Pro Trump rallies

2017 Berkeley protests

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 2017 Berkeley protests refer to a series of protests occurred in the city of Berkeley, California in the vicinity of University of California, Berkeley. Violence has occurred predominantly between anti-Trump protesters, some of whom were anarchists, Antifa (anti-fascists)[1][2] and other far-left radicals, and supporters of Donald Trump and the alt-right.

The first event occurred on February 1 when Milo Yiannopoulos was scheduled to give a speech. Two incidents, which occurred on March 4 and April 15, were pro-Trump rallies met with counter-protesters. Another rally occurred on April 27; hosted by Kyle Chapman, Brittany Pettibone, Lauren Southern, and others at Martin Luther King Jr. Civic Center Park. This was scheduled after a planned speech by Ann Coulter was cancelled.

Timeline of protests[edit]

February 1[edit]

On February 1, Milo Yiannopoulos was scheduled to make a speech at the University of California, Berkeley at 8:00 pm. Prior, more than 100 UC Berkeley faculty signed a petition urging the university to cancel the event.[3]

Over 1,500 people gathered on the steps of Sproul Hall to protest the event. The university said in a statement that the protest had been non-violent until it was interrupted by a group of around 150 people who they believe came from outside of the campus.[4][3] The interrupting protesters, some identifying themselves as members of BAMN,[5] set fires, damaged property, threw fireworks, attacked members of the crowd, and threw rocks at the police.[3] Within twenty minutes of the start of the violence, the Yiannopolous event was officially canceled by the university police department due to security concerns, and protesters were ordered to disperse.[4][6] The protests continued for several hours afterwards, with some protesters moving into downtown Berkeley.[5] Among those assaulted were a Syrian Muslim who was pepper sprayed and hit with a rod by a protester who said “You look like a Nazi”,[7] and a white woman, Kiara Robles, who was pepper sprayed while being interviewed by a TV reporter.[8] One person was arrested for failure to disperse, and there was an estimated $100,000 in damage.[9]

March 4[edit]

A pro-Donald Trump march in Berkeley on March 4 resulted in seven injuries and ten arrests after confrontations with counter-protesters. Police confiscated several weapons from attendees of the rally including baseball bats, bricks, metal pipes, pieces of lumber, and a dagger.[10][11]

April 15[edit]

Protesters during the April 15 rally

On April 15, several groups, including approximately 50 Oath Keepers, held a pro-Trump rally and were met by counter-protesters.[12] Planned speakers included Brittany Pettibone and Lauren Southern.[13] The event was organized as a free speech rally by Rich Black, who also organized the March 4 Trump event.[14][15]

At Martin Luther King Jr. Civic Center Park a “large number of fights” broke out, smoke bombs and fireworks were thrown into the melee, and pepper spray was used in the crowd.[16][17] According to the Los Angeles Times, “Both groups threw rocks and sticks at each other and used a large trash bin as a battering ram as the crowd moved around the perimeter of the park.”[16] Eleven people were injured, six of whom were hospitalized, including one person who was stabbed.[16] Police “seized a handful of cans of peppers spray, some knives, and dozens of sign and flag poles, skateboards, and other blunt objects” from members of the crowd.[17]

A Reuters reporter estimated that between 500 and 1,000 people were in the park at the peak of the rally.[18] Various far-right activists in the crowd held up antisemitic signs,[19][20] and some made Nazi salutes and used other neo-Nazi symbolism.[21][17]

During the event, Nathan Damigo—a 30-year-old Cal State Stanislaus student and the founder of the white supremacist group Identity Evropa—punched a 20-year-old woman in the face, then ran into the crowd. The attack was captured on video and prompted calls for Damigo’s arrest or expulsion.[22] Cal State Stanislaus stated that that they would investigate Damigo.[22]

April 27[edit]

On April 18, 2017 administrators at UC Berkeley canceled a planned April 27 appearance on the campus by conservative columnist Ann Coulter, citing safety concerns. Coulter tweeted on April 19 that she would be coming to Berkeley to speak on that date regardless.[23][24] On April 20, the University stated that they would host Coulter on May 2 at a “protected venue” that would be disclosed at a later date.[25] Coulter declined to reschedule, noting that she was unavailable on May 2 and that UC Berkeley had no classes scheduled for that week, and said she would hold her speech on April 27 with or without the university’s consent. She later said that she did not intend to speak, but said she might attend the April 27 event.[26][27] Alt-right activist Brittany Pettibone delivered remarks that promised that conservatives will refuse to stand down, which was met with applause from the crowd. Vice co-founder Gavin McInnes gave Ann Coulter’s planned speech at the event.[28] Other speakers at the rally included Lauren Southern, a conservative-libertarian writer.[29][30][31][32] There was concern the gathering would turn violent based on “social media feeds of militant left-wing and right-wing activists abuzz with plans to proceed with demonstrations and counter-demonstrations over the Coulter-Berkeley controversy.”[33]

The International Socialist Organization organized an “Alt-Right Delete” rally at Sproul Plaza. About 150 people attended the rally and 70 police officers monitored the situation.[28] Several hundred attended a “Freedom of Speech” rally at the Martin Luther King Jr. Civic Center Park in Berkeley. The demonstrations were relatively peaceful; however, there was some tension as five were arrested, one for a weapons violation and another for drug possession.[34]

Aftermath[edit]

Following the February 1 protest, a lawyer representing a local police union criticized the police administration for their “hands off” policy which prevented officers from preventing crime or making arrests. A police representative responded that they did not want to further escalate violence, and that the campus police were inexperienced in dealing with black bloc tactics.[35] According to Berkeley Police chief Margo Bennett, they were waiting for reinforcements to come from Oakland Police and the Alameda County Sheriff before dispersing the crowds.[36]

Following the February events, President Trump criticized the UC Berkeley on Twitter, asserting that it “does not allow free speech” and threatening to de-fund the university.[37][38] After the incident, Yiannopoulos’ upcoming book, Dangerous, returned to number one for a few days on Amazon‘s “Best Sellers” list.[39] According to Yiannopoulos’ Facebook post, he plans to return to Berkeley “hopefully within the next few months.”[40]

After the April events, several news organizations noted that the fighting demonstrated an increasing use of violence between members of both the far-right and the far-left.[21]

Musical selections at events

Music by the following artists and groups was used[358][359][360][361][362][363][364][365][366] at various Trump campaign rallies during 2015 and 2016: Elton John, The Beatles, Adele, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Pavarotti / Puccini, Journey, R.E.M., Neil Young, Twisted Sister, Rolling Stones, Queen, Aerosmith, Wagner, Kenny G, Johnny Cash, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Billy Joel, Bill Conti, John Mellencamp, Joe Esposito, Eye of the Tiger, The Shangri-Las, Cab Calloway, Frankie Valli, The Alan Parsons Project, Paul Rodgers, Travie McCoy, Bruce Springsteen, Led Zeppelin, the London Bach Choir, and the songs of Victor Hugo‘s Les Miserables.

List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of rallies held by Donald Trump for his 2016 campaign.

Primary season[edit source]

Laconia, NH, 07/15/2015

Myrtle Beach, SC, 11/24/2015

Des Moines, IA, 12/11/2015

Mesa, AZ, 12/16/2015

Reno, NV, 01/10/2016

Ames, IA, 01/19/2016

Muscatine, IA, 01/24/2016

Las Vegas, NV, 02/22/2016

Fountain Hills, AZ, 03/18/2016
Primary rallies (June 2015–June 2016)
Date of Rally City State Venue Estimated Visitors Source
Wednesday, June 17, 2015 Manchester NH Manchester Community College 300 [1]
Saturday, July 11, 2015 Phoenix AZ Phoenix Convention Center 15,000 [2]
Tuesday, July 21, 2015 Sun City SC Magnolia Hall 500 [3]
Saturday, July 25, 2015 Oskaloosa IA Oskaloosa High School 1,000 [4]
Friday, August 14, 2015 Hampton NH Winnacunnet High School 3,000 [5]
Friday, August 21, 2015 Mobile AL Ladd-Peebles Stadium 15,000-30,000 [6]
Tuesday, August 25, 2015 Dubuque IA Grand River Center 3,000 [7]
Thursday, August 27, 2015 Greenville SC TD Convention Center 1,400 [8]
Monday, September 14, 2015 Dallas TX American Airlines Center 15,000 [9]
Friday, September 25, 2015 Oklahoma City OK Oklahoma State Fair 15,000 [10]
Wednesday, September 30, 2015 Keene NH Keene High School 3,500 [11]
Saturday, October 3, 2015 Franklin TN The Factory at Franklin Thousands [12]
Wednesday, October 7, 2015 Waterloo IA Electric Park Ballroom 1,100 [13]
Saturday, October 10, 2015 Norcross GA North Atlanta Trade Center 7,700 [14]
Monday, October 19, 2015 Anderson SC Civic Center of Anderson 5,000 [15]
Saturday, October 24, 2015 Jacksonville FL Jacksonville Landing 20,000 [16]
Tuesday, October 27, 2015 Sioux City IA West High School 2,200 [17]
Thursday, October 29, 2015 Sparks NV Nugget Casino Resort 2,000 [18]
Saturday, October 31, 2015 Norfolk VA USS Wisconsin 2,000 [19]
Monday, November 9, 2015 Springfield IL Prairie Capital Convention Center 10,200 [20]
Thursday, November 12, 2015 Fort Dodge IA Iowa Central Community College 1,500 [21]
Saturday, November 14, 2015 Beaumont TX Ford Arena [22][23]
Monday, November 16, 2015 Knoxville TN Knoxville Convention Center 5,000 [24][25]
Wednesday, November 18, 2015 Worcester MA DCU Center 10,500 [26]
Thursday, November 19, 2015 Newton IA Maytag Auditorium, DMACC Newton Campus 400 [27]
Saturday, November 21, 2015 Birmingham AL Birmingham–Jefferson Convention Complex 3,000 [28]
Monday, November 23, 2015 Columbus OH Greater Columbus Convention Center 14,000 [29]
Tuesday, November 24, 2015 Myrtle Beach SC Myrtle Beach Convention Center 8,000 [30][31]
Saturday, November 28, 2015 Sarasota FL Robarts Arena 9,000 [32]
Monday, November 30, 2015 Macon GA Macon Coliseum 6,000 [33]
Tuesday, December 1, 2015 Waterville Valley NH White Mountain Athletic Club 900 [34]
Wednesday, December 2, 2015 Manassas VA Prince William County Fairgrounds [35]
Friday, December 4, 2015 Raleigh NC Dorton Arena 8,000 [36][37]
Saturday, December 5, 2015 Davenport IA Mississippi Valley Fairgrounds 1,700 [38]
Saturday, December 5, 2015 Spencer IA Clay County Regional Events Center 1,300 [39]
Monday, December 7, 2015 Mount Pleasant SC USS Yorktown [40]
Friday, December 11, 2015 Des Moines IA Varied Industries Building, Iowa State Fairgrounds 2,500 [41]
Saturday, December 12, 2015 Aiken SC USC Aiken Convocation Center [42]
Monday, December 14, 2015 Las Vegas NV Westgate Las Vegas Resort & Casino [43]
Wednesday, December 16, 2015 Mesa AZ Phoenix–Mesa Gateway Airport 3,100 [44]
Saturday, December 19, 2015 Cedar Rapids IA Veterans Memorial Coliseum 1,200 [45]
Monday, December 21, 2015 Grand Rapids MI DeltaPlex Arena 7,000 [46]
Monday, December 28, 2015 Nashua NH Pennichuck Middle School 1,000 [47]
Tuesday, December 29, 2015 Council Bluffs IA Mid-America Center [48]
Wednesday, December 30, 2015 Hilton Head SC The Westin Hilton Head Island Resort & Spa 2,500 [49]
Saturday, January 2, 2016 Biloxi MS Mississippi Coast Coliseum 15,000 [50]
Monday, January 4, 2016 Lowell MA Tsongas Center Thousands [51]
Tuesday, January 5, 2016 Claremont NH Stevens High School 1,200 [52]
Thursday, January 7, 2016 Burlington VT Flynn Center for the Performing Arts 1,400 [53]
Friday, January 8, 2016 Rock Hill SC Winthrop Coliseum 6,500 [54]
Saturday, January 9, 2016 Clear Lake IA Surf Ballroom 1,700 [55]
Saturday, January 9, 2016 Ottumwa IA Bridgeview Center [56]
Sunday, January 10, 2016 Reno NV Reno Events Center 4,000 [57]
Monday, January 11, 2016 Windham NH Castleton Banquet and Conference Center 550 [58]
Tuesday, January 12, 2016 Cedar Falls IA West Gymnasium, University of Northern Iowa 2,000 [59]
Wednesday, January 13, 2016 Pensacola FL Pensacola Bay Center 10,000 [60]
Friday, January 15, 2016 Urbandale IA Living History Farms Visitor Center 100 [61]
Monday, January 18, 2016 Concord NH Concord High School 700 [62]
Monday, January 18, 2016 Lynchburg VA Vines Center, Liberty University 10,000 [63]
Tuesday, January 19, 2016 Ames IA Hansen Agriculture Student Learning Center, Iowa State University 2,000 [64]
Wednesday, January 20, 2016 Norwalk IA The Wright Place 300 [65]
Wednesday, January 20, 2016 Tulsa OK Mabee Center, Oral Roberts University 9,000 [66]
Thursday, January 21, 2016 Las Vegas NV South Point Hotel, Casino & Spa 3,000 [67]
Saturday, January 23, 2016 Pella IA Douwstra Auditorium, Central College 400 [68]
Saturday, January 23, 2016 Sioux Center IA B. J. Haan Auditorium, Dordt College 2,600 [69]
Sunday, January 24, 2016 Muscatine IA Muscatine High School 1,000 [70]
Monday, January 25, 2016 Farmington NH Farmington Senior High School 1,000 [71]
Tuesday, January 26, 2016 Iowa City IA Iowa Field House, University of Iowa 2,000 [72]
Tuesday, January 26, 2016 Marshalltown IA Roundhouse Gymnasium, Marshalltown High School 2,149 [73]
Wednesday, January 27, 2016 Gilbert SC The Barn at Harmon’s 400 [74]
Thursday, January 28, 2016 Des Moines IA Sheslow Auditorium, Drake University 700 [75][76][77]
Friday, January 29, 2016 Nashua NH Radisson Hotel Nashua 850 [78]
Saturday, January 30, 2016 Clinton IA Clinton Middle School 1,000 [79]
Saturday, January 30, 2016 Davenport IA Adler Theatre 2,400 [80]
Saturday, January 30, 2016 Dubuque IA Dubuque Regional Airport 1,200 [81]
Sunday, January 31, 2016 Council Bluffs IA Gerald W. Kirn Middle School 2,000 [82]
Monday, February 1, 2016 Cedar Rapids IA DoubleTree Hotel Cedar Rapids Convention Complex 1,500 [83]
Monday, February 1, 2016 Waterloo IA Ramada Waterloo Hotel and Convention Center 300 [83]
Tuesday, February 2, 2016 Milford NH Hampshire Hills Athletic Club [84]
Wednesday, February 3, 2016 Little Rock AR Barton Coliseum 11,500 [85]
Thursday, February 4, 2016 Exeter NH Exeter Town Hall [86]
Thursday, February 4, 2016 Portsmouth NH Great Bay Community College 500 [87]
Friday, February 5, 2016 Florence SC Florence Civic Center Thousands [88]
Sunday, February 7, 2016 Holderness NH ALLWell North, Plymouth State University 2,500 [89]
Monday, February 8, 2016 Londonderry NH Londonderry Lions Club 200 [90]
Monday, February 8, 2016 Manchester NH Verizon Wireless Arena 5,000 [91]
Monday, February 8, 2016 Salem NH Derry-Salem Elks Lodge 200 [92]
Wednesday, February 10, 2016 Pendleton SC T. Ed Garrison Arena, Clemson University 5,000 [93]
Thursday, February 11, 2016 Baton Rouge LA Baton Rouge River Center 10,000 [94]
Friday, February 12, 2016 Tampa FL USF Sun Dome, University of South Florida 10,000 [95]
Monday, February 15, 2016 Greenville SC TD Convention Center Thousands [96]
Tuesday, February 16, 2016 Beaufort SC Beaufort High School Performing Arts Center 20,000 [97]
Tuesday, February 16, 2016 North Augusta SC Riverview Park Activities Center 2,000 [98]
Wednesday, February 17, 2016 Sumter SC Sumter County Civic Center 4,000 [99]
Wednesday, February 17, 2016 Walterboro SC Randy and Sara White’s farm 4,000 [100]
Thursday, February 18, 2016 Gaffney SC Broad River Electric Cooperative [101][102]
Thursday, February 18, 2016 Kiawah SC Turtle Point Clubhouse, Kiawah Island Golf Resort [103][104]
Friday, February 19, 2016 North Charleston SC North Charleston Convention Center 2,000 [105]
Friday, February 19, 2016 Myrtle Beach SC Myrtle Beach Sports Center 12,000 [106]
Friday, February 19, 2016 Pawleys Island SC Pawley’s Plantation Golf & Country Club 1,000 [107]
Sunday, February 21, 2016 Atlanta GA Georgia World Congress Center [108][109]
Monday, February 22, 2016 Las Vegas NV South Point Hotel, Casino & Spa [110][111]
Tuesday, February 23, 2016 Sparks NV Rose Ballroom 3,016 [112]
Friday, February 26, 2016 Oklahoma City OK Cox Convention Center 7,000 [113]
Saturday, February 27, 2016 Highfill AR Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport 5,000 [114]
Saturday, February 27, 2016 Fort Worth TX Fort Worth Convention Center 8,000 [115]
Saturday, February 27, 2016 Millington TN Millington Regional Jetport 10,000 [116]
Sunday, February 28, 2016 Madison AL Madison City Schools Stadium [117][118]
Monday, February 29, 2016 Radford VA Dedmon Center, Radford University 11,000 [119]
Monday, February 29, 2016 Valdosta GA The Complex, Valdosta State University 7,500 [120]
Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Columbus OH Port Columbus International Airport 4,000 [29]
Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Louisville KY Kentucky International Convention Center 5,000 [121]
Thursday, March 3, 2016 Portland ME The Westin Portland Harborview Hotel 1,100 [122]
Friday, March 4, 2016 Warren MI Sports & Expo Center, Macomb Community College 4,000 [123]
Friday, March 4, 2016 Cadillac MI Wexford County Civic Center 3,500 [124]
Friday, March 4, 2016 New Orleans LA Lakefront Airport 4,000 [125][126]
Saturday, March 5, 2016 Orlando FL CFE Arena, University of Central Florida 10,000 [127][128][129][130][131][132][133]
Saturday, March 5, 2016 Wichita KS Century II Performing Arts & Convention Center [134]
Monday, March 7, 2016 Concord NC Cabarrus Arena & Events Center 3,000 [135]
Monday, March 7, 2016 Madison MS Madison Central High School 9,000 [136]
Wednesday, March 9, 2016 Fayetteville NC Crown Coliseum 11,000 [137]
Friday, March 11, 2016 St. Louis MO Peabody Opera House 3,100 [138]
Saturday, March 12, 2016 Cleveland OH I-X Center 29,000 [139]
Saturday, March 12, 2016 Dayton OH Dayton International Airport 20,000 [139]
Saturday, March 12, 2016 Kansas City MO Midland Theatre 7,000 [140]
Sunday, March 13, 2016 Bloomington IL Synergy Flight Center, Central Illinois Regional Airport 3,000 [141]
Sunday, March 13, 2016 Boca Raton FL Sunset Cove Amphitheater, Sugar Sand Park 6,000 [142]
Monday, March 14, 2016 Tampa FL Tampa Convention Center 1,500 [143]
Monday, March 14, 2016 Vienna OH Winner Aviation, Youngstown–Warren Regional Airport 2,500 [144]
Friday, March 18, 2016 Salt Lake City UT Inifinity Event Center 1,200 [145]
Saturday, March 19, 2016 Fountain Hills AZ Fountain Park 10,000 [146]
Saturday, March 19, 2016 Tucson AZ Tucson Convention Center 5,000 [147]
Tuesday, March 29, 2016 Janesville WI Janesville Conference Center 1,000 [148]
Wednesday, March 30, 2016 Appleton WI Radisson Paper Valley Hotel 1,000 [149]
Wednesday, March 30, 2016 De Pere WI Byron L. Walter Theatre, St. Norbert College 750 [150]
Saturday, April 2, 2016 Eau Claire WI Memorial High School 1,500 [151]
Saturday, April 2, 2016 Racine WI Memorial Hall 1,200 [152]
Saturday, April 2, 2016 Rothschild WI Central Wisconsin Convention & Expo Center 1,700 [153]
Sunday, April 3, 2016 West Allis WI Nathan Hale High School 1,000 [154]
Monday, April 4, 2016 La Crosse WI La Crosse Center 1,700 [155]
Monday, April 4, 2016 Milwaukee WI Milwaukee Theatre [156][157]
Monday, April 4, 2016 Superior WI Richard I. Bong Airport 1,000 [158]
Wednesday, April 6, 2016 Bethpage NY Grumman Studios 10,000 [159]
Sunday, April 10, 2016 Rochester NY JetSmart Aviation Services, Greater Rochester International Airport 9,000 [160]
Monday, April 11, 2016 Albany NY Times Union Center 10,000 [161]
Tuesday, April 12, 2016 Rome NY Griffiss International Airport 5,000 [162]
Wednesday, April 13, 2016 Pittsburgh PA David L. Lawrence Convention Center 4,500 [163]
Friday, April 15, 2016 Hartford CT Connecticut Convention Center 7,000 [164]
Friday, April 15, 2016 Plattsburgh NY Crete Civic Center 3,000 [165]
Saturday, April 16, 2016 Syracuse NY Nicholas J. Pirro Convention Center 5,000 [166]
Saturday, April 16, 2016 Watertown NY Watertown International Airport 2,000 [167]
Sunday, April 17, 2016 Poughkeepsie NY Mid-Hudson Civic Center [168]
Monday, April 18, 2016 Buffalo NY First Niagara Center 11,400 [169]
Wednesday, April 20, 2016 Indianapolis IN Elements Financial Blue Ribbon Pavilion, Indiana State Fairgrounds 4,000 [170]
Wednesday, April 20, 2016 Berlin MD Stephen Decatur High School 3,000 [171]
Thursday, April 21, 2016 Harrisburg PA Pennsylvania Farm Show Complex & Expo Center 6,000 [172]
Friday, April 22, 2016 Harrington DE Quillen Arena, Delaware State Fairgrounds 8,200 [173]
Saturday, April 23, 2016 Bridgeport CT Klein Memorial Auditorium 1,400 [174]
Saturday, April 23, 2016 Waterbury CT Crosby High School 3,000 [175]
Sunday, April 24, 2016 Hagerstown MD Rider Jet Center, Hagerstown Regional Airport 5,000 [176]
Monday, April 25, 2016 Warwick RI Crowne Plaza Hotel Providence-Warwick 1,000 [177]
Monday, April 25, 2016 West Chester PA West Chester University 3,500 [178]
Monday, April 25, 2016 Wilkes-Barre PA Mohegan Sun Arena at Casey Plaza 10,000 [179]
Wednesday, April 27, 2016 Indianapolis IN Indiana Farmers Coliseum 5,000 [180]
Thursday, April 28, 2016 Costa Mesa CA Pacific Amphitheatre, OC Fair & Event Center [181][182]
Thursday, April 28, 2016 Evansville IN Old National Events Plaza 12,000 [183]
Sunday, May 1, 2016 Fort Wayne IN Allen County War Memorial Coliseum 8,000 [184]
Sunday, May 1, 2016 Terre Haute IN Indiana Theatre 2,100 [185]
Monday, May 2, 2016 Carmel IN The Palladium at the Center for the Performing Arts 1,800 [186]
Monday, May 2, 2016 South Bend IN Century Center 8,000 [187]
Thursday, May 5, 2016 Charleston WV Charleston Civic Center [188][189]
Friday, May 6, 2016 Eugene OR Lane Events Center 5,000 [190]
Friday, May 6, 2016 Omaha NE Werner Enterprises Hangar, Eppley Airfield 3,500 [191]
Saturday, May 7, 2016 Lynden WA Northwest Washington Fair and Event Center 7,500 [192]
Saturday, May 7, 2016 Spokane WA Spokane Convention Center 10,000 [193]
Tuesday, May 24, 2016 Albuquerque NM Albuquerque Convention Center 8,000 [194]
Wednesday, May 25, 2016 Anaheim CA Anaheim Convention Center 3,000 [195]
Thursday, May 26, 2016 Billings MT Rimrock Auto Arena at MetraPark 7,000 [196]
Friday, May 27, 2016 Fresno CA Selland Arena 7,000 [197]
Friday, May 27, 2016 San Diego CA San Diego Convention Center [198][199]
Wednesday, June 1, 2016 Sacramento CA Sacramento Jet Center, Sacramento International Airport 5,000 [200]
Thursday, June 2, 2016 San Jose CA South Hall, San Jose Convention Center [201][202]
Friday, June 3, 2016 Redding CA Redding Municipal Airport 4,000 [203]

General election season[edit source]

2017 Pres. Trump US travels.

List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
List of rallies for the Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
Locations in the United States where President Donald Trump visited in 2016 presidential campaign (According to list below).

