1,234 ft 77 2010
27 Central Plaza Hong Kong  Hong Kong 374.0 m 1,227 ft 78 1992
28 Bank of China Tower Hong Kong  Hong Kong 367.4 m 1,205 ft 72 1990
29 Bank of America Tower New York City  United States 365.8 m 1,200 ft 54 2008
30 Almas Tower Dubai  UAE 363.0 m 1,191 ft 68 2008
31 Emirates Office Tower Dubai  UAE 356.4 m 1,169 ft 56 2000
32 SEG Plaza Shenzhen  China 355.8 m 1,167 ft 70 2000
33 First Canadian Place Toronto  Canada 355.0 m 1,165 ft 72 1975
34 The Torch Dubai  UAE 348.1 m 1,142 ft 80 2011
35 Aon Center Chicago  United States 346.3 m 1,136 ft 83 1973
36 The Center Hong Kong  Hong Kong 346.0 m 1,135 ft 73 1998
37 Ahmed Abdul Rahim Al Attar Tower Dubai  UAE 342.0 m 1,122 ft 76 2010
38 Mercury City Tower Moscow  Russia 339 m 1,112 ft 75 2012
39 Conde Nast Building New York City  United States 338.0 m 1,109 ft 48 1999
40 Tianjin World Financial Center Tianjin  China 336.9 m 1,105 ft 79 2010
41 Shanghai Shimao International Plaza Shanghai  China 333.0 m 1,094 ft 60 2005
42 Rose Tower Dubai  UAE 333.0 m 1,093 ft 72 2008
57 Modern Media Center Changzhou  China 333.0 m 1,093 ft 57 2013
43 Minsheng Bank Building Wuhan  China 331.0 m 1,086 ft 68 2007
44= Ryugyong Hotel Pyongyang  North Korea 330.0 m 1,083 ft 105 1992[C]
44= China World Trade Center Tower 3 Beijing  China 330.0 m 1,083 ft 74 2008
46= Baiyoke Tower II Bangkok  Thailand 328.0 m 1,076 ft 85 1997
46= The Index Dubai  UAE 328.0 m 1,076 ft 80 2009
46= Al Yaqoub Tower Dubai  UAE 328.0 m 1,076 ft 72 2010
46= Hanging Village of Huaxi Huaxi Village  China 328.0 m 1,076 ft 72 2011
50 The Landmark Abu Dhabi  UAE 324.0 m 1,072 ft 72 2010[B]
51 Q1 Gold Coast  Australia 322.5 m 1,058 ft 78 2005
52 Wenzhou World Trade Center Wenzhou  China 322.0 m 1,056 ft 68 2010
53 Burj Al Arab Dubai  UAE 321.0 m 1,053 ft 60 1999
54= Chrysler Building New York City  United States 318.9 m 1,046 ft 77 1930
54= New York Times Building New York City  United States 318.9 m 1,046 ft 52 2007
56 Nina Tower Hong Kong  Hong Kong 318.8 m 1,046 ft 80 2006
57= HHHR Tower Dubai  UAE 317.8 m 1,042 ft 72 2010
57= Bank of America Plaza Atlanta  United States 317.8 m 1,042 ft 55 1992
59 U.S. Bank Tower Los Angeles  United States 310.3 m 1,018 ft 73 1989
60= Ocean Heights Dubai  UAE 310.0 m 1,017 ft 82 2010
60= Menara Telekom Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 310.0 m 1,017 ft 55 2001
60= Sky Tower Abu Dhabi  UAE 310.0 m 1,017 ft 74 2010
63 Pearl River Tower Guangzhou  China 310.0 m 1,016 ft 71 2012
64 The Shard London  UK 309.6 m 1,016 ft 95 2012
65 Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotel Dubai  UAE 309.0 m 1,014 ft 56 2000
66 AT&T Corporate Center Chicago  United States 307.0 m 1,007 ft 60 2001
67 The Address Downtown Burj Khalifa Dubai  UAE 306.0 m 1,004 ft 63 2008
68= JPMorganChase Tower Houston  United States 305.4 m 1,002 ft 75 1982
68= Etihad Tower 2[21][22] Abu Dhabi  UAE 305.4 m 1,002 ft 79 2011
70 Northeast Asia Trade Tower Incheon  South Korea 305.1 m 1,001 ft 68 2010
71 Two Prudential Plaza Chicago  United States 303.3 m 995 ft 64 1990
72 Leatop Plaza Guangzhou  China 302.7 m 993 ft 65 2012
73= Wells Fargo Plaza Houston  United States 302.4 m 992 ft 71 1983
73= One Shell Plaza Houston  United States 302.4 m 992 ft 50 1971
75 Kingdom Centre Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 302.0 m 991 ft 41 2002
76 Moscow Tower Moscow  Russia 302.0 m 989 ft 76 2010
77 We’ve the Zenith Busan  South Korea 301.0 m 988 ft 80 2011
78 Commerzbank Tower Frankfurt  Germany 300.1 m 985 ft 53 1997
79= Aspire Tower Doha  Qatar 300.0 m 984 ft 36 2007
79= Arraya 2 Kuwait City  Kuwait 300.0 m 984 ft 60 2009

Buildings under construction[edit]

This list shows buildings taller than 300 metres or 65 floors that are currently under construction.

