2016 Summer Paralympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
XV Paralympic Games
2016 Summer Paralympics logo.svg

The Official Paralympic emblem/logo was launched on 26 November 2011.[1]
Host city Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Motto A new world
(Portuguese: Um mundo novo)
Nations participating 161[2]
Athletes participating 4,300
Events 528 in 22 sports[3][4]
Opening ceremony 7 September
Closing ceremony 18 September
Officially opened by President Michel Temer
Athlete’s Oath Phelipe Rodrigues
Judge’s Oath Raquel Daffre
Paralympic torch Clodoaldo Silva
Paralympic stadium Maracanã Stadium
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The 2016 Summer Paralympics (Brazilian Portuguese: Jogos Paralímpicos de Verão de 2016), the fifteenth Summer Paralympic Games, are a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by theInternational Paralympic Committee, being held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 September to 18 September 2016. The Games mark the first time a Latin American and South American city hosts the event, the second Southern Hemisphere city and nation, the first one being the 2000 Summer Paralympicsin Sydney, and also the first time a Lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) country hosts the event.[5] These Games will see the introduction of two new sports to the Paralympic program: canoeing and the paratriathlon.

The lead-up to these Paralympics were met with financial shortcomings attributed to tepid sponsor interest and ticket sales, which resulted in cuts to volunteer staffing and transport, the re-location of events and the partial deconstruction of the Deodoro Olympic Park. However, ticket sales began to increase during the lead-up to the opening ceremony: on 9 September 2016 (the second day of competition), the IPC announced that 1.8 million tickets had been sold—making these the second-largest Paralympic Games in terms of ticket sales.

Bidding process

As part of a formal agreement between the International Paralympic Committee and the International Olympic Committeefirst established in 2001, the winner of the bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics was also to host the 2016 Summer Paralympics.[6] Following the third and final round of voting at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen on 2 October 2009, the right to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were awarded to Rio de Janeiro.[7]

2016 Summer Olympics bidding results
City NOC Round 1 Round 2 Round 3
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil 26 46 66
Madrid  Spain 28 29 32
Tokyo  Japan 22 20
Chicago  United States 18

Development and preparation

The 2007 Pan American Games and Parapan American Games in Rio de Janeiro marked the first time that the Pan Am Games and Parapan Am Games were hosted as parallel events in the same host city; Rio’s organization of the two events helped provide the city with experience in hosting multi-sport events, and Paralympic sporting events. Andrew Parsons, president of the Brazilian Paralympic Committee, remarked that the organizing teams responsible for the Olympics and Paralympics were maintaining a good relationship and “speaking the same language” in relation to their organizational duties. Parsons praised how well-organized the 2012 Summer Paralympics were, and felt that his team had learned lessons from London that could be applied in Rio.[8]


Map of Rio de Janeiro showing the competition venues for the 2016 Summer Olympics.

As in past years, the 2016 Summer Paralympics share most of its venues with the corresponding Summer Olympics.[8] Barra da Tijuca hosts most of the venues of the Games; the rest are located in Copacabana Beach, Maracanã and Deodoro; Barra da Tijuca also houses the athletes’ village.[9]

Barra cluster

Deodoro cluster

Maracanã cluster

Copacabana cluster


The medal design for the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 14 June 2016; they are produced by the Casa da Moeda do Brasil. The bronze and silver medals contain 30% recycled materials, while the gold medals were produced using gold that had been mined and extracted using means that met a series of sustainability criteria, such as being extracted without the use of mercury. The obverse of the Paralympic medals feature the Paralympic emblem and an inscription in braille, while each medal contains differing numbers of metal balls to allow the visually impaired to audibly distinguish their color by shaking them. They are accompanied by a wooden carrying box, and a plush toy of Paralympic mascot Tom with hair leaves that match the medal’s color.[10][11][12][13]


The budget of the 2016 Summer Paralympics has faced several rounds of cuts, although the Rio 2016 Organizing Committee has not provided specific details on the deficits.[14][15]

