Icelandic parliamentary election, 2016

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Icelandic parliamentary election, 2016
Iceland


2013 ← 29 October 2016

All 63 seats in the Althing
32 seats needed for a majority
Turnout 79.19% Decrease2.3
First party Second party Third party
Bjarni Benediktsson vid Nordiska Radets session i Stockholm.jpg Katrin Jakobsdottir, undervisnings- forsknings- og kulturminister i Island, samt samarbejdsminister i Nordisk Ministerrad.jpg Birgitta Jonsdottir 2015.jpg
Leader Bjarni Benediktsson Katrín Jakobsdóttir Birgitta Jónsdóttir[n 1]
Party Independence Left-Green Pirates
Leader since 29 March 2009 24 February 2013 24 November 2012
Last election 19 seats, 26.70% 7 seats, 10.87% 3 seats, 5.10%
Seats won
21 / 63

10 / 63

10 / 63

Seat change Increase2 Increase3 Increase7
Popular vote 54,990 30,166 27,449
Percentage 29.0 15.9 14.5
Swing Increase2.3 Increase5.0 Increase9.4

Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Sigurður Ingi Jóhannsson 2016 (cropped).png Óttarr Proppé, ESC2014 Meet & Greet (crop).jpg
Leader Sigurður Ingi Jóhannsson Benedikt Jóhannesson Óttarr Proppé
Party Progressive Viðreisn Bright Future
Leader since 2 October 2016 24 May 2016 31 January 2015
Last election 19 seats, 24.43% Did not contest 6 seats, 8.25%
Seats won
8 / 63

7 / 63

4 / 63

Seat change Decrease11 Increase7 Decrease2
Popular vote 21,791 19,870 13,578
Percentage 11.5 10.5 7.2
Swing Decrease 12.9 Increase10.5 Decrease1.5

Seventh party
Leader Oddný G. Harðardóttir
Party Social Democratic
Leader since 3 June 2016
Last election 9 seats, 12.85%
Seats won
3 / 63

Seat change Decrease6
Popular vote 10,893
Percentage 5.7
Swing Decrease7.1

Prime Minister before election
Sigurður Ingi Jóhannsson
Progressive
Prime Minister-designate
TBD

The Independence Party emerged as the largest in the Althing, winning 21 of the 63 seats; the Progressive Party, which had won the most seats in 2013, lost more than half its seats as it was overtaken by the Left-Green Movement and the Pirate Party. Of the 63 elected MPs, 30 were female, giving Iceland the highest proportion of female MPs in Europe.[4]Parliamentary elections were held in Iceland on 29 October 2016. They were due to be held on or before 27 April 2017, but following the 2016 Icelandic anti-government protests, the ruling coalition announced that early elections would be held “in autumn”.

Background[edit]

In early April 2016, following revelations in the Panama Papers, leaks from law firm Mossack Fonseca about the financial dealings of then Prime Minister Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson(Progressive Party) and his wife, there were calls for an early election from the opposition,[5] who planned to present him with a motion of no confidence. Mass protests calling on the Prime Minister to quit followed. Although Sigmundur Davíð had stated he had no intention of resigning, he apparently resigned on 5 April. However, it was later stated by the Prime Minister’s office that he had only taken a temporary leave of absence from his duties.[6][7][5][8][9] The Progressive Party’s deputy leader, Sigurður Ingi Jóhannsson, became acting Prime Minister the same day.[9]

The President, Olafur Ragnar Grimsson, then said he would speak to both coalition parties, Progressive Party and Independence Party, before considering whether to call new elections.[10] Opposition parties continued to press for new elections.[8] On 6 April, Sigurður announced, “We expect to have elections this autumn.”[11] On 11 August, Bjarni Benediktssonmet with opposition parties and later announced that elections would be held on 29 October 2016.[3]

Electoral system[edit]

The 63 members of the Althing were elected using closed list proportional representation in multi-member constituencies of 8 to 13 seats.[12] Of the 63 seats, 54 were elected using constituency results and determined using the d’Hondt method. The remaining nine supplementary seats were awarded to parties that crossed the 5% national electoral threshold in order to give them a total number of seats equivalent to their national share of the vote.[12]

Participating parties[edit]

The final deadline for parties to apply for participation in the parliamentary election was 14 October 2016.