Phoenix, AZ, 06/18/2016

Cedar Rapids, IA, 07/28/2016

Phoenix, AZ, 08/31/2016

Clive, IA, 09/13/2016

Aston, PA, 09/13/2016

Melbourne, FL, 09/27/2016

Prescott Valley, AZ, 10/04/2016

Cincinnati, OH, 10/13/2016

Newtown, PA, 10/21/2016

Phoenix, AZ, 10/29/2016
General election rallies (June 2016–November 2016)
Date of Rally City State Venue Estimated Visitors Source
Friday, June 10, 2016 Richmond VA Richmond Coliseum 5,000 [204]
Saturday, June 11, 2016 Moon PA Atlantic Aviation PIT, Pittsburgh International Airport 1,500 [205]
Saturday, June 11, 2016 Tampa FL Tampa Convention Center 4,000 [206]
Tuesday, June 14, 2016 Greensboro NC Greensboro Coliseum Complex 6,150 [207]
Wednesday, June 15, 2016 Atlanta GA Fox Theatre 3,500 [208]
Thursday, June 16, 2016 Dallas TX Gilley’s Club 3,600 [209]
Friday, June 17, 2016 The Woodlands TX The Woodlands Waterway Marriott Hotel & Conference Center 5,000 [210]
Saturday, June 18, 2016 Las Vegas NV Mystère Theatre, Treasure Island Hotel and Casino 1,600 [211]
Saturday, June 18, 2016 Phoenix AZ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Arizona State Fairgrounds 6,000 [212]
Tuesday, June 28, 2016 St. Clairsville OH Health and Physical Education Center, Ohio University Eastern Campus 4,000 [213]
Wednesday, June 29, 2016 Bangor ME Cross Insurance Center 4,000 [214]
Tuesday, July 5, 2016 Raleigh NC Raleigh Memorial Auditorium, Duke Energy Center for the Performing Arts 2,250 [215]
Wednesday, July 6, 2016 Cincinnati OH Sharonville Convention Center 7,000 [216]
Tuesday, July 12, 2016 Westfield IN Grand Park Event Center, Grand Park 2,000 [217]
Monday, July 25, 2016 Winston-Salem NC Winston-Salem Fairground Annex, Dixie Classic Fairgrounds 4,728 [218]
Wednesday, July 27, 2016 Scranton PA Student Union Gymnasium, Lackawanna College 3,500 [219]
Wednesday, July 27, 2016 Toledo OH Huntington Center 8,879 [220]
Thursday, July 28, 2016 Cedar Rapids IA DoubleTree Hotel Cedar Rapids Convention Complex 3,000 [221]
Thursday, July 28, 2016 Davenport IA Adler Theatre 2,400 [221]
Friday, July 29, 2016 Colorado Springs CO Gallogly Event Center, University of Colorado Colorado Springs 2,500 [222]
Friday, July 29, 2016 Denver CO Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum 6,000 [223]
Monday, August 1, 2016 Columbus OH Greater Columbus Convention Center 1,000 [224]
Monday, August 1, 2016 Mechanicsburg PA Cumberland Valley High School 5,000 [225]
Tuesday, August 2, 2016 Ashburn VA Briar Woods High School 800 [226]
Wednesday, August 3, 2016 Daytona Beach FL Ocean Center 10,000 [227]
Wednesday, August 3, 2016 Jacksonville FL Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena 10,000 [228]
Thursday, August 4, 2016 Portland ME Merrill Auditorium 1,600 [229]
Friday, August 5, 2016 Des Moines IA Iowa Events Center 6,000 [230]
Friday, August 5, 2016 Green Bay WI KI Convention Center 3,000 [231]
Saturday, August 6, 2016 Windham NH Windham High School 1,500 [232]
Tuesday, August 9, 2016 Fayetteville NC Crown Arena 3,000 [233]
Tuesday, August 9, 2016 Wilmington NC Trask Coliseum, University of North Carolina at Wilmington [234]
Wednesday, August 10, 2016 Sunrise FL BB&T Center [235]
Thursday, August 11, 2016 Kissimmee FL Silver Spurs Arena 8,000 [236]
Friday, August 12, 2016 Altoona PA Blair County Convention Center 5,000 [237]
Friday, August 12, 2016 Erie PA Erie Insurance Arena 8,000 [238]
Saturday, August 13, 2016 Fairfield CT William H. Pitt Center, Sacred Heart University 5,000 [239]
Tuesday, August 16, 2016 West Bend WI Ziegler Family Expo Center, Washington County Fair Park & Conference Center 2,000 [240]
Thursday, August 18, 2016 Charlotte NC Charlotte Convention Center 5,000 [241]
Friday, August 19, 2016 Dimondale MI The Summit Sports and Ice Complex 5,000 [242]
Saturday, August 20, 2016 Fredericksburg VA Fredericksburg Expo & Conference Center 3,600 [243]
Monday, August 22, 2016 Akron OH James A. Rhodes Arena, University of Akron [244]
Tuesday, August 23, 2016 Austin TX Luedecke Arena 7,000 [245]
Wednesday, August 24, 2016 Tampa FL Entertainment Hall, Florida State Fairgrounds 3,000 [246]
Wednesday, August 24, 2016 Jackson MS Mississippi Coliseum [247][248][249][250]
Thursday, August 25, 2016 Manchester NH Radisson Hotel Manchester Downtown 850 [251]
Tuesday, August 30, 2016 Everett WA Xfinity Arena [252]
Wednesday, August 31, 2016 Phoenix AZ Phoenix Convention Center 7,502 [253]
Thursday, September 1, 2016 Wilmington OH Roberts Centre 5,500 [254]
Tuesday, September 6, 2016 Greenville NC Greenville Convention Center 3,000 [255]
Friday, September 9, 2016 Pensacola FL Pensacola Bay Center 12,500 [256]
Monday, September 12, 2016 Asheville NC U.S. Cellular Center 6,000 [257]
Tuesday, September 13, 2016 Clive IA 7 Flags Event Center 1,600 [258]
Wednesday, September 14, 2016 Canton OH Canton Memorial Civic Center 6,000 [259]
Thursday, September 15, 2016 Laconia NH Laconia Middle School 600 [260][261][262]
Friday, September 16, 2016 Miami FL Knight Center Complex [263][264]
Saturday, September 17, 2016 Colorado Springs CO Colorado Jet Center, Colorado Springs Airport [265]
Monday, September 19, 2016 Estero FL Germain Arena 8,000 [266]
Tuesday, September 20, 2016 High Point NC Millis Athletic Convocation Center, High Point University 2,000 [267]
Tuesday, September 20, 2016 Kenansville NC Duplin County Events Center 6,000 [268]
Wednesday, September 21, 2016 Toledo OH Stranahan Theater [269][270]
Thursday, September 22, 2016 Chester Township PA Sun Center Studios 3,000
plus 000s
[271][272]
Saturday, September 24, 2016 Roanoke VA Berglund Center 9,000 [273]
Tuesday, September 27, 2016 Melbourne FL Orlando Melbourne International Airport [274][275]
Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Council Bluffs IA Mid-America Center 1,200 [276]
Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Waukesha WI Waukesha County Expo Center 1,500 [277]
Thursday, September 29, 2016 Bedford NH NH Sportsplex 850 [278]
Friday, September 30, 2016 Novi MI Suburban Collection Showplace 6,000 [279][280]
Saturday, October 1, 2016 Manheim PA Spooky Nook Sports 6,000 [281]
Monday, October 3, 2016 Pueblo CO Pueblo Convention Center 2,000 [282]
Monday, October 3, 2016 Loveland CO Budweiser Events Center 8,000 [282]
Tuesday, October 4, 2016 Prescott Valley AZ Prescott Valley Event Center 7,000 [283]
Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Henderson NV Henderson Pavilion 7,000 [284]
Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Reno NV Reno-Sparks Convention Center [285][286]
Monday, October 10, 2016 Ambridge PA Ambridge Area High School 3,000 [287]
Monday, October 10, 2016 Wilkes-Barre PA Mohegan Sun Arena at Casey Plaza 9,000 [288]
Tuesday, October 11, 2016 Panama City Beach FL Aaron Bessant Amphitheater, Aaron Bessant Park 8,500 [289]
Wednesday, October 12, 2016 Ocala FL Southeastern Livestock Pavilion 12,000 [290]
Wednesday, October 12, 2016 Lakeland FL Lakeland Linder Regional Airport 7,000 [291]
Thursday, October 13, 2016 West Palm Beach FL South Florida Fairgrounds Expo Center 6,000 [292]
Thursday, October 13, 2016 Cincinnati OH U.S. Bank Arena [293][294]
Friday, October 14, 2016 Greensboro NC White Oak Amphitheatre 4,000 [295]
Friday, October 14, 2016 Charlotte NC Charlotte Convention Center 5,000 [296]
Saturday, October 15, 2016 Portsmouth NH Toyota of Portsmouth 7,000 [297]
Saturday, October 15, 2016 Bangor ME Cross Insurance Center 4,000 [298]
Monday, October 17, 2016 Green Bay WI KI Convention Center 3,000 [299][300]
Tuesday, October 18, 2016 Colorado Springs CO Norris-Penrose Event Center [301][302]
Tuesday, October 18, 2016 Grand Junction CO West Star Aviation, Grand Junction Regional Airport [303][304]
Thursday, October 20, 2016 Delaware OH Delaware County Fair 1,500 [305]
Friday, October 21, 2016 Fletcher NC WNC Agricultural Center 3,100 [306]
Friday, October 21, 2016 Johnstown PA Cambria County War Memorial Arena [citation needed]
Friday, October 21, 2016 Newtown Township PA Newtown Athletic Club Sports Training Center 4,000 [307]
Saturday, October 22, 2016 Virginia Beach VA Library Plaza, Regent University 10,000 [308]
Saturday, October 22, 2016 Cleveland OH I-X Center [citation needed]
Sunday, October 23, 2016 Naples FL Collier County Fairgrounds [citation needed]
Monday, October 24, 2016 St. Augustine FL St. Augustine Amphitheatre [citation needed]
Monday, October 24, 2016 Tampa FL MidFlorida Credit Union Amphitheatre [citation needed]
Tuesday, October 25, 2016 Sanford FL Million Air Orlando, Orlando Sanford International Airport 10,000 [309]
Tuesday, October 25, 2016 Tallahassee FL Tallahassee Car Museum [citation needed]
Wednesday, October 26, 2016 Kinston NC Kinston Jet Center, Kinston Regional Jetport 3,100 [310]
Thursday, October 27, 2016 Springfield OH Clark County Fairgrounds 5,000 [311]
Thursday, October 27, 2016 Toledo OH SeaGate Convention Centre 2,850 [312]
Thursday, October 27, 2016 Geneva OH Track and Field Building, SPIRE Institute 5,000 [313]
Friday, October 28, 2016 Manchester NH Radisson Hotel Manchester Downtown [citation needed]
Friday, October 28, 2016 Lisbon ME Open Door Christian Academy 1,200 [314]
Friday, October 28, 2016 Cedar Rapids IA McGrath Amphitheatre 5,000 [315]
Saturday, October 29, 2016 Golden CO Jefferson County Events Center [citation needed]
Saturday, October 29, 2016 Phoenix AZ Phoenix Convention Center 8,000 [316]
Sunday, October 30, 2016 Las Vegas NV The Venetian Las Vegas 8,400 [317]
Sunday, October 30, 2016 Greeley CO Bank of Colorado Arena, University of Northern Colorado 3,000+ [318]
Sunday, October 30, 2016 Albuquerque NM Atlantic Aviation ABQ, Albuquerque International Sunport 4,000 [319]
Monday, October 31, 2016 Grand Rapids MI DeltaPlex Arena 6,500 [320]
Monday, October 31, 2016 Warren MI Sports & Expo Center, Macomb Community College South Campus 5,000 [321][125][126]
Tuesday, November 1, 2016 Eau Claire WI W.L. Zorn Arena 3,000 [322]
Wednesday, November 2, 2016 Orlando FL CFE Arena, Central Florida Fairgrounds 10,000 [323]
Wednesday, November 2, 2016 Pensacola FL Maritime Park’s Hunter Amphitheater 6-8,000
10,000[323]
[324][325][326]
Wednesday, November 2, 2016 Miami FL Bayfront Park 2,600 [327]
Thursday, November 3, 2016 Jacksonville FL Jacksonville Equestrian Center 4,000 [328]
Thursday, November 3, 2016 Concord NC Cabarrus Arena & Events Center 4,200 [329]
Thursday, November 3, 2016 Selma NC The Farm 15,000 [330]
Friday, November 4, 2016 Atkinson NH Atkinson Country Club 1,000 [331]
Friday, November 4, 2016 Wilmington OH Airborne Maintenance & Engineering Services, Inc 3,000 [332]
Friday, November 4, 2016 Hershey PA Giant Center 13,000 [333][334]
Saturday, November 5, 2016 Tampa FL Florida State Fairgrounds 5,000
20,000[323]
[335][336]
Saturday, November 5, 2016 Wilmington NC Wilmington International Airport 5,000 [323]
Saturday, November 5, 2016 Reno NV Reno-Sparks Convention Center 8,000 [323]
Saturday, November 5, 2016 Denver CO National Western Complex 8,000 [323]
Sunday, November 6, 2016 Sioux City IA Sioux City Convention Center 4,300
4,500 [323]
[337]
Sunday, November 6, 2016 Minneapolis MN Sun Country Airlines 9,000
20,000[323]
[338]
Sunday, November 6, 2016 Sterling Heights MI Freedom Hill Amphitheater, Freedom Hill County Park 8,000 [339][340]
Sunday, November 6, 2016 Moon Township PA Atlantic Aviation 12,000 [341]
Sunday, November 6, 2016 Leesburg VA Agricultural hall, Loudoun Fairgrounds 9,000
20,000[323]
[342][323]
Monday, November 7, 2016 Sarasota FL Robarts Arena, Sarasota County Fairgrounds 5,000 [343]
Monday, November 7, 2016 Raleigh NC Dorton Arena 7,000 [344][345]
Monday, November 7, 2016 Scranton PA Lackawanna College Student Union 5,000 [346]
Monday, November 7, 2016 Manchester NH SNHU Arena 12,000 [347]
Monday, November 7, 2016 Grand Rapids MI DeVos Place Convention Center 4,200 [348]

“USA Thank You” tour[edit source]

[349]

Des Moines, IA, 12/08/2016

Baton Rouge, LA, 12/09/2016

Hershey, PA, 12/15/2016
Victory rallies (December 2016)
Date of Rally City State Venue Estimated Visitors Source
Thursday, December 1, 2016 Cincinnati OH U.S. Bank Arena [349]
Tuesday, December 6, 2016 Fayetteville NC Crown Coliseum [350]
Thursday, December 8, 2016 Des Moines IA Iowa Events Center [351]
Friday, December 9, 2016 Baton Rouge LA Dow Chemical Hangar, Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport [352]
Friday, December 9, 2016 Grand Rapids MI DeltaPlex Arena [353]
Tuesday, December 13, 2016 West Allis WI Wisconsin Exposition Center, Wisconsin State Fair Park [354]
Thursday, December 15, 2016 Hershey PA Giant Center [355]
Friday, December 16, 2016 Orlando FL Central Florida Fairgrounds [356]
Saturday, December 17, 2016 Mobile AL Ladd-Peebles Stadium [357]

List of post election Donald Trump rallies


Thank You Tour
[edit source]This is a list of rallies held by Donald Trump after his 2016 election.

Des Moines, IA, 12/08/2016

Baton Rouge, LA, 12/09/2016

Hershey, PA, 12/15/2016

Victory rallies (December 2016)
Date of Rally City State Venue Estimated Visitors Source
Thursday, December 1, 2016 Cincinnati OH U.S. Bank Arena [1]
Tuesday, December 6, 2016 Fayetteville NC Crown Coliseum [2]
Thursday, December 8, 2016 Des Moines IA Iowa Events Center [3]
Friday, December 9, 2016 Baton Rouge LA Dow Chemical Hangar, Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport [4]
Friday, December 9, 2016 Grand Rapids MI DeltaPlex Arena [5]
Tuesday, December 13, 2016 West Allis WI Wisconsin Exposition Center, Wisconsin State Fair Park [6]
Thursday, December 15, 2016 Hershey PA Giant Center [7]
Friday, December 16, 2016 Orlando FL Central Florida Fairgrounds [8]
Saturday, December 17, 2016 Mobile AL Ladd-Peebles Stadium [9]

Post Inauguration Rallies[edit source]

Post Inauguration Rallies
Date of Rally City State Venue Estimated Visitors Source
Saturday, February 18, 2017 Melbourne FL Orlando Melbourne International Airport 9,000 [10]
Wednesday, March 15, 2017 Nashville TN Nashville Municipal Auditorium 6,500-7,000 [11]
Monday, March 20, 2017 Louisville KY Kentucky Exposition Center 18,000 [12]
Saturday, April 29, 2017 Harrisburg PA Pennsylvania Farm Show Complex & Expo Center TBD [13]

Immigration policy of Donald Trump

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Illegal immigration was a signature issue of US President Donald Trump‘s presidential campaign, and his proposed reforms and remarks about this issue generated much publicity.[1] A hallmark promise of his campaign was to build a substantial wall on the United States-Mexico border. Trump has also expressed support for a variety of “limits on legal immigration and guest-worker visas”,[1][2] including a “pause” on granting green cards, which Trump says will “allow record immigration levels to subside to more moderate historical averages”.[3][4][5] Trump’s proposals regarding H-1B visas frequently changed throughout his presidential campaign, but as of late July 2016, he appears to oppose the H-1B visa program.[6] Trump has questioned official estimates of the number of undocumented immigrants in the United States (between 11 and 12 million), insisting the number is much higher (between 30 and 34 million).

Positions on immigration[edit source]

Trump has questioned official estimates of the number of undocumented immigrants in the United States (between 11 and 12 million), asserting that the number is actually between 30 and 34 million.[7] PolitiFact ruled that his statement was “Pants on Fire”, citing experts who noted that no evidence supported an estimate in that range.[7] For example, the Pew Research Center reported in March 2015 that the number of undocumented immigrants overall declined from 12.2 million in 2007 to 11.2 million in 2012. The number of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. labor force ranged from 8.1 million to 8.3 million between 2007 and 2012, approximately 5% of the U.S. labor force.[8]

Birthright citizenship[edit source]

Trump proposes rolling back birthright citizenship – a historically broadened interpretation of the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment that all persons born on U.S. soil are citizens – so as not to grant citizenship to US-born children of undocumented immigrants (whom he refers to as “anchor babies“). The mainstream view of the Fourteenth Amendment among legal experts is that everyone born on U.S. soil, regardless of parents’ citizenship, is automatically an American citizen.[9][10]

Kate’s Law[edit source]

Trump during his campaign promised to ask Congress to pass Kate’s Law to ensure that criminal aliens convicted of undocumented reentry receive strong, mandatory minimum sentences. The law is named after Kate Steinle who was allegedly shot and killed in July 2015 by Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez, who was deported by the US a total of five times.[11]

A Senate version of the bill was previously introduced by Ted Cruz in July 2016 and was filibustered by the senate.[12][13][14][15]

Border security[edit source]

Trump has emphasized U.S. border security and undocumented immigration to the United States as a campaign issue.[16][17] During his announcement speech he stated in part, “When Mexico sends its people, they’re not sending their best. They’re not sending you. They’re sending people that have lots of problems, and they’re bringing those problems…. They’re bringing drugs. They’re bringing crime. They’re rapists. And some, I assume, are good people.”[18] On July 6, 2015, Trump issued a written statement[19] to clarify his position on undocumented immigration, which drew a reaction from critics. It read in part:

The Mexican Government is forcing their most unwanted people into the United States. They are, in many cases, criminals, drug dealers, rapists, etc. This was evident just this week when, as an example, a young woman in San Francisco was viciously killed by a 5-time deported Mexican with a long criminal record, who was forced back into the United States because they didn’t want him in Mexico. This is merely one of thousands of similar incidents throughout the United States. In other words, the worst elements in Mexico are being pushed into the United States by the Mexican government. The largest suppliers of heroin, cocaine and other illicit drugs are Mexican cartels that arrange to have Mexican immigrants trying to cross the borders and smuggle in the drugs. The Border Patrol knows this. Likewise, tremendous infectious disease is pouring across the border. The United States has become a dumping ground for Mexico and, in fact, for many other parts of the world. On the other hand, many fabulous people come in from Mexico and our country is better for it. But these people are here legally, and are severely hurt by those coming in illegally. I am proud to say that I know many hard working Mexicans—many of them are working for and with me … and, just like our country, my organization is better for it.”[20]

A study published in Social Science Quarterly in May 2016 tested Trump’s claim that immigrants are responsible for higher levels of violent and drug-related crime in the United States.[21] It found no evidence that links Mexican or undocumented Mexican immigrants specifically to violent or drug-related crime.[21] It did however find a small but significant association between undocumented immigrant populations (including non-Mexican undocumented immigrants) and drug-related arrests.[21]

In addition to his proposals to construct a border wall (see below), Trump has called for tripling the number of Border Patrol agents.[22]

U.S.–Mexico border wall proposal[edit source]

Trump speaking about his immigration policy in Phoenix, Arizona, August 31, 2016.

Trump has repeatedly pledged to build a wall along the U.S.’s southern border, and has said that Mexico would pay for its construction through increased border-crossing fees and NAFTA tariffs.[23] In his speech announcing his candidacy, Trump pledged to “build a great, great wall on our southern border. And I will have Mexico pay for that wall. Mark my words.”[24][25] Trump also said “nobody builds walls better than me, believe me, and I’ll build them very inexpensively.”[25] The concept for building a barrier to keep undocumented immigrants out of the U.S. is not new; 670 miles of fencing (about one-third of the border) was erected under the Secure Fence Act of 2006, at a cost of $2.4 billion.[25] Trump said later that his proposed wall would be “a real wall. Not a toy wall like we have now.”[26] In his 2015 book, Trump cites the Israeli West Bank barrier as a successful example of a border wall.[27] “Trump has at times suggested building a wall across the nearly 2,000-mile border and at other times indicated more selective placement.”[28] After a meeting with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto on August 31, 2016, Trump said that they “didn’t discuss” who would pay for the border wall that Trump has made a centerpiece of his presidential campaign.[29] Nieto contradicted that later that day, saying that he at the start of the meeting “made it clear that Mexico will not pay for the wall”.[30] Later that day, Trump reiterated his position that Mexico will pay to build an “impenetrable” wall on the Southern border.[31]

John Cassidy of The New Yorker wrote that Trump is “the latest representative of an anti-immigrant, nativist American tradition that dates back at least to the Know-Nothings” of the 1840s and 1850s.[32] Trump says “it was legal immigrants who made America great,”[33] that the Latinos who have worked for him have been “unbelievable people”, and that he wants a wall between the U.S. and Mexico to have a “big, beautiful door” for people to come legally and feel welcomed in the United States.[34]

According to experts and analyses, the actual cost to construct a wall along the remaining 1,300 miles of the border could be as high as $16 million per mile, with a total cost of up to $25 billion, with the cost of private land acquisitions and fence maintenance pushing up the total cost further.[28] Maintenance of the wall could cost up to $750 million a year, and if the Border Patrol agents were to patrol the wall, additional funds would have to be expended.[28] Rough and remote terrain on many parts of the border, such as deserts and mountains, would make construction and maintenance of a wall expensive, and such terrain may be a greater deterrent than a wall in any case.[28] Experts also note that on federally protected wilderness areas and Native American reservations, the Department of Homeland Security may have only limited construction authority, and a wall could cause environmental damage.[28]

Despite campaign promises to Build a full Wall, Trump later stated that he favors putting up some fences.[35]

In February 2017, Reuters reported that an internal report by the Department of Homeland Security estimated that Trump’s proposed border wall would cost $21.6 billion and take 3.5 years to build. This estimate is far higher than estimates by Trump during the campaign ($12 billion) and the $15-billion estimate from Republican House Speaker Paul Ryan and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell.[36]

Critics of Trump’s plan question whether a wall would be effective at stopping unauthorized crossings, noting that walls are of limited use unless they are patrolled by agents and to intercept those climbing over or tunneling under the wall.[28] Experts also note that approximately half of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. did not surreptitiously enter, but rather “entered through official crossing points, either by overstaying visas, using fraudulent documents, or being smuggled past the border”.[28]

Mass deportation of undocumented immigrants[edit source]

Foreign born in US labor-force 1900-2015. Approximately 8 million of the foreign-born in the labor force were undocumented immigrants in 2012.