In mid-August 2016, it was reported that the Rio 2016 Organizing Committee had failed to timely deliver US$8 million in travel grants that were intended to be paid out at the end of July. Without these grants, National Paralympic Committees may have had to cover a larger share of the cost of transporting their athletes to the Games, while some (particularly those in African and Asian regions) might not have been able to afford sending their athletes to Rio at all.[16] On 15 August 2016, a spokesperson for the organizing committee credited the financial issues to the political climate making it harder to reach sponsorship deals, as well as ticket sales being below expectations. However, the spokesperson noted that the ongoing Olympics were helping to attract interest from potential sponsors. The ROC stated that it planned to deliver the money by the end of the month and that there was “no intention” to “compromise the Paralympic experience”. Mayor of Rio Eduardo Paes offered to provide US$47 million in funding to the Games to address these shortcomings, but a federal court blocked the further provision of public funding to the ROC pending the inspection of its financial records.[15]

IPC president Philip Craven stated that “although the situation is pretty precarious, rumours that the Games may not go ahead or that sports may be cut are totally unfounded and not true. Our aim right now is to bring in additional funding and resources in order to deliver the Games at the service levels expected by all stakeholders, most importantly the athletes”, and “if no more funding is available then the Organising Committee’s additional cuts will start to impact on the services offered to the athletes who have dedicated years of their lives to reach and compete at these Games. This is the last thing that we want to do.”[17] On 19 August 2016, the IPC issued a report detailing the extent of the budget cuts and their effects on the Games; there will be reductions in transport services and the number of media centres for the Paralympics. Additionally, the wheelchair fencing events were moved from Youth Arena to Carioca Arena 3, and Deodoro Olympic Park was “closed and dismantled” so that the remaining venues in the cluster can act as “three standalone venues with dedicated transport hubs.”[18] Public parties related to the Games were also cancelled.[19] Some public parties and gatherings related to the Games were also cancelled.[16]

Of these changes, Craven stated that “it’s in our Paralympic DNA to see obstacles as an opportunity to do things differently and that’s what we are doing here. We are problem solvers by nature and fight for what we believe in”, and iterated that he was “fully confident Rio 2016 will be the best Games ever in terms of athletic performance.”[20][21] Craven explained that “We want full participation here. We want all eligible countries to send their athletes to the Games. It’s what the athletes deserve, and it is what the athletes want after years of training and dedication.”[20] The injunction was lifted on 18 August 2016, resulting in Paes offering R$150 million in public money to fund the Games. R$100 million worth of sponsorship deals were also reached with the federal government via state-run enterprises.[18][20] The funding was eventually delivered, ensuring that all 165 delegations would be able to attend the Games.[22]


The financial shortcomings of the 2016 Paralympics have been primarily attributed to slow ticket sales, despite the cheapest tickets only costing roughly a quarter of those for the Olympics.[19] In mid-August 2016, organizers stated that only 12% of an original target of 3.3 million tickets had been sold.[23] By early-September, only half of the tickets to medal events had been sold.[19]

On 23 August 2016, Greg Nugent, who was head of marketing of the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, began a campaign on Twitter known as “#FillTheSeats”, encouraging users to donate money to supply local youth and people with disabilities with tickets to the Paralympics. Nugent began the campaign after noticing the large number of empty seats at competition venues during the 2016 Summer Olympics. After the campaign was advertised by Coldplay (which performed the closing ceremony in 2012), the campaign raised over US$15,000 as of 30 August. On 31 August 2016, the IPC and the Rio 2016 Organizing Committee announced that it would officially back the #FillTheSeats campaign, and set a new goal of $300,000—which the IPC said could be used to fund the distribution of 10,000 tickets, along with food and transport, for theopening ceremony to Brazilian youth and disabled peoples.[24]

As part of a revised ticketing strategy, the organizers set a new target of 2.4 million tickets,[19] with the cheapest tickets costing R$10 each.[22] Ticketing director Donovan Ferreti told The Guardian that a “last-minute” demand for tickets had begun to develop in the final days before the opening ceremony. He explained that the tickets were “really affordable” and “cheaper than going to see a movie”, and would allow spectators to “have a great time with high-performance competition and have a great day out in the Olympic Park.” The cost of tickets helped the Paralympics appeal to Brazilians that could not afford tickets for the Olympics, while athletes praised the presence of large and energetic crowds witnessing their events.[25][19][26] On 9 September 2016, the IPC announced that at least 1.8 million tickets had been sold—surpassing the 1.7 million of the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing as the second-largest Paralympics in terms of ticket sales.[27] The next day, Barra Olympic Park had a total attendance of 167,675, marking its largest overall attendance across a single day of competition during either the Olympics or Paralympics (the Olympics only reached a peak of around 157,000).[25]