Parties with a list for all constituencies
Parties with a list for only some constituencies

Campaign[edit]

Sigurður Ingi replaced Sigmundur Davíð as the party chairman of the Progressive Party on 2 October 2016.[13]

The Pirate Party announced on 16 October 2016 that they would not participate in post-election negotiations to form a coalition government with either the Progressive Party or the Independence Party.[14] The party did send letters to Viðreisn, Bright Future, Social Democratic Alliance and Left-Green Movement about the possibility of forming an alliance prior to the election.[14]

Opinion polls[edit]

Graphical summary of the opinion polls in Iceland since the previous parliamentary election. Each dot corresponds to one poll’s number for party. A smoothing spline is used to show the trends. The scatter of points around the spline curves gives an indication of the uncertainty of the polls. The thin circles at the very right show the results of the election, which for P and D deviate significantly from the polls.

Institute Release date V S P A B D C Others
2016 result 29 Oct 2016 15.91% 5.74% 14.48% 7.25% 11.49% 29.00% 10.48% 5.74%
Gallup 28 Oct 2016 16.5% 7.4% 17.9% 6.8% 9.3% 27.0% 8.8%
MMR 28 Oct 2016 16.2% 6.1% 20.5% 6.7% 11.4% 24.7% 8.9% 5.5%
Háskóli Íslands 27 Oct 2016 16.8% 5.7% 21.2% 6.7% 10.1% 22.5% 11.4% 5.5%
Fréttablaðið / Stöð 2 / Vísir 27 Oct 2016 16.4% 5.7% 18.4% 6.3% 9.9% 27.3% 10.5% 5.5%
MMR 26 Oct 2016 16.0% 7.6% 19.1% 8.8% 10.0% 21.9% 9.3% 7.3%
Fréttablaðið / Stöð 2 / Vísir 26 Oct 2016 16.4% 6.0% 20.3% 5.1% 11.2% 25.1% 10.8% 5.1%
Háskóli Íslands 21 Oct 2016 18.6% 6.5% 22.6% 6.0% 9.1% 21.1% 8.8% 7.3%
Fréttablaðið / Stöð 2 / Vísir 18 Oct 2016 19.2% 6.5% 20.7% 7.4% 8.5% 23.7% 6.6% 7.4%
MMR 14 Oct 2016 14.5% 9.0% 19.6% 8.2% 9.2% 21.4% 10.2% 7.9%
Háskóli Íslands 14 Oct 2016 17.7% 6.9% 17.5% 7.7% 8.6% 21.5% 11.4% 8.7%
Gallup 14 Oct 2016 14.5% 7.1% 18.3% 7.7% 9.8% 22.6% 12.4% 7.6%
Fréttablaðið / Stöð 2 / Vísir 12 Oct 2016 15.1% 7.3% 22.8% 8.2% 8.5% 22.7% 8.4% 7.0%
Fréttablaðið / Stöð 2 / Vísir 5 Oct 2016 12.6% 8.8% 19.2% 6.9% 11.4% 25.9% 6.9% 8.3%
Gallup 30 Sep 2016 15.6% 8.5% 20.6% 4.7% 8.2% 23.7% 13.4% 5.4%
Fréttablaðið / Stöð 2 / Vísir 28 Sep 2016 12.9% 5.9% 19.9% 3.6% 12.6% 34.6% 7.3% 3.2%
MMR 26 Sep 2016 11.5% 9.3% 21.6% 4.9% 12.2% 20.6% 12.3% 6.7%
MMR 22 Sep 2016 13.2% 8.1% 22.7% 4.1% 11.0% 22.7% 11.5% 6.7%