In August 2015, during his campaign, Trump proposed the mass deportation of undocumented immigrants as part of his immigration policy.[37][38][39] During his first town hall campaign meeting in Derry, New Hampshire, Trump said that if he were to win the election, then on “[d]ay 1 of my presidency, undocumented immigrants are getting out and getting out fast”.[40]

Trump has proposed a “Deportation Force” to carry out this plan, modeled after the 1950s-era “Operation Wetback” program during the Eisenhower administration that ended following a congressional investigation.[38][39][41] Historian Mae Ngai of Columbia University, who has studied the program, has said that the military-style operation was both inhumane and ineffective.[39][41]

According to analysts, Trump’s mass-deportation plan would encounter legal and logistical difficulties, since U.S. immigration courts already face large backlogs.[38] Such a program would also impose a fiscal cost; the fiscally conservative American Action Forum policy group estimates that deporting every undocumented immigrant would cause a slump of $381.5 billion to $623.2 billion in private sector output, amounting to roughly a loss of 2% of U.S. GDP.[42] Doug Holtz-Eakin, the group’s president, has said that the mass deportation of 11 million people would “harm the economy in ways it would normally not be harmed”.[38]

In June 2016, Trump stated on Twitter that “I have never liked the media term ‘mass deportation’—but we must enforce the laws of the land!”[43][44] Later in June, Trump stated that he would not characterize his immigration policies as including “mass deportations”.[45] However, on August 31, 2016, contrary to earlier reports of a “softening” in his stance,[23][46][47] Trump laid out a 10-step plan reaffirming his hardline positions. He reiterated that all undocumented immigrants are “subject to deportation” with priority given to undocumented immigrants who have committed significant crimes and those who have overstayed visas. He noted that all those seeking legalization would have to go home and re-enter the country legally.[31][48]

Proposed Muslim immigration ban[edit source]

Trump frequently revised proposals to ban Muslim immigration to the United States in the course of his presidential campaign.[6] In late July 2016, NBC News characterized his position as: “Ban all Muslims, and maybe other people from countries with a history of terrorism, but just don’t say ‘Muslims’.”[6] (Rudy Giuliani said on Fox News that Trump tasked him to craft a “Muslim ban” and asked Giuliani to form a committee to show him “the right way to do it legally”.[49][50] The committee, which included former U.S. Attorney General and Chief Judge of the Southern District of New York Michael Mukasey, and Reps. Mike McCaul and Peter T. King, decided to drop the religious basis and instead focused on regions where Giuliani says that there is “substantial evidence that people are sending terrorists” to the United States.[50])

In December 2015, Trump proposed a temporary ban on foreign Muslims entering the United States (the U.S. admits approximately 100,000 Muslim immigrants each year)[51]“until we can figure out what’s going on”.[52][53][54][55] In response to the 2015 San Bernardino shooting, Trump released a statement on “Preventing Muslim Immigration” and called for “a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country’s representatives can figure out what the hell is going on”.[56] In a December 2015 interview, the host Willie Geist repeatedly questioned Trump if airline representatives, customs agents or border guards would ask a person’s religion. Trump responded that they would and if the person said they were Muslim, they will be denied entry into the country.[57]

Trump cited President Franklin Delano Roosevelt‘s use during World War II of the Alien and Sedition Acts to issue presidential proclamations for rounding up, holding, and deporting German, Japanese, and Italian alien immigrants, and noted that Roosevelt was highly respected and had highways named after him.[58][59][60][61] Trump stated that he did not agree with Roosevelt’s internment of Japanese Americans, and clarified that the proposal would not apply to Muslims who were U.S. citizens or to Muslims who were serving in the U.S. military.[62][63]

In May 2016, Trump retreated slightly from his call for a Muslim ban, calling it “merely an idea, not a proposal”.[64] On June 13, 2016, he reformulated the ban so that it would be geographical, not religious, applying to “areas of the world where there is a proven history of terrorism against the United States, Europe or our allies”.[64][65] Two hours later, he claimed that ban was only for nations “tied to Islamic terror”.[64] In June 2016, he also stated that he would allow Muslims from allies like the United Kingdom to enter the United States.[64] In May 2016, Trump said “There will always be exceptions” to the ban, when asked how the ban would apply to London’s newly elected mayor Sadiq Khan.[66] A spokesman for Sadiq Khan said in response that Trump’s views were “ignorant, divisive and dangerous” and play into the hands of extremists.[67]

In June 2016, Trump expanded his proposed ban on Muslim immigration to the United States to cover immigration from areas with a history of terrorism.[68] Specifically, Trump stated, “When I am elected, I will suspend immigration from areas of the world when there is a proven history of terrorism against the United States, Europe, or our allies, until we understand how to end these threats.”[68] According to lawyers and legal scholars cited in a New York Times report, the president has the power to carry out the plan but it would take an ambitious and likely time-consuming bureaucratic effort, and make sweeping use of executive authority.[69] Immigration analysts also noted that the implementation of Trump’s plan could “prompt a wave of retaliation against American citizens traveling and living abroad”.[69] In July 2016, Trump described his proposal as encompassing “any nation that has been compromised by terrorism”.[70] Trump later referred to the reformulation as “extreme vetting”.[71]

When asked in July 2016 about his proposal to restrict immigration from areas with high levels of terrorism, Trump insisted that it was not a “rollback” of his initial proposal to ban all Muslim immigrants.[72] He said, “In fact, you could say it’s an expansion. I’m looking now at territory.”[72] When asked if his new proposal meant that there would be greater checks on immigration from countries that have been compromised by terrorism, such as France, Germany and Spain, Trump answered, “It’s their own fault, because they’ve allowed people over years to come into their territory.”[73][74]

On August 15, 2016, Trump suggested that “extreme views” would be grounds to be thrown out of the U.S., saying he would deport Seddique Mateen, the father of Omar Mateen (the gunman in the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting), who has expressed support for the Taliban.[75][76][77] On 31 August, during a speech in Phoenix, Trump said he would form a commission to study which regions or countries he would suspend immigration from, noting that Syria and Libya would be high on that list.[78][79][80] Jeff Sessions an advisor to Trump’s campaign on immigration at the time said the Trump campaign’s plan was “the best laid out law enforcement plan to fix this country’s immigration system that’s been stated in this country maybe forever”.[81] During confirmation-hearing testimony, he acknowledged supporting vetting based on “areas where we have an unusually high risk of terrorists coming in”; Sessions acknowledged the DOJ would need to evaluate such a plan if it were outside the “Constitutional order.”[82]

Other proposals[edit source]

Trump has proposed making it more difficult for asylum-seekers and refugees to enter the United States, and making the e-Verify system mandatory for employers.[22]

Syrian refugees[edit source]

Trump has on several occasions expressed opposition to allowing Syrian refugees into the U.S.—saying they could be the “ultimate Trojan horse[83]—and has proposed deporting back to Syria refugees settled in the U.S.[84][85] By September 2015, Trump had expressed support for taking in some Syrian refugees[84][86] and praised Germany’s decision to take in Syrian refugees.[87]

On a number of occasions in 2015, Trump asserted that “If you’re from Syria and you’re a Christian, you cannot come into this country, and they’re the ones that are being decimated. If you are Islamic … it’s hard to believe, you can come in so easily.” PolitiFact rated Trump’s claim as “false” and found it to be “wrong on its face”, citing the fact that 3 percent of the refugees from Syria have been Christian (although they represent 10 percent of the Syrian population) and finding that the U.S. government is not discriminating against Christians as a matter of official policy.[88]

In May 2016 interview with Bill O’Reilly, Trump stated “Look, we are at war with these people and they don’t wear uniforms….. This is a war against people that are vicious, violent people, that we have no idea who they are, where they come from. We are allowing tens of thousands of them into our country now.” Politifact ruled this statement “pants on fire”, stating that the U.S. is on track to accept 100,000 refugees in 2017, but there is no evidence that tens of thousands of them are terrorists.[89]

Executive actions[edit source]

Travel ban and refugee suspension[edit source]

On January 27, 2017, Trump signed an executive order (Number 13769), titled “Protecting the Nation From Terrorist Attacks by Foreign Nationals“, that suspended entry for citizens of seven countries for 90 days: Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen, totaling more than 134 million people.[90] The order also stopped the admission of refugees of the Syrian Civil War indefinitely, and the entry of all refugees to the United States for 120 days.[91] Refugees who were on their way to the United States when the order was signed were stopped and detained at airports.[92]

Implicated by this order is 8 U.S.C. Sec. 1182 “Whenever the President finds that the entry of any aliens or of any class of aliens into the United States would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, he may by proclamation, and for such period as he shall deem necessary, suspend the entry of all aliens or any class of aliens as immigrants or nonimmigrants, or impose on the entry of aliens any restrictions he may deem to be appropriate.” 8 U.S. Code § 1182 (Section 212(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952).

Critics argue that Congress later restricted this power in 1965, stating plainly that no person could be “discriminated against in the issuance of an immigrant visa because of the person’s race, sex, nationality, place of birth or place of residence.” (8 U.S. Code § 1152) The only exceptions are those provided for by Congress (such as the preference for Cuban asylum seekers).[93]

Many legal challenges to the order were brought immediately after its issuance: from January 28 to January 31, almost 50 cases were filed in federal courts.[94] Some courts, in turn, granted temporary relief, including a nationwide temporary restraining order (TRO) that bars the enforcement of major parts of the executive order.[95][96] The Trump administration is appealing the TRO.[96]

Increased immigration enforcement[edit source]

On January 25, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13768 which, among other things, significantly increased the number of immigrants considered a priority for deportation. Previously, under Obama, an immigrant ruled removable would only be considered a priority to actually be physically deported if they, in addition to being removable, were convicted of serious crimes such as felonies or multiple misdemeanors. Under the Trump administration, such an immigrant can be considered a priority to be removed even if convicted only of minor crimes, or even if merely accused of such criminal activity.[97] Guadalupe Garcia de Rayos, who came undocumented to the United States when she was 14, may have become the first person deported under the terms of this order on February 9, 2017. Garcia de Rayos had previously been convicted of felony criminal impersonation related to her use of a falsified Social Security card to work at an Arizona water park. This conviction had not been considered serious enough, under Obama, to actually remove her from the country, although she was required to check in regularly with ICE officials, which she had done regularly since 2008. The first time she checked in with ICE officials after the new executive order took effect, however, led to her detention and physical removal from the country. Greg Stanton, the Mayor of Phoenix commented that “Rather than tracking down violent criminals and drug dealers, ICE is spending its energy deporting a woman with two American children who has lived here for more than two decades and poses a threat to nobody.”[98] ICE officials said that her case went through multiple reviews in the immigration court system and that the “judges held she did not have a legal basis to remain in the US”.[99]

The Washington Post reported on 10 February 2017 that federal agents had begun to conduct sweeping immigration enforcement raids in at least six states.[100]

Federal Reserve officials have warned that Trump’s immigration restrictions will likely have an adverse impact on the economy. Immigration is a core component of economic growth, they have said.[101]

Revised travel ban and refugee suspension[edit source]

On March 6, 2017, Trump signed a revised executive order, that, among other differences with the original order, excluded Iraq, visa-holders, and permanent residents from the temporary suspension and did not differentiate Syrian refugees from refugees from other countries.[102]

Comey memos

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Comey memos are memoranda of conversations written by James Comey, the former Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). They document conversations between Comey and President Donald Trump. At least one of them documents an alleged attempt by Trump to persuade Comey to abort the FBI investigation into Lieutenant General Michael Flynn, who had resigned his post as national security advisor the previous day, after he misled senior U.S. officials “about the nature of his conversations” with Russian ambassador Sergei Kislyak.[1][2][3][4][5] The White House responded to the allegations by stating that “the president has never asked Mr. Comey or anyone else to end any investigation, including any investigation involving General Flynn”.[3]

According to a Comey associate, Trump also stated that Comey should consider putting reporters who publish classified information in prison.[6] These memos were first publicly discussed about one week after the dismissal of James Comey as FBI Director.

One day after the existence of the memos was reported by The New York Times, the Justice Department appointed former FBI director Robert Mueller as special counsel,[7] charged with overseeing the FBI’s ongoing counterintelligence investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.[8]

Contents and creation

Comey’s official portrait as the seventh Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

According to anonymous sources, Director Comey would record a detailed memo immediately following every meeting and telephone call he had with President Donald Trump.[2][9] Allegedly, some memos were classified, while others were not.[2]

One memo, which is unclassified, referred to a February 14, 2017, Oval Office meeting between Comey and Trump that began as a broader national security briefing. The meeting was the day after the dismissal of Michael Flynn by Trump. Near the conclusion of the briefing, according to this alleged memo, the President asked those in attendance other than Director Comey to leave the room – including Vice President Mike Pence and Attorney General Jeff Sessions. He then reportedly stated to Comey “I hope you can see your way clear to letting this go, to letting Flynn go. He is a good guy. I hope you can let this go.”[2] Comey made no commitments to Trump on the subject.[2]

The New York Times reported that the memos were created as part of a “paper trail” created by Comey to document “what he perceived as the president’s improper efforts to influence a continuing investigation”.[2] Comey shared the memo with “a very small circle of people at the FBI and Justice Department“.[1] Comey and other senior FBI officials perceived Trump’s remarks “as an effort to influence the investigation, but they decided that they would try to keep the conversation secret — even from the FBI agents working on the Russia investigation — so the details of the conversation would not affect the investigation”.[2]

The Washington Post reported that two Comey associates who had seen Comey’s memo described it as two pages long and highly detailed.[1]The Times noted that contemporaneous notes created by FBI agents are frequently relied upon “in court as credible evidence of conversations”.[2]

According to a Washington Post report, the memos also document Trump’s criticism of the FBI for not pursuing leakers in the administration and his wish “to see reporters in jail”.[1] The report outraged journalists and free-speech groups, who likened the statement to intimidation tactics used by authoritarian regimes. The Committee to Protect Journalists and Washington Post executive editor Martin Baron were among those who criticized the statement.[10]

Initial report and White House response

The memos’ existence was first reported in a May 16, 2017, New York Times report, published several days after Trump fired Comey as FBI director; the report cited two people who read the memos.[2] The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post independently reported on the memos’ existence.[3][1] The reports also came just a day after news of the Donald Trump revelation of classified information to Russia.[3]

Following news reports of the memos’ existence, the White House stated that “the president has never asked Mr. Comey or anyone else to end any investigation, including any investigation involving General Flynn” and stated “This is not a truthful or accurate portrayal of the conversation between the president and Mr. Comey.”[3]

United States Congress reaction

Fox News host Bret Baier said that no Republicans were “willing to go on camera” after reports on the memos were published. Charles Krauthammer, a regular panelist on Baier’s show, said, “What I think is really stunning is that nobody, not even from the White House, has come out under their own name in defense of the president here. We don’t see any Republicans on camera. And that is totally understandable. They’ve just watched over the last ten days, people who went out on a limb on the Comey firing, and said it was the result of the memo from the deputy Attorney General, and had their limb sawed off by Donald Trump himself without a flinch.”[11][12] The following day, CBS This Morning co-host Charlie Rose said the show had contacted 20 Republican senators and representatives as well as White House representatives to appear on the show and all declined.[13] Republicans also declined invitations from Chris Hayes to appear on MSNBC.[13]

U.S. House

House Oversight Committee

Jason Chaffetz letter to FBI over Comey Memo

Republican U.S. Representative Jason Chaffetz, the chairman of the House Oversight Committee, wrote a letter to acting FBI Director, requesting that “all memoranda, notes, summaries and recordings referring or relating to any communications between Comey and the President” be provided to the committee by May 24.[14][15] Chaffetz wrote in the letter that the reports “raise questions as to whether the president attempted to influence or impede” the Flynn investigation.[14][15] Chaffetz said that he intended to obtain the memos by subpoena if necessary.[14] House Speaker Paul Ryan supported Chaffetz’s request.[16]

House Intelligence Committee

Democratic U.S. Representative Adam Schiff, the ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee, stated: “If true, this is yet another disturbing allegation that the president may have engaged in some interference or obstruction of the investigation.”[1]

U.S. Senate

Senate Intelligence Committee

News of the Comey memos furthered talk of potential efforts to impeach Trump. When CNN‘s Wolf Blitzer asked independent Senator Angus King of Maine whether, if Trump had in fact asked Comey to end the investigation, the country would be “getting closer and closer to the possibility of yet another impeachment process”, King replied: “Reluctantly … I have to say yes simply because obstruction of justice is such a serious offense.”[17]

On May 17, 2017, the Senate Intelligence Committee, led by Republican chairman Richard Burr and Democratic vice chairman Mark Warner, sent two letters seeking information related to the committee’s ongoing investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. The first letter, sent to Comey, asked him to appear before the committee in both open and closed sessions. The second, sent to acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe, asked for “any notes or memorandum prepared by the former Director regarding any communications he may have had with senior White House and Department of Justice officials related to investigations into Russia’s efforts.”[18][19]

Senate Judiciary Committee

On May 17, 2017, the Senate Judiciary Committee, in a letter signed by Republican Senators Chuck Grassley and Lindsey Graham, and Democratic Senators Dianne Feinstein and Sheldon Whitehouse, also requested records from FBI, seeking “all memos relating to former FBI Director Comey’s interactions with his superiors in both the Trump and Obama administrations” to be furnished by May 24.[20][21]

Special Counsel

Appointment of Special Counsel to investigate Russian interference with the 2016 presidential election and related matters

One day after the existence of the memos was reported by The New York Times, the Justice Department appointed former FBI director Robert Mueller as special counsel, charged with overseeing the FBI’s ongoing counterintelligence investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.[22][8]

Legal analysis

Legal experts are divided as to whether Trump’s alleged request that Comey end the investigation can be considered obstruction of justice.[23] Jens David Ohlin of Cornell University Law School and Jonathan Turley of George Washington University have argued that the request does not neatly fit into any of the practices commonly considered obstruction of justice.[24] Michael Gerhardt of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Julie O’Sullivan of the Georgetown University Law Center argued that it is hard to prove that Trump had an intent to obstruct the investigation.[25] Harvard law professor Alan Dershowitz said that “it’s a very, very high bar to get over obstruction of justice for a president.”[26] Harvard law professor Jack Goldsmith noted that it was implausible to indict a sitting president, noting that “the remedy for a criminal violation would be impeachment” instead.[27] Erwin Chereminsky of University of California, Irvine School of Law, have argued that it was obstruction of justice.[28] Noah Feldman of Harvard University noted that the alleged request could be grounds for impeechment.[29] University of Texas law professor Stephen Vladeck said that it was reasonable for people to “start talking about obstruction”.[27] Harvard law professor Alex Whiting said that Trump’s actions were “very close to obstruction of justice… but still isn’t conclusive”.[30] Christopher Slobogin of Vanderbilt University Law School said that a “viable case” could be made but that it was weak.[28]John Dean, former White House Counsel to Richard Nixon, called the memo about the private conversation with President Trump concerning the Flynn investigation a “smoking gun” and noted that “good intentions do not erase criminal intent”.[31]

Several Republican politicians and conservative journalists have asserted that Comey could be subject to legal jeopardy over his withholding the memos.[32] Legal experts have criticized these assertions, with Harvard Law School professor emeritus Alan Dershowitz saying they are “total nonsense” and University of Texas School of Law professor Robert M. Chesney saying they are “completely uninformed”.[32]

Dismissal of James Comey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Letter from President Donald Trump dismissing FBI director James Comey.

In the termination letter, Trump wrote that Comey had told him on three separate occasions that he was not under investigation.[5] According to The Washington Post, sources knowledgeable about the matter stated that this and other assertions Trump made about events leading up to the dismissal were false,[6][7] and Trump subsequently implied that he may have the conversations with Comey on tape.[8]James Comey, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), was dismissed by U.S. President Donald Trump on May 9, 2017.[1][2] Comey had been under public and political pressure resulting from both the FBI‘s role in the Hillary Clinton email controversy, as well as the FBI’s investigation of alleged Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, including possible collusion with the 2016 Donald Trump campaign.[3][4]

In the immediate aftermath, the White House said Trump had been considering the dismissal since the election, had experienced an “erosion of confidence” because Comey was “not doing a good job”, pointed to Comey’s recent congressional testimony as problematic, and also based the firing partly on advice from the United States Department of Justice alleging that Comey had mishandled the investigation into Hillary Clinton’s use of a private email server.[9] These justifications were criticized by some Democrats and political commentators, citing Trump’s earlier praise of Comey’s decision to re-open the email investigation eleven days before the November 8, 2016, presidential election and Trump’s own remarks about Clinton during the campaign. Later, Trump sought to further explain his decision to dismiss Comey, saying that Comey was a “showboat” and “grandstander“, while Trump also indicated that the dismissal was connected to dissatisfaction with the counterintelligence investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election.[10] Trump stated, “When I decided [to fire Comey], I said to myself, I said, ‘You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made up story, it’s an excuse by the Democrats for having lost an election that they should have won.'”[10]

According to Comey associates interviewed by The New York Times, Associated Press, and CBS News, Trump had asked Comey in January to pledge his loyalty to him. Comey declined to make this pledge, saying that he would give him “honesty.[11][12][13] Trump denied that he asked Comey for his loyalty, but says such a discussion would not necessarily have been inappropriate.[14] Several sources within the FBI have stated that the White House’s firing of Comey was a culmination of high-level efforts to interfere in the Russia investigation.[15] Appearing before Congress two days after the dismissal, Acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe testified: “There has been no effort to impede our investigation to date”.[16] Comey has indicated he is willing to testify about his dismissal in an open hearing.[17] He declined an invitation from the Senate Intelligence Committee to testify before a closed-door session.[17]

On May 16, 2017, the New York Times reported on the existence of a memo written by Comey in February after a conversation with Trump, in which the FBI director described Trump’s request that the FBI shut down the investigation into Trump associate Michael T. Flynn, who had resigned as National Security Adviser the previous day. The White House responded that “the president has never asked Mr. Comey or anyone else to end any investigation, including any investigation involving General Flynn”.[18]

Comey’s termination was controversial, with some comparing it to President Richard Nixon‘s termination of Watergatespecial prosecutor Archibald Cox in the 1973 Saturday Night Massacre,[19][20][21] and others disputing that comparison.[22]Criticism of Trump’s decision came immediately from various experts on governance and authoritarianism,[23][24][25][26] and various politicians from across the political spectrum.[4][27][28] Top Republican politicians supported the firing.[29] Many elected officials called for a special prosecutor or independent commission to continue the investigation into Russia’s influence on the election,[28] while some Republicans stated that such a move would be premature.[29]

Timeline[edit]

Background[edit]

President Barack Obama (right) and Comey (left) in the Rose Garden of the White House, June 21, 2013, as Obama announced Comey’s nomination as FBI Director.

Since a 1976 amendment to the 1968 Omnibus Crime Control Act,[30][31] the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is appointed to a ten-year term, “an unusually long tenure that Congress established to insulate the director from political pressure.”[32] During his tenure as FBI director, Comey emphasized the need for the FBI to be independent from politics and avoid the “political winds”.[33]

Nevertheless, though the FBI director is appointed for a 10-year term, the president has the power to dismiss an FBI director for any reason, including no reason. However, Trump’s dismissal of Comey raised the issue of possible political interference by a sitting president into an existing investigation by a leading law enforcement agency,[32][30] as well as other issues. Although presidents have occasionally clashed with FBI directors,[30] Comey’s dismissal was only the second time that a president has dismissed an FBI director.[32][30] The only other occasion was under “dramatically different circumstances”:[34] in 1993 President Bill Clinton fired FBI Director William S. Sessions after a Justice Department Office of Professional Responsibility report—published under Clinton’s predecessor, George H. W. Bush—accused Sessions of tax evasion and other ethical lapses.[35][36]

Comey’s tenure[edit]

Before becoming FBI director, Comey, a Republican, served in the George W. Bush administration as deputy attorney general.[37][38] He was appointed FBI director by President Barack Obama, and that nomination drew broad bipartisan support.[37][38] Comey was confirmed by the Senate in 2013 by vote of 93-1.[39] At the time of his firing in May 2017, Comey was four years into his ten-year term as FBI director.[32]

Comey sought to insulate the FBI from politics, but beginning in 2015 the Bureau became embroiled in investigation that affected the 2016 presidential election.[38] In March 2015, it came to light that presidential candidate Hillary Clinton had used a private e-mail server for her work as Secretary of State under President Barack Obama. The FBI launched an investigation to determine whether Clinton had violated the law and whether national security had been breached. In July 2016 FBI Director James Comey announced that he was not recommending that any charges be brought against Clinton. The decision was decried by Republican leaders and candidates, including then-presidential candidate Donald Trump. In late October 2016, Comey announced that the investigation was being re-opened because of additional documents that had been obtained. Two weeks later he announced that no new information had been discovered and the investigation was again being closed.[40] The announcement of the re-opened investigation was seen by many observers as unnecessary and harmful to Clinton’s campaign. Others complained because the second investigation did not yield a prosecution.

