Going Viral


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gonorrhea  colloquially known as the clap is a common human sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae The infection is transmitted from one person to another through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Men have a 20% risk of getting the infection from a single act of vaginal intercourse with an infected woman. The risk for men that have sex with men is higher. Women have a 60–80% risk of getting the infection from a single act of vaginal intercourse with an infected man. A mother may transmit gonorrhea to her newborn during childbirth; when affecting the infant’s eyes, it is referred to as ophthalmia neonatorum. The usual symptoms in men are burning with urination and penile discharge. Women, on the other hand, are asymptomatic half the time or have vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. In both men and women, if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spread locally, causing epididymitis or pelvic inflammatory disease or throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves.

NB: It cannot be spread by toilets or bathrooms.

The common treatment is with ceftriaxone (Rocephin), as antibiotic resistance has developed to many previously used medications. This is typically given in combination with either azithromycin or doxycycline, as gonorrhea infections may occur along with chlamydia, an infection that ceftriaxone does not cover. Some strains of gonorrhea have begun showing resistance to this treatment,[2] which will make infection more difficult to treat.


 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease spectrum of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The term HIV/AIDS represents the entire range of the infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. During the initial infection, a person may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. This is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the illness progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections and tumors that do not usually affect people who have working immune systems. The late symptoms of the infection are referred to as AIDS.

HIV is transmitted primarily via unprotected sexual intercourse (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV.[5] Prevention of HIV infection, primarily through safe sex and needle-exchange programs, is a key strategy to control the spread of the disease. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. While antiretroviral treatment reduces the risk of death and complications from the disease, these medications are expensive and have side effects. Without treatment, the average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.

There are three main stages of HIV infection: acute infectionclinical latency and AIDS

Acute infection- flu 2 to 4 week in about 60%

Clinical latency 3 to over 20 years average 80 years  this cycle stage last

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  is defined in terms of either a CD4+ T cell count below 200 cells per µL. In the absence of specific treatment, around half of people infected with HIV develop AIDS within ten years

AIDS and HIV prevalence 2009

An asterisk * indicates that the CIA World Factbook lists this piece of data as not having an available source.

The estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS by country as of 2008.

Disability-adjusted life year for HIV and AIDS per 100,000 inhabitants

HIV/AIDS prevalence estimates

As of January 5, 2011, all of the data in the following table comes from three tables from the World Health Organization in conjunction with UNICEF.