Building Planned pinnacle height Planned roof height Floors Planned completion Country/region City Remarks
Jeddah Tower 1,008 m (3,307 ft) 1,008 m (3,307 ft) 167 2019  Saudi Arabia Jeddah Will become the tallest in the world upon completion.[27]
Purbachal Convention Centre 734 m(2,408 ft) 130 2018 Bangladesh Dhaka [28]
Wuhan Greenland Center 636 m (2,087 ft) 547 m (1,795 ft) 125 2017  China Wuhan
KL118 635 m (2,083 ft) 635 m (2,083 ft) 118 2020  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Rose Rock IFC 588 m (1,929 ft) 100 2017  China Tianjin
Baoneng Shenyang Global Financial Center 565 m (1,854 ft) 114 2018  China Shenyang
Lotte World Tower 555.7 m (1,823 ft) 497.6 m (1,633 ft) 123 2016  South Korea Seoul Will become the tallest building in the OECD with the tallest observation deck in the world.[29]
225 West 57th Street 541 m (1,775 ft) 464 m (1,522 ft) 95 2019  United States New York City Will become the second tallest building in New York, and the tallest residential building in the world; also known as the Nordstrom Tower.
Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center 530 m (1,740 ft) 580 m (1,900 ft) 98 2018  China Tianjin
China Zun 528 m (1,732 ft) 528 m (1,732 ft) 108 2017  China Beijing
Dalian Greenland Center 518 m (1,699 ft) 518 m (1,699 ft) 88 2018[30]  China Dalian
Hengqin Headquarters Tower 2 490 m (1,610 ft) 106 2017  China Zhuhai
Chengdu Greenland Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 100 2018  China Chengdu
International Commerce Center 1 468 m (1,535 ft) 430 m (1,410 ft) 99 2019[31]  China Chongqing
Tianjin R&F Guangdong Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 384 m (1,260 ft) 91 2016  China Tianjin
Lakhta Center 462 m (1,516 ft) 86 2018  Russia St. Petersburg Will become tallest building in Europe upon completion.[32]
Landmark 81 461.5 m (1,514 ft) 81 2018  Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City
Riverview Plaza 460 m (1,510 ft) 82 2016  China Wuhan
Changsha IFS Tower T1 452 m (1,483 ft) 88 2017  China Changsha [33]
Suzhou IFS 452 m (1,483 ft) 92 2016  China Suzhou
Marina 106 445 m (1,460 ft) 104 2019  UAE Dubai
China Resources Centre Block A 442 m (1,450 ft) 90 2018  China Nanning [34]
World One 442 m (1,450 ft) 442 m (1,450 ft) 117 2016  India Mumbai Will become tallest residential skyscraper in the world if completed before Pentominium.[35][36][37][38][39][40]
111 West 57th Street 438 m (1,437 ft) 408.7 m (1,341 ft) 82 2017  United States New York City Scheduled to be world’s skinniest skyscraper “with a slenderness ratio of about 1:24.”[41]
Diamond Tower 432 m (1,417 ft) 395 m (1,296 ft) 93 2017  Saudi Arabia Jeddah
Dongguan International Trade Center 1 427 m (1,401 ft) 88 2019  China Dongguan
LCT Landmark Tower 411.6 m (1,350 ft) 411.6 m (1,350 ft) 101 2018  South Korea Busan
Nanjing Olympic Suning Tower 400 m (1,300 ft) 400 m (1,300 ft) 88 2017  China Nanjing
Ningbo Center 398 m (1,306 ft) 398 m (1,306 ft) 79 2017  China Ningbo
30 Hudson Yards 392 m (1,286 ft) 92 2018-2019  United States New York City Tallest building in the Hudson Yards development.
China Resources Headquarters 392 m (1,286 ft) 66 2017  China Shenzhen
Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1 388 m (1,273 ft) 80 2019  China Shenzhen
Abu Dhabi Plaza 382 m (1,253 ft) 88 2017  Kazakhstan Astana
Gemdale Gangxia Tower 1 375.5 m (1,232 ft) 80 2018  China Shenzhen
Three Sixty West Tower B 372 m (1,220 ft)[42] 85 2017  India Mumbai
Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A 368 m (1,207 ft) 76 2018  China Nanjing
VietinBank Business Center Office Tower 363 m (1,191 ft) 321 m (1,053 ft) 70 2016  Vietnam Hanoi
Greenland Group Suzhou Center 358 m (1,175 ft) 75 2018  China Suzhou [43]
Hanking Center 350 m (1,150 ft) 65 2018  China Shenzhen [44]
Lamar Tower 1 322 m (1,056 ft) 70 2018  Saudi Arabia Jeddah
Gezhouba International Plaza 350 m (1,150 ft) 69 2017  China Wuhan
Spring City 66 349 m (1,145 ft) 61 2018  China Kunming [45]
Shimao Hunan Center 347 m (1,138 ft) ?? 2018  China Changsha
Comcast Innovation and Technology Center 342 m (1,122 ft) 59 2018  United States Philadelphia Will become the tallest building in the United States outside New York and Chicago.
Xiamen International Center 339 m (1,112 ft) 339.88 m (1,115.1 ft) 81 2016  China Xiamen [46]
LCT Residential Tower A 339.1 m (1,113 ft) 339.1 m (1,113 ft) 85 2018  South Korea Busan
One Shenzhen Bay 338 m (1,109 ft) 80 2018  China Shenzhen
Tianjin Modern City Office Tower 338 m (1,109 ft) 65 2016  China Tianjin
Wilshire Grand Tower 335 m (1,099 ft) 350 m (1,150 ft) 73 2017  United States Los Angeles Will become tallest building in the United States west of Chicago.
DAMAC Heights 335 m (1,099 ft) 335 m (1,099 ft) 85 2016  UAE Dubai
LCT Residential Tower B 333.1 m (1,093 ft) 333.1 m (1,093 ft) 85 2018  South Korea Busan
Jinan Center Financial City 333 m (1,093 ft) ?? ?  China Jinan
Mandarin Oriental Chengdu 333 m (1,093 ft) 88 2017  China Chengdu
Changsha A9 Financial District 330 m (1,080 ft) 68 2019  China Changsha
Suning Plaza Tower 1 330 m (1,080 ft) 330 m (1,080 ft) 77 2016  China Zhenjiang
Wuhan Yangtze River Shipping Center 330 m (1,080 ft) 65 2018  China Wuhan
Yuexiu Fortune Center Tower 1 330 m (1,080 ft) 66 2016  China Wuhan
Zhuhai St. Regis Hotel & Office Tower 330 m (1,080 ft) 67 2016  China Zhuhai
Three World Trade Center 329 m (1,079 ft) 80 2018  United States New York City Also known as 175 Greenwich Street[47]
Concord International Centre 328 m (1,076 ft) 62 2016  China Chongqing
Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower B 328 m (1,076 ft) 68 2018  China Nanjing
Nanjing World Trade Center Tower 1 328 m (1,076 ft) 328 m (1,076 ft) 69 2016  China Nanjing
Baoneng Center 327 m (1,073 ft) 65 2018  China Shenzhen
Salesforce Tower 326 m (1,070 ft) 302 m (991 ft) 61 2018  United States San Francisco Will become tallest building in San Francisco.
Gate of Taipei 322.2 m (1,057 ft) 322.2 m (1,057 ft) 76 2016  Taiwan Taipei
Palais Royale Mumbai 320 m (1,050 ft) 320 m (1,050 ft) 88 2017  India Mumbai Structurally “topped out” but not architecturally yet. Will become the tallest building in India, if completed before World One.[48]
53W53 320 m (1,050 ft) 320 m (1,050 ft) 82 2018  United States New York City Also known as the MoMA Expansion Tower and Tower Verre.
Riverside Century Plaza Main Tower 318 m (1,043 ft) 318 m (1,043 ft) 66 2015  China Wuhu
Australia 108 317 m (1,040 ft) 100 2019  Australia Melbourne Will become second tallest building in Australia, and the tallest building in Melbourne.
Namaste Tower 316 m (1,037 ft) 300 m (980 ft) 63 2020  India Mumbai It resembles the ‘Namaste’ gesture: two wings of the hotel are clasped together like hands greeting.
Magnolias Waterfront Residences Tower 1 315 m (1,033 ft) 70 2019  Thailand Bangkok May become the tallest building in Thailand in 2019
Lokhandwala Minerva 307 m (1,007 ft) 307 m (1,007 ft) 82 2016  India Mumbai Residential[49][50][51]
Brys Buzz 300 m
(984 ft)
82 2017  India Greater Noida [52]
Century Textiles Office Tower 300 m
(984 ft)
59 2019  India Mumbai [53][54]
Supernova Spira 300 m (980 ft) 80 2016  India Noida
Omkar 1973 Worli Tower 1 300 m (980 ft) 78 2016  India Mumbai [55]
Omkar 1973 Worli Tower 2 300 m (980 ft) 77 2016  India Mumbai [55]
Omkar Alta Monte Tower D 300 m (980 ft) 73 2016  India Mumbai
Shenglong Global Center 300 m (980 ft) 57 2017  China Fuzhou
Jin Wan Plaza 1 300 m (980 ft) 300 m (980 ft) 66 2017  China Tianjin [56]

List by continent[edit]

The following list shows the tallest completed buildings located in each continent listed by greatest to least height:

Continent Building Height Floor count Completed Country City
Asia Burj Khalifa 828 m (2,717 ft) 160 2010  United Arab Emirates Dubai
North America One World Trade Center 541.32 m (1,776.0 ft) 104 2014  United States New York City
Europe OKO Tower 351.8 m (1,154 ft) 91 2015  Russia Moscow
Oceania Q1 323 m (1,060 ft) 78 2005  Australia Gold Coast
South America Gran Torre Santiago[57] 300 m (980 ft) 64 2012  Chile Santiago
Africa Carlton Centre 223 m (732 ft) 50 1973  South Africa Johannesburg
Antarctica Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Payload Preparation Buildings[58] ~15 m (49 ft) 2005[59]  Antarctica McMurdo Station

See also

List of tallest buildings and structures in the world

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

The world’s tallest artificial structure is the 829.8 m (2,722 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building gained the official title of “Tallest Building in the World” at its opening on January 4, 2010. It is followed by the Tokyo Skytree, as thetallest tower, and the KVLY-TV mast.