On October 7, 2016,[41] the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) jointly stated that individuals working on behalf of the Russian government had hacked servers and e-mail accounts associated with the Democratic Party and the Hillary Clinton campaign and leaked their documents to WikiLeaks.[42] This would be confirmed by numerous private security experts and other government officials. The FBI launched investigations into both the hackings, and contacts between Trump associates and Russia.

In January 2017, Comey testified to Congress confirming Russia’s alleged interference in the U.S. election and confirmed an ongoing investigation although he refused to comment specifically on the Trump organization. President-elect Trump stated his intention to keep Comey as the FBI director. In March, Comey finally confirmed that the FBI was investigating links between the Trump campaign and Russia. He also refuted Trump’s allegations that the Obama administration had wiretapped him.[40]

During the weeks leading up to May 9, grand jury subpoenas were issued by the U.S. Attorney’s Office in Alexandria, Virginia, to associates of Michael Flynn for the purpose of obtaining records relating to the investigation of Russia’s role in the election. News outlets became aware of these subpoenas on May 9.[43][44]

In May, Comey gave additional testimony before the Senate regarding the Clinton e-mail probe and the Russia investigations.[40] News media reported that Comey requested additional personnel from Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein to expand the probe into Russian interference into the presidential election,[45] but this was later denied by Andrew McCabe during his testimony to Congress on May 11.

Termination letter[edit]

Comey’s official portrait as the seventh Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

On May 9, 2017, President Trump sent a termination letter to James Comey:

Dear Director Comey:

I have received the attached letters from the Attorney General and Deputy Attorney General of the United States recommending your dismissal as the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. I have accepted their recommendation and you are hereby terminated and removed from office, effective immediately.

While I greatly appreciate you informing me, on three separate occasions, that I am not under investigation, I nevertheless concur with the judgment of the Department of Justice that you are not able to effectively lead the Bureau.

It is essential that we find new leadership that restores public trust and confidence in its vital law enforcement mission.

I wish you the best of luck in your future endeavors.

— Donald J. Trump

Reasons for dismissal[edit]

On May 8, 2017, Trump directed Attorney General Sessions and Deputy Attorney General Rosenstein to make a case against Comey in writing. Sessions and Rosenstein delivered their “recommendations” to Trump the following day, and Trump then formally dismissed Comey, saying he was doing so on their recommendation[46][47][6] — although Trump said on May 11 that he would have fired Comey irrespective of any recommendation from the Justice Department.[48]

Letter from Atty. General Sessions

Opinion from Deputy Atty. Gen. Rosenstein, page 1/3

Opinion from Deputy Atty. Gen. Rosenstein, page 2/3

Opinion from Deputy Atty. Gen. Rosenstein, page 3/3

In Rosenstein’s memorandum, he criticized Comey on two grounds: for usurping the prerogative of the Justice Department and the Attorney General in his July 2016 public statements announcing the closure of the investigation into Clinton’s emails, and for making derogatory comments about Clinton in that same meeting.[49] Both of these actions, he argued, were in conflict with longstanding FBI practice. Comey had previously defended his extraordinary action, saying that Attorney General Loretta Lynch had a conflict of interest, but Rosenstein argued that in such a case, it is the duty of the Attorney General to recuse herself, and that there is a process for another Justice Department official to take over her duties.[50] In the dismissal letter, Trump cited the recommendations by Sessions and Rosenstein as the reason for Comey’s dismissal. Sessions, in his letter to Trump, also cited Rosenstein’s memo as the reason for his own recommendation.

It was noted that Sessions made the recommendation despite the fact that he had in March 2017 recused himself from anything to do with the investigation into ties between Trump’s team and Russia, as well as from the Clinton email controversy. Senator Al Franken called Sessions’ actions a “complete betrayal” of his promise to recuse.[51]

On May 9, a statement by the White House claimed that Comey “lost the support” of “rank and file” FBI employees, saying that the President had no choice but to dismiss him.[52] However, FBI agents “flatly rejected” this assertion,[53] saying that Comey was in fact relatively well-liked and admired within FBI.[54] In testimony given to the Senate Intelligence Committee on May 11, acting FBI Director Andrew McCabe contradicted the White House’s claim that Comey had lost the confidence of the FBI rank-and-file.[55]

Observers were suspicious of the timing of the dismissal, which occurred just a few days after Comey reportedly requested additional resources to step up the Russia investigation; however the Justice Department denied that such a request was made.[56][57][45] In an interview with Lester Holt of NBC News, Trump contradicted other statements from White House officials, by stating that he fired Comey due also to how he was handling the Russia investigation, while saying that there was no proof Russia was behind any election interference.[58][59] Generally speaking, the timing of the dismissal was a main point of contention given the ongoing Russia investigation, whereas Comey’s suitabilty for the job was not as great an issue as the timing; many Democrats had previously called for Comey’s resignation or doubted his credibility.[60][61][62][63][64]

Media reports cast doubt on the justification for Comey’s dismissal. In a report based on anonymous interviews with White House staff, CNN reported that Trump’s decision to fire Comey had been made first, with Sessions’ and Rosenstein’s letters being drafted to justify the decision.[65] According to an anonymous source who spoke to The Washington Post, they were instructed to do so by Trump on May 8. The same source also said that Rosenstein had threatened to resign after his letter was cited as the primary reason for Comey’s dismissal.[66] Other media noted the disconnect between the dismissal and Trump’s praise of Comey’s actions in the campaign and throughout his presidency until a week beforehand.[67]

The reason for the dismissal has been disputed, with insider sources claiming that Trump was furious at Comey for refusing to back up his wiretap accusations against former President Barack Obama, as well as not defending him from accusations of collusion with the Russian government.[68][69] According to sources, during a private dinner in January Trump had asked Comey for an “assurance of personal loyalty”, which Comey apparently refused, so Trump was planning to replace him with a new FBI director, loyal only to him, who would redirect the investigation away from Trump associates.[69][70][71] Another source told The Atlantic that Trump fired Comey because Trump was concerned about what Flynn would testify in court.[72]The next day, several FBI insiders said Comey was fired because “he refused to end the Russia investigation.”[73]

The private dinner during which Trump allegedly asked Comey for an “assurance of personal loyalty” was on January 27, the day after acting Attorney General Sally Yates briefed White House Counsel Donald McGahn on the FBI investigation of National Security Advisor Flynn’s contacts with Sergey Kislyak, the Russian ambassador, and three days after FBI agents had interviewed Flynn.[74][75] Upon hearing from Yates on January 26, McGahn “immediately” briefed the president and a small group of senior advisors.[74] Comey’s invitation to dine with Trump “was a last minute thing,” coming either on the 26th or the 27th, according to a former FBI official close to Comey.[74]

Trump himself seemed to contradict the White House claim that he had acted because of the Clinton email issue identified by Rosenstein. On May 10 he told reporters he fired Comey “because he wasn’t doing a good job”.[76] In an interview on May 11, Trump said he had intended all along to fire Comey, regardless of any recommendation, calling it his own decision.[77] The White House officially stated that firing Comey was a step in letting the probe into Russian election interference “come to its conclusion with integrity”.[78][79] White House spokesperson Sarah Huckabee Sanders expressed the hope that firing Comey would help bring the Russia investigation to an end.[80]

Dismissal and other events of May 9[edit]

On Tuesday May 9, President Trump hired a law firm to send a letter to the Senate Judiciary Committee denying any business or other connections to Russia, “with some exceptions”. The law firm itself turned out to have “deep ties” to Russia, and had even been selected as “Russia Law Firm of 2016”.[81][82] No evidence was provided in the letter itself, such as tax returns.[83] The letter was a response to earlier statements by Senator Lindsey Graham stating that he wanted to know whether there were any such ties.[84] That same day news outlets became aware of subpoenas being issued for associates of Michael Flynn in the Russia investigation.[43]

Later that evening, President Trump had a letter delivered to the FBI terminating Director Comey.[49] Comey was in California at the time and learned of the termination through televised news media reports, while giving a speech to agents at the Los Angeles Field Office.[85]

News commentators characterized the termination as extraordinary and controversial. CNN’s legal analyst Jeffrey Toobin went so far as to characterize it as an “abuse of power”.[19] It was compared to the Saturday Night Massacre, President Richard Nixon‘s termination of special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who had been investigating the Watergate scandal.[86]John Dean, White House Counsel under President Nixon, called it a “a very Nixonian move” saying that it “could have been a quiet resignation, but instead it was an angry dismissal”.[87] Among the two reporters noted for investigating the Watergate scandal, Bob Woodward said that “there is an immense amount of smoke” but that comparisons of the Comey dismissal to Watergate were premature,[22] while Carl Bernstein said that the firing of an FBI director overseeing an active investigation was a “potentially more dangerous situation than Watergate.”[88]

The New York Times Editorial Board published an editorial slamming the move, calling Trump’s explanation “impossible to take at face value” and stating Trump had “decisively crippled the FBI’s ability to carry out an investigation of him and his associates”.[89]

Democratic Senator Chuck Shumer renewed his call for a special prosecutor to investigate Russia’s involvement in the election and its influence on members of the Trump campaign and administration.[4][27] Republican Senator John McCain renewed his call for a special congressional committee to investigate.[90] Democratic Representative Adam Schiff observed that Sessions had previously recused himself from involvement in the Russia investigation and suggested that recommending Comey’s termination violated that pledge because Comey was the lead investigator.[91] In addition to the criticisms from Democratic leaders, some Republican leaders also expressed concern, including Richard Burr, Roy Blunt, Bob Corker, Justin Amash, and others.[92][93] Other Republican leaders came to Trump’s defense including Susan Collins and Lindsey Graham.[94]

Immediate response from the White House regarding concerns from congressional leaders and the media was limited. White House Deputy Press Secretary Sarah Sanders stated that the White House would push for an immediate ending of Russian investigations and that it was time to “move on” from accusations of Russian interference into the election.[95][96]President Trump stated in Comey’s termination letter that Comey had asserted “on three separate occasions that I am not under investigation”.[5] In an interview for CNN, President Trump’s Counselor, Kellyanne Conway, denied that Comey’s dismissal is part of a White House cover-up.[97] Trump furthermore commented on Twitter, mocking Senators Chuck Schumer and Richard Blumenthal, and saying that Schumer was “crying like a baby” and that Blumenthal “devised one of the greatest military frauds in U.S. history”.[98]

Aftermath[edit]

Comey’s farewell letter[edit]

Comey’s farewell letter sent to the FBI on May 10, 2017

On May 10, 2017, Comey sent a farewell letter to the FBI and his friends:

To all:

I have long believed that a President can fire an FBI Director for any reason, or for no reason at all. I’m not going to spend time on the decision or the way it was executed. I hope you won’t either. It is done, and I will be fine, although I will miss you and the mission deeply.

I have said to you before that, in times of turbulence, the American people should see the FBI as a rock of competence, honesty, and independence. What makes leaving the FBI hard is the nature and quality of its people, who together make it that rock for America.

It is very hard to leave a group of people who are committed only to doing the right thing. My hope is that you will continue to live our values and the mission of protecting the American people and upholding the Constitution. If you do that, you too will be sad when you leave, and the American people will be safer.

Working with you has been one of the great joys of my life. Thank you for that gift.

Jim Comey

Succession[edit]

After Comey’s dismissal, FBI Deputy Director Andrew G. McCabe became the acting FBI Director.[53] It was reported that eight people were being interviewed to succeed Comey: Senator John Cornyn of Texas, former Assistant Attorney General for the Criminal Division Alice S. Fisher, New York Court of Appeals judge Michael Garcia, FBI Richmond Division director Adam S. Lee, Virginia federal district judge Henry E. Hudson, former Homeland Security Advisor Frances Townsend, former House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence chair Mike Rogers, and McCabe himself.[99] Others have been speculated on.[100][101][102]

Attorney General Jeff Sessions is scheduled to interview the candidates and give his recommendation of the next director to Donald Trump.[103][104]

Media commentary[edit]

Many media outlets continued to be highly critical of the move. Some commentators described Comey’s firing by the Trump administration as a “Nixonian” act, comparing it to Richard Nixon’s orders to three of his cabinet officials to fire Archibald Cox during the Watergate investigation; a number of commentators – including Washington Post columnist Eugene Robinson, former CBS News journalist Dan Rather, and former New Yorker editor Jeffrey Frank – accused the Trump administration of a cover-up by firing Comey with the intent to curtail the FBI’s investigation out of fear of a possible discovery of the extent of Trump’s alleged ties to Russia.[105][106][107] Soon after Trump’s election, Lawfare prognosticated about a future firing of Comey and wrote: “If Trump chooses to replace Comey with a sycophantic yes-man, or if he permits Comey to resign over law or principle, that will be a clear bellwether to both the national security and civil libertarian communities that things are going terribly wrong.”[108] Immediately after the firing, they reiterated their position, stating that Trump’s firing of Comey “undermines the credibility of his own presidency”; they implied that the firing was likely pretextual as Trump had previously praised Comey’s handling of the Clinton investigation.[50]

Some commentators observed an emerging pattern of Trump firing government officials involved in investigating his interests: Sally Yates, Preet Bharara, and Comey.[109][110] Some even went so far as to describe Comey’s dismissal as part of an ongoing “coup“, citing previous statements and actions during Trump’s campaign and the early months of his presidency that critics suggested were indicative of his authoritarian personality, and disrespect for the rule of law and democratic norms that they warned could result in the U.S. transitioning into an autocratic government.[111][112]

Other media outlets were more supportive. Some sources have stated that, regardless of circumstances, Comey had lost the confidence of the political leadership on all sides of the spectrum and, therefore, his termination was unavoidable in spite of criticizing the president’s handling of it and questioning his motives.[113] Some went so far as to decry Democrats and other Trump opponents who criticized the termination after previously having criticized Comey himself for the handling of the Clinton scandal.[114] Some even called for a re-opening of the Clinton investigation now that Comey has left.[115]

French daily Le Monde described the firing as a “coup de force” against the FBI.[26] German magazines Der Spiegel and Bild drew parallels with Nixon’s Saturday Night Massacre, with Der Spiegel saying that “few believe” that Comey was not fired for overseeing a criminal probe into possible ties between Trump associates and Russia.[26][116] The Economist wrote in an editorial that Comey’s firing “reflects terribly on” Trump” and urged “principled Senate Republicans” to put country before party and establish “either an independent commission” similar to the 9/11 Commission, or a bipartisan select committee to investigate the Russia allegations, with either body to have “substantial investigatory resources” and subpoena power.[117]

During comments to the press at a White House meeting on May 10, Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov joked about Comey’s termination, expressing mock surprise at the news.[118] For many critics, the immediate worry is the integrity of the FBI’s investigation into the Trump administration’s ties to Russia.[119]

Messaging from the White House[edit]

File:WATCH Trump Tweet Not A Threat Spicer Says.webmhd.webm

Trump tweet “not a threat”, Spicer says – Video from Voice of America

News reports indicated that President Trump continued to be surprised and frustrated by the reactions to Comey’s termination, both from the political leadership and from the media. The White House shifted from its message that the decision had come directly from immediate recommendations from the Justice Department to stating that the termination was planned from the beginning of the administration. Immediately after the termination statements by Trump, Sarah Huckabee Sanders, Jeff Sessions and other administration associates stated that Trump fired Comey based on the recommendations of Sessions and Rod J. Rosenstein, saying that he only used their recommendations as a rationale for dismissing Comey.[120]

On May 12, 2017, Trump gave an interview to Lester Holt of NBC News. Trump indicated that the dismissal was connected to the Russia investigation, saying “When I decided [to fire Comey], I said to myself, I said, ‘You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made up story”.[10] He described Comey as a “showboat” and a “grandstander”, while suggesting that the FBI had been “in turmoil”. Trump stated that he had been planning to fire Comey regardless of recommendations. Several Democratic Congress members – among them, Illinois Sen. Dick Durbin, New York Rep. Jerrold Nadler, and California Rep. Maxine Waters – and some commentators suggested that Trump’s rationale for Comey’s dismissal in the interview amounted to a de facto admission to obstruction of justice.[121][122][123][124][125]

Administration officials struggled with messaging and media reports indicated frustration among the officials in trying to keep up with the President’s thinking. Vice President Mike Pence, known to be particularly steady was reportedly rattled by the changing messaging as he attempted to support the President.[126] According to media sources, morale within the White House plummeted in the days immediately following and the President isolated himself not only from the media but from his own staff.[126] Interaction between the Press Secretary’s office and the President was strained. Immediately after the termination announcement, Deputy Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders took over press briefings from Press Secretary Sean Spicer, ostensibly because Spicer had duties with the Navy Reserve.[127][128] Spicer eventually resumed the briefings.

Sources indicated that Trump rapidly became defensive.[126] In a May 12 Twitter post, President Trump appeared to threaten to leak recordings of his discussions with Comey in the form of unidentified tapes, tweeting: “James Comey better hope that there are no ‘tapes’ of our conversations before he starts leaking to the press!,” a statement taken by many Democrats and commentators also as an attempt to intimidate Comey into not discussing details of the investigation during intelligence committee hearings.[129][130][131][132] In another post later that morning, Trump also suggested that the White House might stop hosting the daily press briefings altogether, and that he would instead take over the communication role himself “for the sake of efficiency,” which some media outlets took as him expressing disdain for criticism of the White House’s communications staff’s handling of messaging administration issues.[128][133] When asked by reporters at that day’s press briefing about Trump’s claim of having taped conversations with Comey, Spicer refused to state if any tapes existed, or whether there is a recording system in the Oval Office.[134] He stated that the tweet was not a warning or a threat, but just a statement of facts.[135] When asked whether he has recordings in the Oval Office, Trump responded “Well, that I can’t talk about. I won’t talk about that.”[136]

Trump refused to confirm or deny the existence of tapes when asked, but has stated that it falls under his right to hold private property and his executive privilege as the current President of the United States.[citation needed] This has been heavily disputed, as any recordings from the White House are government property under the Supreme Court decision United States v. Nixon, and must not be destroyed.[137][138] On May 15, the ACLU filed a Freedom of Information Act request on all documents related to Comey’s dismissal, which would include any Comey tapes that exist.[139]

Comey memos[edit]

Jason Chaffetz letter to FBI over Comey Memo

Comey wrote multiple memos concerning his interactions with President Trump and in one Trump attempted to persuade Comey to abort the investigation into Lieutenant General Flynn, who had resigned the previous day.[18][140][141][142][143]Director Comey would record a detailed memo during every meeting with President Donald Trump.[144] One memo referred to an February 14, 2017 Oval Office meeting between Comey and Trump, in which, according to the memo, the president stated “I hope you can see your way clear to letting this go, to letting Flynn go. He is a good guy. I hope you can let this go.”[141] Comey made no commitments to Trump on the subject.[141]

The Times reported that the memo, which is not classified, was part of a “paper trail” created by Comey to document “what he perceived as the president’s improper efforts to influence a continuing investigation”.[141] Comey shared the memo with “a very small circle of people at the FBI and Justice Department.”[145]Comey and other senior FBI officials perceived Trump’s remarks “as an effort to influence the investigation, but they decided that they would try to keep the conversation secret — even from the F.B.I. agents working on the Russia investigation — so the details of the conversation would not affect the investigation.”[141]

Two individuals who read the memo told the Times that “Comey created similar memos — including some that are classified — about every phone call and meeting he had with the president.”[141] The Washington Post reported that two Comey associates who had seen Comey’s memo described it as two pages long and highly detailed.[145] The Times noted that contemporaneous notes created by FBI agents are frequently relied upon “in court as credible evidence of conversations.”[141]

Calls for a special prosecutor[edit]

Attorneys general from 19 Democratic states and D.C. signed a letter calling for a special prosecutor.

Immediately after Comey’s dismissal, many Democrats renewed their calls for the appointment of a special prosecutor to continue the investigation into Russia’s influence on the election.[28]

The White House continued to insist that no special prosecutor was necessary in the Russia investigation, instead giving its support to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein who is currently leading the effort, along with Comey’s future successor.[146] The White House has also said that it was “time to move on” after the 2016 election.[95] President Trump tweeted that Democratic members of Congress calling for a special prosecutor and criticizing the dismissal of Comey are “phony hypocrites!”[147]

On May 11, twenty Democratic state and district attorneys general led by Maura Healey of Massachusetts, signed a letter asking Rosenstein to appoint an “independent special counsel” to investigate Russia’s attempts to meddle in the United States presidential election.[148]

Trump released a statement from his law firm, Morgan, Lewis & Bockius, saying that Trump has no income or loans in Russia—”with a few exceptions”. The firm’s statement was criticized because of its strong ties to Russia.[149] The organization was also listed as “Russian Law Firm of the Year” in 2016.[150] On May 12, the United States Office of Government Ethics released a statement that was widely seen as thinly veiled criticism of the President.[151][152][153][154]Adam Schiff, the ranking Democratic member of the House Intelligence Committee, demanded that Trump turn over any “Comey Tapes” made and called for a special prosecutor.[155] It is considered unlikely that a special prosecutor will be appointed, even with the new revelations, because Trump appointees have the authority to decide whether to appoint a special prosecutor.[155]

Reactions from Congress[edit]

File:Trump's Firing of Comey Sets Off Political Firestorm.webm

‘Trump’s Firing of Comey Sets Off Political Firestorm’ – video from Voice of America

Senator Mark Warner of Virginia, the ranking Democratic member of the Senate Intelligence Committee, is seeking to allow Comey to testify at an open, public hearing, stating that it is “extremely important that Comey come to an open hearing in the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence as quickly as possible and testify as to the status of the U.S.–Russia investigation at the time of his firing”.[156]

Among members of Congress:

  • 138 Democrats, two independents (Senators Bernie Sanders and Angus King), and two Republicans (Representatives Mike Coffman[157] and Tom McClintock), called for a special prosecutor, independent prosecutor, or an independent commission to examine ties between the Russian government and Trump’s associates.[28]
  • 84 Democrats and five Republicans called for an independent investigation into Russian ties. For example, Republican Senator John McCain said “I have long called for a special congressional committee” while Democratic Representative Salud Carbajal stated, “anything less would imperil our democracy”.[28]
  • 42 Republicans, and 8 Democrats, expressed “questions or concerns” about Comey’s firing; examples of members of Congress in this group are Republican Senator Marco Rubio (“I do have questions”); Republican Senator Lisa Murkowski (“serious cause for concern”); Democratic Representative Marcia L. Fudge (“the American people deserve answers”).[28]
  • 98 Republicans, but no Democrats, were neutral or supportive of Comey’s firing.[28]
  • 141 Republicans and 11 Democrats did not release a statement.[28]

Multiple Democratic members of Congress discussed an “impeachment clock” for Trump, saying that he was “moving” toward impeachment and raising the possibility of bringing forth articles of impeachment for obstruction of justice and criminal malfeasance if proof of illegal activity is found.[158][159] Senator Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut stated in an interview: “It may well produce another United States v. Nixon on a subpoena that went to United States Supreme Court. It may well produce impeachment proceedings, although we’re very far from that possibility.”[160]

Possible Comey testimony before Congress[edit]

Comey was fired two days before he was scheduled to testify at a Senate Intelligence Committee hearing on worldwide threats.[156]

On May 10, the day after being fired by Trump, Comey was invited to testify before a closed session of the Senate Intelligence Committee on May 16.[161][162][163] Comey declined to testify at a closed session, indicating that he would be willing to testify at a public, open hearing.[164][165]

Opinions of scholars[edit]

A number of professors of law, political science and history have criticized the firing and these experts argue that Trump’s action destabilizes democratic norms and the rule of law in the U.S.[23][24][25][26][166][167][168][169] Some have argued that Trump’s action creates a constitutional crisis.[24] Parallels have been drawn with other leaders who have slowly eroded democratic norms in their countries, such as Turkey’s Recep Tayyip Erdoğan or Hungary’s Viktor Orbán; political science professor Sheri Berman said those leaders slowly “chipped away at democratic institutions, undermined civil society, and slowly increased their own power.”[26]

In a May 2017 essay published in the The Washington Post, Harvard constitutional scholar Laurence Tribe wrote: “The time has come for Congress to launch an impeachment investigation of President Trump for obstruction of justice.” Tribe argued that Trump’s conduct rose to the level of “high crimes and misdemeanors” that are impeachable offenses under the Constitution.[170] He added, “It will require serious commitment to constitutional principle, and courageous willingness to put devotion to the national interest above self-interest and party loyalty, for a Congress of the president’s own party to initiate an impeachment inquiry.”[170]

Duke law professor and former federal prosecutor Samuel W. Buell said that Trump’s attempt to quiet Comey by releasing secret tapes of their conversations in retaliation could be viewed as an effort to intimidate a witness to any future investigation on obstruction of justice.[165]

GW Law professor Jonathan Turley, who participated in impeachment proceedings against Bill Clinton, cautioned that the Comey memo is not a sufficient basis for impeachment, and raises as many questions about Comey’s behavior as about Trump’s.[171]

Reactions from within the FBI[edit]

File:FBI Acting Chief Contradicts Trump on Comey.webmhd.webm

‘FBI Acting Chief Contradicts Trump on Comey’. Video from Voice of America

Comey was generally well-liked within the FBI, and his sudden dismissal shocked many FBI agents, who admired Comey for his political independence. Agents were stunned that Comey was fired in the midst of the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election.[54][53] The dismissal reportedly damaged morale within the Bureau.[54][53] The way that Comey had first learned that he had been fired—from television news reports, while he was in Los Angeles—also angered agents, who considered it a sign of disrespect from the White House.[53]

Dismissal of Sally Yates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sally Yates, who as appointed by Obama administration, was the Acting United States Attorney General from January 20, 2017 until her dismissal by President Donald Trump on January 30, 2017.