Gallup 16 Sep 2016 13.5% 8.8% 23.1% 2.9% 9.4% 25.5% 12.2% 4.6%
Fréttablaðið / Stöð 2 / Vísir 8 Sep 2016 12.7% 7.5% 29.5% 2.0% 10.7% 28.2% 6.7% 2.7%
Gallup 6 Sep 2016 16.2% 8.3% 25.8% 2.9% 9.0% 26.3% 10.6% 0.9%
MMR 30 Aug 2016 12.4% 9.1% 22.4% 4.5% 10.6% 24.6% 8.8% 7.6%
Gallup 29 Jul 2016 16.8% 8.0% 25.3% 4.2% 9.9% 26.2% 9.0% 0.6%
MMR 25 Jul 2016 12.9% 8.4% 26.8% 3.9% 8.3% 24.0% 9.4% 6.3%
MMR 7 Jul 2016 18.0% 10.9% 24.3% 2.9% 6.4% 25.3% 6.7% 5.4%
Gallup 29 Jun 2016 15.2% 8.2% 27.9% 3.4% 10.0% 25.1% 9.4% 0.8%
Háskóli Íslands 24 Jun 2016 17.0% 9.0% 28.0% 4.5% 9.5% 19.7% 9.7% 2.6%
Háskóli Íslands 14 Jun 2016 15.9% 7.6% 29.9% 2.9% 11.1% 22.7% 9.1% 0.8%
Háskóli Íslands 4 Jun 2016 16.5% 7.2% 28.3% 3.8% 11.8% 23.9% 7.9% 0.6%
Gallup 1 Jun 2016 16.8% 7.7% 27.4% 4.0% 10.2% 28.5% 4.3% 1.1%
Fréttablaðið / Stöð 2 / Vísir 27 May 2016 18.1% 6.1% 28.7% 2.5% 7.3% 31.5% 5.8%
Háskóli Íslands 17 May 2016 18.9% 8.9% 25.8% 4.8% 8.2% 28.2% 3.5% 1.7%
MMR 13 May 2016 15.8% 7.5% 31.0% 4.9% 10.4% 26.3% 2.5%
Fréttablaðið 12 May 2016 19.8% 7.4% 30.3% 3.1% 6.5% 31.1% 1.8%
Fréttablaðið 6 May 2016 14.0% 8.4% 31.8% 4.0% 8.3% 29.9% 3.6%
MMR 3 May 2016 14.0% 9.7% 28.9% 3.4% 11.2% 27.8% 5.0%
Gallup 30 Apr 2016 18.4% 8.3% 26.6% 5.2% 10.5% 27.0% 3.5% 0.5%
Gallup 13 Apr 2016 19.8% 9.0% 29.3% 5.0% 6.9% 26.7% 2.7% 0.6%
Háskóli Íslands 8 Apr 2016 14.7% 9.5% 30.9% 4.8% 12.9% 23.3% 3.9%
Maskína 8 Apr 2016 20.0% 7.2% 34.2% 5.2% 9.4% 21.3% 2.7%
Gallup 7 Apr 2016 16.7% 7.6% 32.4% 5.6% 10.8% 21.9% 3.3% 1.7%
MMR 6 Apr 2016 12.8% 9.9% 36.7% 5.8% 8.7% 22.5% 3.6%
Fréttablaðið 5 Apr 2016 11.2% 10.2% 43.0% 3.8% 7.9% 21.6% 2.3%
Háskóli Íslands 5 Apr 2016 14.9% 8.1% 39.4% 4.4% 10.0% 18.8% 4.4%
Gallup 31 Mar 2016 11.0% 9.5% 36.1% 3.2% 12.0% 23.2% 2.1% 2.9%
MMR 18 Mar 2016 9.3% 9.2% 38.3% 4.2% 12.4% 22.9% 3.4%
Fréttablaðið 9 Mar 2016 8.4% 8.2% 38.1% 1.8% 12.8% 27.6% 3.1%
MMR 2 Mar 2016 7.8% 7.8% 37.0% 4.2% 12.8% 23.4% 7%
Gallup 2 Mar 2016 10.8% 9.7% 35.9% 3.3% 11.0% 23.7% 5.6%
Gallup 2 Feb 2016 10.8% 9.2% 35.3% 3.6% 12.0% 24.4% 4.7%
MMR 2 Feb 2016 11.0% 9.4% 35.6% 4.4% 12.2% 21.1% 5.9%
Fréttablaðið 30 Jan 2016 9.6% 9.9% 41.8% 1.6% 10.2% 23.2% 3.7%
Gallup 2 Jan 2016 10.2% 10.4% 33.1% 4.2% 12.0% 25.2% 4.9%
MMR 18 Dec 2015 11.4% 12.9% 34.9% 5.3% 11.5% 20.6% 3.4%
Gallup 4 Dec 2015 11.4% 10.1% 32.9% 3.9% 12.0% 24.8% 4.9%
MMR 16 Nov 2015 9.9% 10.5% 35.3% 4.6% 10.8% 23.7% 5.2%
Gallup 4 Nov 2015 11.1% 10.6% 35.5% 4.6% 9.6% 24.6% 4.4%