Torch relay

The Paralympic torch relay will begin with five individual flames being relayed to a city in each of the five regions of Brazil. These flames, as well as a sixth flame lit in Stoke Mandeville, Great Britain, will be united to form a single Paralympic flame, which will be relayed through Rio on 6 and 7 September 2016 en route to its lighting at the Maracanã during the opening ceremony.[28]



Commemorative coins honouring the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.

The official emblem for the 2016 Summer Paralympics was designed by the Brazilian agency Tatíl Design, and unveiled on 26 November 2011 during the Christmas tree lighting at the Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas.[29][30][31]

The emblem incorporates a heart and the infinity symbol, representing a beating heart and the idea of an “infinite energy to overcome obstacles”.[29] IPC president Phillip Craven explained that in his opinion, the emblem symbolized the “heart” of athletes, who were also the “heart” of the Paralympic movement.[31] As with the Olympic emblem, the Paralympic emblem was designed so that it could also be rendered in two- and three-dimensional versions,[32] such as a sculpture that was used during the unveiling.[29]


Main article: Vinicius and Tom

Tom (right), the mascot of the 2016 Summer Paralympics, and Vinicius (left), the mascot of the 2016 Summer Olympics

The official mascots of the 2016 Summer Paralympics and Olympics were unveiled on 24 November 2014, with their respective names, Tom and Vinicius, chosen via a public vote whose results were announced on 14 December 2015. Named after Brazilian musician Tom Jobim, the Paralympic mascot represents Brazilian flora and “is always growing and overcoming obstacles.” The mascots’ fictional backstories state that they were both born from the joy of Brazilians after it was announced that Rio would host the Games. Brand director Beth Lula stated that the mascots are intended to reflect the diversity of Brazil’s culture and people.[33][34][35]

The Games

Opening ceremony

The opening ceremony of the 2016 Summer Paralympics took place on the evening of 7 September 2016 at the Maracanã Stadium. With the theme “Todo Mundo tem um Coração” (“Everybody Has a Heart”), the artistic portions of the ceremony featured sequences themed around the culture of Brazil and inclusivity. The official portions of the ceremony were afflicted by notable political gestures: a Belarusian official carried a Russian flag alongside his delegation to protest Russia’s ban from the games.[36] In the wake ofongoing protests over political instability in Brazil, spectators booed organizing committee head Carlos Arthur Nuzman after he thanked governments for their role in organizing the Games, and President Michel Temer whilst he opened the Games, in response to the recent impeachment of former president Dilma Rousseff.[37]

In an opening speech, IPC president Phillip Craven invited viewers to “see the true meaning of sport and the true definition of ability”, explaining that “in a country which has faced major challenges of late, Paralympians will switch your focus from perceived limitations, to a world full of possibility and endless opportunity. They will surprise you, inspire and excite you, but most of all they will change you.” The Paralympic cauldron was lit by Brazilian paralympic legend Clodoaldo Silva.[38][39][36]

Participating nations

In total, 159 National Paralympic Committees are participating at the 2016 Games, with a total of 4,342 athletes taking part.[40] The number of athletes being sent for each nation is shown beside each nation.

[hide]Participating National Paralympic Committees

The IPC unanimously voted to ban Russian athletes from the 2016 Summer Paralympics in response to the discovery of astate-sponsored doping program.[69][70] On 5 August 2016, the IPC announced that it would field a team of refugee athletes known as the Independent Paralympic Athletes Team, which compete under the Paralympic flag. The 2016 Summer Olympics similarly featured a team of 10 refugee athletes.[58] On 26 August 2016, the IPC announced the two members of the refugee team: swimmer Ibrahim Al Hussein of Syria (50 and 100 metre Freestyle S10), and Shahrad Nasajpour of Iran (F37 Discus).[58][71]


Events in 22 sports are scheduled to be contested at the 2016 Summer Paralympics. Two new sports will also be added to the Paralympics in Rio; canoeing and the triathlon.[72]