The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, an organization that certifies buildings as the “World’s Tallest”, recognizes a building only if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area.[1] Structures that do not meet this criterion, such as the CN Tower, are defined as “towers“.

There are dozens of radio and television broadcasting towers which measure over 600 metres (about 2,000 ft) in height, and only the tallest are recorded in publicly available information sources.

Debate over definitions[edit]

The assessment of the height of artificial structures has been controversial. Various standards have been used by different organisations which has meant that the title of world’s tallest structure or building has changed depending on which standards have been accepted. The aforementioned Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat have changed their definitions over time. Some of the controversy regarding the definitions and assessment of tall structures and buildings has included the following:

  • the definition of a structure, a building and a tower
  • whether a structure, building or tower under construction should be included in any assessment
  • whether a structure, building or tower has to be officially opened before it is assessed
  • whether structures built in and rising above water should have their below-water height included in any assessment.
  • whether a structure, building or tower that is guyed is assessed in the same category as self-supporting structures.

Within an accepted definition of a building further controversy has included the following factors:

  • whether only habitable height of the building is considered
  • whether communication towers with observation galleries should be considered “habitable” in this sense
  • whether rooftop antennas, viewing platforms or any other architecture that does not form a habitable floor should be included in the assessment
  • whether a floor built at a high level of a telecommunications or viewing tower should change the tower’s definition to that of a “building”

Tallest structures[edit]

Warsaw radio mast, the height record holder from 1974 to 1991.

The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, was the world’s tallest freestanding structure from 1975 to 2007.

This category does not require the structure to be “officially” open.

The tallest artificial structure is Burj Khalifa, a skyscraper in Dubai that reached 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in height on January 17, 2009.[2] By April 7, 2008 it had been built higher than the KVLY-TV mast in North Dakota, USA.[3] That September it officially surpassed Poland‘s 646.38 m (2,120.7 ft) Warsaw radio mast, which stood from 1974 to 1991, to become the tallest structure ever built. Guyed lattice towers such as these masts had held the world height record since 1954.

The Petronius Platform stands 610 m (2,000 ft) off the sea floor leading some, including Guinness World Records 2007, to claim it as the tallest freestanding structure in the world. However, it is debated whether underwater height should be counted in the same manner as height below ground is ignored on buildings. The Troll A platform is 472 m (1,549 ft), without any part of that height being supported by wires. The tension-leg type of oil platform has even greater below-water heights with several examples more than 1,000 m (3,300 ft) deep. However, these platforms are not considered constant structures as the vast majority of their height is made up of the length of the tendons attaching the floating platforms to the sea floor. Despite this, Guinness World Records 2009 listed the Ursa tension leg platform as the tallest structure in the world with a total height of 1,306 m (4,285 ft). The Magnolia Tension-leg Platform in the Gulf of Mexico is even taller with a total height of 1,432 m (4,698 ft).

Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, set records in three of the four skyscraper categories at the time it opened in 2004; at the time the Burj Khalifa opened in 2010 it remained the world’s tallest inhabited building 509.2 m (1,671 ft) as measured to its architectural height (spire). The height of its roof 449.2 m (1,474 ft) and highest occupied floor 439.2 m (1,441 ft) had been surpassed by the Shanghai World Financial Center with corresponding heights of 487 and 474 m (1,598 and 1,555 ft). Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) was the highest in the final category: the greatest height to top of antenna of any building in the world at 527.3 m (1,730 ft).

Burj Khalifa broke the height record in all four categories for completed buildings.

Tallest structure by category[edit]

Due to the disagreements over how to measure height and classify structures, engineers have created various definitions for categories of buildings and other structures. One measure includes the absolute height of a building, another includes only spires and other permanent architectural features, but not antennas. The tradition of including the spire on top of a building and not including the antenna dates back to the rivalry between the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street. A modern-day example is that the antenna on top of Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) is not considered part of its architectural height, while the spires on top of the Petronas Twin Towers are counted.

Note: The following table is a list of the tallest completed structure in each of the categories below. There can only be one structure in each category, unless the title for the tallest is a draw.