MMR 21 Oct 2015 11.8% 11.3% 34.2% 6.5% 10.4% 21.7% 4.1%
Gallup 2 Oct 2015 10.6% 10.1% 34.6% 5.6% 10.1% 24.4% 4.6%
MMR 3 Sep 2015 9.6% 10.6% 33.0% 5.8% 11.4% 25.3% 4.3%
Gallup 1 Sep 2015 11.8% 9.3% 35.9% 4.4% 11.1% 21.7% 5.8%
Gallup 7 Aug 2015 8.9% 12.2% 32.3% 5.0% 12.4% 24.0% 5.2%
MMR 4 Aug 2015 10.2% 9.6% 35.0% 4.4% 12.2% 23.1% 5.5%
MMR 30 Jun 2015 12.0% 9.3% 33.2% 5.6% 10.6% 23.8% 5.5%
Rúv 29 Jun 2015 10.3% 11.4% 32.0% 6.4% 11.3% 24.5% 4.1%
MMR 25 Jun 2015 10.5% 11.6% 32.4% 6.8% 10.0% 23.3% 5.4%
FBL 19 Jun 2015 7.3% 11.1% 37.5% 3.3% 8.5% 29.5% 2.8%
MMR 16 Jun 2015 11.1% 11.8% 34.5% 6.7% 11.3% 21.2% 3.5%
Gallup 1 Jun 2015 9.8% 12.4% 34.1% 7.4% 8.9% 23.0% 4.3%
MMR 26 May 2015 10.4% 13.1% 32.7% 6.3% 8.6% 23.1% 5.6%
MMR 4 May 2015 10.8% 10.7% 32.0% 8.3% 10.8% 21.9% 5.5%
Gallup 30 Apr 2015 10.6% 14.1% 30.1% 7.8% 10.1% 22.9% 4.4%
Gallup 30 Mar 2015 10.1% 15.8% 21.7% 10.9% 10.8% 25.0% 5.7%
Kjarninn 26 Mar 2015 10.2% 16.1% 23.6% 10.1% 11.0% 24.8% 4.2%
MMR 21 Mar 2015 9.0% 16.3% 29.1% 9.0% 11.6% 23.4% 1.7%
MMR 18 Mar 2015 10.8% 15.5% 23.9% 10.3% 11.0% 23.4% 5.1%
Fréttablaðið 11 Mar 2015 10.4% 16.1% 21.9% 9.2% 10.1% 28.0% 4.3%
Rúv 2 Mar 2015 11.2% 17.1% 15.2% 13.3% 11.0% 26.1% 6.1%
MMR 19 Feb 2015 12.9% 14.5% 12.8% 15.0% 13.1% 25.5% 6.2%
Gallup 3 Feb 2015 11.0% 18.0% 12.0% 13.0% 13.0% 27.0% 6.0%
MMR 14 Jan 2015 11.9% 15.9% 12.8% 16.9% 9.4% 27.3% 5.8%
Mbl 16 Dec 2014 11.6% 16.1% 11.4% 16.2% 11.0% 29.0% 4.7%
Fréttablaðið 17 Nov 2014 13.1% 19.2% 9.2% 12.5% 12.8% 32.9%
MMR 4 Nov 2014 10.7% 16.1% 11.3% 18.6% 12.3% 23.6% 7.4%
Gallup 3 Oct 2014 13.0% 19.0% 7.0% 16.0% 12.0% 27.0%
MMR 8 Sep 2014 10.4% 16.9% 9.2% 17.8% 11.3% 28.2% 6.2%
MMR 28 Aug 2014 9.6% 20.3% 10.3% 17.6% 9.6% 26.6% 6.0%
MMR 31 Jul 2014 11.6% 17.0% 9.6% 19.2% 11.8% 24.1% 6.7%
MMR 24 Jun 2014 11.4% 16.5% 8.3% 21.8% 11.4% 25.0% 5.6%
MMR 13 May 2014 11.6% 16.4% 9.6% 19.4% 12.3% 22.1% 8.6%
MMR 2 May 2014 11.7% 17.4% 9.0% 15.5% 14.1% 25.1% 7.2%
MMR 14 Apr 2014 11.5% 15.1% 11.0% 17.1% 14.4% 23.9% 7.0%
MMR 3 Mar 2014 10.4% 14.0% 9.3% 16.4% 14.6% 29.0% 5.6%
RÚV 27 Feb 2014 13.0% 16.8% 9.8% 15.8% 15.3% 23.7% 5.6%
Capacent 1 Feb 2014 12.7% 14.9% 8.1% 14.2% 18.3% 26.9%
MMR 22 Jan 2014 11.0% 17.1% 6.9% 15.9% 17.0% 26.3% 5.6%
Capacent 24 Dec 2013 13.3% 15.1% 10.7% 13.1% 16.4% 25.3%
MMR 30 Nov 2013 12.6% 13.8% 9.0% 15.2% 15.0% 26.8%
2013 result 28 Apr 2013 10.87% 12.85% 5.10% 8.25% 24.43% 26.70%
Institute Release date V S P A B D C Others

