Delta Chi (law fraternity)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Delta Chi
ΔΧ
Delta Chi Coat of Arms.png
Founded October 13, 1890; 125 years ago
Cornell University
Type Social
Scope United States, Canada
Motto Leges (Law)
Colors      Red      Buff
Flower White Carnation
Philanthropy V Foundation for Cancer Research
Chapters 137
Members 107,000[citation needed] collegiate
Headquarters 314 Church Street (P.O. Box 1817)
Iowa City, Iowa 52244-1817,USA
Homepage www.deltachi.org

Delta Chi (ΔΧ) (del-ta kai) or D-Chi is an international Greek letter college social fraternity formed on October 13, 1890, at Cornell University, initially as aprofessional fraternity for law students. On April 29, 1922, Delta Chi became a general membership social fraternity, eliminating the requirement for men to be studying law, and opening membership to all areas of study. Delta Chi became one of the first international fraternities to abolish “hell week”, when it did so on April 22, 1929. Delta Chi is a charter member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference (NIC). The Fraternity is headquartered at 314 Church Street in Iowa City, Iowa 52244. As of Spring 2011, Delta Chi has initiated over 107,000 members.

History of Delta Chi[edit]

Founding[edit]

Two incidents have been credited with providing the impetus for interest in the founding of what was to become Delta Chi. One was the election of a Phi Delta Phi as the Law School Editor of the Cornell Daily Sun (the student newspaper) and the second was the election of the law school junior class president. In the case of the class presidency, Alphonse Derwin Stillman had done some campaigning for a student named Iving G. Hubbs and was unaware of any effort being made on anyone else’s behalf. When the voting results were in, Charles Frenkel, a Phi Delta Phi, was declared the winner. Frustrated, Stillman began to ask around about the election. What he found was a law school that was dominated by one small, close-knit group—Phi Delta Phi.

According to Frederick Moore Whitney, there were two or three groups working on the idea of a new law fraternity that spring. After the class election, there were meetings held in Myron Mckee Crandall’s apartment as well as in Monroe Marsh Sweetland’s law office. It is not clear how these two groups came together, though there seem to have been some individuals who had attended both groups.

While the class officer elections and the Law School Editorship incidents may have provided the initial incentives for organization, it soon became clear that those involved were looking for much more: a common bond that would materially assist each in the acquisition of a sound education and provide each member enduring value. Over the summer of 1890, many of the details of the organization were worked out by Myron Mckee Crandall, who had stayed in Ithaca until after school opened. In regard to the adoption of the constitution, Albert Sullard Barnes wrote the following in his 1907 Quarterly article:

“As I recall it, after refreshing my recollection from the original minutes now in my possession, on the evening of October 13, 1890, six students in the Law School, Brothers John M. Gorham, Thomas J. Sullivan, F.K. Stephens, A.D. Stillman and the writer, together with Myron Crandall and O.L. Potter, graduate students, and Monroe Sweetland, a former Student in the Law School, met in a brother’s room and adopted the constitution and by-laws, and organized the Delta Chi Fraternity.”

The minutes from that meeting state, “Charter granted to Cornell Chapter,” indicating from the beginning the intent to start a national fraternity.

The name of the fraternity and the badge[edit]

The choosing of the name for the new fraternity is difficult to credit to any one person. In a letter dated November 7, 1919, Myron Mckee Crandall claimed to remember having a conference with Monroe Marsh Sweetland during the summer of 1890 concerning the naming of the fraternity. He also stated that Albert Sullard Barnes may have “had something to do about it.” Monroe Marsh Sweetland claimed he, and he alone, picked the name of “Delta Chi” and that he liked the way the two words sounded together. “Delta Tau Omega” and “Omega Chi” were also early names in consideration. Sweetland further said that he submitted the design and drawing for the first badge.

There seems to be no doubt that Barnes obtained the first badge, which he subsequently lost at a class reunion 25 years later. In an article published in Volume 5 Number 1 of the Quarterly, Barnes state that he had in his possession at that time, 1907, “. . .no less than seventeen designs. . .” for the badge. The badge that Barnes owned had gold letters and a diamond in the center. This badge was frequently borrowed by the other members for special occasions and while having their pictures taken.

The first departure from this design came when Brother Richard Lonergan, Cornell 1892, had his badge made retaining the diamond in the center but had the Delta mounted in black enamel. An early description of the badge stated that the Delta was jeweled or enameled to suit the owner with a diamond usually surmounting the center. The Chi was jeweled with one garnet on each arm.

The Ritual[edit]

The main work of composing the Ritual was done by Stillman between the summer and early fall of 1890. Supposedly the Ritual was read at a meeting when it was still incomplete and was submitted shortly thereafter at a meeting on October 20, 1890, where it was adopted. Since a committee on the Ritual including Alphonse Derwin Stillman and Albert Sullard Barnes was appointed on October 13, 1890, it seems probable that it was originally read at that meeting, and that Stillman was given some help in completing it. In Stillman’s own words:

“I looked upon that Ritual as temporary and that [it] would serve until some genius could devise something entirely original. The ritual contained many phrases that were not original and which, as I remember, I did not take the trouble to mark as quotations. The principal ideas are almost as old as civilization, and it was my idea that an entirely new ritual would be prepared.”

The original Ritual was written on both sides of some sheets of old style legal cap, and was signed by each new initiate. A rehearsal was held on November 14, 1890, and on November 26, 1890, Albert T. Wilkinson, Frank Bowman, and George Wilcox were initiated in short form. It was not until December 3, 1890, when Frederick Bagley was initiated, that the full initiation was used. The structure of the Delta Chi initiation ritual has remained virtually unchanged since it was used on November 26, 1890. Later, at the May 23, 1891 meeting, the motto and the colors would be adopted by the fraternity.

The emblem[edit]

The emblem of the Fraternity is a secret symbol for the fraternity, only initiated members can learn about the different aspects that make up the current emblem.

Expansion[edit]

On October 13, 1890, Founders Myron Mckee Crandall, Owen Lincoln Potter, and Monroe Marsh Sweetland were placed on the Supreme Council and authorized to proceed with expansion plans. At that same meeting, Albert Sullard Barnes was appointed to work “Buffalo Law School” for possible expansion due to his association with a student there. The lack of enrollment at the school and the fact that the Phi Delta Phi Chapter there was doing poorly, delayed expansion to that school until later. Building Delta Chi into a true national fraternity began during the spring of 1891.

On April 14, 1891, John Francis Tucker of New York University went to Ithaca and earned the confidence and regard of the Cornell Chapter. He was initiated into Delta Chi that night and was sent back to prepare his associates for induction.

Although Stillman remembers Tucker (who was a member of Delta Upsilon) coming to find out about Delta Chi, Wilkinson tells the story with more confidence:

“At first the chapter and the fraternity were the same thing, and there were not separate officers. But in the spring of 1891, in the month of May, I think, we received a visit from John Francis Tucker of New York. We put up a big bluff, and treated him with great formality and instructed him to return to the place whence he came, and make formal application in writing for a charter from our ancient and honorable body. As soon as he departed, there was a hurry call for a meeting to organize a body to which he could apply and it was then that the first general officers of the fraternity, as distinct from the chapter, were elected. I cannot remember for the life of me who they were, except that I was Treasurer.”

When Tucker appeared the next spring, the national organization had to be reorganized in order to accommodate the applicant from N.Y.U. As it turned out, Tucker played a significant role in the development of the Fraternity. In a letter to Johnson dated February 22, 1892, he stated:

“As to Dickinson Law School, I have been at work at that school since last August and I think I now have six more pledges, I have worked up a chapter of 25 men at the Albany Law School and another 12 men at the University of Minnesota.”

In 1892 four more chapters were established, three of which exist today (the fourth Albany Law School—had its charter transferred in 1901 to Union College; the Union Chapter existed until 1994). Twelve chapters were founded within the first decade. On February 13, 1897, Delta Chi became an international fraternity with the installation of the Osgoode Hall Chapter in Toronto, Canada. Delta Chi’s first Convention was held in 1894 at the Michigan Chapter.