The dismissal of Sally Yates refers to U.S President Donald Trump dismissed acting Attorney General Sally Yates on January 30, 2017. Trump also demoted and replaced acting Immigration and Customs Enforcement director Daniel Ragsdale. The move was labeled the “Monday Night Massacre” by a number of politicians, political commentators and news reports,[1] while the use of the term was questioned by others.[2][3] The name alludes to the 1973 Saturday Night Massacre, during the Watergate scandal, when Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus both resigned after refusing to carry out President Richard Nixon‘s order to dismiss special prosecutorArchibald Cox.[1]

Dismissal of Sally Yates[edit]

The firing of acting Attorney General Sally Yates, a career prosecutor appointed by President Barack Obama, followed her refusal to defend Trump’s executive order banning the entry of nationals from seven predominantly Muslim countries because she was not convinced the executive order was lawful.[4] This came after several federal courts issued stays on various parts of Trump’s executive order to stop them from being put into effect and many U.S. Customs and Border Protection agents did not follow the stays.[5] Trump replaced Yates with Dana Boente, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia. After taking office, Boente ordered the Justice Department to enforce the executive order.[6]

White House Press Release on Sally Yates

In a White House statement, Yates was said to have “betrayed the Department of Justice by refusing to enforce a legal order designed to protect the citizens of the United States” and to be “very weak on borders and very weak on illegal immigration”.[7][8] Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer spoke on the Senate floor that evening, and called her firing a “Monday night massacre”.[8] Watergate investigative journalist Carl Bernstein, speaking on CNN, rejected the comparison, saying, “There’s a big difference, because the Saturday Night Massacre was really about firing the attorney general when Nixon was the target of an investigation and was actively obstructing justice”, he also stated that, “I think the president is within his rights here to fire the attorney general, that he has that ability.”[9]

Many Trump critics praised Yates for standing up against what they perceived as an unconstitutional executive order, but some legal experts including Alan Dershowitz, Michael Gerhardt and Jonathan Adler questioned Yates’s decision.[3][10] Some critics also believed the rhetoric of “betrayal” Trump used in his letter to the former attorney general was unnecessarily incendiary.[11]

Demotion of Daniel Ragsdale[edit]

Shortly thereafter, acting Immigration and Customs Enforcement director Daniel Ragsdale was demoted and replaced by Thomas Homan with Ragsdale remaining as deputy director.[12][7]

List of federal judges appointed by Donald Trump

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Donald Trump with his first Supreme Court nominee, Neil Gorsuch.

Following is a comprehensive list of all Article III and Article IV United States federal judges appointed by President Donald Trump during his presidency, as well as a partial list of Article I federal judicial appointments, excluding appointments to the District of Columbia judiciary.[1]

As of May 9, 2017, the total number of Trump Article III judgeship nominees to be confirmed by the United States Senate is 1, including 1 justice to the Supreme Court of the United States, 0 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, 0 judges to the United States district courts, and 0 judges to the United States Court of International Trade.[2] The number of nominations currently awaiting Senate action is 10.[3] There are currently no vacancies on the Supreme Court of the United States, but there are 20 vacancies on the United States Courts of Appeals, 101 vacancies on the United States district courts, 2 vacancies on the United States Court of International Trade,[3] and 21 announced federal judicial vacancies that will occur before the end of Trump’s first term.[4]Trump has not made any recess appointments to the federal courts.

In terms of Article I courts, Trump has made 0 appointments to the United States Tax Court, 0 appointments and 1 pending nomination to the United States Court of Federal Claims, 0 appointments to the United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims, 0 appointments to the United States Court of Military Commission Review, and 0 appointments to the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. He has also not elevated any chief judges of the Court of Federal Claims.

On the Article IV territorial courts, he has made 0 appointments and has elevated 0 judges to the position of chief judge.

United States Supreme Court Justices[edit]

Denotes nomination pending before the Senate Judiciary Committee      Denotes nomination reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee

# Justice Seat State Former Justice Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Confirmation
vote
Began
service
Ended
service
1 Neil Gorsuch Seat 9 Colorado Antonin Scalia February 1, 2017 April 7, 2017 54–45 April 8, 2017 Incumbent

Courts of Appeals[edit]

Denotes nomination pending before the Senate Judiciary Committee      Denotes nomination reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee

# Judge Circuit Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Confirmation
vote
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
Amul Thapar Sixth March 21, 2017
Joan Larsen Sixth May 8, 2017
David Stras Eighth May 8, 2017
Amy Coney Barrett Seventh May 8, 2017
John K. Bush Sixth May 8, 2017
Kevin C. Newsom Eleventh May 8, 2017

District courts[edit]

Denotes nomination pending before the Senate Judiciary Committee      Denotes nomination reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee

# Judge Court
[Note 1]
Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Confirmation
vote
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
David Nye D. Idaho May 8, 2017
Scott L. Palk W.D. Okla. May 8, 2017
Dabney L. Friedrich D.D.C. Pending
Terry F. Moorer M.D. Ala. Pending

United States Court of International Trade (Article III)[edit]

Denotes nomination pending before the Senate Judiciary Committee      Denotes nomination reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Confirmation
vote
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status

Specialty courts (Article I)[edit]

United States Tax Court[edit]

Denotes nomination pending before the Senate Finance Committee      Denotes nomination reported by the Senate Finance Committee

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Confirmation
vote
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status

United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims[edit]

Denotes nomination pending before the Senate Veterans’ Affairs Committee      Denotes nomination reported by the Senate Veterans’ Affairs Committee

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Confirmation
vote
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status

United States Court of Military Commission Review[edit]

Denotes nomination pending before the Senate Armed Services Committee      Denotes nomination reported by the Senate Armed Services Committee

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Confirmation
vote
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status

United States Court of Federal Claims[edit]

Denotes nomination pending before the Senate Judiciary Committee      Denotes nomination reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Confirmation
vote
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
Damien M. Schiff May 8, 2017

United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces[edit]

Denotes nomination pending before the Senate Armed Services Committee      Denotes nomination reported by the Senate Armed Services Committee

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Confirmation
vote
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status

Territorial courts (Article IV)[edit]

Denotes nomination pending before the Senate Judiciary Committee      Denotes nomination reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee

# Judge Court
[Note 2]
Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Confirmation
vote
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status

Cabinet of Donald Trump

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Meeting of then confirmed Cabinet members on March 13, 2017.

This article lists the members of President Donald Trump‘s Cabinet. Trump assumed office on January 20, 2017.

The President of the United States has the authority to nominate members of his or her Cabinet to the United States Senate for confirmation under Appointments Clause of the United States Constitution. Before confirmation, a high level career member of an executive department heads this pre-confirmed cabinet on an acting basis. The Cabinet’s creation is part of the transition of power following the 2016 United States presidential election.

This page documents the confirmation process for any successful or unsuccessful cabinet nominees of Donald Trump‘s administration. They are listed in order of creation of the cabinet position (also used as the basis for the United States presidential line of succession).

Announced nominees[edit source]

All members of the Cabinet require the advice and consent of the United States Senate following appointment by the president prior to taking office. The vice presidency is exceptional in that the position requires election to office pursuant to the United States Constitution. Although some are afforded cabinet-level rank, non-cabinet members within the Executive Office of the President, such as White House Chief of Staff, National Security Advisor, and White House Press Secretary, do not hold constitutionally created positions and most do not require Senate confirmation for appointment.

The following have been named as Cabinet appointees by the President. For other high-level positions, see the list of Donald Trump political appointments.

Cabinet of President Donald J. Trump
  Individual officially confirmed by a full Senate vote
  Individual took office with no Senate consent needed
  Individual’s nomination officially reported by Senate committee
  Individual was rejected by either a Senate committee or a full Senate vote
  Individual’s nomination pending Senate committee confirmation

Cabinet members[edit source]

Office
Date announced / confirmed
Designee Office
Date announced / confirmed
Designee
Seal of the Vice President of the United States.svg

Vice President
Announced July 15, 2016
Took office January 20, 2017
Mike Pence official portrait (cropped).jpg
Former Governor
Mike Pence
from Indiana
US Department of State official seal.svg

Secretary of State
Announced December 13, 2016
Took office February 1, 2017
Rex Tillerson official portrait.jpg
Former CEO of ExxonMobil
Rex Tillerson
from Texas
Seal of the United States Department of the Treasury.svg

Secretary of the Treasury
Announced November 30, 2016
Took office February 13, 2017
Steven Mnuchin official portrait.jpg
Steven Mnuchin
from California
United States Department of Defense Seal.svg

Secretary of Defense
Announced December 1, 2016
Took office January 20, 2017
James Mattis Official SECDEF Photo.jpg
Retired General (USMC)
James Mattis
from Washington
Seal of the United States Department of Justice.svg

Attorney General
Announced November 18, 2016
Took office February 9, 2017
Jeff Sessions, official portrait.jpg
Former Senator
Jeff Sessions
from Alabama
Seal of the United States Department of the Interior.svg

Secretary of the Interior
Announced December 15, 2016
Took office March 1, 2017
Ryan Zinke official photo (cropped).jpg
Former Representative
Ryan Zinke
from Montana
Seal of the United States Department of Agriculture.svg

Secretary of Agriculture
Announced January 18, 2017
Took office April 25, 2017
Secretary Sonny Perdue official photo (cropped).jpg
Former Governor
Sonny Perdue
from Georgia
Seal of the United States Department of Commerce.svg

Secretary of Commerce
Announced November 30, 2016
Took office February 28, 2017
Wilbur Ross Official Portrait (cropped).jpg
Wilbur Ross
from Florida
Seal of the United States Department of Labor.svg

Secretary of Labor
Announced February 16, 2017
Took office April 28, 2017
Alexander Acosta.jpg
Former U.S. Attorney
Alex Acosta
from Florida
Seal of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.svg

Secretary of Health and Human Services
Announced November 29, 2016
Took office February 10, 2017
Tom Price official Transition portrait.jpg
Former Representative
Tom Price
from Georgia
Seal of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.svg

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Announced December 5, 2016
Took office March 2, 2017
Ben Carson official portrait as HUD secretary.jpg
Ben Carson
from Florida
Seal of the United States Department of Transportation.svg

Secretary of Transportation
Announced November 29, 2016
Took office January 31, 2017
Elaine L. Chao (cropped).jpg
Former Secretary
Elaine Chao
from Kentucky
Seal of the United States Department of Energy.svg

Secretary of Energy
Announced December 14, 2016
Took office March 2, 2017
Secretary Rick Perry (cropped 2).jpg
Former Governor
Rick Perry
from Texas
Seal of the United States Department of Education.svg

Secretary of Education
Announced November 23, 2016
Took office February 7, 2017
Betsy DeVos official Department of Education portrait.jpg
Betsy DeVos
from Michigan
Seal of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.svg

Secretary of Veterans Affairs
Announced January 11, 2017
Took office February 14, 2017
SECVA-David-Shulkin-MD.jpg
Former Under Secretary
David Shulkin
from Pennsylvania
Seal of the United States Department of Homeland Security.svg

Secretary of Homeland Security
Announced December 7, 2016
Took office January 20, 2017
John Kelly official DHS portrait.jpg
Retired General (USMC)
John F. Kelly
from Virginia

Cabinet-level officials[edit source]

Office
Date announced / confirmed
Designee Office
Date announced / confirmed
Designee
US-WhiteHouse-Logo.svg

White House Chief of Staff
Announced November 13, 2016
Took office January 20, 2017
Reince Priebus CPAC 2017 by Michael Vadon.jpg
Former RNC Chairman
Reince Priebus
from Wisconsin
US-TradeRepresentative-Seal.svg

United States Trade Representative
Announced January 3, 2017
Robert Lighthizer official Transition portrait.jpg
Robert Lighthizer
from Florida
The Office of the Director of National Intelligence.svg

Director of National Intelligence
Announced January 7, 2017
Took office March 16, 2017
Dan Coats official DNI portrait.jpg
Former Senator
Dan Coats
from Indiana
US Department of State official seal.svg

Ambassador to the United Nations
Announced November 23, 2016
Took office January 27, 2017
Nikki Haley official Transition portrait.jpg
Former Governor
Nikki Haley
from South Carolina
US-OfficeOfManagementAndBudget-Seal.svg

Director of the
Office of Management and Budget
Announced December 16, 2016
Took office February 16, 2017
Mick Mulvaney, Official Portrait, 113th Congress (2).jpg
Former Representative
Mick Mulvaney
from South Carolina
Seal of the Central Intelligence Agency.svg

Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
Announced November 18, 2016
Took office January 23, 2017
Mike Pompeo official Transition portrait.jpg
Former Representative
Mike Pompeo
from Kansas
Environmental Protection Agency logo.svg

Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency
Announced December 7, 2016
Took office February 17, 2017
Scott Pruitt, EPA official portrait (cropped).jpg
Former Attorney General
Scott Pruitt
from Oklahoma
Seal of the United States Small Business Administration.svg

Administrator of the
Small Business Administration
Announced December 7, 2016
Took office February 14, 2017
Linda McMahon official photo.jpg
Linda McMahon
from Connecticut
Source: Trump Administration and NPR[1][2]

Confirmation process timeline[edit source]

[hide]Cabinet Confirmation Process
Office Name Announcement Hearing date Senate
Committee
Vote date
Senate
Committee
Vote
Full Senate
Vote date
Confirmation[3] Notes
Secretary of State Rex Tillerson December 13, 2016 January 11, 2017 January 23, 2017 11–10[4] February 1, 2017 56–43[5] Hearings.[a]
Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin November 30, 2016 January 19, 2017 February 1, 2017 14–0[6] February 13, 2017 53–47[7] Hearings.[b]
Secretary of Defense James Mattis December 1, 2016 January 12, 2017 January 18, 2017 26–1[8] January 20, 2017 98–1[9] Hearings.[c]
Attorney General Jeff Sessions November 18, 2016 January 10, 2017 February 1, 2017 11–9[10][11][12] February 8, 2017 52–47[13] Hearings.[d]
Secretary of the Interior Ryan Zinke December 15, 2016 January 17, 2017 January 31, 2017 16–6[14] March 1, 2017 68–31[15] Hearings.[e]
Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue January 18, 2017 March 23, 2017 March 30, 2017 Voice Vote (19–1)[16] April 24, 2017 87–11[17] Hearings.[f]
Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross November 30, 2016 January 18, 2017 January 24, 2017 Voice Vote[18] February 27, 2017 72–27[19] Hearings.[g]
Secretary of Labor Andrew Puzder December 8, 2016 Nomination withdrawn on February 15, 2017[20][21]
Alex Acosta February 16, 2017 March 22, 2017 March 30, 2017 12-11[22] April 27, 2017 60–38[23] Hearings.[h]
Secretary of Health and Human Services Tom Price November 29, 2016 January 18, 2017 February 1, 2017 14–0[6] February 10, 2017 52–47[24] Hearings.[i]
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Ben Carson December 5, 2016 January 12, 2017 January 24, 2017 23–0[25] March 2, 2017 58–41[26] Hearings.[j]
Secretary of Transportation Elaine Chao November 29, 2016 January 11, 2017 January 24, 2017 Voice Vote[27] January 31, 2017 93–6[28] Hearings.[k]
Secretary of Energy Rick Perry December 14, 2016 January 19, 2017 January 31, 2017 16–7[14] March 2, 2017 62–37[29] Hearings.[l]
Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos November 23, 2016 January 17, 2017 January 31, 2017 12–11[30] February 7, 2017 51–50[31] Hearings.[m]
Secretary of Veterans Affairs David Shulkin January 11, 2017 February 1, 2017 February 7, 2017 15–0[32] February 13, 2017 100–0[33] Hearings.[n]
Secretary of Homeland Security John Kelly December 7, 2016 January 10, 2017 January 18, 2017 Voice Vote (14–1)[34] January 20, 2017 88–11[35] Hearings.[o]
Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer January 3, 2017 March 14, 2017 April 25, 2017 26-0[36] May 15, 2017[37] Hearings.[p]
Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats January 7, 2017 February 28, 2017 March 9, 2017 13–2[38] March 15, 2017 85–12[39] Hearings.[q]
Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley November 23, 2016 January 18, 2017 January 24, 2017 Voice Vote (19–2)[40] January 24, 2017 96–4[41] Hearings.[r]
Management and Budget Mick Mulvaney December 16, 2016 January 24, 2017 February 2, 2017 12–11, 8–7[42] February 16, 2017 51–49[43] Hearings.[s]
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency Mike Pompeo November 18, 2016 January 12, 2017 January 20, 2017 Voice Vote[44] January 23, 2017 66–32[45] Hearings.[t]
Environmental Protection Agency Scott Pruitt December 7, 2016 January 18, 2017 February 2, 2017 11–0[46] February 17, 2017 52–46[47] Hearings.[u]
Small Business Administration Linda McMahon December 7, 2016 January 24, 2017 January 31, 2017 18–1[48] February 14, 2017 81–19[49] Hearings.[v]

Analysis[edit source]

Due to President Trump’s lack of government or military experience and his political positions,[50] much interest existed among the media over his cabinet nominations, as they are believed to show how he intends to govern.

President Trump’s proposed cabinet was characterized by the media as being very conservative. It was described as a “conservative dream team” by Politico,[51] “the most conservative cabinet [in United States history]” by Newsweek,[52] and “one of the most consistently conservative domestic policy teams in modern history” by the Los Angeles Times.[53] The Hill described Mr. Trump’s potential cabinet as “an unorthodox team” popular with conservatives, that more establishment Republicans such as John McCain or Mitt Romney likely would not have chosen.[54] CNN agreed, calling the proposed cabinet “a conservative dream team of domestic Cabinet appointments.”[55] On the other hand, The Wall Street Journal stated that “it’s nearly impossible to identify a clear ideological bent in the incoming president’s” cabinet nominations.[56]

The Wall Street Journal also stated that Mr. Trump’s nominations signaled a pro-deregulation administration policy.[57] Several of his cabinet nominees politically opposed the federal departments they were selected to lead.[58]

In terms of total personal wealth, Mr. Trump’s cabinet is the wealthiest in modern American history.[59]

President Trump’s cabinet is largely made up of nominees who have business experience but minimal experience in the government when compared to the administrations of Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush and Barack Obama.[60] The Pew Research Center also noted that Mr. Trump’s cabinet is one of the most business-heavy in American history. The think tank stated that “A third of the department heads in the Trump administration (33%) will be people whose prior experience has been entirely in the public sector. Only three other presidents are in the same range: William McKinley (three out of eight Cabinet positions, or 37.5%), Ronald Reagan (four out of 13 positions, or 31%), and Dwight Eisenhower (three out of 10 positions, or 30%).”[61]

There are no economists in President Trump’s cabinet.[62] There are also significantly fewer lawyers in Mr. Trump’s cabinet than in previous administrations.[63]

Confirmation delays[edit source]

Despite being nominated promptly during the transition period, most cabinet members were unable to take office on Inauguration Day because of delays in the formal confirmation process. By February 8, 2017, President Trump had fewer cabinet nominees confirmed than any prior president two weeks into their mandate, except George Washington.[64][65] Part of the lateness was ascribed to obstructionism by Senate Democrats and part to delays in submitting background-check paperwork.[66]

History[edit source]

Choosing members of the presidential Cabinet (and other high-level positions) is a complicated process, which begins prior to the November 2016 general election results being known. In the case of the Trump ’16 campaign, his former rival for the Republican nomination Chris Christie was appointed to lead the transition team in May 2016, shortly after Ted Cruz and John Kasich suspended their campaigns (thus making Trump the presumptive nominee of the party). In addition to various other responsibilities, the transition team is responsible for making preliminary lists of potential executive branch appointees—at least for the several dozen high-level positions if not for the several thousand lower-level positions—and doing some early vetting work on those people. The transition team also hires policy experts (over 100 in the case of the Trump transition team by October 2016), using primarily federal funds and federal office space, to help plan how the hypothetical-at-the-time future Trump administration will implement their policy-goals via the various federal agencies and departments.

After the election in November 2016, when the Trump/Pence ticket defeated the Clinton/Kaine ticket as well as various third party opponents, the transition team was quickly reshuffled and expanded; Mike Pence was given the lead role (over Chris Christie), and several additional top-level transition personnel were added to the transition effort, most of them from the now-finished campaign effort. During the remainder of 2016, the team continued finding and vetting potential nominees for the various positions, as the Electoral College process was ongoing (including recounts in some states where the winning margin was relatively tiny) and prior to the presidential inauguration in January 2017.

President-elect Trump announced his first post-election Cabinet nominee, Jeff Sessions for the role of United States Attorney General, on November 18, 2016. (Trump had earlier announced Mike Pence as his pick for vice-presidential running mate in July 2016, which was shortly thereafter confirmed by the delegates to the Republican National Convention when they officially nominated first Trump and then Pence.) Although most positions were simultaneously under consideration by the transition team, the official announcement of offers, and the public acceptance of the offers, usually happens gradually as slots are filled (Richard Nixon being the exception).

President[67][68][69] Week Weighted
Average
Notes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Nixon ’68 12 6.0 weeks The twelfth Cabinet role was quasi-privatized in 1971.
Carter ’76 1 2 7 2 6.8 weeks New roles: Energy in 1977, Education in 1979.
Reagan ’80 8 4 1 6.6 weeks Reagan was unable to abolish the federal Department of Education.
Bush ’88 2 2 1 3 5 1 5.3 weeks New role: VA in 1989. The four earliest nominees were continuations of the Reagan Cabinet.
Clinton ’92 4 6 4 7.0 weeks
Bush ’00 1 5 8 7.5 weeks New role: DHS in 2003. Announcements of appointees were delayed by the Florida recount.
Obama ’08 1 4 2 4 4 5.4 weeks Slightly differing figures are given in some sources.[67][70][71][69]
Trump ’16 1 3 4 3 2 2 4.9 weeks There are officially fifteen Cabinet positions to nominate; Senate confirmation of nominees usually follows the inauguration.

For purposes of historical comparison, this chart only includes Cabinet roles, and not the cabinet-level positions. However, note that the number of Cabinet positions has varied from administration to administration: under Nixon there were twelve such roles in 1968, whereas under Trump in 2016 there are fifteen.

After Trump had been president for a full three weeks, the number of his approved cabinet members stood at 7 as compared to 12 for Obama and no vacancies for George W. Bush. Whereas all but one cabinet nominee was approved in less than a day for President Bill Clinton.[72]

Formation[edit source]

After election day, media outlets reported on persons described by various sources as possible appointments to senior positions in the incoming Trump presidency. The number of people which have received media attention as potential cabinet appointees is higher than in most previous presidential elections, partly because the Trump ’16 campaign staff (and associated PACs) was significantly smaller and less expensive,[73] thus there are not as many people already expected to receive specific roles in the upcoming Trump administration. In particular, “Trump ha[d] a smaller policy brain trust [policy group] than a new president normally carries”[74] because as an anti-establishment candidate who began his campaign by largely self-funding his way to the Republican party nomination,[75] unlike most previous presidential winners “Trump does not have the traditional cadre of Washington insiders and donors to build out his Cabinet.”[76] An additional factor that tends to make the field of potential nominees especially broad, is that unlike most presidential transition teams who select politicians as their appointees, the Trump transition team “has started with a mandate to hire from the private sector [as opposed to the governmental sector] whenever possible.”[76]

Vice President[edit source]

There were dozens of potential running mates for Trump who received media speculation (including several from New York where Trump himself resides). Trump’s eventual pick of Governor Mike Pence of Indiana was officially announced on July 16, 2016 and confirmed by acclamation via parliamentary procedure amongst delegates to the 2016 Republican National Convention on July 19, 2016.