All dates are Brasília Time (UTC–3)

OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Event finals CC Closing ceremony
September 7
Ceremonies OC CC
Archery 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 9
Athletics 10 20 16 19 14 19 14 19 16 25 5 177
Boccia 3 4 7
Paracanoe 6 6
Cycling Road 8 8 8 9 33
Track 4 5 5 3 17
Equestrian 1 2 2 6 11
Football 5-a-side 1 1
7-a-side 1 1
Goalball 2 2
Judo 4 4 5 13
Powerlifting 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 20
Rowing 4 4
Sailing 3 3
Shooting 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 12
Sitting volleyball 1 1 2
Swimming 16 16 14 15 16 15 15 14 16 15 152
Table tennis 5 8 8 4 4 29
Paratriathlon 3 3 6
Wheelchair basketball 1 1 2
Wheelchair fencing 2 4 4 2 2 14
Wheelchair rugby 1 1
Wheelchair tennis 1 1 2 2 6
Total events 0 38 50 48 54 48 54 50 54 65 61 6 528
Cumulative total 0 38 88 136 190 238 292 342 396 461 522 528
September 7

Medal table

* Host nation (Brazil)

2016 Summer Paralympics medal table
 Rank NPC Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  China (CHN) 50 40 28 118
2  Great Britain (GBR) 28 16 19 63
3  Ukraine (UKR) 22 19 20 61
4  United States (USA) 16 17 13 46
5  Brazil (BRA)* 9 17 9 35
6  Australia (AUS) 7 13 14 34
7  New Zealand (NZL) 7 3 3 13
8  Netherlands (NED) 6 8 12 26
9  Uzbekistan (UZB) 6 4 13 23
10  Nigeria (NGR) 6 2 1 9
11–72 Remaining NPCs 202 206 222 630
Total (72 NPCs) 293 295 317 940



On 24 August 2016, the IPC announced that Dailymotion would serve as the official online streaming partner for the 2016 Summer Paralympics, offering 15 English-language streaming channels with full broadcasts of athletics, cycling, football, judo, powerlifting, sitting volleyball, swimming, table tennis, wheelchair basketball, wheelchair fencing, wheelchair rugby and wheelchair tennis events, as well as the ceremonies, highlights from all events, news programmes, and other original content. In total, the IPC stated that around 680 hours of content will be streamed over the 11-day event, with at least 72 hours per-day.[73]

Television rights were also sold to individual countries: Grupo Globo acquired rights in Brazil, with coverage to be shown onRede Globo and SporTV. Globo also sublicensed free TV rights to the EBC-owned network TV Brasil,[citation needed] which in turn will also broadcast along with regional state-owned TV networks.[74]

In the United Kingdom, Channel 4 will broadcast the event, promising 500 hours of coverage as a follow-up of its debut as rightsholder in London.[75][76] As a follow-up to its critically-praised “Meet the Superhumans” advert for the 2012 Paralympics, Channel 4 produced a trailer entitled “We’re the Superhumans”, which was viewed at least 23 million times online within four days of its original broadcast.[77]

In Australia, Seven Network holds broadcast rights to these Paralympics, complementing a new long-term rights deal for the Olympics. Seven plans to broadcast 14 hours per-day of coverage on television. Coverage is primarily being broadcast by its digital channel 7Two and streamed through Seven’s existing apps/streaming services, as well as a Paralympics-specific app.[78][79][80]

In Canada, CBC, Sportsnet One and AMI-tv hold broadcast rights, promoting 1000 hours of coverage in total on television and the CBC Sports website. CBC Television will air the ceremonies, a nightly recap show, and afternoon and evening coverage blocks on weekends.[81]

In Latin America (except Brazil), Claro Sports, ESPN and Fox Sports has the rights broadcast the 2016 Summer Paralympics.[citation needed]

Following criticism of its minimal coverage of past Paralympics (in London, it broadcast only five-and-a-half hours of highlights), NBC acquired the rights to the 2014 and 2016 Paralympics in September 2013. NBC has planned more extensive coverage for both games, initially announcing that NBC and NBCSN would carry at least 66 hours of coverage from Rio.[82]

In Sweden, state broadcaster SVT will broadcast the Games, planning 300 hours of coverage on television and digital platforms, as well as a nightly highlights show.[83][84]

in Poland state broadcaster TVP will broadcast the games for the first time in Polish Television history. 330 hours of coverage on television.