Results[edit]

Althing October 2016.svg

Party Votes % Seats +/–
D Independence Party 54,990 29.00 21 +2
V Left-Green Movement 30,166 15.91 10 +3
P Pirate Party 27,449 14.48 10 +7
B Progressive Party 21,791 11.49 8 –11
C Viðreisn 19,870 10.48 7 New
A Bright Future 13,578 7.16 4 –2
S Social Democratic Alliance 10,893 5.74 3 –6
F People’s Party 6,707 3.54 0 New
T Dawn 3,275 1.73 0 0
R People’s Front of Iceland 575 0.30 0 0
E Icelandic National Front 303 0.16 0 New
H Humanist Party 33 0.02 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 5,574
Total 195,204 100 63 0
Registered voters/turnout 246,515 79.19
Source: Iceland Monitor
Popular vote
D
29.00%
V
15.91%
P
14.48%
B
11.49%
C
10.48%
A
7.16%
S
5.74%
F
3.54%
T
1.73%
Others
0.48%
Parliamentary seats
D
33.33%
V
15.87%
P
15.87%
B
12.70%
C
11.11%
A
6.35%
S
4.76%

This was the lowest turnout in Iceland’s history.[15]

Government formation[edit]

Neither of the two main blocs — the outgoing coalition of Independence and Progressive parties, or the Pirates and allies (Left-Green Movement, Bright Future and Social Democrats) — secured an overall majority, leaving the new Viðreisn party as possible ‘kingmakers’.[16]

The Independence Party were expected to take the lead in forming a new government, with their party leader, Bjarni, expressing preference for a three-party coalition, although without saying which three parties. The Pirate Party, while significantly up on the last election, did less well than polls had previously suggested they might. They proposed a five-party coalition with the Left-Green Movement, the Social Democrats, Bright Future and Viðreisn, having previously ruled out working with either of the two outgoing coalition members.[4] The Pirate Party then suggested a minority coalition of Left-Green Movement, Bright Future and Viðreisn, with support but not ministerial representation from themselves and the Social Democrats, in order to simplify the process of government.[17]

The leader of Viðreisn ruled out a right-leaning three-party coalition with Independence and the Progressives.[18] Viðreisn have not ruled out supporting the Pirates bloc.

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Progressive Party (Iceland)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Progressive Party
Framsóknarflokkurinn
Chairperson Sigurður Ingi Jóhannsson
Leader of the parliamentary group Þórunn Egilsdóttir
Chairperson of the municipal council Elín Líndal
Founded 16 December 1916
Merger of
Headquarters Hverfisgata 33,
101 Reykjavík
Youth wing Association of Young People in the Progressive Party
Ideology Liberalism[1]
Agrarianism[1]
Euroscepticism[2][3]
Populism[4]
Political position Centre to Centre-right[5]
European affiliation None
International affiliation Liberal International
Colours Green
Seats in the Althing
8 / 63

Website
www.framsokn.is

Current chairman of the party is Sigurður Ingi Jóhannsson who was elected on 2 October 2016. His predecessor was Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, who was elected on 18 January 2009 and was Prime Minister of Iceland from 23 May 2013 to 5 April 2016 following the 2013 parliamentary election: His predecessor was Valgerður Sverrisdóttir, who only served as chairman for two months. Her predecessor, Guðni Ágústsson, who, as a vice-chairman became chairman when the previous chairman, Jón Sigurðsson, resigned after the Progressive Party suffered great losses in the 2007 election. Jón’s predecessor as party leader was Halldór Ásgrímsson, chairman 1994 to 2006. Halldór served as Prime Minister from 2004 to 2006.The Progressive Party (Icelandic: Framsóknarflokkurinn, FSF) is a centre-right liberal[6][7] and agrarian[6][7][8] political party in Iceland. The party has been a member of the Liberal International since 1983.[9]