Delta Chi goes single membership[edit]

In 1909 in Ithaca, New York, the 15th Convention of Delta Chi adopted an amendment to the Constitution prohibiting dual-membership (i.e. initiating members of other fraternities, and prohibiting Delta Chi members from joining other fraternities). Founded as a professional law fraternity, Delta Chi had been initiating members of Delta Tau Delta, Sigma Alpha Epsilon,Alpha Tau Omega and the other general fraternities. As time passed, several chapters that had voluntarily refrained from initiating members of other fraternities began pushing for a change in the constitution to prevent dual memberships. The issue and ultimate decision cost the Fraternity the New York Law (1905), West Virginia (1908), Northwestern (1909) and Washington University in St. Louis (1909) Chapters.

Delta Chi becomes a general fraternity[edit]

The years after the 1909 decision were years of great change and unrest. The United States became involved in World War I with a majority of the members of the active chapters dropping their college courses and enlisting in the armed forces. Chapter houses became almost deserted, and a convention in August 1917 was unthinkable. At the end of the war, the college men returned to the universities to complete their courses. The chapter finances were generally in bad condition as were the houses. Attempting to rebuild, many chapters stretched the recruiting restrictions by initiating men who had no intention of studying law. In the 1919 May issue of the Quarterly, editor Roger Steffan, Ohio State ’13 became the torchbearer of the issue of general membership with his editorial: “Shall We Go On a General fraternity?” claiming that the majority of the chapters were “no longer even predominantly legal in their membership.”

Starting in 1919 in Minneapolis at the 20th Convention, the issue of becoming a general fraternity was hotly debated until 1921 in Columbus, Ohio at the 21st Convention. The convention was deadlocked on two amendments, for and against general membership respectively. For three days votes were held, until at last (on a swing vote by the Buffalo Alumni Chapter representative), the Wadsworth amendment was adopted. Ratified in 1922, the amendment made Delta Chi a general fraternity, no longer requiring its members to be law students at their respective universities and colleges.

1922 to the Present[edit]

In 1923 the old “XX” (until then, the 15-man governing body of the general fraternity) was abolished and replaced with an executive committee of seven. This board, composed of the “AA”, “CC”, “DD”, “EE”, and three members-at-large, was the governing body of the fraternity between Conventions. A new “XX” was created as an advisory body to the executive committee; its membership consisted of the “BB”s elected by each chapter.

The position of Executive Secretary was created in 1923 and provision made for a permanent central office that was finally established in 1929. The position of Director of Scholarship came into being in 1925 to lead the drive for general scholastic excellence. In 1927, one full-time Field Secretary was placed in direct contact with the chapters and, in 1935 a second one was added to the staff. By 1930, Delta Chi had grown to 36 chapters and in 1934 the Headquarters began publishing the Quarterly . During this era Delta Chi made two noteworthy contributions to the Greek letter fraternity world. The first of these was the Tutorial Advisor Plan—members of the faculty (preferably not members of the Fraternity) living in the house where they acted as tutors, advisors, and counselors.

In yet another way Delta Chi took the lead among Greek letter organizations. At the 1929, Estes Park Convention, Delta Chi unanimously voted to abolish “Hell Week.” (The following day another national organization, meeting in convention, also abolished hazing.)

The position of “EE” was also abolished at the 1929 Convention, and at the 1935 Convention, the executive board was increased to nine.

In 1937 the Pennsylvania State Chapter invited six chapters in neighboring states to meet with them. Dean C. M. Thompson, the “AA” at the time, saw the potential of such gatherings and promptly asked the Indiana Chapter to be host for the first Midwest Regional Conference. After that the Regional Conference plan blossomed. World War II was a temporary setback to this new plan but the need, desire, and concept were not forgotten. After the war, Delta Chi saw its conference program expand and become more purposeful.

After the Great Depression and on the verge of the United States entering World War II, the Fraternity celebrated its 50th anniversary with 35 chapters. Once again young men went off to war and many of the chapter houses were taken over by the military, as had been done during the First World War. It was the alumni dues program started in 1935 that provided the main source of revenue to the fraternity while the chapters were not in operation.

After the war, chapters resumed normal operations. By 1950, Delta Chi had 39 chapters. 1951 saw the retirement of O.K. Patton from the position of Executive Secretary that he had held part-time since 1929 on an official basis while he was a professor of Law at Iowa. Prior to that time he had effectively operated the central office since his election as “CC”.

When Patton was elected “CC” in 1923 he put the records in one room of a downtown Iowa City building and hired one part-time secretary. After the “general” membership question was resolved, Delta Chi grew from 21 to 36 chapters by 1929 and the records and related activities had expanded to four rooms and four secretaries. Effectively after the fact, Delta Chi established its Headquarters in Iowa City, where it has stayed.

In 1958, the size of the Executive Board was increased to include the “AA”, “CC”, “DD”, the immediate past “AA”, and Regional Representatives called Regents.

In 1960, the Fraternity employed its first, full-time executive, Harold “Buc” Buchanan, Wisconsin ’35. Up to this time the fraternity was run by volunteers or part-time employees. At the 1960 Convention, a “Building Loan Fund” was created. The original level of assessment proved too low and, in 1962, the Delta Chi Housing Fund was established to assume the function of the “Building Loan Fund.” Today, the Housing Fund has loans outstanding to chapters and colonies across the country.

Also at the 1962 Convention, the regional representatives were re-designated as ‘regents’ and the Executive Board was renamed the Board of Regents.

In 1969, the fraternity moved out of rented space into its first permanent facility. The property is wholly owned by Delta Chi and houses the archives of the fraternity and a staff of four directors, five traveling consultants and four clerical employees.

At the 1975 Chicago Convention, the Order of the White Carnation was created to honor alumni who give outstanding service to the fraternity in a meritorious but inconspicuous way. The first inductee into the Order was Victor T. Johnson, Purdue ’32. In 1983, Senator Henry “Scoop” Jackson, Washington ’34 was selected as the first Delta Chi of the Year in honor of his achievements in his chosen profession.[1]

Organizational goals[edit]

Delta Chi’s stated mission is to “promote friendship, develop character, advance justice, and assist in the acquisition of a sound education”[2]

Founding Fathers[edit]

The Founders of the Delta Chi Fraternity

  • Albert Sullard Barnes
  • Myron McKee Crandall
  • John Milton Gorham, (First “BB”)
  • Peter Schermerhorn Johnson
  • Edward Richard O’Malley
  • Owen Lincoln Potter, (First “AA”)
  • Alphonse Derwin Stillman
  • Thomas Allen Joseph Sullivan
  • Monroe Marsh Sweetland
  • Thomas David Watkins
  • Frederick Moore Whitney

Philanthropy[edit]

In 2006, the members of The Delta Chi Fraternity named The V Foundation for Cancer Research as the fraternity’s official philanthropic organization. Since then, the brothers of Delta Chi have dedicated countless hours to their partnership with The V Foundation for Cancer Research. As of October 2015, Delta Chi has raised nearly $500,000 for the Foundation and generously donated three grants. [3]

Organization of the fraternity[edit]

Undergraduate officer positions[edit]

Delta Chi chapters and colonies have six permanent officer positions. While each position has strict definitions of responsibility, their duties may vary slightly from group to group.

  • A – The “A” is the president of the chapter or colony. He serves as presiding officer at chapter meetings and chapter events.[4]
  • B – The “B” is the vice president of the chapter or colony. He schedules and chairs executive committee meetings, and oversees all committees.[5]
  • C – The “C” is the secretary of the chapter or colony. He keeps record of chapter or colony meetings, and is responsible for completing necessary paperwork and online forms.[6]
  • D – The “D” is the treasurer of the chapter or colony. He is responsible for tracking chapter financial records and files, as well as collecting dues and creating a budget.[7]
  • E – The “E” is the alumni secretary. He is responsible for contacting and communicating with alumni. He also works on chapter or colony newsletters and other publications.[8]
  • F – The “F” is the Sergeant at Arms. The “F” works on developing and implementing safety precautions for chapter or colony events.[9]

Committee positions[edit]

Each chapter and colony is encouraged to have a functioning committee system. Each committee chairman has duties designated by Delta Chi. Committees include subjects such as recruitment,[10] educating new recruits,[11] philanthropy, scholarship, social events, housing, and others.