Category Structure Country City Height (metres) Height (feet) Year built Coordinates
Skyscraper Burj Khalifa United Arab Emirates Dubai 829.8 2,722 2010 25°11′50.0″N 55°16′26.6″E
Self-supporting tower Tokyo Skytree Japan Tokyo 634 2,080 2011 35°42′36.5″N 139°48′39″E
mixed used Shanghai Tower China Shanghai 632 2,063 2015 47°20′31.85″N 97°17′21.13″W
Clock building Abraj Al Bait Towers Saudi Arabia Mecca 601 1,972 2011 21°25′08″N 39°49′35″E
Military structure Large masts of INS Kattabomman India Tirunelveli 471 1,545 2014 8°22′42.52″N 77°44′38.45″E ; 8°22′30.13″N 77°45′21.07″E
Mast radiator Lualualei VLF transmitter United States Lualualei, Hawaii 458 1,503 1972 21°25′11.87″N 158°08′53.67″W ; 21°25′13.38″N 158°09′14.35″W
Twin towers Petronas Twin Towers Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 452 1,482 1998 3°09′27.45″N 101°42′40.7″E; 3°09′29.45″N 101°42′43.4″E
Chimney Ekibastuz GRES-2 Power Station Kazakhstan Ekibastuz 419.7 1,377 1987 52°1′26.3″N 75°28′34.5″E
Radar Dimona Radar Facility Israel Dimona 400 1,312 2008 30°58′6.93″N 35°05′49.64″E ; 30°58′32.46″N 35°05′55.25″E
Lattice tower Kiev TV Tower Ukraine Kiev 385 1,263 1973 50°28′16.49″N 30°27′11.97″E
Electricity pylon Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie China Zhoushan 370 1,214 2009 29°56′2.78″N 122°2′10.12″E ; 29°54′41.39″N 122°1′26.38″E
Partially guyed tower Gerbrandy Tower Netherlands IJsselstein 366.8 1,203 1961 52°00′36.24″N 05°03′12.87″E
Guyed tubular steel mast TV Tower Vinnytsia Ukraine Vinnytsia 354 1,161 1961 49°14′30.04″N 28°25′25.25″E
Bridge pillar Millau Viaduct France Millau 342 1,122 2004 44°05′09.97″N 03°01′17.94″E
Scientific research tower Amazon Tall Tower Observatory Brazil 160 km NE ofManaus 325[4] 1,066 2015 02°29′06″S 59°35′33″W
Blaw-Knox Tower Lakihegy Tower Hungary Szigetszentmiklós 314 1,031 1968 47°22′23″N 19°00′16″E
Dam Jinping-I Dam China Liangshan 305 1,001 2013 28°11′07″N 101°37′42″E
Minaret Hassan II Mosque Morocco Casablanca 210 689 1993 33°36′28.71″N 7°37′58.16″W
Wind turbine Vestas V164-8.0 Denmark Thisted-Østerild 222[5] 728 2014 57°04′44.41″N 8°53′0.87″E
Cooling tower Kalisindh Thermal Power Station India Jhalawar 202[6] 663 2012 24°32′04.97″N 76°05′57.89″E ; 24°31′58.33″N 76°06′06.81″E
Monument Gateway Arch United States St. Louis, Missouri 192 630 1965 38°37′28.62″N 90°11′5.87″W
Water tower Main tower of Kuwait Towers Kuwait Kuwait City 187 614 1979 29°23′22.75″N 48°00′11.57″E
Wooden structure ATLAS-I at Kirtland Air Force Base United States Albuquerque 180 600 1980 35.029898°N 106.557574°W
Masonry tower Anaconda Smelter Stack United States Anaconda, Montana 178.3 585 1919 46°06′36.53″N 112°54′48.8″W
Inclined structure,
Stadium
Olympic Stadium Canada Montreal 175 574 1976 45°33′33.53″N 73°33′7.61″W
Obelisk San Jacinto Monument United States La Porte, Texas 173.7 570 1939 29°44′59.46″N 95°04′50.52″W
Church building Chicago Temple Building United States Chicago 173 568 1924 41°52′58.81″N 87°37′50.25″W
Ferris wheel High Roller United States Las Vegas 167.6 550 2014 36.117402°N 115.168127°W
Masonry building Mole Antonelliana Italy Torino 167 548 1889 45°04′8.45″N 7°41′35.62″E
Masonry building Philadelphia City Hall United States Philadelphia 167 548 1901 39°57′9.79″N 75°09′48.72″W
Flagpole Jeddah Flagpole Saudi Arabia Jeddah 171[7] 561 2014
Church tower Ulmer Münster Germany Ulm 162 530 1890 48°23′55″N 9°59′30.78″E
Industrial hall Vehicle Assembly Building United States Kennedy Space Center, Florida 160 525 1966 28°35′9.64″N 80°39′2.11″W
Dome Dome of the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro Ivory Coast Yamoussoukro 158 518 1990 6°48′40″N 5°17′47″W
Memorial cross Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos Spain El Escorial 152.4 500 1957 40°38′31.46″N 4°9′19.6″W
Telescope Arecibo Telescope United States Arecibo, Puerto Rico 150 492 1963 18°20′39″N 66°45′10″W
Roller coaster Kingda Ka United States Jackson, New Jersey 138.98 456 2005 40°08′26.54″N 74°25′59.83″W
Tomb Great Pyramid of Giza Egypt Giza 138.8 455.2 2560 BC 29°58′44.93″N 31°08′3.09″E
Lighthouse Jeddah Light Saudi Arabia Jeddah 133 436 1990[8] 21°28′07.14″N 39°08′58.98″E
Air traffic control tower Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 Control Tower Malaysia Sepang 141.3 463.6 2013[9] 2.740486°N 101.679069°E
Statue (incl. pedestal) Spring Temple Buddha China Lushan 128 420 2002 33.775150°N 112.451016°E
Stupa Phra Pathom Chedi Thailand Nakhon Pathom 127 417 1870 13°49′11″N 100°3′37″E
Sculpture Spire of Dublin Ireland Dublin 121.2 393 2003 53°20′59.28″N 6°15′36.93″W
Wooden lattice tower Gliwice Radio Tower Poland Gliwice 118 387 1935 50°18′48.12″N 18°41′20.26″E
Storage silo Schapfen Mill Tower Germany Ulm 115 377 2005 48°25′57″N 9°58′58″E
Aerial tramwaysupport tower Pillar of third section of Gletscherbahn Kaprun Austria Kaprun 113.6 373 1966 47°11′58.62″N 12°41′16.96″E
Sphere Ericsson Globe Sweden Stockholm 85 279 1989 59°17′36.92″N 18°04′58.79″E
Brick lighthouse Lighthouse of Genoa Italy Genoa 77 253 1543 44°24′16.25″N 8°54′16.67″E
Gopuram Murudeshwara Temple India Murudeshwara 76 249 2008 14.094197°N 74.485163°E
Wooden church Church of the Holy Archangels[10] Romania Șurdești 72 236 1766 47°35′49.11″N 23°45′52.54″E

Tallest destroyed structures by category, not surpassed by existing structures[edit]

There are some destroyed architectural structures which were taller than the tallest existing structure of their type. There are also destroyed structures omitted from this list that had been surpassed in height prior to being destroyed.

Category Structure Country City Height (metres) Height (feet) Coordinates Remarks
Guyed mast Warsaw Radio Mast Poland Gąbin 646.38 2,121 52°22′3.74″N19°48′8.73″E completed in 1974, collapsed on August 8, 1991
Scientific research tower BREN Tower United States Nevada Test Site 462 1,516 36°46′50.23″N116°14′36.9″W completed in 1962, destroyed on May 23, 2012[11]
Guyed tubular steel mast Shushi-Wan Omega Transmitter Japan Tsushima 389 1,276 34°36′53″N129°27′13″E completed in 1973, dismantled in 1998
Structure for scientific experiment Smoky Shot Tower United States Nevada Test Site 213 700  ??? Guyed mast, which carried 44 kt yield nuclear bomb “Smoky” (part of operation Plumbbob) on top until its explosion on August 31, 1957
Wooden structure Mühlacker Wood Radio Tower Germany Mühlacker 190 623 48°56′27.67″N8°51′8.24″E completed in 1934, destroyed on April 6, 1945, by the Germans to prevent usage by the Allies, replaced by mast radiator
Masonry building Mole AntonellianaNome Spain Italy Torino 167.5 549.5 45°04′8.45″N7°41′35.62″E spire destroyed by a tornado in 1953 (Rebuilt since then).
Pre-Industrial Era building Lincoln Cathedral United Kingdom Lincoln 160 524 53°14′3.26″N0°32′10.54″W completed in 1311, spire blown off in 1549
Storage silo Henninger Turm Germany Frankfurt 120 394 50°05′50.18″N8°41′36.81″E constructed in 1961, demolished in 2013
Lighthouse Lighthouse of Alexandria Egypt Alexandria 115-135 377-443 31°12′51″N29°53′06″E completed in 279 BC, destroyed by an earthquake in 1323

Tallest building by function[edit]

Category Structure Country City Architectural top (metres) Architectural top (feet)
Mixed-Use* Burj Khalifa  United Arab Emirates Dubai 829.8 2,722
Office, Observation One World Trade Center  United States New York City 541 1,776
Residential Princess Tower  United Arab Emirates Dubai 414 1,358
Hotel JW Marriott Marquis Dubai  United Arab Emirates Dubai 355 1,166
Educational Moscow State University  Russia Moscow 240 787
Mosque Hassan II Mosque  Morocco Casablanca 210 690
Pagoda Tianning Temple  China Changzhou 153.79 505

* Mixed-Use is defined as having three or more real estate uses (such as retail, office, hotel, etc.) that are physically and functionally integrated in a single property and are mutually supporting.[12]

Tallest buildings[edit]

Prior to 1998, the tallest building status was determined by the height of the building to the top of its architectural elements including spires, but not including “temporary” structures (such as antennas or flagpoles), which could be added or changed relatively easily without requiring major changes to the building’s design. Other criteria for height measurement were not used. For this reason, the originally 1,451-foot (442-meter) to rooftop or 1518 feet with original antennas[13] Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) was generally accepted as being the tallest building continuously after its completion in 1973, and being taller than both World Trade Center towers, in spite of the fact the 1 World Trade Center Tower (North Tower) possessed a higher pinnacle absolute height after it added its 360-foot (110 m) radio antenna (total height of 1730 feet or 527.3 meters) in 1978. The 1 World Trade Center building maintained a higher absolute height to antenna top until the Sears Tower enlarged its own radio antenna in 2000 to a total height of 1730 feet.[13] However, the Willis Tower was always considered the taller building because it still possessed a greater height to its architectural top (1451 feet vs. 1362 feet), and thus its status as the world’s tallest was generally not contested.