Cabinet[edit source]

The following cabinet positions are listed in order of their creation (also used as the basis for the United States presidential line of succession).

Secretary of State[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Foreign Relations committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Rex Tillerson[edit source]

Tillerson at his confirmation hearing on January 11, 2017

On December 12, 2016, Rex Tillerson, CEO of ExxonMobil, was officially selected to be the Secretary of State.[77] Tillerson was first recommended to Trump for the Secretary of State role by Condoleezza Rice, during her meeting with Trump in late November.[78] Rice’s recommendation of Tillerson to Trump was backed up by Robert Gates, three days later.[78]

Tillerson’s confirmation hearing with the Foreign Relations committee was held on January 11, 2017. During the hearing, Tillerson voiced support for the Trans-Pacific Partnership and opposed a Muslim immigration ban that has been proposed by Donald Trump in the past.[79]Tillerson was approved by the Foreign Relations committee on January 23, 2017 by a vote of 11–10.[80] On Wednesday, February 1, Tillerson was confirmed by the senate 56–43.[81] Prior to Tillerson’s confirmation Tom Shannon was the acting Secretary of State.

Secretary of the Treasury[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Finance committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Steve Mnuchin[edit source]

Trump announced the selection of Steve Mnuchin as Secretary of the Treasury on November 30, 2016. In the statement, Trump called Mnuchin a “world-class financier, banker and businessman,” and he said Mnuchin played an important role in developing his “plan to build a dynamic, booming economy.” Mnuchin himself said he was “honored to have the opportunity to serve our great country in this important role.” He called Trump’s economic agenda a “bold” one “that creates good-paying jobs and defends the American worker.”[82]

The New York Times noted that Mnuchin’s selection “fits uneasily with much of Mr. Trump’s campaign attacks on the financial industry.” For example, an ad of Trump’s campaign said Goldman Sachs’ CEO had “robbed [the] working class.” Mnuchin will be the third Goldman alumnus to serve in the job, after Henry M. Paulson Jr., under President George W. Bush; and Robert E. Rubin, under President Bill Clinton in the 2000s and 1990s, respectively.[83]

After the nomination was announced, Mnuchin resigned from his position on the board of trustees of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, to which he had donated between $100,000 and $250,000.[84][85] When the pick was announced, Mnuchin was also a member of the boards of UCLA Health System, the NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital, and the Los Angeles Police Foundation.[82]

During his Senate confirmation hearing on January 19, 2017, Mnuchin was condemned by Democrats due to the foreclosure practices at OneWest. Mnuchin said, “Since I was first nominated to serve as Treasury secretary, I have been maligned as taking advantage of others’ hardships in order to earn a buck. Nothing could be further from the truth”.[86]Mnuchin was criticized for failing to disclose, in required disclosure documents, $95 million of real estate that he owned and his role as director of Dune Capital International, an investment fund in a tax haven. Mnuchin described the omissions as mistakes made amid a mountain of bureaucracy.[87]

Democrats of the Senate Finance Committee boycotted the vote of Mnuchin and many other nominees in response to Trump’s controversial immigration executive order. Additionally, Democrats sought an additional hearing due to Mnuchin’s failure to disclose $100 million in assets. On February 1, 2017, Republicans suspended committee rules to send the nomination to the Senate floor. His nomination was approved by a vote of 11–0.[88][87]

Steve Mnuchin was confirmed on February 13, 2017. As expected, the Senate vote fell along party lines, with exception of Senator Joe Manchin as the sole Democratic vote for Mnuchin.[89][90] Adam Szubin served as acting secretary prior to Mnuchin’s confirmation.

Secretary of Defense[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Armed Services committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

James Mattis[edit source]

Trump informally announced the selection of General James Mattis as Secretary of Defense on December 1, 2016.[91] (The Trump Transition Team formally announced the selection on December 6, 2016.[92]) As with most cabinet roles, the Secretary-designate of Defense undergoes hearings before the appropriate committee of the United States Senate, followed by a confirmation-vote. In the case of Mattis, there was an additional step needed as he had retired from the military three years ago, since statute section 903(a) of the NDAA demands a minimum of seven years as a civilian for Pentagon appointees, therefore Mattis needed a waiver to be allowed to become Secretary of Defense.[93] On January 12, 2017 the Senate Armed Services Committee voted 24–3 to grant the waiver. The full Senate voted 81–17 to pass the waiver three hours later. After the Trump transition team cancelled a meeting between Mattis and the House Armed Services Committee, the waiver narrowly passed the committee by a vote of 34–28. The House voted 268–151 to grant the waiver.[94] The Senate Armed Services Committee approved Mattis’ confirmation on January 18, 2017 by a 26–1 margin, and sent the nomination to the full Senate for consideration.[95] One of Donald Trump’s first acts as President was the approval of Mattis’ waiver to become Secretary of Defense. After being confirmed by the Senate on the evening of January 20, 2017 by a vote of 98–1, Mattis was sworn in on the same evening.

Attorney General[edit source]

The nomination of an Attorney General-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Judiciary committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Acting Attorney General[edit source]

On January 30, 2017, Trump appointed Dana Boente, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia, to serve as acting Attorney General until Jeff Sessions‘ Senate confirmation.[96] Boente had replaced Sally Yates who was fired by Trump for ordering the Justice Department to not defend Trump’s Executive Order 13769 which restricted entry to the United States.[97] Yates claimed that, “At present, I am not convinced that the defense of the executive order is consistent with these responsibilities [of the Department of Justice], nor am I convinced that the executive order is lawful”.[98][99] Boente served until the confirmation of Jeff Sessions on February 9, 2017.

Jeff Sessions[edit source]

Trump’s selection of Senator Jeff Sessions from Alabama was officially announced on November 18, 2016.

Members of the Democratic party in the Senate had stated their intention to oppose Sessions; that said, successfully defeating the nomination of Sessions would have required peeling away the votes of at least two or three Republican members of the Senate body.[89] Republican members of the Judiciary Committee spoke favorably towards Sessions,[100] as Sessions had been a former member of the Judiciary Committee while serving as Senator. Although Democratic party Senators, including Elizabeth Warren, criticized Sessions, at least one Democratic Senator, Joe Manchin of West Virginia, stated he would vote to confirm Sessions.[100] Historically, there has never been a sitting Senator appointed to cabinet position who was denied that post during the confirmation process.[100]

The confirmation process for Trump’s nominee Senator Jeff Sessions was described as “strikingly contentious” by The New York Times;[101] as Senator Mitch McConnell invoked Rule XIX to silence Senator Elizabeth Warren for the rest of the hearing. McConnell interrupted Warren as she had read a letter by Coretta Scott King opposing Sessions’ nomination to a federal judgeship along with several statements which were made by Senator Ted Kennedy in 1986 during Senate hearings on Sessions’ nomination. Afterwards, Warren live-streamed herself reading the letter, critical of Sessions, that Coretta Scott King had written to Senator Strom Thurmond in 1986.[102]

On February 8, Sessions, was confirmed as United States Attorney General by a vote of 52–47, with all of the Republican Senators and Democratic Senator Joe Manchin voting in favor of Sessions’ confirmation and all other Senators voting against Sessions’ confirmation. Sessions’ confirmation ended a nomination battle which was described by The New York Times, as “bitter and racially charged”.[103]

Secretary of the Interior[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Energy and Natural Resources committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Ryan Zinke[edit source]

On December 9, 2016, Cathy McMorris Rodgers of Washington was originally selected for the role, according to anonymous leaks within the Trump transition team.[nb 1][118]However, instead Ryan Zinke was reportedly offered the role of Secretary of the Interior on December 13, 2016. Trump’s transition team formally announced the decision to nominate Zinke on December 15, 2016.[119]

His nomination was approved by a 16–6 vote from the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee on January 31, 2017.[120] Zinke was confirmed on March 1, 2017 by a vote of 68–31, becoming the first Navy SEAL to occupy a Cabinet position.[121][122] Prior to Zinke’s confirmation, Kevin Haugrud served as the acting Secretary of the Interior.

Secretary of Agriculture[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Sonny Perdue[edit source]

On January 18, 2017 Sonny Perdue, former governor of Georgia, was selected to be the Secretary of Agriculture.[123] On April 24, 2017 Perdue was confirmed by the Senate in an 87-11 vote. Prior to Perdue’s confirmation the acting Secretary of Agriculture was Michael Scuse.

Secretary of Commerce[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Commerce, Science, and Transportation committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Wilbur Ross[edit source]

Trump’s selection of CEO Wilbur Ross from Florida (formerly of New York) was officially announced on November 30, 2016. Several days earlier starting November 24, unofficial staff interviews said that Ross either would be,[124][125][126][127] or was expected to be,[128][129][130][131][132] offered the role.

Confirmation hearings were originally scheduled for January 12, but were postponed because the Commerce Committee had not yet received the ethics agreement from the Office of Government Ethics and the Department of Commerce.[133] On February 27 2017, he was confirmed by the United States Senate in a 72–27 vote. He assumed office on February 28, 2017.[19]

Secretary of Labor[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Failed nomination of Andy Puzder[edit source]

On December 8, 2016 Andy Puzder, CEO of CKE Restaurants, was officially selected to be the Secretary of Labor. The Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions committee (HELP) delayed Puzder’s hearing five times due to missing paperwork from the Office of Government Ethics.[134] It was revealed that prior to the nomination Puzder employed a housekeeper who was not authorized to work in the U.S. Puzder failed to pay employer taxes. Puzder fired the housekeeper and amended his taxes only after his nomination.[135]Prior cabinet nominations from the Bush and Clinton administrations with undocumented housekeepers have had to withdraw their nominations.

On February 8, 2017 the Office of Government Ethics submitted Puzder’s ethics paperwork to Congress.[136] It was also revealed Puzder’s ex-wife Lisa Fierstein appeared in disguise on Oprah Winfrey‘s talk show in the 1980s. In the interview, she alleged Puzder beat her. She later recanted. Fierstein sent a letter to Congress shortly after his nomination stating, “Andy is not and was not abusive or violent.” Complying with the HELP committee, the Oprah Winfrey Network produced tapes from the interview for members of the committee to view.[137] Four Republican Senators from the HELP committee Susan Collins, Tim Scott, Johnny Isakson, and Lisa Murkowski expressed doubt over Puzder’s nomination.[135] On February 15, 2017 reports surfaced that Puzder would withdraw his nomination, a day before his scheduled hearing.[138] Later that day Puzder released a statement to the Associated Press officially withdrawing his nomination.[139]

Alex Acosta[edit source]

On February 16, 2017 Alex Acosta, dean of the Florida International University College of Law and former Justice Department attorney, was officially selected to be the Secretary of Labor.[140] On April 27, 2017, Acosta was confirmed by the Senate in a 60–38 vote. Prior to Acosta’s confirmation the acting Secretary of Labor was Ed Hugler.

Secretary of Health and Human Services[edit source]

Although historically the nominee also holds meetings with the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions committee, officially the nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the United States Senate Committee on Finance, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Tom Price[edit source]

Trump’s selection of Representative Tom Price from Georgia was officially announced on November 28, 2016.[141][142][143]

Members of the Democratic party in the Senate such as Debbie Stabenow, Brian Schatz, and Sherrod Brown have stated their intention to oppose this nominee.[89] However, successfully blocking the nomination would have required the support of at least two Republican members of the full body, which was expected to have a partisan split (52 who caucus with the Republicans versus 48 who caucus with the Democrats).[citation needed] Price was confirmed by the Senate on February 10, 2017 in a 52–47 vote along party lines, with all Republicans voting in favor and all Democrats voting against.[144] Prior to Price’s confirmation, the acting Secretary of Health and Human Services was Norris Cochran.

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Ben Carson[edit source]

On December 5, 2016, President-elect Donald Trump announced that he would nominate Ben Carson to the position of Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.[145] During confirmation hearings, Carson was held under close scrutiny for his lack of relevant experience, and because he has been one the most hostile critics of HUD’s role in enforcing anti-discrimination laws.[146] On January 24, 2017, the Senate Banking Committee voted unanimously to approve the nomination, sending it to the Senate floor for a complete vote.[147] On March 2, 2017, Carson was confirmed by the United States Senate in a 58–41 vote.[148] Prior to Carson’s nomination, Craig Clemmensen served as the acting Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

Secretary of Transportation[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Commerce, Science, and Transportation committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Elaine Chao[edit source]

On November 29, 2016 it was reported that President-elect Trump selected former United States Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao of Kentucky as his Secretary of Transportation.[149][150] On January 31, Chao was confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 93–6. Her husband Senator Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) only voted present due to the conflict of interest. Prior to Chao’s confirmation the acting Secretary of Transportation was Michael Huerta.

Secretary of Energy[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Energy and Natural Resources committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Rick Perry[edit source]

On December 13, 2016 Rick Perry, former Governor of Texas, was selected to be the Secretary of Energy.[151] During a previous presidential campaign, Perry said he intended to abolish the department.[152] His nomination was approved by a 16–7 vote from the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources on January 31, 2017.[153]On March 2, 2017, Perry was confirmed by the United States Senate in a 62-37 vote.[154] Prior to Perry’s confirmation, the acting Secretary of Energy was Grace Bochenek.

Secretary of Education[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Betsy DeVos[edit source]

File:Betsy DeVos final confirmation vote in US Senate tie broken by Mike Pence.webm

Vice President Mike Pence breaks the 50–50 tie in the Senate in DeVos’s favor, confirming DeVos as Secretary of Education.

Trump’s selection of former RNC member Betsy DeVos from Michigan was officially announced on November 23, 2016.

Originally scheduled for January 11, but was postponed because the Office of Government Ethics had not completed its review of DeVos’ financial holdings and potential conflicts of interest.[155] On January 20, the Office of Government Ethics completed their ethics report on DeVos, three days after her hearing with the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions was held. The completion of the report prompted the delay of her scheduled committee vote to January 31. Senate Democrats had requested a second hearing for DeVos to committee chair Senator Lamar Alexander, which he denied. DeVos has repeatedly said that she will divest from 102 companies within 90 days if confirmed.[156][157][158] On February 7, 2017, the full senate voted 51–50 – with Vice President Pence casting the tie-breaking vote – to confirm DeVos, with Pence becoming the first vice president in U.S. history to cast the tie-breaking vote for a cabinet nominee,[159][160]since Henry A. Wallace having his confirmation tie broken by Truman.[161] Prior to DeVos’ confirmation, Phil Rosenfelt served as the acting Secretary of Education.

Secretary of Veterans Affairs[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Veterans Affairs committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

David Shulkin[edit source]

On January 11, 2017 David Shulkin, the Under Secretary of Veterans Affairs for Health under President Barack Obama, was selected to be the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.[162]He was later confirmed by the Senate by a 100 to 0 vote. Prior to Shulkin’s confirmation, Robert Snyder served as the acting Secretary of Veterans Affairs.

Secretary of Homeland Security[edit source]

The nomination of a Secretary-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs committee, then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

John F. Kelly[edit source]

On December 7, 2016 John F. Kelly, retired four-star Marine general was selected to be the Secretary of Homeland Security.[163] He was confirmed by the Senate with a vote of 88–11 and sworn in on the evening of January 20.

Cabinet-level officials[edit source]

Cabinet-level officials have positions that are considered to be of Cabinet level, but which are not part of the Cabinet. Which exact positions are considered part of the presidential cabinet, can vary with the president. The CIA and FEMA were cabinet-level agencies under Bill Clinton, but not George W. Bush. The head of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (aka the drug czar) was a cabinet-level position under both Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, but not under Barack Obama. (Not to be confused with the head of the DEA, who has remained in the org chart underneath the cabinet position held by the Attorney General.) Designation of an agency as being cabinet-level requires[citation needed] that Congress enact legislation, although executive orders unilaterally created by the president can be used to create many other types of position inside the executive branch.[citation needed] Members of the cabinet proper, as well as cabinet-level officials, meet with the president in a room adjacent to the Oval Office.

White House Chief of Staff[edit source]

Trump’s selection of former RNC chair Reince Priebus from Wisconsin was officially announced on November 13, 2016. This role does not require Senate confirmation. The appointment of Stephen Bannon as Chief Strategist was announced simultaneously. Although that strategy-role is not a Cabinet-level position in the statutory sense, in an “unusual arrangement”[164] Priebus and Bannon were envisioned by the Trump transition team as being equal partners, and were announced simultaneously.[165][166] See also, team of rivals.[167][168] With Priebus accepting a role within the administration, the person who replaces Priebus in his former role as RNC chair will be decided in January.

This position does not require confirmation by the Senate.

United States Trade Representative[edit source]

The nomination of a Director-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the United States Senate Committee on Finance then presented to the full Senate for a vote. On March 2, 2017 Trump selected Stephen Vaughn to serve as acting Trade Representative. Prior to Vaughn’s appointment Maria Pagan served as acting Representative.[169]

Robert Lighthizer[edit source]

On January 3, 2017 Robert Lighthizer, a former Deputy United States Trade Representative under President Ronald Reagan, was selected to be the United States Trade Representative.[170] Due to Lighthizer’s prior representation of foreign governments with a trade dispute with the United States, he will first need to obtain a special waiver to bypass the Lobbying Disclosure Act. The waiver would need to pass Congress and have the President’s signature to assume the position. Congress waived the ban for Charlene Barshefsky, President Clinton’s choice for Trade Representative in 1997.[171][172]

Director of National Intelligence[edit source]

On February 8, 2017 President Trump outlined the 24 members of the Cabinet with the Director of National Intelligence being newly included.[173][174] The nomination of an Director-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Dan Coats[edit source]

On January 7, 2017 Dan Coats, former Senator of Indiana, was officially selected to be the Director of National Intelligence.[175] On March 15, 2017 Coats was confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 85-12.[176] Prior to Coats’ confirmation, the acting Director of National Intelligence was Mike Dempsey.

Ambassador to the United Nations[edit source]

Like all ambassadorships and all official Cabinet positions, the nominee for this Ambassador to the U.N. requires confirmation by the Senate. The nomination of an Ambassador-designate to the United Nations is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Nikki Haley[edit source]

Haley sworn in by Vice President Mike Pence on January 25, 2017

Trump officially announced Governor Nikki Haley from South Carolina as his selection for this role on November 23, 2016. She was confirmed on January 24, 2017 and subsequently resigned as South Carolina governor. Haley supported Marco Rubio in the Republican primaries and caucuses, but later endorsed Trump as the presumptive Republican nominee.[177] Haley’s Lieutenant Governor, Henry McMaster, who was an early supporter of Trump, was also under consideration for a role in the Trump administration, but since he did not accept such a role, he succeeded to the governorship of South Carolina upon Haley’s resignation.[178]

Director of the Office of Management and Budget[edit source]

The nomination of a Director-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee and Budget Committee then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Mick Mulvaney[edit source]

On December 13, 2016 Mick Mulvaney, U.S. Representative for South Carolina’s 5th congressional district, was selected to be the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.[179]

In his statement to the Senate Budget Committee, Mulvaney admitted that he had failed to pay $15,000 in payroll taxes from 2000–04 for a nanny he had hired to care for his triplets. Mulvaney said he did not pay the taxes because he viewed the woman as a babysitter rather than as a household employee. After filling out a questionnaire from the Trump transition team, he realized the lapse and began the process of paying back taxes and fees. Senate Democrats noted that Republicans had previously insisted that past Democratic nominees’ failure to pay taxes for their household employees was disqualifying, including former Health and Human Services nominee Tom Daschle in 2009.[180][181]

Budget Chairman Senator Mike Enzi (R-Wyoming) noted on the Senate floor, “According to Senate records from President Jimmy Carter to President Obama, the longest it has ever taken to approve a first budget director for a new president was one week — one week.”[182] On February 16, 2017, the Senate confirmed Mulvaney, 51–49.[183]

Director of the Central Intelligence Agency[edit source]

On February 8, 2017 President Trump outlined the 24 members of the Cabinet with the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency being newly included.[173][174] The nomination of an Director-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Mike Pompeo[edit source]

On November 18, 2016 Mike Pompeo, the Representative of Kansas’ 4th congressional district, was officially selected to be the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.[184] He was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 23, 2017, with a vote of 66–32.[185] Pompeo was opposed by 30 Democratic Senators while the sole Republican vote against him came from Rand Paul. He was sworn in on the same night by Vice President Mike Pence.

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency[edit source]

The nomination of an Administrator-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the Environment and Public Works Committee,[186] then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Scott Pruitt[edit source]

On December 7, 2016, Scott Pruitt, Attorney General of Oklahoma was selected to be the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.[187][188] In response to the nomination, Pruitt said, “I intend to run this agency in a way that fosters both responsible protection of the environment and freedom for American businesses.”[189]

During his January 18 confirmation hearing, Pruitt’s testimony openly acknowledged climate change. Pruitt declared the EPA has a “very important role” in regulating carbon dioxide emissions. Pruitt has sued the Environmental Protection Agency as the Attorney General of Oklahoma on more than a dozen occasions. When pressed by Senator Ed Markey on whether he would recuse himself from ongoing lawsuits, Pruitt “would not commit to recusing himself from all the cases he had brought.”[190][191] Pruitt deflected questioning from Senator Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) on the issue of whether human activity is largely responsible for climate change. Stating, “I believe the ability to measure, with precision, the degree of human activity’s impact on the climate is subject to more debate on whether the climate is changing or whether human activity contributes to it.”[192] Pruitt declined to comment on whether California could set its own emission standards and said he would review the policy.[193] Prior to Pruitt’s confirmation, the acting Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency was Catherine McCabe.

Administrator of the Small Business Administration[edit source]

The nomination of an Administrator-designate is reviewed during hearings held by the members of the United States Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship and then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Linda McMahon[edit source]

On December 7, 2016 Linda McMahon, former CEO of World Wrestling Entertainment Inc. and Senate nominee, was selected to be the head of the Small Business Administration.[194][195] McMahon was confirmed by a Senate vote of 81–19 on February 14, 2017. Marianne Markowitz served as acting administrator prior to McMahon’s confirmation.

McMahon earned approval votes from Senators Richard Blumenthal and Chris Murphy from Connecticut; they defeated McMahon in their respective Senate races. Senator Jim Risch (R-Idaho), chairman of the Senate Committee on Small Businesses and Entrepreneurship, said, “Mrs. McMahon made it very clear that she has the experience, understanding and instincts necessary to bolster America’s small business community and advocate for much-needed regulatory reforms.” [196]

Removal of the Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers[edit source]

On February 8, 2017 President Trump outlined the 24 members of the Cabinet, excluding the Council of Economic Advisers chairman position.[173][174] In addition to the chairman, the council had two other members, also appointed by the president, as well as a staff of economists, researchers, and statisticians. Historically, appointees to chair the council have held Ph.Ds in economics, and the role of the group is to provide advice in the form of economic analysis with respect to policy, as distinct from shaping economic policy per se.[197][198]

Trump released a list of his campaign‘s official economic advisers in August 2016,[199][200] which simultaneously was anti-establishment[201] and therefore lean on those with governmental experience,[202] yet at the same time aimed to include some members of business and finance,.[199] Many of the listed names received media attention as potential appointees to the Council of Economic Advisers, or in other Trump administration roles.

Although removed from the Cabinet, the Chair-designate, if nominated, must be reviewed during hearings held by the members of the United States Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs and then presented to the full Senate for a vote.

Various other Trump administration appointees are directly involved with economic matters, for example Director of the National Economic Council Gary Cohn, National Trade Council director Peter Navarro, SEC chairman Jay Clayton, OMB director Mick Mulvaney, Treasury secretary Steven Mnuchin, Commerce secretary Wilbur Ross, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and SBA administrator Linda McMahon.

See also[edit source]

First 100 days of Donald Trump’s presidency

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
File:A Message from President-Elect Donald J. Trump.webm

Donald Trump outlines his plan for the first 100 days of his presidency on November 21, 2016.