South African-based satellite television sports broadcaster SuperSport is the official broadcaster for most of Sub-Saharan Africa.[85][86] They have dedicated two channels to these Games.[87]

LEBANESE MUSLIM Olympians block Israelis from boarding bus to opening ceremonies

ilflag1vi-viMembers of the Lebanese delegation to the 2016 Olympic Games refused to travel on the same bus as their Israeli counterparts to the opening ceremony in Rio on Friday, by blocking Israeli athletes from entering the vehicle.

JPost  Israeli sailing coach Udi Gal described the incident: “The Israeli delegation was preparing to board a bus to the opening ceremony, which was to be shared with the Lebanese delegation. The Lebanese, upon comprehending that they were to share a bus with the Israelis, addressed the driver in refusal and demanded that the door to the bus be shut. Event organizers then attempted to scatter us on different buses – something that is unacceptable for security reasons.”


“We insisted that we board the bus designated for us – and that the Lebanese should de-board if so they wish. So the bus driver opened the door. But this time, the head of the Lebanese delegation blocked the entrance to the bus with his own body. Event organizers – attempting to prevent a diplomatic incident – then organized a separate ride for us. But the diplomatic incident already occurred – shame!”

A source from the Lebanese Olympic committee told al Mayadeen that the refusal to allow the Israeli delegation to ascend onto the bus was a group decision of the Lebanese Olympic delegation.

For the 2016 Olympic Games which officially opened on Friday, Israel proudly showed off its largest delegation ever, with 47 athletes competing in 17 sports.


The 2016 Rio Olympic has ended so let sum things up


Final medal count at the Rio 2016 Olympic

USA gold 46 silver 37 brown 38 (121)
Great Britain gold 27 silver 23 brown 17 (67)
China gold 26 Silver 18 brown 26 (70)
This is according to gold won Predominantly
Brazil the host country came 16
Jamaica top the Caribbean countries
USA gold 46 silver 37 brown 38 (121)
China gold 26 Silver 18 brown 26 (70)
Great Britain gold 27 Silver 23 brown 17 (67)
This is the total medal standing

Olympic Opening Ceremony

Let look at the opening ceremony of the game which has a lot of symbology let see what the NWO is saying

This is what has happened in the Past Olympic

In 2008 in Beijing Olympics the Giants egg was welcome as it came into the womb to be fertile

In 2012 the theme out of the whole opening ceremony was
The rise of Babylon and the rebuilding of Zion in London.

As u see there was a lot of witches and free Mason sacrificing children so the egg can be fertilize and hath.
When it’s hath baby Tammuz the devil and the giant of old are born as it was in the days of Babylon so it shall be in the end

In the Brazil Olympic based on my observation there is a lot of water and wave symbology.
We are now fully in the Aquarius age the flood cause by so called global warming which should be called climatic chaos at best the earth is more than warming up by just man but also the sun and man trying to control the weather and some say that there is a bit of cooling to?

Asteroid impact is also possible

The flood this time has nothing to do with destroying the nephilin as the Lord said he won’t destroy the earth by water again but by fire so it is safe to assume that the flood is something that they know about or causing and have made plans for

Olympic preview

Today is the official start of the Rio Olympic as the day goes by i hope to give you ball by ball commentary from all angle of the NWO production

There is a question that was ask what does it take to get the Olympic games called off because it looks like everything that can go wrong has gone wrong And my answer is a world war the Olympic games has only been cancelled 3 time due to war

2016 Summer Olympics opening ceremony

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2016 Summer Olympics
opening ceremony
2016 Summer Olympics opening ceremony 1035310-05082016- mg 2086 04.08.16.jpg
Time 20:00 – 23:54 BRT (UTC-3)
(3 hours, 54 minutes)
Date 5 August 2016
Location Maracanã Stadium, Rio de Janeiro,Brazil
Coordinates 22°54′44″S 43°13′49″WCoordinates: 22°54′44″S 43°13′49″W
Filmed by Rede Globo and OBS

The opening ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics took place on the evening of Friday 5 August 2016 in the Maracanã Stadium, Rio de Janeiro, starting at 20:00 BRT (23:00 UTC).[1] As mandated by the Olympic Charter, the proceedings combined the formal ceremonial opening of this international sporting event (including welcoming speeches, hoisting of the flags and the parade of athletes, as well as a new feature—the presentation of the International Olympic Committee‘s Olympic Laureldistinction) with an artistic spectacle to showcase the host nation’s culture and history.