Other historic cases in which a building with a taller absolute pinnacle height was not considered the tallest building include, in 1905 when the former New York Times building or The Times Square Building (at 229 West 43rd Street in New York) was completed at 111 m (364 ft) to the roof with 128 m (420 ft) including a flagpole. That building was never considered to be taller than the 119 m (390 ft) high then-current record-holder Park Row Building of New York because a flagpole is not an integral architectural part of a building.[14]

Prior to 1998 the tallest building status had been contested on occasion, but the disputes did not result in a change of the criteria used to determine the world’s tallest building. A famous historical case of this discrepancy was the rivalry between The Trump Building (then known as the Bank of Manhattan Building) and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building employed only a short spire and was 927 ft (283 m) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 125-foot (38 m) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world’s tallest building with a total height of 1,048 feet (319 m), despite having a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings’ spires are not counted in their heights. Upset by Chrysler’s victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of Bank of Manhattan building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world’s highest usable floor. They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 100 feet (30 m) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and essentially inaccessible.[15] However, the Chrysler Building was generally accepted as the tallest building in the world despite their protests.

The Petronas Towers remain the tallest twin towers in the world.

However, none of the previous discrepancies or disputes in criteria to measure height (spires vs antennas, absolute pinnacle height vs. architectural height, height of highest occupied floor, etc.) resulted in the controversy that occurred upon the completion of the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The Petronas Towers possessed a higher architectural height (spires, but not antennas), but a lower absolute pinnacle height and lower top occupied floor than the previous record-holder Willis Tower in Chicago, United States. Counting buildings as structures with floors throughout, and with antenna masts excluded, Willis Tower was still considered the tallest at that time. When the Petronas Twin Towers were built, controversy arose because their spires extended nine metres higher than the roof of Willis Tower. Excluding their spires, the Petronas Towers are not taller than Willis Tower. At their convention in Chicago, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) found the Willis Tower to be the third-tallest building, and the Petronas Towers to be the world’s tallest buildings. This decision caused a considerable amount of controversy in the news media because this was the first time a country outside the United States had held the world’s tallest building record.[14] Therefore, the CTBUH revised their criteria and defined four categories in which the world’s tallest building can be measured,[16] by retaining the old criterion of height to architectural top and added three new categories[14]

  1. Height to Architectural Top (including spires and pinnacles, but not antennas, masts or flagpoles). This measurement is the most widely used and is used to define the rankings of the 100 Tallest Buildings in the World.
  2. Highest Occupied Floor
  3. Height to Top of Roof (omitted from criteria from November 2009 onwards)[17]
  4. Height to Tip

The height-to-roof criterion was discontinued because relatively few modern tall buildings possess flat rooftops, making this criterion difficult to determine and measure.[18] The CTBUH has further clarified their definitions of building height, including specific criteria concerning subbasements and ground level entrances (height measured from lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance rather than from a previously undefined “main entrance”), building completion (must be topped out both structurally and architecturally, fully clad, and able to be occupied), condition of the highest occupied floor (must be continuously used by people living or working and be conditioned, thus including observation decks, but not mechanical floors) and other aspects of tall buildings.[18][19]

The height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance. At the time, the Willis Tower held first place in the second and third categories, the Petronas Towers held the first category, and the 1 World Trade Center building held the fourth with its antenna height to top of pinnacle.[14] In 2000, however, a new antenna mast was placed on the Willis Tower, giving it hold of the fourth category. On April 20, 2004, Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, was completed. Its completion gave it the world record for the first three categories. On July 21, 2007 it was announced that Burj Khalifa had surpassed Taipei 101 in height, reaching 512 m (1,680 ft).

Since being completed in early 2010, Burj Khalifa leads in all categories (the first building to do so). With a spire height of 829.8 m (2,722 ft), Burj Khalifa surpassed Taipei 101 as the tallest building to architectural detail and the Willis Tower as the tallest building to tip. It also leads in the category of highest occupied floor.

Before Burj Khalifa was completed, Willis Tower led in the fourth category with 527 m (1,729 ft), previously held by the World Trade Center until the extension of the Chicago tower’s western broadcast antenna in 2000, over a year prior to the World Trade Center’s destruction in 2001. Its antenna mast included, One World Trade Center measured 527.3 m (1,730 ft). The World Trade Center became the world’s tallest buildings to be destroyed or demolished; indeed, its site entered the record books twice on September 11, 2001, in that category, replacing the Singer Building, which once stood a block from the World Trade Center site.[citation needed] A different superlative for skyscrapers is theirnumber of floors. The World Trade Center set that at 110, and this was not surpassed for nearly four decades until the Burj Khalifa, which opened in 2010.

Structures such as the CN Tower, the Ostankino Tower and the Oriental Pearl Tower are excluded from these categories because they are not “habitable buildings”, which are defined as frame structures made with floors and walls throughout.[1]

History of record holders in each CTBUH category[edit]

Date (Event) Architectural top Highest occupied floor Roof Tip
2010: Burj Khalifa completed Burj Khalifa Burj Khalifa Burj Khalifa
2009: CTBUH omits Height to Roof category Taipei 101 Shanghai World Financial Center Willis Tower
2008: Shanghai World Financial Center completed Taipei 101 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai World Financial Center Willis Tower
2003: Taipei 101 completed Taipei 101 Taipei 101 Taipei 101 Willis Tower
2000: Willis Tower antenna extension Petronas Towers Willis Tower Willis Tower Willis Tower
1998: Petronas Towers completed Petronas Towers Willis Tower Willis Tower World Trade Center
1996: CTBUH defines categories Willis Tower Willis Tower Willis Tower World Trade Center

Tallest freestanding structures on land[edit]

Freestanding structures must not be supported by guy wires, the sea or other types of support. It therefore does not include guyed masts, partially guyed towers and drilling platforms but does include towers, skyscrapers (pinnacle height) and chimneys. (See also history of tallest skyscrapers.)

The world’s tallest freestanding structure on land is defined as the tallest self-supporting artificial structure that stands above ground. This definition is different from that ofworld’s tallest building or world’s tallest structure based on the percentage of the structure that is occupied and whether or not it is self-supporting or supported by exterior cables. Likewise, this definition does not count structures that are built underground or on the seabed, such as the Petronius Platform in the Gulf of Mexico. Visit world’s tallest structure by category for a list of various other definitions.

As of May 12, 2008, the tallest freestanding structure on land is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building, which now stands at 829.8 m (2,722 ft), surpassed the height of the previous record holder, the 553.3 m (1,815 ft) CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, on September 12, 2007. It was completed in 2010, and was topped out at 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in January 2009.[2]

History[edit]

The following is a list of structures that have held the title as the tallest freestanding structure on land. (See also Timeline of three tallest structures in the world until Empire State Building).