Support alumni positions[edit]

  • BB – The role of the “BB” is to mentor, advise and service as a liaison between student members and alumni. This position is required by Delta Chi Law to be a two-year term and served by a Delta Chi alumnus.[12]
  • Alumni Board of Trustees – The purpose of The Alumni Board of Trustees (ABT) is to lead, supervise and advise the chapter.[13]
  • Housing Corporation – The role of the Housing Corporation is to manage the chapter or colony housing facilities and all legal responsibilities of such management. Since a Housing Corporation is a separate, incorporated legal entity, it has no requirements set forth by Delta Chi Law.[14]

Chapters and colonies[edit]

For a listing of all Delta Chi chapters and colonies see List of Delta Chi chapters.

Delta Chi chapters are unique in naming. Most college fraternities and sororities are named in an alphabetical Greek system. This is not so with Delta Chi chapters and colonies, who are named by institution, and sometimes by self-naming. Therefore, the first ‘Alpha’ chapter was the Cornell Chapter.

Famous Delta Chis[edit]

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Alpha Phi Alpha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alpha Phi Alpha
ΑΦΑ
The crest of Alpha Phi Alpha
Founded December 4, 1906; 108 years ago
Cornell University
Type Social
Emphasis Service
Scope International
Mission statement
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. develops leaders, promotes brotherhood and academic excellence, while providing service and advocacy for our communities.
Motto First of All, Servants of All,
We Shall Transcend All
Colors Old Gold and Black
Symbol Great Sphinx of Giza
Flower Yellow Rose
Publication The Sphinx
Chapters 800+
Members 290,000+ lifetime
Aims Manly Deeds,
Scholarship, and
Love for All Mankind
Headquarters National Headquarters: 2313 Saint Paul Street
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
Homepage APA1906.net

Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ) is the first African American, inter-collegiate Greek-lettered fraternity. It was founded on December 4, 1906 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Its founders are known as the “Seven Jewels“. It employs an icon from Ancient Egypt, theGreat Sphinx of Giza, as its symbol. Its aims are “manly deeds, scholarship, and love for all mankind,” and its motto is First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All. Its archives are preserved at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center.

Chapters were chartered at Howard University and Virginia Union University in 1907. The fraternity has over 290,000 members and has been open to men of all races since 1940. Currently, there are more than 730 active chapters in the Americas, Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, and Asia.

Alpha Phi Alpha evolved into primarily a service organization and provided leadership and service during the Great Depression,World Wars, and Civil Rights Movements. It addresses social issues such as apartheid, AIDS, urban housing, and other economic, cultural, and political issues of interest to people of color. The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial and World Policy Council are programs of Alpha Phi Alpha. It also conducts philanthropic programming initiatives with March of Dimes, Head Start, Boy Scouts of America, and Big Brothers Big Sisters of America.

Members of Alpha Phi Alpha include Jamaican Prime Minister Norman Manley, Nobel Prize winner Martin Luther King, Jr., OlympianJesse Owens, Justice Thurgood Marshall, United Nations Ambassador Andrew Young, singer Lionel Richie and Atlanta mayorMaynard Jackson.

History[edit]

Founding[edit]

The Arts Quad of Cornell Universityin 1919. Cornell University was the site of the founding of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., in 1905, although the organization would remain unnamed until 1906. (42.448510°N 76.478620°W)

At the start of the 20th century, African American students at American universities were often excluded from fraternal organizations enjoyed by the predominantly white student population.[1] During the 1905–06 school year, at Cornell, African American students organized the first Greek letter fraternity with the aim to provide an opportunity for association and mutual support among African-American students. At the outset, there was disagreement about the group’s purpose: some wanted a social and literary club where everyone could participate; others wanted a traditional fraternal organization. The society decided to work to provide a literary, study, social, and support group for all minority students who encountered social and academic racial prejudice. [1]

The original founding members were Henry A. Callis, Charles Henry Chapman, Eugene K. Jones, George Biddle Kelley, Nathaniel Allison Murray, Robert H. Ogle, and Vertner Woodson Tandy. The latter was replaced as a founder in 1952 by Eugene Kinckle Jones.[2]

The 1906 charter for ΑΦΑ’s Alpha chapter at Cornell University

On October 23, 1906, George Kelley proposed that the organization be known by the Greek letters Alpha Phi Alpha, and Robert Ogle proposed the colors black and old gold. The divisive issue of whether the terms “club” or “fraternity” should be used was still debated.[3] By December 4, 1906, the decision was made: “fraternity”. The earlier terms “club”, “organization”, and “society” were permanently removed.[3] Mrs. Annie C Singleton, played a pivotal part in helping the organization in its early years. She became the Mother of the fraternity as a result.[4]

Consolidation and expansion[edit]

The fraternity’s constitution was adopted on December 4, 1907, limiting membership to “Negro male” students and providing that the General Convention of the Fraternity would be created following the establishment of the fourth chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha.[5] The preamble states the purpose of Alpha Phi Alpha:

To promote a more perfect union among college men; to aid in and insist upon the personal progress of its members; to further brotherly love and a fraternal spirit within the organization; to discountenance evil; to destroy all prejudices; to preserve the sanctity of the home, the personification of virtue and the chastity of woman.[6]

The 1907 ΑΦΑ Constitution and Bylaws

Chapters of Alpha Phi Alpha are given Greek-letter names in order of installation into the Fraternity. No chapter is designated Omega, the last letter of the Greek alphabet and traditionally used for “the end”.[7] Deceased brothers are considered by brothers to have joined Omega Chapter.[8]

Founders Eugene Kincle Jones and Nathaniel Allison Murray chartered the second and third chapters, at Howard University and Virginia Union University, respectively, in December 1907. The charter at Howard made it the site of the organization of the first black Greek letter organization among historically black colleges.[9]

The purpose and objective of the fraternity within the articles of incorporation were declared “educational and for the mutual uplift of its members.”[5] The fraternity has established Alpha Phi Alpha Archives at Howard University’s Moorland-Spingarn Research Center to preserve the history of the organization.[10]

The fraternity chartered its first international chapter at the University of Toronto in 1908. Chapters have been chartered in London, Frankfurt,Monrovia, the Caribbean and South Korea.[11]

The first General Convention of Alpha Phi Alpha, held at Howard University in 1908

The first general convention assembled in December 1908 at Howard University in Washington, D.C., producing the first ritual and the election of the first General President of Alpha Phi Alpha, Moses A. Morrison.[12] Each newly elected General President is automatically considered one of the “100 most influential Black Americans.”[13][14]

The fraternity established its first alumni chapter Alpha Lambda in 1911 in Louisville, Kentucky. It was again incorporated as a national organization on April 3, 1914, under the laws of Congress within the District of Columbia, under the name and title of The Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity.[15]

Alpha Phi Alpha memberW. E. B. Du Bois was founder of the NAACP and its journal, The Crisis.

For more than 100 years, Alpha Phi Alpha and its members have had a voice and influence on politics and current affairs.[citation needed] The Crisis, the magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP), was started by fraternity member W. E. B. Du Bois in 1910.[citation needed][16][17] In 1914, The Sphinx, named after the Egyptian landmark, began publication as the fraternity’s journal.[18] The Crisis and The Sphinx are respectively the first and second oldest continuously published black journals in the United States.[18] The National Urban League‘s (NUL) Opportunity Journal was first published in 1923 under the leadership of Alpha founder Eugene K. Jones,[not in citation given][19] with fraternity brother Charles Johnson[not in citation given] as its executive editor.[20]

The Training Camp at Fort Des Moines during World War I was the result of the fraternity’s advocacy in lobbying the government to create anOfficers‘ training camp for black troops. Thirty-two Alpha men were granted commissions (four were made captains and many were first lieutenants). First Lieutenant Victor Daly was decorated with the Croix de Guerre for his service in France.[21] Today, the fort is a museum and education center which honors the U.S. Army’s first officer candidate class for African-American men in 1917.[22]

While continuing to stress academic excellence among its members, Alpha’s leaders recognized the need to correct the educational, economic, political, and social injustices faced by African Americans and the world community.[23] Alpha Phi Alpha has a long history of providing scholarships for needy students and initiating various other charitable and service projects. It evolved from a social fraternity to a primarily community service organization.[24]

Alpha Phi Alpha member and Harlem Renaissance entertainer Noble Sissle

History: 1919–1949[edit]

The fraternity’s national programs date back to 1919, with its “Go-To-High School, Go-to-College” campaign to promote academic achievement within the African-American community as its first initiative.[11]

The 1920s witnessed the birth of the Harlem Renaissance–a flowering of African-American art, literature, music, and culture which began to be absorbed into mainstream American culture. Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity brothers Charles Johnson, W. E. B. Du Bois, Noble Sissle, Countee Cullenand other members were entrepreneurs and participants in this creative upsurge led primarily by the African-American community based inHarlem, New York City. By the end of the 1920s, the fraternity had chartered 85 chapters throughout the United States and initiated over 3,000 members.[13]

I want the Fraternity to stand out in the affairs of the Nation.