History[edit]

The Progressive Party was founded to represent Iceland’s farmer class, which went from being dominant from settlement to the late 19th century to rapidly dwindling in the early 20th century as a result of industrialization and urbanization. Its primary support still comes from the rural areas of Iceland and its policy roots still stem from its origin as an agrarian party, although it has since come to self-identify as a liberal party, though this is disputed outside of the party. It was founded in 1916 as a merger of two agrarian parties,[10] the Farmers’ Party (Bændaflokkur) and the Independent Farmers(Óháðir bændur). In 1956 the party almost agreed to an aborted merger with the Social Democratic Party.[11]

Throughout Iceland’s history as a self-governing and independent nation, the Progressive Party has most often been the second largest political party in the country. It has often joined government coalitions with either the Independence Party on the centre-right, or with centre-left parties.[12] The party was a coalition partner to the Independence Party during the period 1995 to 2007.

Following the 1971 parliamentary election, the Progressive Party formed a government with the People’s Alliance and Union of Liberals and Leftists, with Progressive Party chairman Ólafur Jóhannesson serving as Prime Minister.[13]

The 1974 parliamentary election led to a coalition government of the Independence Party and Progressive Party led by Geir Hallgrímsson.[13]

The 1978 parliamentary election returned Ólafur Jóhannesson to the role of Prime Minister, leading a coalition containing the Progressive Party, People’s Alliance and Social Democratic Party after two months of coalition negotiations.[13]

The snap 1979 parliamentary election caused by the withdrawal of the Social Democrats from government led to a new government being formed in February 1980 by the Independence Party of Prime Minister Gunnar Thoroddsen, Progressive Party and People’s Alliance.[13]

The 1983 parliamentary election resulted in Progressive Party leader Steingrímur Hermannsson becoming Prime Minister in coalition with the Independence Party.[13]

The 1987 parliamentary election in May saw a coalition being formed in July of that year led by Thorsteinn Pálsson of the Independence Party, with the Progressive Party and Social Democratic Party as junior partners. However, in September 1988, a new government was formed by the Progressive Party’s Steingrímur Hermannsson with the Social Democrats and People’s Alliance.[13]

Following the 1991 parliamentary election, the Progressive Party was in opposition, with the government being formed by Independence Party leader Davíð Oddsson.[13]

In the 1995 parliamentary election, Davíð Oddsson remained as Prime Minister, with the Progressive Party returning to government as junior coalition partner to the Independence Party, a coalition which continued after the 1999 election.[13]

In the 2003 parliamentary election, the Progressive Party received 17.2% of the vote and 12 seats in the Althing.[7] On 15 September 2004, Halldór Ásgrímsson of the Progressive Party took over as Prime Minister from Davíð Oddsson.[7] Halldór Ásgrímsson announced his intention to resign on 5 June 2006 following the party’s poor results in the 2006 municipal elections. The coalition remained allied with the Independence Party chairman, Geir H. Haarde, as Prime Minister. The Progressive Party leader Jón Sigurðsson was Minister of Industry and Commerce, until a coalition of the Independence Party and the Social Democratic Alliance took over after the elections in 2007.

In the 2007 parliamentary election, the party dropped five seats to hold only seven seats, down from twelve. The coalition only held a one-seat majority in the Althing, and the Independence Party formed a coalition government with the Social Democratic Alliance with the deal being signed on 22 May, returning the Progressive Party to the opposition. When a centre-left minority government was formed in February 2009, in the wake of the 2008–2012 Icelandic financial crisis, the Progressive Party agreed to defend it from a no-confidence vote, but did not form part of the governing coalition.[14]

In January 2009, it decided to change its party line on joining the European Union (EU) from being opposed to being in favour of EU accession, but with very strong caveats.[15][16] In retrospect of how these caveats are likely to be considered, the party has since changed its policy to one of firm opposition to EU membership, leaving the Social Democratic Allianceand Bright Future as the main Icelandic parties in favour of Icelandic EU membership.[17]