Tallest historical structures
Record from Record held (years) Name and location Constructed Height (metres) Height (feet) Coordinates Notes
c. 11,500 BC 9,000 Göbekli Tepe, Turkey c. 11,500 BC 15 49
c. 2650 BC 40 Pyramid of Djoser, Egypt c. 2650 BC 62 203 29°52′16.53″N31°12′59.59″E
c. 2610 BC 5 Meidum Pyramidin Egypt c. 2610 BC 93.5 307 29°23′17″N 31°09′25″E Shortly after completion Meidum Pyramid collapsed due to bad design/instability and is now 65 m (213 ft).
c. 2605 BC 5 Bent Pyramid in Egypt c. 2605 BC 101.1 332 29°47′25″N 31°12′33″E Angle of slope decreased during construction to avoid collapse.
c. 2600 BC 40 Red Pyramid ofSneferu, Egypt c. 2600 BC 105 345 29°48′31.39″N31°12′22.49″E
c. 2560 BC 3871 Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt c. 2560 BC 146 481 29°58′44.93″N 31°08′3.09″E By 1647, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (456 ft).
 1311 238 Lincoln Cathedralin the United Kingdom. 1092–1311 160 525 53°14′3.26″N 0°32′10.54″W The central spire was destroyed in a storm in 1549. While the reputed height of 525 ft (160 m) is accepted by most sources,[20][21][22][23][24][25] others consider it doubtful[26]
1549 98 St. Mary’s Churchin Stralsund, Germany 1384–1478 151 495 54°18′36.01″N 13°5′14.81″E The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1647. The height is 104 m (341 ft) .
1647 227 Strasbourg Cathedral in France 1439 142 469 48°34′54.22″N 7°45′1.48″E By 1647, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (456 ft) hence Strasbourg Cathedral was higher. During this period an attempt was made to construct a taller tower at Beauvais Cathedral, but this collapsed in 1573 before completion.
1874 2 St. Nikolai in Hamburg, Germany 1846–1874 147 483 53°32′50.94″N 9°59′26.12″E
1876 4 Cathédrale Notre Dame in Rouen, France 1202–1876 151 495 49°26′24.54″N 1°5′41.85″E
1880 4 Cologne Cathedral in Germany 1248–1880 157 515 50°56′28.08″N6°57′25.73″E ;50°56′29.11″N6°57′25.85″E
1884 5 Washington Monument in Washington D.C., United States 1884 169 555 38°53′22.08″N 77°2′6.89″W The world’s tallest all-stone structure, as well as the tallest obelisk-form structure.
1889 41 Eiffel Tower in Paris, France 1889 300 986 48°51′29.77″N 2°17′40.09″E First structure to exceed 300 metres in height. The addition of a telecommunications tower in the 1950s brought the overall height to 324 m (1,063 ft).
1930 1 Chrysler Buildingin New York, United States 1928–1930 319 1,046 40°45′5.78″N 73°58′31.52″W
1931 36 Empire State Building in New York, United States 1930–1931 381 1,250 40°44′54.95″N 73°59′8.71″W First building with 100+ stories. The addition of a pinnacle and antennas later increased its overall height to 448.7 m (1,472 ft). This was subsequently lowered to 443.1 m (1,454 ft).
1967 8 Ostankino Towerin Moscow, Soviet Union 1963–1967 537 1,762 55°49′10.94″N37°36′41.79″E Remains the tallest in Europe. Fire in 2000 led to extensive renovation.
1975 32 CN Tower in Toronto, Canada 1973–1976 553 1,815 43°38′33.22″N79°23′13.41″W Remains the tallest in the Western Hemisphere
2007 7 Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2004–2009 829.8 2,722 25°11′50.0″N 55°16′26.6″E Holder of world’s tallest freestanding structure. Topped out at 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in 2009.

Diagram of the Principal High Buildings of the Old World, 1884.

Notable mentions include the Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, built in the third century BC and estimated between 115–135 m (377–443 ft). It was the world’s tallest non-pyramidal building for many centuries. Another notable mention includes the Jetavanaramayastupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, which was built in the third century, and was similarly tall at 122 m (400 ft). These were both the world’s tallest or second tallest non-pyramidal buildings for over a thousand years.

The tallest secular building between the collapse of the Pharos and the erection of the Washington Monument may have been theTorre del Mangia in Siena, which is 102 m (335 ft) tall, and was constructed in the first half of the fourteenth century, and the 97 m (318 ft) tall Torre degli Asinelli in Bologna, also Italy, built between 1109 and 1119.

World’s highest observation deck[edit]

Main article: Observation deck

Timeline of development of world’s highest observation deck since inauguration of Eiffel Tower.

Record from Record held (years) Name and location Constructed Height above ground Notes
m ft
1889 42 Eiffel Tower, Paris 1889 275 902 Two lower observation decks at 57 and 115 m (187 and 377 ft).
1931 42 Empire State Building, New York City 1931 369[27] 1,250 On the 102nd floor – a second observation deck is located on the 86th floor at 320 m (1,050 ft).
1973 1 World Trade Center, New York City 1973 399.4 1,310 Indoor observatory on the 107th floor of South Tower opened on April 4, 1973. Destroyed on September 11, 2001
1974 1 Willis Tower, Chicago 1974 412.4 1,353 103rd floor Skydeck opened on June 22, 1974
1975 1 World Trade Center, New York City 1973 419.7 1,377 Outdoor observatory on the South Tower rooftop opened on December 15, 1975. Destroyed on September 11, 2001
1976 32 CN Tower, Toronto 1976 446.5 1,464.9 Two further observation decks at 342 and 346 m (1,122 and 1,135 ft).
2008 3 Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai 2008 474 1,555 Two further observation decks at 423 and 439 m (1,388 and 1,440 ft).
2011 3 Canton Tower,Guangzhou 2011 488 1,601 The rooftop outdoor observation deck opened in December 2011. There are also several other indoor observation decks in the tower, the highest at 433.2 m (1,421 ft).
2014 present Burj Khalifa, Dubai 2010 555 1,821 Opened on October 15, 2014 on the 148th floor. There is another observation deck at 452.1 m (1,483 ft) on the 124th floor, which has been open since the building was opened to the public.

Higher observation decks have existed on mountain tops or cliffs, rather than on tall structures. For example, the Royal Gorge Bridge in Cañon City, Colorado, USA, was constructed in 1929 spanning the Royal Gorge at a height of 321 m (1,053 ft) above the Arkansas River. The Grand Canyon Skywalk, constructed in 2007, protrudes 21 m (70 ft) over the west rim of the Grand Canyon and is approximately 1,100 m (3,600 ft) above the Colorado River, making it the highest of these types of structures.[citation needed]

Timeline of guyed structures on land[edit]

As most of the tallest structures are guyed masts, here is a timeline of world’s tallest guyed masts, since the beginning of radio technology.

As many large guyed masts were destroyed at the end of World War II, the dates for the years between 1945 and 1950 may be incorrect. If Wusung Radio Tower survived World War II, it was the tallest guyed structure shortly after World War II.