Vertner W. Tandy,
ΑΦΑ Founder[25]

During the Great Depression, Alpha Phi Alpha and its members continued to implement programs to support the black community. The Committee on Public Policy, the Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation, and “The Foundation Publishers” were established at the 1933 general convention. The Committee on Public Policy took positions on numerous issues important to the black community. It investigated the performance of Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s New Deal agencies to assess the status of the black population, both as to treatment of agencies’ employees and in the quality of services rendered to American blacks.[26] Alpha men Rayford Logan and Eugene K. Jones were members of Roosevelt’s unofficial Black Cabinet, an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to the President.[27]

Part of a series on the
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity
Category | Wikiproject
Members
Founders
General Presidents
Notable brothers
African American Firsts
Programs
World Policy Council
Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial
Conventions
Associations
National Pan-Hellenic Council
North-American Interfraternity Conference
March of Dimes
Head Start
Boy Scouts of America
Big Brothers Big Sisters of America
Related Topics
Jena Six
Murray v. Pearson
Arizona SB 1070

The Education Foundation was created in recognition of the educational, economic, and social needs of African Americans in the United States. The foundation, led by Rayford Logan, was structured to provide scholarships and grants to African-American students. The Foundation Publishers would provide financial support and fellowship for writers addressing African-American issues. Historian and fraternity brother John Hope Franklin was an early beneficiary of the publishing company[13] and was the 2006 Kluge Prize recipient for lifetime achievement in the study of humanity.[28]

In 1933 fraternity brother Belford Lawson, Jr. founded the New Negro Alliance (NNA) in Washington D.C. to combat white-run business in black neighborhoods that would not hire black employees. The NNA instituted a then-radical Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work campaign, and organized or threatened boycotts against white-owned business. In response, some businesses arranged for an injunction to stop the picketing. NNA lawyers, including Lawson and Thurgood Dodson, fought back – all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States in New Negro Alliance v. Sanitary Grocery Co.[29] This ruling in favor of the NAACP became a landmark case in the struggle by African Americans against discriminatory hiring practices. Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work groups multiplied throughout the nation.[a][30] The fraternity sponsors an annual Belford V. Lawson Oratorical Contest in which collegiate members demonstrate their oratorical skills first at the chapter level, with the winner competing at the District, Regional and General Convention.[31]

The fraternity began to participate in voting rights issues, coining the well-known phrase A Voteless People is a Hopeless People as part of its effort to register black voters. The Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy said “Alpha Phi Alpha…developed citizenship schools in the urban South and with its slogan “A Voteless People is a Hopeless People” registered hundreds of blacks during the 1930s, decades before theSouthern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) launched their citizenship schools in the 1960s.” The slogan is still used in Alpha Phi Alpha’s continuing voter registration campaign.[11][32] Alpha Phi Alpha member and former Washington, D.C. mayor Marion Barry was the first chairman of the SNCC.[33]

Alphamen led the way in achieving competitive glory for the nation as well as racial pride for black America.

Harold Rudolph Sims[34]

Seven Alpha men represented the United States at the politically charged 1936 Summer Olympics: Jesse Owens, Ralph Metcalfe, Fritz Pollard, Jr., Cornelius Johnson, Archie Williams, Dave Albritton, and John Woodruff.[34] In 1938, Alpha Phi Alpha continued to expand and became an international organization when a chapter was chartered in London, England.[35]

Alpha Phi Alpha supported legal battles against segregation. Some of its members who were trial lawyers argued many of the nation’s major court cases involving civil rights and civil liberties. The case styled Murray v. Pearson (1935) was initiated by the fraternity and successfully argued by Alpha men Thurgood Marshall and Charles Houston to challenge biases at the university which had no laws requiring segregation in its colleges. The fraternity assisted in a similar case that involved fraternity brother Lloyd Gaines. In Gaines v. Canada, the most important segregation case since Plessy v. Ferguson, Gaines was denied admission to the Law School at the University of Missouri because he was black.[36] Alpha men Houston and Sidney Redmon successfully argued “States that provide only one educational institution must allow blacks and whites to attend if there is no separate school for blacks.”[citation needed]

In 1940, true to its form as the “first of first”, Alpha Phi Alpha sought to end racial discrimination within its membership. The use of the word “Negro” in the membership clause of the constitution which referred to “any Negro male student” would be changed to read “any male student.” The unanimous decision to change the constitution happened in 1945 and was the first official action by a BGLO to allow the admission of all colors and races.[37] Bernard Levin became the first non-black member in 1946,[38] and Roger Youmans became the first non-black member to address the fraternity at the 1954 general convention.[39][unreliable source?][40]

After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 and the nation’s entry into World War II, the fraternity fought to secure rights for its membership within the ranks of officers in the armed forces. The types of warfare encountered evidenced the nexus between education and war, with illiteracy decreasing a soldier’s usefulness to the Army that could only be addressed with the inclusion of a large number of college educated men among the ranks of officers. Alpha men served in almost every branch of the military and civilian defense programs during World War II. The leadership of the fraternity encouraged Alpha men to buy war bonds, and the membership responded with their purchases.[41] The fraternity’s long tradition of military service has remained strong. Alpha’s military leaders Samuel Gravely and Benjamin Hacker were followed by other fraternity members who lead and serve in the armed forces.

Paul Robeson

In 1946, fraternity brother Paul Robeson, in a letter to the editor published in The New York Times, referring to apartheid and South Africa’s impending request to annex South-West Africa, a League of Nations mandate, appealed:

to my fellow Americans to make known their protest against such conditions to the South African Ministry in Washington; to send to the Council on African Affairs, an expression of support for these grievously oppressed workers in South Africa; to keep the South African situation in mind against the time when General Smuts will come to the United Nations Assembly to demand the annexation of South West Africa, which means more Africans for him to exploit.[42]

In 1947, Alpha Phi Alpha awarded Robeson the Alpha Medallion for his “outstanding role as a champion of freedom.”[b][42]

History: 1950–1969[edit]

The general convention in 1952 was the venue for a significant historical action taken regarding the Seventh Jewel Founder. The decision “of placing Brother [Eugene] Jones in his true historical setting resulting from the leading role which he had played in the origin and development of the early years of the fraternity history” was made by a special committee consisting of Jewels Callis, Kelly and Murray and fraternity historian Charles H. Wesley. James Morton was removed as a founder, yet continues to be listed as one of the first initiates. This convention created the Alpha Award of Merit and the Alpha Award of Honor, for appreciation of the tireless efforts on behalf of African Americans, and were awarded to Thurgood Marshall and Eugene K. Jones.[43][44]

God grant from this assembly, this noble assembly of fraternity men, some of the leaders of our nation will emerge.

In 1956, the fraternity made a “pilgrimage[c] to Cornell in celebration of its Golden Jubileewhich drew about 1,000 members who traveled by chartered train from Buffalo, New York to Ithaca. Fraternity brother Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered the keynote speech at the 50th anniversary banquet, in which he spoke on the “Injustices of Segregation”. There were three living Jewels present for the occasion, Kelly, Callis and Murray.[46]

Alpha Phi Alpha memberThurgood Marshallsuccessfully argued the U.S. Supreme Court case styledBrown v. Board of Educationwhich declared segregation unconstitutional.