In the 2009 parliamentary election, the Progressive Party fared somewhat better, securing 14.8% of the vote, and increasing its number of seats from seven to nine. It remained in opposition, however, with a centre-left coalition of the Social Democratic Alliance and the Left-Green Movement continuing to govern with an increased majority.[18]

In the 2013 parliamentary election, the Progressive Party reached second place nationally, winning 24.4% of the vote and 19 seats. Following the election, a centre-right coalition government was formed between the Progressive Party and Independence Party, Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson of the Progressive Party appointed as Prime Minister.[19]

Electoral performance[edit]

Election Votes  % Seats +/– Position Government
1919 3,115 22.2
11 / 40

Increase 11 Increase 3rd Opposition
1923 8,062 26.6
15 / 42

Increase 4 Increase 2nd Coalition
1927 9,532 29.8
19 / 42

Increase 4 Increase 1st Coalition
1931 13,844 35.9
23 / 42

Increase 4 Steady 1st Majority
1933 8,530 23.9
17 / 42

Decrease 6 Decrease 2nd Coalition
1934 11,377 21.9
15 / 49

Decrease 2 Steady 2nd Coalition
1937 14,556 24.9
19 / 49

Increase 4 Increase 1st Minority
1942 (Jul) 16,033 27.6
20 / 49

Increase 1 Steady 1st Opposition
1942 (Oct) 15,869 26.6
15 / 52

Decrease 5 Decrease 2nd Opposition
1946 15,429 23.1
13 / 52

Decrease 2 Steady 2nd Opposition
1949 17,659 24.5
17 / 52

Increase 4 Steady 2nd Opposition
1953 16,959 21.9
16 / 52

Decrease 1 Steady 2nd Coalition
1956 12,925 15.6
17 / 52

Increase 1 Steady 2nd Coalition
1959 (Jun) 23,061 27.2
19 / 52

Increase 2 Steady 2nd Opposition
1959 (Oct) 21,882 25.7
17 / 60

Decrease 2 Steady 2nd Opposition
1963 25,217 28.2
19 / 60

Increase 2 Steady 2nd Opposition
1967 27,029 28.1
18 / 60

Decrease 1 Steady 2nd Opposition
1971 26,645 25.3
17 / 60

Decrease 1 Steady 2nd Coalition
1974 28,381 24.9
17 / 60

Steady 0 Steady 2nd Coalition
1978 20,656 16.9
12 / 60

Decrease 5 Decrease 4th Coalition
1979 30,861 24.9
17 / 60

Increase 5 Increase 2nd Opposition
1983 24,754 18.5
14 / 60

Decrease 3 Steady 2nd Coalition
1987 28,902 18.9
13 / 63

Decrease 1 Steady 2nd Coalition
1991 29,866 18.9
13 / 63

Steady 0 Steady 2nd Opposition
1995 38,485 23.3
15 / 63

Increase 2 Steady 2nd Coalition
1999 30,415 18.4
12 / 63

Decrease 3 Decrease 3rd Coalition
2003 32,484 17.7
12 / 63

Steady 0 Steady 3rd Coalition
2007 21,350 11.7
7 / 63

Decrease 5 Decrease 4th Opposition
2009 27,699 14.8
9 / 63

Increase 2 Steady 4th Opposition
2013 46,173 24.4
19 / 63

Increase 10 Increase 2nd Coalition
2016 21,791 11.5
8 / 63

Decrease 11 Decrease 4th TBD

Chairpersons[edit]

Chairperson Period
Ólafur Briem 1916–1920
Sveinn Ólafsson 1920–1922
Þorleifur Jónsson 1922–1928
Tryggvi Þórhallsson 1928–1932
Ásgeir Ásgeirsson 1932–1933
Sigurður Kristinsson 1933–1934
Jónas Jónsson 1934–1944
Hermann Jónasson 1944–1962
Eysteinn Jónsson 1962–1968
Ólafur Jóhannesson 1968–1979
Steingrímur Hermannsson 1979–1994
Halldór Ásgrímsson 1994–2006
Jón Sigurðsson 2006–2007
Guðni Ágústsson 2007–2008
Valgerður Sverrisdóttir 2008–2009
Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson 2009–2016
Sigurður Ingi Jóhannsson 2016-

See also[edit]