Directed by Fernando Meirelles, Daniela Thomas and Andrucha Waddington, the ceremony featured presentations of the history and culture of Brazil, including its landscape and forests, the history of the Portuguese people, music and samba, and the favelas among other aspects. Portions of the ceremony were also dedicated to the topics ofenvironmental conservation and climate change. The Games were officially opened by Acting President of Brazil Michel Temer.[2]

Despite having a significantly lower budget than those of other recent Olympics, the opening ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics was praised by the international media for its vivid, diverse performances, emphasis on multiculturalism, and its appeal to the issue of climate change.


The creative directors for the ceremony were Fernando Meirelles, Daniela Thomasand Andrucha Waddington.[3] Brazilian choreographer Deborah Colker prepared a cast of over 6000 volunteers who danced in the opening ceremony. Rehearsals started at the end of May 2016.[4]

Meirelles stated that the ceremonies for the 2016 Summer Olympics would have a significantly lower budget than those of other recent Olympics, totalling only 10% of the total budget for the ceremonies of the 2012 Summer Olympics. Explaining his rationale, he explained that he would be “ashamed to waste what London spent in a country where we need sanitation; where education needs money. So I’m very glad we’re not spending money like crazy. I’m happy to work with this low budget because it makes sense for Brazil.” Meirelles outlined that because of the lower budget, the ceremony would eschew “high-tech” ideas such as moving stages anddrones; fellow ceremonies director Leonardo Caetano went on to say that the concept of the ceremony would emphasize “originality” over “luxury”, and “compensate with creativity, rhythm and emotion”.[5][6]

On 15 July 2016, it was announced that Anitta, Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil would perform during the opening ceremony. Gil and Veloso had also participated as creative advisors for the ceremony. Creative director Daniela Thomas explained that their involvement was meant to reflect the best in Brazilian music.[7]


Main article: Maracanã Stadium

For the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics, a major reconstruction project was initiated for the Maracanã Stadium. The original seating bowl, with a two-tier configuration, was demolished, giving way to a new one-tier seating bowl.[8] The original stadium’s roof in concrete was removed and replaced with a fiberglass tensioned membrane coated with polytetrafluoroethylene. The new roof covers 95% of the seats inside the stadium, unlike the former design, where protection was only afforded to some seats in the upper ring and those above the gate access of each sector.


Gisele Bündchen at the opening ceremony

Formation of indigenous peoples.

Fernando Meirelles said in September 2015 that the ceremony would be a vision of the country “and what I hope it will become”. Meirelles said he would try to steer away from clichés, but not all of them; for example, the carnival has been confirmed to be a part of the ceremony.[9]


The opening ceremony began with aerial images of the city of Rio de Janeiro in a music video with the song “Aquele Abraço“, sung by Luiz Melodia. There was a brief instrumental version of Marcos Valle‘s Samba de Verão or Summer Samba during the portion with performers in silver suits with giant silver sheets. After the projection of the first images, the International Olympic Committee president Thomas Bach was introduced. Singer Paulinho da Viola sang the Brazilian National Anthemon a stage inspired by the architectural forms of Oscar Niemeyer. The singer was accompanied by a string orchestra. Brazil’s flag was raised and 60 flags were carried by Olympic Brazilian athletes Virna Dias, Robson da Silva, Maurren Maggiand Flávio Canto and children.[10]

Artistic performances[edit]

Japanese immigration to Brazil.
The 14 bis replica.