Alpha men were pioneers and at the forefront of the civil rights struggle renewed in the 1950s.[23] In Montgomery, Martin Luther King, Jr. led the people in the Montgomery Bus Boycott as a minister, and later as head of the SCLC. Birmingham saw Arthur Shores organize for civil rights in Lucy v. Adams. Thurgood Marshall managed the landmark US Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education, in which the Court decided against segregation in public schools. Marshall employed mentor and fraternity brother Charles Houston’s plan to use the de facto inequality of “separate but equal” education in the United States to attack and defeat the Jim Crow laws.[47] The actions by Alpha activists provoked death threats to them and their families, and exposed their homes as targets for firebombing.[48]

In 1961, Whitney Young became the executive director of the National Urban League. In 1963 the NUL hosted the planning meetings of civil rights leaders for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The Alpha Phi Alpha delegation was one of the largest to participate in the March on Washington.[49]

Birmingham, Alabama residents viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney and Alpha Phi Alpha member, on September 5, 1963. The bomb exploded the previous day.

In 1968, after the assassination of fraternity brother Martin Luther King, Jr., Alpha Phi Alpha proposed erecting a permanent memorial to King in Washington, D.C. The efforts of the fraternity gained momentum in 1986 after King’s birthday was designated a national holiday. They created the “Washington D. C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation, Inc to collect funds of $100 million for construction.[50]

History: 1970–2000[edit]

Beginning in the 1970s, new goals were being introduced to address the current environment. The older social programs and policies were still supported, however; under the direction of General President Ernest Morial the fraternity turned its attention to new social needs. This included the campaign to eliminate the ghetto-goal on numerous fronts with housing development and entrepreneurship initiatives.

Arguably the most recognized Alpha Phi Alpha member, Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech in front of theLincoln Memorial during the1963 March on Washington.

The Federal Housing Act (of 1963) requested non-profit organizations to get involved with providing housing for low-income families, individuals and senior citizens. Alpha Phi Alpha was poised to take advantage of this program with government in improving urban housing living conditions. The Eta Tau Lambda chapter created Alpha Phi Alpha Homes Inc. with James R. Williams as the chairman to address these needs in Akron, Ohio. In 1971, Alpha Homes received an $11.5 million grant from HUD to begin groundbreaking on Channelwood Villagewith the Henry Arthur Callis Tower as it centerpiece. Channelwood contains additional structures named after General Presidents James R. Williams and Charles Wesley, and streets named for fraternity founders Tandy and Ogle. The Alpha Towers in Chicago and three other urban housing developments in St. Louis, Missouri—the Alpha Gardens, Alpha Towne and Alpha Village saw completion through Alpha Phi Alpha leadership.[51]

In 1976, the fraternity celebrated its 70th Anniversary with dual convention locations: New York City and Monrovia. The fraternity launched theMillion Dollar Fund Drive with three prime beneficiaries—the United Negro College Fund (UNCF), the National Urban League and the NAACP. The Executive Director of the NAACP stated, “Alpha Phi Alpha provided the largest single gift ever received by the civil rights group.”[24]

In 1981, the fraternity celebrated its Diamond Jubilee in Dallas, Texas, featuring a presentation of the New Thrust Program consisting of theMillion Dollar Fund Drive, the Leadership Development and Citizenship Institutes, and the quest to obtain a national holiday for fraternity brother Martin Luther King, Jr.[52]

We will go to great lengths to lend our voices, our time, our expertise and our money to solve the problems that humankind must solve as we move into the 21st century.
— Henry Ponder, 28th General President ΑΦΑ[24]

As the 21st century approached, Alpha Phi Alpha’s long-term commitment to the social and economic improvement of humanity remained at the top of its agenda. The fraternity’s 28th General President, Henry Ponder, said “We would like the public to perceive Alpha Phi Alpha as a group of college-trained, professional men who are very much concerned and sensitive to the needs of humankind; We will go to great lengths to lend our voices, our time, our expertise and our money to solve the problems that humankind must solve as we move into the 21st century.”[24]

In 1996, The World Policy Council (WPC) was created as a think tank to expand the fraternity’s involvement in politics, and social and current policy to encompass important global and world issues.[13] The United States Congress authorized the Secretary of the Interior to permit Alpha Phi Alpha to establish a memorial to Dr. Martin Luther King on Department of Interior lands in the District of Columbia.[53]

Twenty-first century[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha member and Congressman Chaka Fattah

In 2006, more than 10,000 Alpha Phi Alpha members gathered in Washington, D.C. to participate in the fraternity’s centennial convention to lay the groundwork for another 100 years of service. The fraternity developed a national strategic plan which outlines the processes that Alpha Phi Alpha will utilize in its continuing efforts to develop tomorrow’s leaders, and promote brotherhood and academic excellence.[54] The Centenary Report of the World Policy Council was published in connection with the centenary of Alpha Phi Alpha.[55]

In 2007, General President Darryl Matthews addressed demonstrators at a protest rally touted as the new civil rights struggle of the 21st century. The rally for six black teenagers, the “Jena 6“, was a poignant reminder of incidents which punctuated the civil rights struggles begun in the 1950s.[56]

On the eve of the Inauguration of Barack Obama, the fraternity under the new leadership of 33rd General President Herman “Skip” Mason hosted a Martin Luther King Holiday program at the National Press Club “to honor yesterday’s ‘firsts’—those in history who paved the way for the nation to be able to celebrate the first African-American president.”[57] Alpha Congressman Chaka Fattah said “The life and legacy of Dr. King [was] a predicate for the election of Barack Obama,” “The two are inextricably linked.”[58] Alpha Phi Alpha responded to President Obama’s clarion call to Americans to remake America by implementing a public policy program to focus on saving America’s black boys.[59] General President Mason on behalf of the fraternity appealed to President Obama to create a “White House Council on Men and Boys” and partner with Alpha Phi Alpha to specifically address the needs of this group on a national level.[60]

Alpha Phi Alpha responded to the 2010 Haiti earthquake by sending a humanitarian delegation of Alpha men led by President Mason to Haiti on a fact-finding mission to assess the situation and develop a long-term support plan for the Haitian people. The organization views its future plan to ‘adopt’ a school in Haiti as “a great opportunity for the first black intercollegiate fraternity to stand in solidarity with the first independent black Republic.”[61]

The fraternity protested the passage of Arizona Senate Bill 1070 which it believes may lead to racial profiling by relocating its 2010 national convention from Phoenix, Arizona toLas Vegas, Nevada.[62] The bill makes it a misdemeanor state crime for an alien to be in Arizona without carrying legal documents, steps up state and local law enforcement offederal immigration laws, and cracks down on those sheltering, hiring and transporting illegal immigrants.[63][64] The bill has been called the broadest and strictest anti-illegal immigration measure in decades.[65]

With global expansion as a platform, the fraternity chartered new chapters in the eastern hemisphere at the 2010 National Convention in Las Vegas, NV. The two new chapters are in London, England and Johannesburg, South Africa, further expanding the fraternity’s global footprint.

In 2012, Herman “Skip” Mason was suspended from the Fraternity amid allegations of financial improprieties and was summarily removed as General President. Mason filed a lawsuit that contended the board of directors violated the fraternity’s constitution and by-laws when it suspended him. [1] The lawsuit which requested a temporary restraining order that would have, in effect, reinstated him as general president was denied.[66]

National programs[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha asserts that through its community outreach initiatives, the fraternity supplies voice and vision to the struggle of African Americans, the African diaspora, and the countless special problems that affect Black men.[24][67]

ΑΦΑ National Programs[68]
Mentoring World and National Affairs
Education Continuing the Legacy
Project Alpha Leadership Training Institute
Alpha Academy Go To High School, Go To College
Commission on Business A Voteless People is a Hopeless People
Alpha and the NAACP Alpha Head Start Academy
Cooperative Programs and Economic Development

The fraternity provides for charitable endeavors through its Education and Building Foundations, providing academic scholarships and shelter to underprivileged families.[5] The fraternity combines its efforts in conjunction with other philanthropic organizations such as Head Start, Boy Scouts of America, Big Brothers Big Sisters of America,[69] Project Alpha with the March of Dimes, NAACP, Habitat for Humanity, and Fortune 500 companies.

We must not shoot in the air, but accomplish results. Each chapter must put its part of the program over with interest and drive.