Record from Record held (years) Name and location Constructed Height Coordinates Notes
m ft
1913 7 Central mast of Eilvese transmitter, Eilvese, Germany 1913 250 820 52°31′40″N9°24′24″E Mast was divided in 145 m by an insulator, demolished in 1931
1920 3 Central masts of Nauen Transmitter Station, Nauen, Germany 1920 260 853 52°38′56″N12°54′30″E 2 masts, demolished in 1946
1923 10 Masts of Ruiselede transmitter, Ruiselede, Belgium 1923 287 942 51°4′44″N3°20′6.9″E? 8 masts, destroyed in 1940
1933 6 Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary 1933 314 1,031 47°22′23.45″N19°0′17.21″E Blaw-Knox Tower, insulated against ground, destroyed in 1945, afterwards rebuilt
1939 7 Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster, Herzberg (Elster), Germany 1939 335 1,099 51°42′59.76″N13°15′51.5″E Insulated against ground, dismantled 1946/1947
1946 2 Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary 1946 314 1,031 47°22′23.45″N19°0′17.21″E Blaw-Knox Tower, Insulated against ground, rebuilt after destruction in 1945
1948 1 WIVB-TV Tower, Colden, New York, USA 1948 321.9 1,056 42°39′33.19″N78°37′33.91″W
1949 1 Longwave transmitter Raszyn, Raszyn, Poland 1949 335 1,099 52°4′21.72″N20°53′2.15″E Insulated against ground
1950 4 Forestport Tower, Forestport, New York, USA 1950 371.25 1,218 43°26′41.9″N75°5′9.55″W Insulated against ground, demolished
1954 2 Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA 1954 480.5 1,576 35°32′58.59″N97°29′50.27″W
1956 3 KOBR-TV Tower, Caprock, New Mexico, USA 1956 490.7 1,610 33°22′31.31″N103°46′14.3″W Collapsed in 1960, afterwards rebuilt
1959 1 WGME TV Tower, Raymond, Maine, USA 1959 495 1,624 43°55′28.43″N70°29′26.72″W
1960 2 KFVS TV Mast, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, USA 1960 511.1 1,677 37°25′44.5″N89°30′13.84″W
1962 1 WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower, Cusseta, Georgia, USA 1962 533 1,749 32°19′25.09″N84°46′45.07″W
1963 0 WIMZ-FM-Tower, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA 1963 534.01 1,752 36°08′05.49″N83°43′28.01″W
1963 11 KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA 1963 628.8 2,063 47°20′31.85″N97°17′21.13″W
1974 17 Warsaw Radio Mast, Gąbin, Poland 1974 646.4 2,121 52°22′3.74″N19°48′8.73″E Mast radiator insulated against ground, collapsed in 1991
1991 23 KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA 1963 628.8 2,063 47°20′31.85″N97°17′21.13″W

Tallest Towers[edit]

Towers include observation towers, monuments and other structures not generally considered to be “habitable buildings”, they are meant for “regular access by humans, but not for living in or office work, and are self-supporting or free-standing, which means no guy-wires for support”, meaning it excludes from this list of continuously habitablebuildings and skyscrapers as well as radio and TV masts.

Bridge towers or pylons, chimneys, transmission towers, and most large statues allow human access for maintenance, but not as part of their normal operation, and are therefore not considered to be towers.

The Tokyo Skytree, completed in February 2012, reaches a height of 634 m (2,080 ft), making it the tallest tower, and second tallest free standing structure in the world.[28][29][30]

History of tallest tower[edit]

The following is a list of structures that have historically held the title as the tallest towers in the world.

Tallest historical towers
From To Tower Country Town Pinnacle height
280 BC 1180 AD Pharos Lighthouse  Egypt Alexandria 122 m
1180 1240 Malmesbury Abbey Tower  United Kingdom Malmesbury 131.3 m
1240 1311 Tower of Old St Paul’s Cathedral  United Kingdom London 150 m
1311 1549 Tower of Lincoln Cathedral  United Kingdom Lincoln 159.7 m
1549 1647 Tower of St Mary’s church  Germany Stralsund 151 m
1647 1874 Tower of Strasbourg Cathedral  France Strasbourg 142 m
1874 1876 Tower of St. Nikolai  Germany Hamburg 147 m
1876 1880 Tower of Rouen Cathedral  France Rouen 151 m
1880 1889 Tower of Cologne Cathedral  Germany Cologne 157.38 m
1889 1958 Eiffel Tower  France Paris 312.3 m
1958 1967 Tokyo Tower  Japan Tokyo 332.6 m
1967 1976 Ostankino Tower  Russia Moscow 540.1 m
1976 2010 CN Tower  Canada Toronto 553.33 m
2010 2011 Canton Tower  China Guangzhou 600 m
2011 2013 Tokyo Skytree  Japan Tokyo 634 m

Tallest structures, freestanding structures, and buildings[edit]

Burj Khalifa and other tallest structures

The list categories are:

  • The structures (supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that might use some external support constructions like cables and are fully built in air. Only the three tallest are listed, as more than fifty US TV masts have stated heights of 600–610 metres (1,970–2,000 ft).
  • The structures (media supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that are not totally built in the air but are using support from other, denser media like salt water. All structures greater than 500 metres (1,640 ft) are listed.
  • The freestanding structures list uses pinnacle height and includes structures over 400 metres (1,312 ft) that do not use guy-wires or other external supports. This means truly free standing on its own or, in similar sense, non-supported structures.
  • The building list uses architectural height (excluding antennas) and includes only buildings, defined as consisting of habitable floors. Both of these follow CTBUHguidelines. All supertall buildings (300 m and higher) are listed.

Notes:

  • Eight buildings appear on the freestanding structures category list with heights different from another category. This is due to the different measurement specifications of those lists.
  • Only current heights and, where reasonable, target heights are listed. Historical heights of structures that no longer exist, for example, for having collapsed, are excluded.
Rank Name and location Year
completed
Architectural top[31]
(metres)
Architectural top
(feet)
Floors
Structures (supported)

1 KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, United States 1963 629 2,064
2 KXJB-TV mast, Galesburg, North Dakota, United States 1998 628 2,060
3 KXTV/KOVR Tower, Walnut Grove, California, United States 2000 625 2,051
Structures (media supported)
1 Petronius Platform, Gulf of Mexico 2000 610 2,000
2 Baldpate Platform, Gulf of Mexico 1998 580 1,900
3 Bullwinkle Platform, Gulf of Mexico 1989 529 1,736
Freestanding structures

1 Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2010 829.8 2,722 163
2 Tokyo Skytree, Tokyo, Japan 2011 634 2,080
3 Abraj Al Bait, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 2011 601 1,972 120
4 Canton Tower, Guangzhou, China 2010 600 1,969
5 CN Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1976 553 1,814
6 One World Trade Center, New York City, USA 2013 546.2 1,792 104
7 Ostankino Tower, Moscow, Russia 1967 540 1,770
8 Willis Tower, Chicago, United States 1974 527 1,729 108
9 Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan 2004 509 1,670 101
10 Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China 2008 492 1,614 101
11 International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong 2010 484 1,588 118
12 Oriental Pearl Tower, Shanghai, China 1994 468 1,535
13 John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States 1969 457 1,499 100
14 Petronas Tower I, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 452 1,483 88
Petronas Tower II, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 452 1,483 88
15 Zifeng Tower, Nanjing, China 2009 450 1,480 89
16 Empire State Building, New York City, United States 1931 443 1,453 102
17 Milad Tower, Tehran, Iran 2007 435 1,427
18 Kuala Lumpur Tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1995 421 1,381
19 Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China 1998 421 1,381 88
20 Chimney of GRES-2 Power Station, Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan 1987 420 1,380
21 Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong 2003 415 1,362 88
22 Tianjin Radio and Television Tower, Tianjin, China 1991 415 1,362
23 Central TV Tower, Beijing, China 1992 405 1,329
Buildings