The artistic performances were set into motion with an homage paid to the spirit of gambiarra,[11] defined by the organisers as “the Brazilian talent for making the most out of nothing”.[12] In this part of the opening ceremony, Brazilian design was honoured with references to Athos Bulcão, indigenous geometry, African prints and Portuguese tiles. Peace and sustainability were featured with the transformation of the peace symbol projection into a tree. This part of the opening is also an homage to the Amazon rainforest,wich biggest part,covers the country. This was followed by the representation of the birth of the immense forests that covered Brazil and the arrival of the Portuguese people. From the beginning of life, the ceremony illustrated the formation of the indigenous peoples, whose entrance was represented by 72 dancers of the two major associations of the Parintins Festival. The arrival of Europeans in caravels, the forced arrival ofenslaved Africans and the immigration of Arab and Japanese people was represented by descendants of these ethnic groups.[13]

One parkour group crossed the stage and jumped on projections of building roofs in the ceremony that highlighted the urbanisation of contemporary Brazil, concentrated in large cities. To the sound of the classic song “Construção“, by Chico Buarque, acrobats scaled the façades of buildings and set up a wall, behind which a reproduction of the 14 Bis plane, flown in real life 110 years earlier in the suburbs of Paris arrived with an actor playing the Brazilian inventor Santos Dumont.Gisele Bündchen interpreted the “The Girl from Ipanema” and walked through Maracanã Stadium, while Daniel Jobim, grandson of composer Antônio Carlos Jobim, played the classic song. The walk of Gisele followed the curves that characterised Niemeyer’s works, such as the Pampulha Church and the Cathedral of Brasília.[14][15] It was later revealed that a pre-planned segment was in place for Bündchen after her catwalk, but it had to be cut because she walked too slow during the catwalk.[16]

Tribute to samba
Tribute to Brazilian favelas

After Ipanema, the favelas were represented to the sound of samba and funk carioca, with singers Elza Soares, who played the “Canto de Ossanha”, andLudmilla, who singed the “Rap da Felicidade”. RapperMarcelo D2 and singer Zeca Pagodinho simulated a duel of rhythms. Rappers Karol Conká and MC Sofiafollowed. Cultural performances that simulated conflicts as maracatu and the bumba-meu-boi shared the stage of the stadium. Actress Regina Caséappeared in the stage and mediated the conflict, before she and the singer Jorge Ben Jor singed the hit song “País Tropical”.[17]

After that, the delegations representing 207 nations then marched into the stadium during the Parade of Nations. The crowd gave large applause for other Latin American nations as well as notably Spain, the USA, Canada, Portugal, and Russia. However, the biggest applause (aside from the host nation) came when the team of Refugee Athletes marched into the stadium just ahead of the Brazilian team. They received a standing ovation from the crowd.[18] The Brazilian team was led into the stadium by model Lea T, the first transgender person to participate in an Olympic opening ceremony.[19]

After the parade of nations, there was a massed parade of the 12 samba schools of the Rio Carnival‘s Special Group, and singers Anitta, Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil performed the song “Sandália de Prata”, by Ary Barroso. The segment was a tribute to Rio’s most famous signature event; the Rio Carnival, which happens on the last four days before Ash Wednesday.

Climate change segment[edit]

A short video on anthropogenic climate change – one of the themes of the event – was also brought to fore during the ceremony. The video, narrated by Brazilian Academy Award-nominee actress Fernanda Montenegro and British Academy Award-winning actress Judi Dench, also reading from Carlos Drummond de Andrade‘s poem “The Flower and the Nausea”, featured Ed Hawkins’ visual spiral indicating rising global temperatures, together with an animated projection of rising sea levels on places that included Amsterdam (host of the 1928 Games); Dubai;Lagos; Shanghai; Florida; and the city of Rio de Janeiro itself.[20]

Promoting world peace is the basis of the Olympic spirit. Today there is an urgent need to also promote peace with the planet. Climate change and the depletion of natural resources need our attention and the Olympic Opening Ceremony is a wonderful opportunity to shed light on this subject. Brazil, with the largest forest and the largest reserve of biodiversity on the planet, is the right place for this message to be spread. It is not enough to stop harming the planet, it is time to begin healing it.This will be our Olympic message: Earthlings, let’s replant, let’s save the planet.
— Judi Dench’s opening narration[21]

First Olympic Laurel award[edit]

Fireworks at the Maracanã Stadium

Kenyan athlete and two-time Olympic champion Kipchoge Keino ran up to the stage to receive the first Olympic Laurel award, accompanied by children flying 200 white kites shaped like doves.[22][23] Earlier, children in Kenya inscribed messages of peace on the kites.[24]


After the speeches by Rio 2016 Organizing Committee President Carlos Arthur Nuzman and by IOC President Thomas Bach , Brazil’s Acting President Michel Temer recited the games’ opening declaration from the stands. Contrary to usual practice, he was not introduced at the beginning of the ceremony, nor was he introduced at the end of President Bach’s speech.[25]

After a burst of fireworks, the Olympic Flag then entered the stadium, and was raised while the Olympic Anthem was sung.