Lucius L. McGee,
10th General President ΑΦΑ[70]

Alpha’s “Designated Charity” benefits from the approximately $10,000, one-time contribution fund-raising efforts at the fraternity’s annual general convention.[24] The fraternity also has made commitments to train leaders with national mentoring programs.[5]

The Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation is a project of Alpha Phi Alpha to construct the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial on the National Mall in Washington D.C.[71]

Go-To-High School, Go-To-College[edit]

Established in 1922, the Go-To-High School, Go-To-College program is intended to afford Alpha men from the ΑΟ (Alpha Omicron) Johnson C. Smith University, with the opportunity to provide young participants with role models. The program concentrates on the importance of completing secondary and collegiate education as a path to advancement and to provide information and strategies to facilitate success.[68]

Voter Education/Registration Program[edit]

“A Voteless People is a Hopeless People” was initiated as a National Program of Alpha during the 1930s when many African Americans had the right to vote but were prevented from voting because of poll taxes, threats of reprisal, and lack of education about the voting process. Voter education and registration have since remained a dominant focus in the fraternity’s planning. In the 1990s the focus has shifted to promotion of political awareness and empowerment, delivered most often through use of town meetings and candidate forums.[68] Members are required to be registered voters, and to participate in the national voter registration program.[72]

The fraternity’s Nu Mu Lambda chapter of Decatur, Georgia, held a voter registration drive in DeKalb County, Georgia in 2004, from which Georgia Secretary of State Cathy Coxrejected all 63 voter registration applications on the basis that the fraternity did not follow correct procedures, including obtaining specific pre-clearance from the state to conduct their drive.

The Court finds and hereby DECLARES that the rejection of voter registration applications on the grounds that they were submitted in a bundle, or by someone who was not a registrar or deputy registrar, violates theNVRA.
— U.S. Court of Appeals, Wesley v. Cox.[73]

Nu Mu Lambda filed Charles H. Wesley Education Foundation v. Cathy Cox on the basis that the Georgia Secretary of State’s long-standing policy and practice of rejecting mail-in voter registration applications that were submitted in bundles and/or by persons other than registrars, deputy registrars, or the individual applicants, violated the requirements of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (NVRA) by undermining voter registration drives. A Senior U.S. District Judge upheld earlier federal court decisions in the case, which also found private entities have a right under the NVRA, to engage in organized voter registration activity in Georgia at times and locations of their choosing, without the presence or permission of state or local election officials.[74]

Project Alpha[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha, Iota Delta Lambda Chapter (Chicago) and the March of Dimes began a collaborative program called Project Alpha in 1980. The project consists of a series of workshops and informational sessions conducted by Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity brothers to provide young men with current and accurate information about teen pregnancyprevention. Alpha Phi Alpha also participates in the March of Dimes WalkAmerica and raised over $181,000 in 2006.[75]

Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial[edit]

The campaign to erect a permanent memorial to Martin Luther King, Jr. was one of the most ambitious projects in the history of the fraternity. In 1996, the United States Congress authorized with Public Law 104-333 and President Bill Clinton confirmed the fraternity’s request to establish a foundation (The Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation) to manage the memorial’s fundraising, design and construction.[71] Harry E. Johnson, the 31st general president of Alpha Phi Alpha, is the current president of the foundation. The National Park Service maintains the memorial site.

The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial is the first on the National Mall area to honor an African American, and King is the second non-President to be commemorated in such a way. On December 4, 2000, Alpha Phi Alpha laid a marble and bronze plaque to dedicate the 4-acre (16,000 m2) memorial site that borders the Tidal Basin, within the sightline of the Jefferson Memorial and Lincoln Memorial.[76] The ceremonial groundbreaking took place on November 13, 2006 and the fraternity’s goal was to dedicate the memorial in 2008 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of King’s death.[77]

The memorial was completed in 2011. A private ceremony for the brothers of Alpha Phi Alpha was held on August 26, 2011. A dedication ceremony opening the four-acre plot to the public had been scheduled to occur on August 28, 2011, but was delayed due to Hurricane Irene.[78] The memorial was formally dedicated on October 16, 2011 which culminated with a speech by President Barack Obama.[79]

World Policy Council[edit]

Main article: World Policy Council

General President Milton C. Davis established the World Policy Council in 1996 as a nonprofit and nonpartisan think tank with a mission as stated in its centenary report “to address issues of concern to our brotherhood, our communities, our Nation, and the world.”[13][55]

Organizing a World Policy Council, Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity suddenly made global headlines when the group asked Nigeria to release political prisoners.

Simeon Booker Jet[80]

The Council is headed by Ambassador Horace Dawson and communicates its position through white paperswhich are disseminated to policymakers, politicians, scholars, journalists, and chapters of the fraternity. Since its founding the Council has issued five reports on topics such as the AIDS crisis, Middle East conflict, andNigerian politics.[13][80] The fifth report was published in 2006 and examines the Millennium Challenge,Hurricane Katrina and extraordinary rendition.[55]

Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation, Inc.[edit]

The Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation, Inc. is the non-profit charitable arm of the fraternity, which focuses on scholarship, programs, and training and development of the membership. The Education Foundation encompasses the implementation of Go-to-High School, Go-to-College, Project Alpha, voter education / registration efforts, The Belford V. Lawson Oratorical Contest, The John Hope Franklin Collegiate Scholars Bowl, The Hobart Jarrett Debate Competition, Leadership Development Institutes, and the professional and personal development thrusts of the fraternity via Alpha University.[81]

Pan-Hellenic membership[edit]

The fraternity maintains dual membership in the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) and the North-American Interfraternity Conference (NIC). The NPHC is composed of nine international black Greek-letter sororities and fraternities, and Alpha Phi Alpha is the only member founded at an Ivy League school. The council promotes interaction through forums, meetings, and other mediums for the exchange of information, and engages in cooperative programming and initiatives through various activities and functions.[82]

The NIC serves to advocate the needs of its member fraternities through enrichment of the fraternity experience; advancement and growth of the fraternity community; and enhancement of the educational mission of the host institutions.[83]

Membership[edit]

The chief significance of Alpha Phi Alpha lies in its purpose to stimulate, develop, and cement an intelligent, trained leadership in the unending fight for freedom, equality and fraternity. Our task is endless.

Henry A. Callis,
ΑΦΑ Founder
6th General President[84]

Alpha Phi Alpha’s membership is predominantly African-American in composition with brothers in over 680 college and graduate chapters in the United States, District of Columbia, the Caribbean, Bermuda, Europe, Asia and Africa. Since its founding in 1906, more than 185,000 men have joined the membership of Alpha Phi Alpha and a large percentage of leadership within the African-American community in the 20th century originated from the ranks of the fraternity.[85][86]

John A. Williams wrote in his book The King that God Did Not Save, which was a commentary on the life of Alpha Phi Alpha member Martin Luther King, Jr., “a man clawing out his status does not stop at education. There are attendant titles he must earn. A fraternity is one of them.”[49][55] The mystique of belonging to a Greek letter group still attracts college students in large numbers despite lawsuits that have threatened the very existence of some fraternities and sororities.[55]

Initial Membership Development Process (IMDP)[edit]

The period in which a candidate for membership in the fraternity engages in before applying and being initiated as a member. This period is the time the candidate learns the organization’s history, objectives, aims, and the tenacity of brotherhood.[87]

As of June 2013, the fraternity only inducts members through the Initial Membership Development Process (IMDP), and all membership development activities for the fraternity are overseen by the National Membership Services Director and conducted by regionally appointed Chief Deans. Pledging has been officially abolished as a means of obtaining membership in Alpha Phi Alpha and pledge “lines” have been officially abolished by the fraternity. Aspirants must not submit themselves, or agree to submit themselves, to any membership activities that are prohibited by the fraternity. Individuals involved in hazing face severe disciplinary action by the fraternity and are referred to the local legal authorities.[88]

Let there be no complaints about brutality. The emphasis should be upon history and purposes of the Fraternity rather than upon physical punishment.

Rayford Logan,
15th General President ΑΦΑ[89]

There are periods in the history of the fraternity where hazing was involved in certain pledge lines. The fraternity has never condoned hazing, but has been aware of problems with “rushing” and “initiations” dated as far back as the 1934 General Convention when the fraternity founders communicated their concern with physical violence during initiation ceremonies.[90] At the 1940 General Convention, a pledge manual was discussed that would contain a brief general history, the list of chapters and locations, the achievements of Alpha men, outstanding Alpha men, and pledge procedures.[91]

In 2001 and 2007, the chapters at Ohio State University and Oklahoma State University–Stillwater were suspended for two and five years respectively for hazing and incidents involving prospective members injured seriously enough to require medical care.[92][93] In 2010, the fraternity suspended new membership intake indefinitely in response to hazing activities in 2009 that again caused pledges to be hospitalized.[94] In 2012, the University of Florida chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha was also accused of hazing. The allegations claimed that members of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity repeatedly struck and paddled pledges hard enough to cause bruises, and one pledge was paddled so hard that he was unable to sleep on his back for several nights.[95]

Alpha Phi Alpha honorary member Hubert H. Humphrey was the 38th Vice President of the United States.