1 Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2010 828 2,717 163
2 Abraj Al Bait, Mecca, Saudi Arabia 2011 601 1,972 120
3 One World Trade Center, New York City, USA 2013 541.3 1,776 104
4 Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan 2004 509 1,670 101
5 Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China 2008 492 1,614 101
6 International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong 2010 484 1,588 118
7 Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 452 1,483 88
8 Zifeng Tower, Nanjing, China 2009 450 1,480 89
9 Willis Tower, Chicago, United States 1974 442 1,450 108
10 Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China 1998 421 1,381 88
11 Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong 2003 415 1,362 88
12 CITIC Plaza, Guangzhou, China 1997 391 1,283 80
13 Shun Hing Square, Shenzhen, China 1996 384 1,260 69
14 Empire State Building, New York City, United States 1931 381 1,250 102
15 Central Plaza, Hong Kong 1992 374 1,227 78
16 Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong 1990 367 1,204 70
17 Bank of America Tower, New York City, United States 2008 366 1,201 54
18 Almas Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2008 360 1,180 74
19 Emirates Office Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2000 355 1,165 54
20 Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1997 348 1,142 85
21 Aon Center, Chicago, United States 1973 346 1,135 83
22 The Center, Hong Kong 1998 346 1,135 73
23 John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States 1969 344 1,129 100
24 Rose Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2007 333 1,093 72
Shimao International Plaza, Shanghai, China 2006 333 1,093 60
25 Minsheng Bank Building, Wuhan, China 2007 331 1,086 68
25 Ryugyong Hotel, Pyongyang, North Korea (topped out) 1992 330 1,080 105
China World Trade Center Tower 3, Beijing, China 2008 330 1,080 74
27 Q1, Gold Coast, Australia 2005 323 1,060 78
28 Burj Al Arab, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 1999 321 1,053 60
29 Chrysler Building, New York City, United States 1930 319 1,047 77
Nina Tower I, Hong Kong 2007 319 1,047 80
New York Times Building, New York City, United States 2007 319 1,047 52
32 Bank of America Plaza, Atlanta, United States 1992 312 1,024 55
33 U.S. Bank Tower, Los Angeles, United States 1989 310 1,020 73
34 Menara Telekom, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2001 310 1,020 55
35 Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2000 309 1,014 56
36 One Island East, Hong Kong 2008 308 1,010 70
37 AT&T Corporate Center, Chicago, United States 1989 307 1,007 60
38 The Address Downtown Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2008 306 1,004 63
39 JPMorgan Chase Tower, Houston, United States 1982 305 1,001 75

Source: Emporis

Under construction[edit]

Numerous supertall skyscrapers are in various stages of proposal, planning, or construction. Each of the following are under construction and, depending on the order of completion, could become the world’s tallest building or structure in at least one category:

  • Jeddah Tower is currently under construction in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, scheduled to be completed in 2019. It will be the first building to exceed 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) with a planned height of 1,007 metres (3,304 ft). Once completed it will become the tallest building and tallest freestanding structure in the world.
  • Baoneng Shenyang Global Financial Center is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Shenyang, Liaoning, China. It is planned to be 565 metres (1,854 ft) tall. Construction started in 2014 and is expected to be completed in 2018.
  • Gezhouba International Plaza Is a supertall skyscraper under-construction in Wuhan, China.[2] The mixed-use tower is set to rise 350 metres (1,150 ft) and contain 69 floors.
  • Ping An Finance Centre is a 115-story megatall skyscraper which is under construction in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China.
  • KL118 is a 610 metres (2,000 ft) tall skyscraper with 118 storeys, which is currently under construction in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The construction has a budget of RM5 billion.[3] When completed in 2020, it will be the tallest building in Malaysia, succeeding the Petronas Twin Towers, which has 88 stories and consists of 400,000 square metres (4,300,000 sq ft) of residential, hotel and commercial space.
  • China Zun is a supertall skyscraper under construction in the Central Business District of Beijing, capital of the People’s Republic of China.
  • Suzhou IFS is a 92-floor, 452-meter skyscraper under construction in SIP, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.
  • Goldin Finance 117 is a skyscraper under construction in Tianjin, China. The tower is expected to be 597 metres (1,959 ft) with 117 stories.
  • Suzhou Zhongnan Center is a megatall skyscraper under construction in SIP, Suzhou, Jiangsu.
  • Wuhan Greenland Center is a 636-metre (2,087 ft) 125-storey skyscraper currently under construction in Wuhan, China.
  • 53W53 also known as the MoMA Expansion Tower and 53 West 53rd Street, and formerly known as Tower Verre is a supertall skyscraper currently under construction by the real estate company Hines to rise in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
  • 111 West 57th Street is a supertall residential project by JDS Development Group and Property Markets Group in midtown Manhattan in New York City.
  • 30 Park Place is a new tower currently under construction in Tribeca, Manhattan, New York City.
  • Federation Tower is a complex of skyscrapers being built on the 13th lot of the Moscow International Business Center in Moscow, Russia.
  • Lakhta Center is a large mixed-use non-residential construction project in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
  • Dalian Greenland Center is a skyscraper under construction in Dalian, Liaoning, China. It is expected to have 88 floors and be 518 metres (1,699 ft) tall. The anticipated completion date is 2018.
  • Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center is a skyscraper under construction in Tianjin, China. It is expected to be completed in 2018.
  • 225 West 57th Street is a supertall residential project being developed by the Extell Development Company in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The building will rise 1,479 feet (451 m) to its roof, and 1,775 feet (541 m) to the tip. The height of the spire is 1 foot (0.30 m) less than that of the United States’ tallest building, the 1,776-foot (541 m), One World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan; upon completion, 225 West 57th Street will become not only the second tallest building in the city, but also in the country. The building will also be the tallest by roof height in the United States, surpassing the Willis Tower, and the tallest residential building in the world both by roof height and architectural height, and will surpass 432 Park Avenue for world’s tallest residential building.
  • Jinan Center Financial City is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Jinan, Shandong, China. It will be 333 metres (1,093 ft) tall. Construction started in 2014.
  • Nanjing Olympic Suning Tower is a skyscraper under construction in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. It is expected to be completed in 2017.
  • Huaguoyuan Tower 1 is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Guiyang, Guizhou, China. It will be 406 metres (1,332.0 ft) tall. Construction started in 2012 and is expected to be completed in 2017.
  • Huaguoyuan Tower 2 is a supertall skyscraper under construction in Guiyang, Guizhou, China. It will be 406 metres (1,332.0 ft) tall. Construction started in 2012 and is expected to be completed in 2017.

On hold[edit]

  • India Tower is a 126-story, 718 m (2,356 ft) supertall skyscraper that began construction in the city of Mumbai, India, in 2010. The tower was originally planned for completion in 2016, but construction work was put on hold in 2011 due to a dispute between the tower’s developers and Mumbai’s civic authorities.[32]
  • Construction of the Pentominium, in Dubai, is currently on hold. If construction resumes, the building is expected to be 516 m (1,693 ft) tall with 120 floors, making it thetallest all-residential building in the world. Construction began in 2007, but was halted in August 2011.[33]
  • Qatar National Bank Tower is a supertall skyscraper to be built in Doha, Qatar. The tower is planned to be 510 m (1,673 ft) tall and will have 101 floors. When completed, it will be become the tallest building in Qatar, and one of the tallest buildings in the world. The tower will also become the second tallest all-office building in the world after One World Trade Center in New York City, and surpassing the Taipei 101.It is designed by Peddle Thorp Architects. Construction is on-hold since May 2010.
  • Al Quds Endowment Tower is a multipurpose skyscraper on hold in Doha, Qatar. The foundations were laid down in 2009 but construction was halted in Spring 2010.[34]

Proposed[edit]

Many proposed structures may never be built