One of Trump’s major accomplishments, made as part of a “100-day pledge“, was the confirmation of Neil Gorsuch as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Structurally, President Trump had the advantage of a Republican Party majority in the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate, but was unable to fulfill his major pledges in his first 100 days and had an approval rating of between 40 and 42 percent, “the lowest for any first-term president at this point in his tenure”.[3] Although he tried to make progress on one of his key economic policies—the dismantling of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act—his failure to repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the first 100 days was a major setback.[4] He reversed his position on a number of issues including labeling China as a currency manipulator,[5][6] NATO, launching the 2017 Shayrat missile strike without congressional approval, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), renomination of Janet Yellen as Chair of the Federal Reserve,[5][6] and the nomination of Export-Import Bank directors. Supporters claim he is the first to have been elected President in present times who has held neither military or political office and therefore faced a steep learning curve.[3] Trump’s approval among his base is high, with 96% of those who voted for him saying in an April 2017 poll that they would vote for him again.[7]The first 100 days of Donald Trump‘s presidency began with his inauguration as the 45th President of the United States, which occurred at noon on January 20, 2017. The 48th Vice President of the United States, Mike Pence, was inaugurated on the same day. The 100th day of Trump’s presidency was April 29, 2017. Trump first announced his plan for the first hundred days of his presidency in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania,[1] on October 23, 2016, before the election.[2]

Near the end of the 100 days, the Trump administration introduced a broad outline of a sweeping tax reform focusing on deep tax cuts. While it is intended to encourage economic growth, there were concerns from some members of the United States Congress about raising the national deficit.[8] In spite of the sharp decline in gross domestic product (GDP) in the first quarter of 2017—representing the weakest quarterly economic growth in three years[9]—the S&P 500 was near an all-time high, representing a 12% rise from the first quarter of 2016, as investor confidence remained elevated.[10] Although Trump had to concede to delay funding for the U.S.–Mexico border wall he had promised, narrowly avoiding a government shutdown a few days before the end of the first 100 days,[11] his rhetoric may have contributed to a sharp drop in the number of illegal crossings at the Mexico–United States border.[12]

Trump signed 24 executive orders in his first 100 days, the most executive orders of any President since World War II.[13] He also signed 22 presidential memoranda, 20 presidential proclamations, and 28 bills.[14] About a dozen of those bills roll-back regulations finalized during the last months of his immediate predecessor Barack Obama‘s presidency using the Congressional Review Act.[15][16][17] Most of the other bills are “small-scale measures that appoint personnel, name federal facilities or modify existing programs.”[18] None of Trump’s bills are considered to be “major bills”—based on a “longstanding political-science standard for ‘major bills’.”[14] Presidential historian Michael Beschloss said that “based on a legislative standard”— which is what the first 100 days has been judged on since the tenure of President Franklin Roosevelt, who enacted 76 laws in 100 days including nine that were “major”—”Trump is really pretty low down on the list.”[13]

Pledges

Trump pledged to do the following in his first 100 days:[2][19][20][21]

  • Appoint judges “who will uphold the Constitution” and “defend the Second Amendment
  • Construct a wall on the southern U.S. border and limit illegal immigration “to give unemployed Americans an opportunity to fill good-paying jobs”
  • Re-assess trade agreements with other nations and “crack down” on companies that send jobs overseas
  • Repeal and replace the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly called the Affordable Care Act or Obamacare)
  • Remove federal restrictions on energy production
  • Push for an amendment to the United States Constitution imposing term limits on Congress[22][23]
  • Eliminate gun-free zones[24]
  • Formulate a rule on regulations “that for every one new regulation, two old regulations must be eliminated”[25]
  • Instruct the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to “develop a comprehensive plan to protect America’s vital infrastructure from cyberattacks, and all other form of attacks.”[25]
  • Label China a “currency manipulator”[26][27]
  • Enforce rules and regulations for China’s unfair subsidy behavior. Instruct the U.S. trade representative to bring trade cases against China, both in U.S. and at the WTO.[27][28]
  • Use every lawful presidential power to remedy trade disputes, including the application of 45% tariffs consistent with Section 201 and 301 of the Trade Act of 1974, and Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 to stop China’s illegal activities, including its theft of American trade secrets.[28][29]

Inauguration

The first 100 days began with the inauguration on January 20, 2017, at 12:00 pm. This was the third presidential online portal transition and the first to transition social media accounts such as Twitter.[30] As Trump took the oath of office, the official @POTUS Twitter account switched to President Trump with previous tweets archived under @POTUS44. All 13 million followers of the POTUS account during Obama’s administration slowly transitioned[clarification needed] as well.[31]

Cabinet

On February 8, when Trump formally announced his 24-member-cabinet—the largest cabinet of any President so far—fewer cabinet nominees had been confirmed than any other president except George Washington by the same length of time into his presidency.[32][33][34] Trump’s reorganization of the cabinet removed the Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers that President Obama had added in 2009. The Director of National Intelligence and Director of the CIA were elevated to cabinet-level.[35] During the transition period, Trump had named a full slate of Cabinet and Cabinet-level nominees, all of which require Senate confirmation except for White House Chief of Staff and the vice presidency.[36]

By April 29, almost all of his nominated cabinet members had been confirmed, including Secretaries of State Rex Tillerson, Secretary of the Treasury) Steven Mnuchin, DefenseJames Mattis, Justice Jeff Sessions, the Interior Ryan Zinke, Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue, Commerce Wilbur Ross, Secretary of Labor Alex Acosta, Health and Human Services HHS Tom Price, Housing and Urban Development) HUD Ben Carson, Transportation Elaine Chao, Energy Rick Perry, Education Betsy DeVos, Veterans Affairs David Shulkin, Homeland Security John Kelly, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Mike Pompeo, UN Ambassador Nikki R. Haley, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)Scott Pruitt, Small Business Administration Linda McMahon, Management and Budget OMB Mick Mulvaney, and Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats. Only two were awaiting confirmation—Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Council of Economic Advisers CEA Kevin Hassett.[37]

James Mattis was confirmed on January 20 as Secretary of Defense by a vote of 98–1. Mattis had previously received a waiver of the National Security Act of 1947, which requires a seven-year waiting period before retired military personnel can assume the role of Secretary of Defense.[38] John Kelly was confirmed as United States Secretary of Homeland Security on the first day by a vote of 88–11.[39] Former ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson was sworn in as Secretary of State by Vice-President Mike Pence on February 1.[40][41] Trump nominated Tillerson for the position as top U.S. diplomat (the equivalent of a foreign minister) on December 13, 2016.[42] He was approved by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on January 23, 2017,[43] and by the full Senate in a 56–43 vote.[40][41] Nikki Haley was confirmed as UN Ambassador with a Senate vote of 96 to 4.[44]

On January 26, 2017, when Tillerson visited the United States State Department, Undersecretaries Joyce Anne Barr, Patrick F. Kennedy, Michele Bond, and Gentry O. Smith all simultaneously resigned from the department. Former State Department chief of staff David Wade called the resignations “the single biggest simultaneous departure of institutional memory that anyone can remember.”[45] The Trump administration told CNN the officials had been fired[46] and the Chicago Tribune reported that several senior state department career diplomats left the State Department, claiming they “had been willing to remain at their posts but had no expectation of staying.”[47]

On February 10, Tom Price was confirmed as Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), a “$1 trillion government department”.[48] HHS includes National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Price, who is a vocal opponent of the Affordable Care Act, will oversee its repeal and replacement.[48] He has published articles in the “small, conservative medical association”, the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, to which he belongs, that opposes mandatory vaccination and continue to argue that the vaccines causes autism,[49] a “discredited conspiracy theory that Trump has long espoused”. In response to questions from Senators at the hearing as to whether he believes autism is caused by vaccines, he responded, “I think the science in that instance is that it does not”.[50]

Steve Mnuchin, who was nominated by Trump in November 2016,[51][52] was finally confirmed on February 13, 2017, as Secretary of the Treasury department[53] after lengthy confirmation hearings.[54][55][56][57]

On February 16, the Senate voted 54 to 46 to advance Scott Pruitt‘s nomination as Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.[58] On February 16, a District Court Judge in Oklahoma, Aletia Timmons, ordered Pruitt to “turn over thousands of emails related to his communication with the oil, gas and coal industry” in a case brought to court by the Center for Media and Democracy.[59] Lawmakers had criticized Pruitt who sued the EPA 14 times on behalf of the State of Oklahoma.[58]

Trump nominated Alexander Acosta as Secretary of Labor on February 16, when his first nominee Andrew Puzder stepped down[60] under a wave of criticism for having employed an illegal immigrant as a former housekeeper, for his “remarks on women and employees at his restaurants” and for his “rancorous 1980s divorce”.[61][62][63][64]

Notable non-Cabinet positions

According to a database compiled by the Washington Post in collaboration with the Partnership for Public Service, as of April 27, 473 of the 554 key executive branch nominations that require Presidential nomination and Senate confirmation, had not yet been appointed, including “Cabinet secretaries, deputy and assistant secretaries, chief financial officers, general counsel, heads of agencies, ambassadors and other critical leadership positions.”[65] Only three of the 119 Department of State executive branch positions have been filled and only one position in the Department of Defense—the Secretary of Defense, James Mattis—has been filled out of 53 key positions. Trump has not yet nominated anyone for 49 of these positions.[66][67] On February 28, in an exclusive interview Tuesday with Fox & Friends, said, “a lot of those jobs, I don’t want to appoint, because they’re unnecessary to have….You know, we have so many people in government, even me. I look at some of the jobs and it’s people over people over people. I say, ‘What do all these people do?’ You don’t need all those jobs…Many of those jobs I don’t want to fill. I say, isn’t that a good thing? That’s not a bad thing. That’s a good thing. We’re running a very good, efficient government.”[68]

Prior to taking office, Trump named several important White House advisers to positions that do not require Senate confirmation, including Stephen K. Bannon as his “senior counselor and chief West Wing strategist” and Reince Priebus as Chief of Staff, with a mission “as equal partners to transform the federal government.”[69] Other important advisers outside of the Cabinet include (Counselor to the President) Kellyanne Conway, Senior Advisor (National Security Advisor) Michael Flynn (replaced by H. R. McMaster) and (National Trade Council) Director Peter Navarro.[70] (Homeland Security Adviser) Thomas P. Bossert, (Regulatory Czar) Carl Icahn, (White House Counsel) Donald F. “Don” McGahn II, and (Press Secretary) Sean Spicer.

Michael T. Flynn served as Trump’s National Security Advisor from January 20 until his resignation on February 13, 2017.[71][72] He set a record for the shortest tenure as National Security Advisor in American history.[73] The Justice Department warned the Trump administration that Flynn, who had a “well-established history with Russia”,[74] may have been “vulnerable to blackmail by Moscow.” Flynn had “mischaracterized his communications” with Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak to Vice President Mike Pence regarding U.S. sanctions on Russia.[73][74] Flynn’s phone calls had been “recorded by a government wiretap” and several days after Flynn was named as Trump’s Advisor, Sally Yates, who was then acting attorney general, warned the White House that “Flynn was susceptible to blackmail by the Russians because he had misled Mr. Pence and other officials”. According to a February 14 article by The New York Times, it was unclear why the White House did not react to Yates’ warning in early January. There were also questions about how much was known in early January by Bannon, Pence, Spicer, and Trump. Yates was fired on January 30, in an unrelated incident.[74][75][76]

On February 20, 2017, Trump named “warrior-scholar deemed an expert in counter insurgency”,[77] Lieutenant General H. R. McMaster, to replace Flynn as National Security Advisor.[78][79][80] Trump overruled McMaster’s attempt to replace 30-year-old NSC aide Ezra Cohen-Watnick, a Mike Flynn appointee, with Linda Weissgold, when Bannon and Kushner intervened on Cohen-Watnick’s behalf on March 11–12.[81][82] Cohen-Watnick gathered classified files on intelligence information on U.S. persons.[82]

On January 28, 2017, Trump signed a Memorandum, the Organization of the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council[83] which restructured the Principals Committee—the senior policy committee—of the National Security Council, assigning a permanent invitation to Steve Bannon, White House Chief Strategist, while at the same time withdrawing the permanent invitations of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Director of National Intelligence.[84] On April 5, the 75th day of Trump’s presidency, under guidance from Army Lieutenant General H. R. McMaster, the National Security Advisor (NSC advisor) who replaced Mike Flynn, Trump removed Bannon, who has no security experience, from the National Security Council’s principals committee.[85][86]

Trump’s 36-year-old son-in-law, Jared Kushner is Trump’s Senior Advisor alongside Stephen Miller. “In his January interview with the Times of London, Trump said that Kushner would be in charge of brokering peace in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[87][88][89] He is also a “top adviser on relations with Canada, China and Mexico.”[90] On April 3, Kushner accompanied the head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Joseph F. Dunford Jr. and Homeland Security Advisor Thomas P. Bossert to meet with Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi “to discuss the fight against the Islamic State and whether the United States would leave troops in Iraq afterward.”[91][90] Trump named Kushner as head of the White House Office of American Innovation, (OAI), established on March 29 and mandated to use ideas from the private-sector to overhaul all federal agencies and departments in order to “spur job creation”.[92][93][94] One of the OAI’s first priorities is to modernize the technology of departments such as Veterans Affairs.[95] In his new position, Kushner will work with Chris Christie, who will chair the newly established “President’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis” in response to Trump’s pledge to combat opioid abuse.[96][97][95]

On January 28, in his eleventh Presidential Memoranda, “Organization of the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council”, White House Chief Strategist, Steve Bannon, was designated as a regular attendee to the National Security Council (NSC)′s Principals Committee, a Cabinet-level senior interagency forum for considering national security issues, in a departure from the previous format in which this role is usually held for generals.[98][99][100] While at first there was some confusion over meeting attendees, Priebus clarified on January 30, that defense officials could attend the meetings.[101][102] On April 5, the 75th day of Trump’s presidency, under guidance from Army Lieutenant General H. R. McMaster, the National Security Advisor (NSC advisor) who replaced Mike Flynn, Trump removed Bannon, who has no security experience, from the National Security Council’s principals committee.[85][86]

On February 2, Time published an article about Bannon as potentially, the second most powerful man in the world, illustrated with a cover labeling him as the “Great Manipulator.”[103][104] After only a fortnight into Trump’s presidency, NPR described Bannon as “the power behind the throne” and the “gray eminence behind much of what Trump was prioritizing”, rivalling Kushner’s and Priebus’ roles.[105] Mike Pence affirmed in a PBS NewsHour report that only Trump was “in charge”.

Bannon and Steve Miller have been called the “architects” of the inaugural address, executive orders, including the controversial travel and refugees EO,[106] and presidential memoranda.[105][106]

In an often-cited October 8, 2015, lengthy profile entitled “This Man Is the Most Dangerous Political Operative in America” by Joshua Green, a senior national correspondent for Bloomberg News, Green described how Breitbart News with Bannon at its helm, had “championed Trump’s presidential candidacy” and helped “coalesce a splinter faction of conservatives” who were irate over the way in which Fox News had treated Trump.[107] Green quoted then-Senator Jeff Sessions as an admirer of Breitbart, which was “extraordinarily influential”, with many radio hosts “reading Breitbart every day”.[107] Trump cited Breitbart News to vindicate his claims.[108]

Stephen Miller, Trump’s Senior Advisor, was Jeff Sessions’ communications director when he served as Senator for Alabama.[109][110][111] Thirty-one-year old Miller, Bannon, and Andrew Bremberg sent over 200 executive orders to federal agencies for review before January 20.[112] Miller has been an architect behind the inaugural address and the most “contentious executive orders”[112] including Executive Order 13769.[113][114]

In a February 12 interview with ABC News anchor George Stephanopolous, when asked to provide evidence “for Trump’s “unfounded allegations”[115] where former Senator Kelly Ayotte lost her bid for election, and Trump narrowly lost to Clinton in 2016,[116][117] Miller suggested Stephanopolous interview Kansas Senator, Kris Kobach, who relied upon a 2012 Pew Research Center study[118] in his voter fraud claims.[115][119] The day before the interview a Federal Election Commission Commissioner called on Trump to provide evidence of what would “constitute thousands of felony criminal offenses under New Hampshire law.”[117]

Gary Cohn, the former Goldman Sachs investment banker and executive, took office on January 20, as Trump’s Director of the National Economic Council, (NEC), a position which did not require Congressional confirmation,[55][120] By February 11, 2017, The Wall Street Journal described Cohn as an “economic-policy powerhouse” in Trump’s administration and The New York Times called him Trump’s “go-to figure on matters related to jobs, business and growth.”[121] While the confirmation of Trump’s December 12, 2016, nominee for Secretary of Treasury, Steven Mnuchin, was delayed until February 13 by Congressional hearings, Cohn filled in the “personnel vacuum” and pushed “ahead on taxes, infrastructure, financial regulation and replacing health-care law.”[55][54] In November, Trump considered offering Cohn the position as Secretary of Treasury.[55] If Cohn had stayed at Goldman Sachs, some believed he would have become CEO when Lloyd Blankfein vacated that office and his $285 million severance package “raised eyebrows” according to CNN.[55][122] Bannon and Cohn disagree on the border-adjustment tax,[123] the centerpiece of Paul Ryan‘s controversial tax reforms presented on February 17,[124][125] which includes a 20% import tax, export subsidies and a 15% reduction in corporate tax rates that would, among other things, pay for the Mexican wall,[126] which according to a The Washington Post study, would cost $25 billion[127] and which Trump stated would cost $12 billion.[128]

United States Domestic Policy Council

The Domestic Policy Council (DPC) consists of Trump and Andrew Bremberg as Directors with Paul Winfree as Deputy Assistant. Council attendees include Mike Pence, Jeff Sessions, Tom Price, John F. Kelly, David Shulkin, Ryan Zinke, Betsy DeVos, Ben Carson, Elaine Chao, Wilbur Ross, Rick Perry, Steven Mnuchin, and-when appointed—the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Agriculture. Additional attendees include Scott Pruitt, Mick Mulvaney (Director of the Office of Management and Budget), Gary Cohn, and—when appointed—the Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers and the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy.[129] The Congressional Research Service describes DPC’s role as analyses of domestic policies and social programs including “education, labor and worker safety; health-care insurance and financing; health services and research; aging policy studies; Social Security, pensions and disability insurance; immigration, homeland security, domestic intelligence and criminal justice; and welfare, nutrition and housing programs.”

Withdrawal of Affordable Care Act

Within the first hours of Trump’s presidency, he signed his first executive order, Minimizing the Economic Burden of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Pending Repeal (EO 13765) to fulfill part of his pledge to repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA),[130] which was part of a series of steps taken prior to 2017 to repeal and defund the ACA,[131] including most recently, the FY2017 budget resolution, S.Con.Res. 3, that contained language allowing the repeal of ACA through the budget reconciliation process.[132][133] A CBO report estimated 18 million people would lose their insurance and premiums would rise by 20% to 25% in the first year after repealing Obamacare. Uninsured could reach 32 million by 2026, while premiums could double.[134] The order states what Mr. Trump made clear during his campaign: that it is his administration’s policy to seek the “prompt repeal” of Obamacare.[135] During his Fox News interview with Bill O’Reilly airing before the Super Bowl, Trump announced that the timeline for replacing Obamacare had to be extended and that a replacement would probably not be ready until 2018. Republicans are limited as to how much of ACA they can undo as they do not have a 60-vote majority in the Senate. They also “must balance the interests of insurers and medical providers”.[136] According to the March 13, 2017 report by the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office and staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) on the budgetary impact of the Republican bill to repeal and replace ACA over the coming decade, there would be a $337 billion reduction in the federal deficit and an estimated loss of coverage to 24 million more Americans.[137][138][139] The Republican health-care plan was unveiled on March 6 and faced opposition from both moderate and conservative Republicans, such as the House Freedom Caucus.[140][141] The American Health Care Act of 2017 (AHCA), a bill to repeal and replace the ACA, was withdrawn in Congress on March 24, 2017 due to lack of support from within the Republican caucus.[142][141][140]

Immigration policy

In his first 100 days, President Trump set the tone of harsh immigration policies[143] by signing executive orders to set in motion travel bans and restrictions on refugees and immigrants from Muslim-majority countries, increased immigration enforcement including deportations, and expanded efforts to prevent illegal entry into the United States by building a wall along the Mexico-United States border. While the numbers of people deported were very similar to those in 2016, the categories of people targeted for deportations was broadened during this period, which meant that many more people are at a heightened risk of deportation. Secretary Kelly clarified that Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) “will no longer exempt classes or categories of removable aliens from potential enforcement.” By April 3, according to ICE, there had been 35,604 removals in January and February 2017 compared to 35,255 in the same period in 2016. But the “tough rhetoric” and some “high-profile Ice operations” widely cited in the media resulted in widespread fear and panic within immigrant communities.[143]

In an AP April 20 interview, Trump said that, “The dreamers should rest easy”.[144] There are 800,000 young people protected by Obama’s “Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals” (DREAMERS) who came to the U.S. as children and are living there illegally. Some of these “dreamers” in interviews with The Associated Press on April 21, said they “were not comforted by Trump’s pledge” particularly since the April 18 deportation of 23-year-old “dreamer”, Juan Manuel Montes.[145] Trump supporters who are “immigration hard-liners”, such as NumbersUSA and Mark Krikorian of the Center for Immigration Studies, feel deceived by Trump’s softening stance on DREAMERs arguing that “[h]is promise on DACA was pretty clear and unequivocal”.[146]

Travel ban and refugee suspension

Map of countries affected by Executive Order 13769. Collectively, the order applies to over 200 million people (approximate population of the seven countries) while about 90,000 people from these countries currently hold a US immigrant or non-immigrant visa[147][148]

On January 27 at 4:42 p.m, Trump signed Executive Order 13769,[149] entitled “Protecting the Nation From Terrorist Attacks by Foreign Nationals” which temporarily suspends the U. S. Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP) for 120 days and denies entry to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen for 90 days. The suspension for Syrian refugees is for an indefinite period of time.[150][151] The Economist described the order as “drafted in secret, enacted in haste and unlikely to fulfill its declared aim of sparing America from terrorism” with “Republican allies” lamenting that a “fine, popular policy was marred by its execution.”[152] Notably Saudi Arabia was not on the list though most of the 9/11 hijackers were from there.[153] See Provisions of Order 13769.