In the selection of candidates for membership, certain chapters had not escaped challenges of racial stereotyping and allegations of colorism. In a biography of Justice Thurgood Marshall, the authors recounted how certain chapters of the fraternity used a “brown paper bag test” and would not consider students whose skin color was darker than the bag.[96] General President Belford Lawson, Jr. lamented this attitude and condemned initiation practices of snobbery and exclusivity, and said “Jesus Christ could not make Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity today; they would blackball Him because He was not hot enough.”[97]

The fraternity once provided classifications for honorary and exalted honorary membership. Honorary members include Vice President Hubert Humphrey (who is Caucasian), jazz musician Duke Ellington, and activist W. E. B. Du Bois.[98] Frederick Douglass is distinguished as the only member initiated posthumously when he became an exalted honorary member of the fraternity’s Omega chapter in 1921. The Fraternity no longer has honorary membership, a practice that stopped in the 1960s.[99]

Notable members[edit]

First African American Accomplishments
by Alpha Phi Alpha Men[100]
Dennis Archer President–American Bar Association
Richard Arrington MayorBirmingham, Alabama
Edward Brooke State Attorney General,
U.S. Senator since Reconstruction
Willie Brown Mayor–San Francisco, California
Emanuel Cleaver Mayor–Kansas City, Missouri
E. Franklin Frazier President–American Sociological Association
Malvin Goode Reporter–American Broadcasting Company
Samuel Gravely Commandant of a U.S. Fleet
Charles Houston Editor–Harvard Law Review
David Dinkins Mayor–New York, N.Y.
Maynard Jackson Mayor–Atlanta, Georgia
Ted Berry Mayor–Cincinnati, Ohio
John Johnson Forbes 400
Ernest Morial Mayor–New Orleans, Louisiana
Thurgood Marshall Justice–U.S. Supreme Court
Samuel Pierce Board of Director for Fortune 500 company
Fritz Pollard Head coach–National Football League
Chuck Stone President–National Association of Black Journalists
Otha E. Thornton Jr. President–National Parent Teacher Association

The fraternity’s membership roster include activist Dick Gregory, Princeton Professor Cornel West, Congressman Charles B. Rangel, Department of Housing and Urban Development Secretary Samuel Pierce, entrepreneur John Johnson, athlete Mike Powell, musician Donny Hathaway, United Nations Ambassador Andrew Young, the first Premier of Bermuda Sir Edward T. Richards, and Atlanta Mayor Maynard Jackson.[101]

Roland Burris became the only black member of the 2009 U.S. Senate when he assumed the seat vacated by President Barack Obama.[102]

Alpha Phi Alpha memberMarc Morial is the CEO of the National Urban League.

Alpha men were instrumental in the founding and leadership of the NAACP (Du Bois),[103] People’s National Party (PNP) Norman Manley,[104] Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) (Jesse E. Moorland),[105] UNCF (Frederick D. Patterson),[106] and the SCLC (King, Walkerand Jemison). The National Urban League has had eight leaders in its more than 100 years of existence; six of its leaders are Alpha men: George Haynes, Eugene K. Jones, Lester Granger, Whitney Young, Hugh Price and Marc Morial.

We are counting on Alpha men to show their true colors.

Antonio M. Smith,
17th General President ΑΦΑ[107]

From the ranks of the fraternity have come a number of pioneers in various fields. Honorary member Kelly Miller was the first African American to be admitted to Johns Hopkins University. Todd Duncan was the first actor to play “Porgy” in Porgy and Bess. During the Washington run of Porgy and Bess in 1936, the cast—as led by Todd Duncan—protested the audience’s segregation. Duncan stated that he “would never play in a theater which barred him from purchasing tickets to certain seats because of his race.” Eventually management would give into the demands and allow for the first integrated performance at the National Theatre.[108]

Charles Houston, a Harvard Law School graduate and a law professor at Howard University, first began a campaign in the 1930s to challenge racial discrimination in the federal courts. Houston’s campaign to fight Jim Crow Laws began with Plessy v. Ferguson and culminated in a unanimous Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education.

Ron Dellums‘ campaign to end the racist, apartheid policies of South Africa succeeded when the House of Representativespassed Dellums’ anti-apartheid Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act calling for a trade embargo against South Africa and immediate divestment by American corporations.[d][109]

Alpha Phi Alpha member Edward Brooke is congratulated by PresidentGeorge W. Bush at the Ceremony for the 2004 Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, The East Room of the White House.

Martin Luther King, Jr. was a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, awarded “to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.” The Presidential Medal of Freedom, designed to recognize individuals who have made “an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors”, has been awarded to many members including Edward Brooke and William Coleman. The Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian award of the United States Congress, was awarded to Jesse Owens and Vice President Hubert Humphrey. The Spingarn Medal, awarded annually by the NAACP for outstanding achievement by a Black American, has been awarded to brothers John Hope Franklin, Rayford Logan and numerous fraternity members.

Premier Norman Manley was a Rhodes Scholar (1914), awarded annually by the Oxford-based Rhodes Trust on the basis of academic achievement and character. Randal Pinkett, Andrew Zawacki, and Westley Moore are other Rhodes Scholar recipients.

A portion of the Morial Convention Center Complex in New Orleans,namesake of Alpha Phi Alpha General President Ernest Morial

A number of buildings and monuments have been named after Alpha men such as the Eddie Robinson Stadium, Ernest N. Morial Convention Center, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Whitney Young Memorial Bridge, and the W. E. B. Du Bois library at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. The United States Postal Service has honored fraternity members W. E. B. Du Bois, Duke Ellington, Martin Luther King, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, Paul Robeson and Whitney Young with acommemorative stamp in their Black Heritage Stamp series.[110]

General Presidents of Alpha Phi Alpha[edit]

  • Moses A. Morrison, 1908–1909
  • Roscoe C. Giles, 1910
  • Frederick H. Miller, 1911
  • Charles H. Garvin, 1912–1913
  • Henry L. Dickason, 1914–1915
  • Henry A. Callis, 1915
  • Howard H. Long, 1916–1917
  • William A. Pollard, 1917–1918
  • Daniel D. Fowler, 1919
  • Lucius L. McGee, 1920
  • Simeon S. Booker, 1921–1923
  • Raymond W. Cannon, 1924–1927
  • Bert A. Rose, 1928–1931
  • Charles H. Wesley, 1932–1940
  • Rayford W. Logan, 1941–1945
  • Belford V. Lawson, Jr., 1946–1951
  • Antonio M. Smith, 1952–1954
  • Frank L. Stanley, 1955–1957
  • Myles A. Paige, 1957–1960
  • William H. Hale, 1961–1962
  • T. Winston Cole, Sr., 1963–1964
  • Lionel H. Newsom, 1965–1968
  • Ernest N. Morial, 1968–1972
  • Walter Washington, 1973–1976
  • James R. Williams, 1977–1980
  • Ozell Sutton, 1981–1984
  • Charles C. Teamer, 1985–1988
  • Henry Ponder, 1989–1992
  • Milton C. Davis, 1993–1996
  • Adrian L. Wallace, 1997–2000
  • Harry E. Johnson, 2001–2004
  • Darryl R. Matthews, Sr. 2005–2008
  • Herman “Skip” Mason, Jr., 2009 – April 2012
  • Aaron Crutison Sr. (Acting), April 2012 – December 2012
  • Mark S. Tillman, 2013–Present[111]

Egyptian symbolism[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha chose to use Egyptian symbolism more representative of the members’ African heritage. The Great Sphinx and Great Pyramids of Giza are fraternity icons. (29°58′33″N 31°07′49″E)

Alpha Phi Alpha utilizes motifs from Ancient Egypt and uses images and songs depicting the Her-em-akhet (Great Sphinx of Giza),pharaohs, and other Egyptian artifacts to represent the organization. The Great Sphinx of Giza was made out of one unified body of stone which represents the fraternity and its members. This is in contrast to other fraternities that traditionally echo themes from the golden age of Ancient Greece. Alpha’s constant reference to Ethiopia in hymns and poems are further examples of Alpha’s mission to imbue itself with an African cultural heritage. Fraternity brother Charles H. Wesley wrote, “To the Alpha Phi Alpha brotherhood, African history and civilization, the Sphinx, and Ethiopian tradition bring new meanings and these are interpreted with new significance to others.” The Great Pyramids of Giza, symbols of foundation, sacred geometry and more, are other African images chosen by Alpha Phi Alpha as fraternity icons.[112]

I have stood beside the Sphinx in Egypt in Africa in July on my third visit there, and I brought greetings to this silent historical figure in the name of Alpha Phi Alpha and I crossed the continent to Ethiopia.