The Olympic oath on behalf of the athletes was then recited by Brazilian sailor Robert Scheidt. The corresponding oaths on behalf of the judges and coaches were taken by Martinho Nobre and Adriana Santos respectively.[26] Furher artistic performances followed.

End of torch relay[edit]

Ending the Olympic torch relay at the end of the Opening Ceremony, Gustavo Kuerten brought the Olympic torch into the stadium, relayed the Olympic flame to Hortência Marcari, who relayed to Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima, who then lit theOlympic cauldron.[27][28]


Vanderlei de Lima lighting the Olympic cauldron.

The cauldron was lit by Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima,[27][28] marathon bronze medallist at the 2004 Summer Olympics[29] and recipient of Pierre de Coubertin medal.[30] It had been speculated that Brazilian footballer Pelé would light the cauldron, but he was unable to attend the ceremony because of health problems.[31]

As part of the organizers’ focus on reducing the effects of global warming, the Olympic cauldron took on a simpler form; it was designed to produce a smaller volume of flame and fewer emissions than previous cauldrons. To enhance the lighting of the smaller flame, it was accompanied by a kinetic sculpture by Anthony Howe, featuring spinning bars of reflective spheres and plates that are designed to evoke the “pulsing energy and reflection of light” of the sun. The sculpture is 12.2 metres (40 ft) in diameter, and has a weight of 1,815 kilograms (4,001 lb).[32][33]

A version of the cauldron was placed on public display in a plaza in front of the Candelária Church. The public cauldron was lit by Jorge Gomes, a 14-year-old runner that had participated in Rio’s Vila Olimpica program—which provides access to sports training facilities to disadvantaged youth.[34][35]


Officials and guests[edit]

Early estimates indicated that at least 100 heads of state or government were planning to attend the opening ceremony. However, some foreign leaders have been slow to commit to their attendance because of the ongoing political issues and other issues affecting the Games.[37] 29 heads of state have confirmed that they are attending the ceremony.[38]

Critical reception[edit]

Christine Brennan wrote for USA Today: “The Rio opening ceremony was exquisitely choreographed as a boisterous show, a poignant social statement and a bold challenge to the world. Who needs money when you have a conscience?”.[53] Tom McGowan of cnn.com described the ceremony as “vibrant” and highlighted how it “saluted the country’s past and pointed towards a greener future”, as well as noting that the ceremony was carried out smoothly despite Meirelles describing the final rehearsal as a “disaster”.[11]

Meredith Blake, a reporter from the Los Angeles Times, also praised the organizers who delivered an inspired, vibrant spectacle despite having a lower budget than in previous editions. However, she criticized the American television networkNBC for not making a live broadcast of the ceremony. As a result, some areas of the United States only got broadcasts of the event with one- to four-hour delays due to the primetime air time during which NBC wished to broadcast the Olympics, as well as the differing time zones in the United States.[54]

David Rooney from The Hollywood Reporter wrote: “Director Fernando Mereilles and his team delivered a sobering call to address global warming and deforestation cloaked in a stirring multicultural celebration of tolerance”. He continued: “Mereilles promised a show assembled for just a fraction of London’s $42 million price tag. That meant an emphasis on low-tech performance, physical theater and emissions-conscious pyrotechnics. The result was a refreshingly analog opening defined by its rich humanity, exuberant warmth and its spirit of indefatigable resilience”.[55] The Guardian’s Misha Glenny wrote that Mereilles “pulled off something quite remarkable with this spectacular show, on a budget that seemed to shrink every day”, which “combined his dazzling cinematic skills with some extraordinary choreography and lighting displays, and a strong narrative thread that explained Brazil’s complex history to the outside world”.[56]