On February 4, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the State Department suspended all actions to implement the week-old EO[154] in response to the February 3 ruling by federal judge James Robart which blocked the EO.[154][155][156] According to CNN and the Los Angeles Times, the architects behind the order, were Stephen Miller and Steve Bannon.[157][114] White House officials deny that it was written without input from the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Legal Counsel (OLC).[158] It was argued that these 7 countries ranked among the lowest 15 out of the 104 countries evaluated by the Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index in 2016 based on the “number of countries that their citizens can travel to visa-free.” For example, Germany ranks the highest at 177 points, Afghanistan the lowest of all 104 at 25.[159]:3 The order also calls for an expedited completion and implementation of the Biometric Entry-Exit Tracking System for all travelers coming into the United States.[150][160] The first legal challenge against the EO was filed on January 28, and within two days there were dozens of ongoing lawsuits in the United States federal courts.[161][162][163][164] By February 3, federal judge, James Robart temporarily blocked the week-old EO which opened American airports to visa holders from the seven targeted countries.[155][156] At the international level legal concerns have been raised by the UN, Zeid Ra’ad al Hussein, who claimed that “discrimination on nationality alone is forbidden under human rights law.”[165][166] On January 30, in a telephone call to Trump, German Chancellor Angela Merkel explained that his EO “ran counter to the duties of all signatory states” to the Geneva Refugee Convention “to take in war refugees on humanitarian grounds”.[167]

Thousands protested at airports and other locations throughout the United States.[168] Critics of the ban include most Democrats and several top Republican Congressmen,[169]former President Obama,[170] the Council on American–Islamic Relations,[171] over a dozen state attorneys general,[172] thousands of academics,[173] Nobel laureates,[173][174]technology companies[175][176][177] Iran, France, Germany,[178][179] and 800,000 petitioners in Britain.[180] Supporters of the ban include 82% of GOP voters,[181][182] Paul Ryan, Bob Goodlatte, Czech President Miloš Zeman,[179][183][184][185] and members of the European far right.[184][186] According to an IPSOS online poll conducted on January 31, in response to the question, “Do you agree or disagree with the Executive Order that President Trump signed blocking refugees and banning people from seven Muslim majority countries from entering the U.S.?”, 48% of the 1,201 Americans polled agreed with the statement (23% of the 453 Democrats, 82% of the 478 Republicans, and 44% of the Independents polled).[181]

On the evening of January 30, Trump replaced acting Attorney General Sally Yates with Dana Boente.[187] Spicer’s statement described Yates as an “Obama administration appointee” who had “betrayed the Department of Justice” by “refusing to enforce a legal order.” In the Senate, Chuck Schumer, called her firing a Monday Night Massacre in reference to Nixon‘s firing of his attorney general, referred to as the Saturday Night Massacre during Watergate.[188] Trump also replaced DHS‘s ICE Chief Daniel Ragsdale with Thomas Homan as Acting Director in the evening of January 30.[189][190]

In a live interview with Chris Wallace on January 29, Fox News Sunday, Kellyanne Conway, justified the list of 7 countries by claiming that the countries were originally identified as a threat in the Terrorist Prevention Act passed by Congress in 2015.[191] HUD’s Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act of 2015, was extended amid some controversy in February 2016, when it revoked the privilege of traveling to the States without a visa to people who “had recently traveled to Iraq, Syria, Iran or Sudan,” as they were considered to be high-risk.[192][193] A spokesman for former president Obama issued a statement stating, “The president [Obama] fundamentally disagrees with the notion of discriminating against individuals because of their faith or religion,” In his final press statement as president, Obama stated, “There’s a difference between [the] normal functioning of politics and certain issues or certain moments where I think our core values may be at stake,” and stated his intention to speak out if a situation is serious enough.[170] Obama encouraged Americans to protest the issue.[194]

In response to a temporary restraining order (TRO) issued in the case of State of Washington v. Trump, the Department of Homeland Security said on February 4 that it had stopped enforcing the portions of the executive order affected by the judgment, while the State Department activated visas that had been previously suspended. The restraining order was upheld by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit on February 9, 2017.[195]

On March 15, a United States Federal Judge, Derrick Watson of the District Court of Hawaii, issued a 43-page ruling which blocked Trump’s revised March 6 executive order 13780 on the grounds that it violated the First Amendment‘s Establishment Clause by disfavoring a particular religion.[196][197][198] The temporary restraining order was converted to a preliminary injunction by Judge Watson on March 29.[199] On an April 18 airing of the Mark Levin Show Jeff Sessions commented, “We are confident that the President will prevail on appeal and particularly in the Supreme Court, if not the Ninth Circuit. So this is a huge matter. I really am amazed that a judge sitting on an island in the Pacific can issue an order that stops the President of the United States from what appears to be clearly his statutory and Constitutional power.”[200]

High-profile ICE operations

On February 8, 2017, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents arrested 35-year-old Guadalupe García de Rayos, when she attended her required annual review at the ICE office in Phoenix, and deported her to Mexico the next day based on a removal order issued in 2013 by the Executive Office for Immigration Review.[201][202][203][204]Immigrant advocates believe that she is one of the first to be deported after the EO was signed and that her deportation “reflects the severity” of the “crackdown” on illegal immigration.[205] ICE officials said that her case went through multiple reviews in the immigration court system and that the “judges held she did not have a legal basis to remain in the US”.[206] In 2008, she was working at an amusement park in Mesa, Arizona when then-Sheriff Joe Arpaio ordered a raid that resulted in her arrest and felony identity theft conviction for possessing a false Social Security number. Arpaio was a subject of several controversies during his tenure as sheriff. In 2015 the U.S. Department of Justice partially settled a lawsuit filed against Arpaio for unlawful discriminatory police conduct, alleging that Arpaio had overseen the worst pattern of racial profiling in U.S. history.[207][208][209][210][205] ICE officials in Los Angeles released a report on February 10, 2017, that about 160 foreign nationals were arrested in a five-day operation. Of those, 150 had criminal histories, and of the remaining arrests, five had final orders of removal or were previously deported. Ninety-five percent were male.[211] Under Trump’s EO, the definition of criminal is much more “sweeping” than Obama’s, which “prioritized expulsion of undocumented immigrants who threatened public safety or national security, had ties to criminal gang activity, committed serious felony offenses or were habitual misdemeanor criminal offenders” and a single immigration officer decides.[206] On the morning of February 14, ICE officials entered the Des Moines, Washington family home of 23-year-old Daniel Ramirez Medina on an arrest warrant for Ramirez’ father, who was taken into custody.[212] Ramirez, who has no criminal record, entered the United States illegally as a child, and was later able to get a legal work permit through the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) policy, was placed in detention in the Northwest Detention Center,[212] Tacoma, Washington. According to ICE, Ramirez was detained based on “his admitted gang affiliation and risk to public safety”.[212] According to Ramirez’s lawyer, Ramirez “unequivocally denies” these allegations and claimed ICE agents “repeatedly pressured” Ramirez to “falsely admit” gang “affiliation.”[212][213] “The case raises questions about what it could mean for Dreamers, undocumented immigrants who were brought to the United States as children.”[212]

U.S.–Mexico border wall proposal

President Trump signs an executive order at a ceremony at DHS Headquarters

While visiting the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) on January 25, President Trump signed his third executive order Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements (EO 13767)[214][215][216][217] under the (INA), the Secure Fence Act, and the (IIRIRA) for the construction of a Mexican border wall[218] to deter illegal migration and smuggling of illegal products.[219] The existing Mexico–United States barrier is not one continuous structure, but a series of physical walls and physical and “virtual” fences monitored by the United States Border Patrol.[218][220] The proposed wall which would be a “a contiguous, physical wall or other similarly secure, contiguous, and impassable physical barrier”[217] along the entire length of the border, which Trump estimated in 2016 would cost $10 billion to $12 billion,[221] and by January 27 was estimated to be $20 billion,[222] to be initially paid by Congress. Trump plans on eventually negotiating a reimbursement from the Mexican government.[219] While the Executive Order entitled “Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements“, contains no information of payment, it requests federal agency reports by late March 2017 which “identify and quantify all sources of direct and indirect Federal aid or assistance to the Government of Mexico on an annual basis over the past five years, including all bilateral and multilateral development aid, economic assistance, humanitarian aid, and military aid.”[217]

On January 27, Forbes cautioned that the 20% Mexican Import Tariff on all imported goods announced by Spicer to pay for the 1,933-mile (3,111 km) frontier wall would be “paid by Americans”.[222] GOP donors, Brothers Charles and David Koch, and their advocacy group, Americans For Prosperity, oppose Paul Ryan’s ‘Buy American’ Tax Plan, which they claim would add a “whopping tax hike of more than $1 trillion on American families and small businesses over 10 years.” The import tariff would raise prices at Wal-mart, for example, directly impacting lower income families.[223]

The Washington Post reported on April 25, that Trump had agreed to delaying funding for the construction of the wall until September to avoid a government shutdown.[11]

Sanctuary cities

Main article: Executive Order 13768

On January 25, Trump signed an executive order, “Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States”, to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Attorney General and their departments and agencies to increase the enforcement of immigration laws[224] which included the hiring of 10,000 “additional immigration officers.” His order requires the cooperation of state and local authorities. The order states “sanctuary jurisdictions” including “sanctuary cities” who refuse to comply will not be “eligible to receive Federal grants, except as deemed necessary for law enforcement purposes by the Attorney General or the Secretary”.[224] Some officials claim that the “U.S. Constitution bars the federal government from commandeering state officials or using federal funds to “coerce” states into doing the bidding of Washington.”[225] Mayors of New York, Boston, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle have expressed concerns about the Order and do not want to “change the way their cities treat immigrants.”[226][227] Jeff Sessions is considered to be an “inspiration” for Trump’s anti-immigration policies.[228] On August 31, 2016, Trump laid out a 10-step plan as part of his immigration policy where he reiterated that all illegal immigrants are “subject to deportation” with priority given to illegal immigrants who have committed significant crimes and those who have overstayed visas. He noted that all those seeking legalization would have to go home and re-enter the country legally.[229][230][231][232][233] In a meeting with concerned mayors, Sessions explained that the Executive Order merely directs cities to enforce the preexisting thirty-year-old law, 8 U.S.C. 1373 which means that “there is no sanctuary city debate.”[234] On April 25, U.S. District Judge William Orrick III sided with San Francisco and Santa Clara in their lawsuit against the Trump administration effectively blocking EO targeting so-called sanctuary cities. Justice Orrick said that the president “has no authority to attach new conditions to federal spending”.[235]

Social policy

Trump’s appointment of a conservative justice, Neil Gorsuch, his reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy, and his signing H.J. Res. 43—HHS Title X Funding for Planned Parenthood Rule[16] are in keeping with his pro-life policy.[236] On January 23, Trump signed a Presidential Memorandum on the Mexico City Policy regarding federal funding to foreign NGOs.[237][238][239] This is a key point in the abortion debate as foreign NGOs that receive US federal funding will no longer be able to offer, promote or perform abortion services as part of family planning in their own countries using non-U.S. government funds.[240][241] Forbes claimed this could “potentially affect $9.5 billion” in programs that reach “225 million women globally”.[242]

On April 13, Trump quietly signed H.J. Res. 43—HHS Title X Funding for Planned Parenthood Rule—[16] reversing Obama’s December 2016 regulation which had mandated that Title X recipients—like states local and state governments—distribute federal funds for services related to contraception, sexually transmitted infections, fertility, pregnancy care, and breast and cervical cancer screening to qualified health providers, regardless of whether they also perform abortions”.[243] Bloomberg noted that although this was “one of the few opportunities” Trump has had in his first 100 days to enact legislation, he signed this bill in private.[244] The Obama rule never came into effect as it was blocked by a federal judge.[245] Republicans want to cut off federal funding from health-care organizations such as Planned Parenthood that perform abortions. Proponents of the bill claim it supports states’ rights over federalist rights.[244] The bill was passed under the procedures of the Congressional Review Act. In the Senate Vice-President Pence cast a tie-breaking vote.[17][246] This will be an issue at the end of the first 100 days as Congress tries to avoid a government shutdown.[244] In FY2014 Planned Parenthood clinics received $20.5 million of the $252.6 million distributed under the Title X Family Planning grant program.[244]

The proposed American Health Care Act, announced by Congressional Republicans in March 2017, would have made Planned Parenthood “ineligible for Medicaid reimbursements or federal family planning grants”.[247]

Suspended reduction of Federal Housing Mortgage Insurance Premium rates

Within the first hours of Trump’s presidency, he “suspended indefinitely” the reduced “Mortgage Insurance Premiums for loans with Closing/Disbursement date on or after January 27, 2017”, known as the Federal Housing Administration‘s (FHA) Annual Mortgage Insurance Premium (MIP) Rates managed under the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). It is “effective immediately”.[248][130] Obama’s rate cut would have lowered borrowing costs for first time and low income house buyers.[249]

Gun control

The policy statement also nullified the NICS Improvement Amendments Act of 2007 which would have “prevent some Americans with disabilities from purchasing or possessing firearms. This was enacted following the 2007 Virginia Tech shooting in which Seung-Hui Cho killed 32 people and wounded 17 others armed with two semi-automatic pistols.[250]It also nullified Obama’s Executive Order, Fair Pay and Safe Workspaces, which required contractors seeking federal contracts to disclose all recent employee-related violations.[251][252]

High-priority infrastructure

Main article: Executive Order 13766

On January 24, Trump signed his second Executive Order entitled Expediting Environmental Reviews and Approvals for High Priority Infrastructure Projects[253] (EO 13766)[254][255] [256] which is part of a series of five executive orders to date.[257] This Order was part of a series “designed to speed environmental permitting and reviews” as ” major infrastructure projects trigger an array of overlapping environmental and natural resource laws and requirements”.[255]

On April 19, Trump signed a bill that extended the VA’s Choice beyond August. The 2014 Veterans’ Access to Care through Choice, Accountability, and Transparency Act was enacted in by the Obama administration in response to the Veterans Health Administration scandal of 2014.[258]

Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade (FDT)

Foreign policy

The main group advising the President on foreign affairs and national security is the National Security Council (NSC)[259] which coordinates national agencies such as the secretaries of defense and state; the secretaries of the army, navy, and air force.

On April 10, The Wall Street Journal described Trump’s foreign policy as moving away from the “America First”, “isolationist” policies towards more “mainstream” and “conventional” tendencies under the more stabilizing influence of Tillerson, Mattis, McMaster, Ross and Kushner.[260]

On the first day of Trump’s presidency, the White House website had posted a 220-word description of its foreign policy. It was protectionist with a focus on “America First” as was his inaugural address. His three top priorities were to defeat ISIS, to rebuild the military and to embrace diplomacy.[261]

Defense

At the time Trump took office, military spending had reached its highest peak ever[261] Trump requested $30 billion for FY 2017 which ends in September and an increase of $54 billion to Defense Department for FY 2018. The $639 billion in FY2018 would result in deep cuts to many other departments including the State Department, the diplomatic arm of the administration.[262]

After Trump’s April 12 first face-to-face meeting with NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg, Trump announced that he had changed views about NATO. Trump had previously complained that NATO was “obsolete” as it did not fight terrorism.[263] On March 18, Trump called on NATO’s member nations to contribute more to NATO.[264] After the White House meeting, Trump realized that NATO has been engaged in combating groups like ISIS. Trump will maintain the “US commitment to NATO while reiterating its member nations must step up their military financing”.[263][265][266]

On January 29, Trump authorized the first military operation of his Presidency—a raid by US commandos on Al-Qaeda in Yakla, Baida in Yemen.[267] At least 14 jihadists were killed in the raid,[268] as well as 10 civilians, including children.[269] The raid also resulted in the death of Chief Petty Officer William Owens a 36-year-old Virginia-based Navy SEAL, the first U.S. combat casualty in Trump’s presidency.[270]

According to the New York Times, Owen’s death “came after a chain of mishaps and misjudgments that plunged the elite commandos into a ferocious 50-minute firefight that also left three others wounded and a $75 million aircraft deliberately destroyed.”[267]

On April 6, 2017, Trump ordered a missile strike on Shayrat Air Base near Homs, in Syria. 59 Tomahawk missiles were launched from the USS Ross (DDG-71) and USS Porter (DDG-78) from the Mediterranean Sea.[271][272][273]

On April 8, four days after North Korea had test-fired a ballistic missile, an announcement by the United States Pacific Command (PACOM) commander was posted via U.S. Third Fleet Public Affairs stating that PACOM had ordered the USS Carl Vinson supercarrier to “sail north and report on station in the Western Pacific Ocean”.[274] It was a premature announcement that led to a “glitch-ridden sequence of events”—a result of confusion created by a “miscommunication” between the “Pentagon and the White House.”[275] On April 8[276][277] and April 9, media outlets such as Fox News, RT, CNN, USA Today,[278] BBC[279][280] and others had published the erroneous announcement that warships were heading to the Korean Peninsula within the context of escalating US-North Korean tensions. In an interview with FOX Business Network’s Maria Bartiromo that aired on April 12, President Trump warned, “We are sending an armada. Very powerful. We have submarines. Very powerful. Far more powerful than the aircraft carrier. That I can tell you.”[281] By April 17 North Korea’s deputy United Nations ambassador accused the United States of “turning the Korean peninsula into “the world’s biggest hotspot” and the North Korean government stated “its readiness to declare war on the United States if North Korean forces were to be attacked.”[282] On April 17 the Defense News broke the story that the Carl Vinson and its escorts were 3,500 miles from Korea engaged in scheduled joint Royal Australian Navy exercises in the Indian Ocean.[275][283][284] According to Dana White, the Pentagon’s chief spokeswoman, the Carl Vinson was heading north on April 18.[275] The Wall Street Journal reported on April 19, that the incident sparked both “criticism and ridicule” as some felt “duped by Trump.” In the article, Hong Joon-pyo, a candidate in the 2017 South Korean presidential election, was quoted as saying, “What President Donald Trump said was important for the national security of South Korea. If that was a lie, then during Trump’s term, South Korea will not trust whatever Trump says.”[285]

On April 13 the United States dropped a ‘mother of all bombs’ (MOAB) in the Nangarhar Province Afghanistan[286]—the first use of the bomb on the battlefield.[287] On April 8 Staff Sgt. Mark De Alencar was killed during an operation against ISIS in Nangarhar Province.[288][289][290]

The most consequential shift in Trump’s defense policy was the April 6 cruise-missile launch at a Syrian air base.[291]

Trade policies

Peter Navarro, Director of the White House National Trade Council, addresses President Donald Trump‘s promises to American people, workers, and domestic manufacturers (Declaring American Economic Independence on 6/28/2016) in the Oval Office with Vice President Mike Pence and Secretary of CommerceWilbur Ross before President Trump signs 2 Executive Orders regarding trade in March 2017

On January 23, Trump fulfilled a campaign pledge by signing an executive order withdrawing the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) or Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA).[292][237][293] According to the BBC, Trump had pledged to withdraw from the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) and he signed an executive order on the TPP his first few days.[236] However, the EO was largely symbolic since the deal has not been ratified by a divided US Congress.”[294] The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) or Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA), was a trade agreement between the United States and eleven Pacific Rim nations—Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam that would have created a “free-trade zone for about 40 percent of the world’s economy.”[295][296][238][292][237][293]

On April 18, 2017, President Trump signed an executive order that directed federal agencies to implement a “Buy American, Hire American” strategy.[297] The executive order directs federal agencies to implement a new system that favors higher-skilled, higher-paid applicants.[298][299][300] The order is the first initiative in response to a key pledge made by Trump during his presidential campaign to promote a ‘Buy American, Hire American.’[301] The EO is intended to order federal agencies to review and propose reforms to the H-1B visa system.[302] Through the executive order, Trump states his broad policy of economic nationalism without having to go through Congress. Cabinet secretaries from Departments of Labor, Justice, Homeland Security, and State[298] will “fill in the details with reports and recommendations about what the administration can legally do.”[303] Trump argued that the EO would “end the ‘theft of American prosperity’, which he said had been brought on by low-wage immigrant labor.”[304]

On March 31, President Donald Trump signed two executive orders on trade. One examines forms of “trade abuse,” taking a country-by-country as well as product and industry look over 90 days at cheating, law enforcement, and currency misalignment by foreign countries that causes U.S. trade deficits. President Trump said the order ensures “that we fully collect all duties imposed on foreign importers that cheat, the cheaters.” Another to strengthen anti-dumping rules and countervailing duties. The order directs Homeland Security, Commerce, and Treasury departments to ensure enforcement and “those who break the rules will face severe consequences”.[305][306][307]

Trump—who had been dismissive of the Export-Import Bank (ExIm)—made an about-face on April 15 by nominating Scott Garrett as head of the ExIm breaking a deadlock that had prevented the Bank from operating since 2014.[308] Although Trump had privately made known that he would not side with “conservative Republicans, including those in his own administration”, who wanted to “cripple” the ExIm in February, he did not announce it publicly until April 13, when he told The Wall Street Journal that he would fill two seats of ExIm’s five-seat board which would allow the Bank to make loans greater than $10 million.[309] Trump had been one of ExIm’s harshest critics. Conservatives call it the ‘Bank of Boeing’ and an ‘epicenter of crony capitalism’. Its supporters such as Boeing and General Electric Co, claim that it facilitates trade worth billions of dollars in exports helping hundreds of businesses.[310] Prior to making the announcement, Trump held two significant meetings related to ExIm—an April 3 formal visit with Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi who is negotiating for billions of dollars in ExIm financing[311] and an April 11 meeting with Boeing Chief Executive Jim McNerney.[308] Sisi also met with Lockheed Martin and General Electric CEOs during his visit to the U.S. in April.[311]

International relations

Australia

A February 2 report by The Washington Post claimed that US President Donald Trump berated the Australian, Prime Minister Turnbull during one of Trump’s first phone calls made to foreign officials. Trump stated that the 2016 asylum deal was an attempt to export the next Boston bombers to the United States.[312][313] The contentious deal involves a 2016 agreement between the Obama administration and Australia whereby the U.S. would resettle 1,250 refugees held in controversial[314] offshore immigration detention facilities—Manus and Naura islands. In return, Australia would ‘resettle refugees from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras.”[315][312] Later that day, Trump explained that while he respected Australia, they, along with many other countries, were “terribly taking advantage” of the United States.[316] The following day, Australian Ambassador to the United States Joe Hockey was sent to the White House and held meetings with White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon and Chief of Staff Reince Preibus. Spicer described the phone call as “very cordial”.[317] The 25-minute phone call on January 28, was described as “acrimonious” by Reuters and Trump’s “worst call by far” with a foreign leader by the Washington Post.[315] During a joint news conference with Prime Minister Turnbull, Vice-President Pence—who was on a “10-day, four-country trip” in April to the Pacific Rim, announced that even if the United States did not “admire the agreement”, Trump had made it clear that the United States would honour the 2016 agreement to resettle refugees.[318] Turnbull responded, “whatever the reservations of the president are”, the decision “speaks volumes for the commitment, the integrity of President Trump, and your administration, sir, to honour that commitment.”[318] “The US is Australia’s most important security partner, while China is its most important trading partner.”[318]

Canada

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (left) and President Donald Trump (right) meet in Washington in February 2017

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau met Trump in Washington DC in February 2017.[319] Trudeau said that “The last thing Canadians expect is for me to come down and lecture another country on how they choose to govern”, referring to Trump’s “refugee ban” – Executive Order 13769.[320] The two leaders emphasized the importance of the two countries’ ongoing relationship, with Trudeau adding that “there are times when we have differed in our approaches. And that’s always been done firmly and respectfully,”.[320] Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said that, “It has been a bad week for U.S.-Canada trade relations.” as he announced stiff tariffs up stiff tariffs of up to 24% on Canadian lumber on April 24 as dairy product trade fell through.[321] The Canada–United States softwood lumber dispute has been since ongoing since the 1980s making it one of the longest trade disputes between the two countries, as well as one of the largest.[322] Trump is under pressure to begin renegotiating NAFTA, the trade deal between Canada, Mexico and the US.[321] On April 25, Canada’s International Trade Minister Francois-Philippe Champagne and soft lumber industry representatives promoted trade with China in Beijing in response to what is perceived as U.S. protectionist policies.[323]

China

The Mar-a-Lago summit meeting on April 6 and 7 between Trump and President Xi Jinping of China, during the first 100 days of the new US administration was heralded by The Telegraph as the “most significant bilateral summit in decades.”[324] The South China Morning Post reported that—in spite of differences regarding Taiwan, the South China Sea and the most urgent issue—North Korea’s nuclear programme—”the summit between the US and Chinese presidents had both symbolic and tangible successes.”[325] During the April 7–8 visit with Chinese President Xi Jinping, Trump acknowledged that international relations are much more complicated than he had imagined. In regards to North Korea, he had hoped to negotiate better trade deals with China in exchange for China dealing with the nuclear threat from North Korea. In an interview with Wall Street Journal’s Gerald F. Seib Trump said, “After listening for 10 minutes, I realized it’s not so easy. I felt pretty strongly that they had a tremendous power [over] North Korea. … But it’s not what you would think.” Trump also affirmed that North Korea was the United States’ “biggest international threat”.[326]

The BBC reported on April 19 that China “was ‘seriously concerned” about nuclear threats” as tensions between North Korea and the United States escalated with a “war of words”[327] between North Korea’s leader Kim Jong-un and the Trump administration.[328][329] Recent threats included Vice-President Mike Pence statement that the period of “strategic patience” was over and his April 19 statement that the US “would meet any attack with an ‘overwhelming response.’ North Korea recently warned of “full-out nuclear war if Washington takes military action against it.”[327] Trump has called for China to rein in North Korea, but China Daily reported that “Washington must be aware of the limitations to Beijing’s abilities, and refrain from assuming that the matter can be consigned entirely to Beijing alone.”[330] China Daily considered the U.N. Security Council statement adopted on April 20 condemning North Korea’s recent attempted missile launch,[329] as an indication that the Trump administration is considering a “diplomatic solution.”[330]

In an April 12 interview with Wall Street JournalTrump said he had changed his mind and he would not label China a currency manipulator, which had been one of his 100-day pledges. By April he believed that China had not been manipulating its currency for months. He did not want to “jeopardize” talks with the Chinese “on confronting the threat of North Koreas.”[5][6] Early in Trump’s presidency, the world’s largest financial newspaper, Nikkei Asian Review, had reported on February 1, that Trump had labelled China and Japan as currency manipulators.[331]

The Trump administration confirmed its commitment to defend Japan against China’s claims to the Senkaku Islands in the (the East China Sea) through the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan during a U.S. Defense Secretary James Mattis‘s visit to Japan on February 4.[332] By February 9, US-Chinese relations—the most important bilateral relationship—had remained strained,[333][334][335][336][337][338] President Xi Jinping and Trump had not spoken and this had “drawn increasing scrutiny.”[333] Xi was concerned by the December 2, 2016, phone call from Taiwan President Tsai Ing-wen to Trump[339] and Trump’s questioning of the One China policy.[340][341][342] On February 10, Trump and Xi Jinpin spoke on the phone for the first time since Donald Trump took office, during which Donald Trump committed to honoring the One China policy at Xi’s request.[343][344]

During the World Economic Forum annual meeting in Davos on January 17–20, China’s President