Charles H. Wesley,
14th General President ΑΦΑ[113]

The fraternity’s 21st General President, Thomas W. Cole once said, “Alpha Phi Alpha must go back to her ultimate roots; only then can she be nurtured to full bloom.”[114] Fraternity members make pilgrimages to its spiritual birthplaces of Egypt to walk across the sands of the Giza Plateau to the Great Sphinx of Giza and the Great Pyramids of Giza, and to Ethiopia.[115]

Centennial celebration[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha Board Members at Centennial Banquet, July 2006 in Washington, D.C.

Alpha Phi Alpha declared 2006 the beginning of its “Centennial Era” as it readied for its Centenary, framed by the slogan First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All. These preparations consisted of nationwide activities and events, including the commissioning of intellectual and scholarly works, presentation of exhibits, lectures, artwork and musical expositions, the production of film and video presentations and a Centennial Convention July 25–30, 2006, in Washington, D.C.

The 2006 Centennial Celebration Kickoff launched with a “pilgrimage” to Cornell University on November 19, 2005. That event brought over 700 fraternity members who gathered for a day-long program. Members journeyed across campus and unveiled a new centennial memorial to Alpha Phi Alpha. The memorial—a wall in the form of a “J” in recognition of the Jewels—features a bench and a plaque and is situated in front of the university’s Barnes Hall.[116]

Alpha Phi Alpha Men: A Century of Leadership, is a historical documentary on Alpha Phi Alpha’s century of leadership and service. The film premiered February 2006 on PBS[23] as part of the 2006 Black History Month theme, “Celebrating Community: A Tribute to Black Fraternal, Social and Civic Institutions.”[117] In 2009, the fraternity donated its repository of interviews with prominent Alpha members that were collected for the documentary to Cornell University Library.[118]

Mr. Speaker, it is an honor and special privilege to address this great body on such an auspicious occasion. As a proud member of this fraternity, I feel special esteem in joining the entire House to recognize the historical significance of the centennial anniversary of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

The Centennial Convention, called Reflects on Rich Past, Looks Toward Bright Future, began on Capitol Hill with Congressman and fraternity member David Scott stating to the House of Representatives; “this week men from every discipline and geographic location convene to chart and plan for the fraternity’s future, celebrate its 100th anniversary, and reinvigorate its founding principles of scholarship, fellowship, good character, and the uplifting of humanity.” The House of Representatives passed House Concurrent Resolution 384, approved 422-0, which recognized and honored Alpha Phi Alpha as the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African Americans, its accomplishments and its historic milestone.[119]

Alpha Phi Alpha members were among the list of some of the 600 expected guests of lawmakers, prominent black leaders and civil rights veterans on the South Lawn of theWhite House as President George W. Bush talked about the reauthorization of the Voting Rights Act.

The resolution was co-sponsored by the eight members of the House of Representatives who are members of Alpha Phi Alpha which included Emanuel Cleaver, Robert Scott and Chaka Fattah. While in Washington, fraternity members such as National Urban League head Marc Morial and Congressman Gregory Meeks witnessed the renewal of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 by President George W. Bush in a signing ceremony at the White House. A tribute to Martin Luther King Jr. with an hour-long reflection at the site of the King Memorial was witnessed by Alpha’s General President(s) and a host of the fraternity members assembled for the convention. Grammy Award winning singer Lionel Richie gave a performance for his fraternity at the John F. Kennedy Center.[120]

The House of Alpha, The Centennial Exhibit of Alpha Phi Alpha, opened its doors at the convention. Herman “Skip” Mason served ascurator of the exhibit which has been described as a “fraternal masterpiece.” The featured materials are part of the records of Alpha Phi Alpha, local chapters and the personal collection of fraternity members.[121] Mason was inaugurated as the fraternity’s 33rd General President in January 2009.[122]

Black college Greek movement[edit]

Alpha Phi Alpha delegate’s pin from the 1940 Pan-Hellenic convention of ΑΚΑ, ΑΦΑ and ΚΑΨ

Blacks call themselves Greek because “Greece was a culturally diverse pluralistic society of various ethnic and racial groups—much like the United States of today. However, the citizens were mostly dark-skinned black and brown people” according to journalist and Alpha member Tony Brown.[123] This is despite ancient Greek pottery and art depicting fair skinned people.

Alpha Phi Alpha is the first intercollegiate Greek-lettered fraternity in the United States established for people of African descent, and the paragon for the BGLOs that followed.[112] Indeed, Alpha’s founders researched and noted rumors of prior unsuccessful attempts to form African-American fraternities; for instance, while African-American Greek-letter societies might have begun in the year 1903 at Indiana University in Bloomingtonwhen a club called Alpha Kappa Nu Greek Club formed to “strengthen the black’s voice,” there were too few registrants to insure continued organization, and the unincorporated club disappeared after a short time. There is no record of any similar organization at Indiana University until Kappa Alpha Nu (now Kappa Alpha Psi) was issued a charter in 1911.[124]

Alpha Kappa Alpha was founded in 1908 at Howard as both the first African-American sorority and the first BGLO founded at a black college.[125]Four other BGLOs were in quick succession founded at Howard: Omega Psi Phi (1911), Delta Sigma Theta (1913), Phi Beta Sigma (1914) andZeta Phi Beta (1920). Sigma Gamma Rho (1922) and Iota Phi Theta (1963) were founded at Butler University and Morgan State Universityrespectively.[126]

In 1940, Alpha Phi Alpha, Alpha Kappa Alpha, and Kappa Alpha Psi hosted conventions in the Municipal Auditorium of Kansas City, Missouri and held a historic joint BGLO session.[127]

Notable hazing incidents[edit]

In 1989, Joel Harris, a student at Morehouse College, died as a result of severe physical abuse by members of the fraternity. Mr. Harris had plans to pursue business law after receiving his degree according to his mother.[128] His death prompted leadership of the fraternity to reaffirm their stance against all pledging activity in 1990.[129]

In 1992, Gregory R. Batipps, a student at the University of Virginia, died in a car accident after falling asleep at the wheel. He was sleep deprived due to hazing activity pledging the fraternity.[130]

In 2003, a student at Southern Methodist University, went into a coma after being coerced to drink large amounts of water. The chapter was temporarily expelled from campus and eight members were indicted.[131]

In 2013, 15 Alpha Phi Alpha members were arrested and plead guilty to assault charges after pledges at Jacksonville State University were beaten, humiliated, hospitalized, and forced to drink alcohol until they vomited. One of the pledges filed a civil suit against the fraternity.[132]

In 2013, four Alpha Phi Alpha members were arrested and plead guilty to severely beating pledges (misdemeanor charge) and violating Virginia State University’s code of conduct.[133][134]

In 2014, six Alpha Phi Alpha men at the University of Akron were arrested and charged with assault for severely beating pledges. One known pledge was hospitalized due to excessive bleeding.[135]

There are many lawsuits, suspensions, expulsions, and news stories in existence in regards to illegal hazing activity involving Alpha Phi Alpha.[136][137][138]

Documentary films[edit]

  • Alpha Phi Alpha Men: A Century of Leadership, 2006, Producer/Directors: Alamerica Bank/Rubicon Productions

Membership fees[edit]

Alumni $1366.00 College Freshman $1,276.00 College Sophomores $1,201.00 College Juniors $1,126.00 College Seniors $1,051.00 [139]

There is also a non-refundable administrative fee of $275.00 included in the above fees.[139]

See also