Country Adult (15-49)
Ref Date of
People with
Ref Date of
Ref Date of
 Zimbabwe 14.9 [1] 2011 est. 1,200,000 [2] 2011 est. 140,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Zambia 12.5 [1] 2011 est. 980,000 [2] 2011 est. 56,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Yemen 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 12,000 [2] 2011 est. [3] NA
 Vietnam 0.5 [1] 2011 est. 280,000 [2] 2011 est. 24,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Venezuela 0.5 [1] 2011 est. 110,000 [2] 1999 est. 4,100 [3] 2011 est.
 Uzbekistan 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 16,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Uruguay 0.6 [1] 2011 est. 10,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 United States 0.6 [1] 2011 est. 1,148,200 [2] 2011 est. 17,000 [3] 2011 est.
 United Kingdom 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 85,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 United Arab Emirates 0.2 [1] 2011 est. [2] NA [3] NA
 Ukraine 0.8 [1] 2011 est. 350,000 [2] 2011 est. 19,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Uganda 7.2 [1] 2011 est. 1,200,000 [2] 2011 est. 77,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Turkmenistan 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 200 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Turkey <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 4,600 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Tunisia <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 3,700 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Trinidad and Tobago 1.5 [1] 2011 est. 14,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,900 [3] 2011 est.
 Togo 3.4 [1] 2011 est. 130,000 [2] 2011 est. 9,100 [3] 2011 est.
 The Gambia 1.5 [1] 2011 est. 8,200 [2] 2011 est. 600 [3] 2011 est.
 The Bahamas 2.8 [1] 2011 est. 6,200 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Thailand 1.2 [1] 2011 est. 530,000 [2] 2011 est. 28,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Tanzania 5.6 [1] 2011 est. 1,400,000 [2] 2011 est. 86,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Tajikistan 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 10,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Taiwan 0.1 [10] Aug 2014 23,492 [10] Aug 2014 351 [10] 2013
 Syria <0.1 [1] 2012 est. 432 [2] 2012 est. 10 [3] 2012 est.
  Switzerland 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 25,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Sweden 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 6,200 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Swaziland 26.0 [1] 2011 est. 190,000 [2] 2011 est. 10,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Svalbard 0.0 [1] 2011 0 [2] 2011 0 [3] 2011
 Suriname 2.4 [1] 2011 est. 6,800 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Sudan 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 260,000 [2] 2011 est. 12,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Sri Lanka <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 3,800 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Spain 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 140,000 [2] 2011 est. 2,300 [3] 2011 est.
 South Sudan 3.1 [1] 2011 est. [2] NA [3] NA
 South Korea 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 9,500 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 South Africa 17.3 [1] 2011 est. 5,600,000 [2] 2011 est. 310,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Somalia 0.7 [1] 2011 est. 24,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,600 [3] 2011 est.
 Slovenia 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 280 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Slovakia <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 200 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Singapore 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 4,200 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Sierra Leone 1.6 [1] 2011 est. 55,000 [2] 2011 est. 3,300 [3] 2011 est.
 Serbia 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 6,400 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Senegal 0.7 [1] 2011 est. 67,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,800 [3] 2011 est.
 Saudi Arabia <0.1 [1] 2011 est. BENU 10,000 [2] 2007 est. 300 [3] 2011 est.
 Rwanda 2.9 [1] 2011 est. 150,000 [2] 2011 est. 7,800 [3] 2011 est.
 Russia 1.1 [1] 2011 est. 980,000 [2] 2011 est. 13,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Romania 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 15,000 [2] 2011 est. 350 [3] 2011 est.
 Republic of the Congo 3.3 [1] 2011 est. 77,000 [2] 2011 est. 5,100 [3] 2011 est.
 Qatar 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 200 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Portugal 0.7 [1] 2011 est. 34,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Poland 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 20,000 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Philippines <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 8,700 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Peru 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 76,000 [2] 2011 est. 3,300 [3] 2011 est.
 Paraguay 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 13,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Papua New Guinea 0.7 [1] 2011 est. 34,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Panama 0.8 [1] 2011 est. 20,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Pakistan 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 98,000 [2] 2011 est. 5,100 [3] 2011 est.
 Oman 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 1,100 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Norway 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 4,000 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Nigeria 3.7 [1] 2011 est. 3,300,000 [2] 2011 est. 220,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Niger 0.8 [1] 2011 est. 61,000 [2] 2011 est. 4,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Nicaragua 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 6,900 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 New Zealand 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 2,500 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Netherlands 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 22,000 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
   Nepal 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 70,000 [2] 2011 est. 5,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Namibia 13.4 [1] 2011 est. 200,000 [2] 2011 est. 5,100 [3] 2011 est.
 Mozambique 11.3 [1] 2011 est. 1,400,000 [2] 2011 est. 74,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Morocco 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 21,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Mongolia <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 500 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Moldova 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 8,900 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Mexico 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 220,000 [2] 2011 est. 11,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Mauritius 1.0 [1] 2011 est. 13,000 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Mauritania 1.1 [1] 2011 est. 14,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Malta 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 500 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Mali 1.1 [1] 2011 est. 100,000 [2] 2011 est. 5,800 [3] 2011 est.
 Maldives <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 100 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Malaysia 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 100,000 [2] 2011 est. 3,900 [3] 2011 est.
 Malawi 10.0 [1] 2011 est. 920,000 [2] 2011 est. 68,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Madagascar 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 14,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Macedonia 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 200 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Luxembourg 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 500 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Lithuania 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 2,200 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Libya 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 10,000 [2] 2011 est. [3] NA
 Liberia 1.0 [1] 2011 est. 35,000 [2] 2011 est. 2,300 [3] 2011 est.
 Lesotho 23.3 [1] 2011 est. 290,000 [2] 2011 est. 18,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Lebanon 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 3,000 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Latvia 0.7 [1] 2011 est. 10,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Laos 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 5,500 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Kyrgyzstan 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 4,200 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Kuwait 0.1 [1] 2011 est. [2] NA [3] NA
 Kenya 6.2 [1] 2011 est. 1,500,000 [2] 2011 est. 80,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Kazakhstan 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 12,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Jordan 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 600 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Japan <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 8,100 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Jamaica 1.8 [1] 2011 est. 27,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,500 [3] 2011 est.
 Italy 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 150,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,900 [3] 2011 est.
 Israel 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 5,100 [9] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Ireland 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 5,500 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Iraq 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 500 [2] 2011 est. [3] NA
 Iran 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 86,000 [2] 2011 est. 4,300 [3] 2011 est.
 Indonesia 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 310,000 [2] 2011 est. 8,700 [3] 2011 est.
 India 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 2,400,000 [2] 2011 est. 170,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Iceland 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 220 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Hungary 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 3,300 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Hong Kong 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 2,600 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Honduras 0.7 [1] 2011 est. 28,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,900 [3] 2011 est.
 Haiti 1.8 [1] 2011 est. 120,000 [2] 2011 est. 7,200 [3] 2011 est.
 Guyana 1.1 [1] 2011 est. 13,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Guinea-Bissau 2.5 [1] 2011 est. 16,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,100 [3] 2011 est.
 Guinea 1.4 [1] 2011 est. 87,000 [2] 2011 est. 4,500 [3] 2011 est.
 Guatemala 0.8 [1] 2011 est. 59,000 [2] 2011 est. 3,900 [3] 2011 est.
 Greenland <0.1 [1] NA 100 [2] NA [3] NA
 Greece 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 11,000 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Ghana 1.5 [1] 2011 est. 260,000 [2] 2011 est. 21,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Germany 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 53,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Georgia 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 2,700 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Gabon 5.0 [1] 2011 est. 49,000 [2] 2011 est. 2,300 [3] 2011 est.
 France 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 140,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,600 [3] 2011 est.
 Finland 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 2,400 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Fiji 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 1,000 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Ethiopia 1.4 [1] 2011 est. 980,000 [2] 2011 est. 67,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Estonia 1.3 [1] 2011 est. 9,900 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Eritrea 0.6 [1] 2011 est. 25,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,700 [3] 2011 est.
 Equatorial Guinea 4.7 [1] 2011 est. 11,000 [2] 2011 est. 370 [3] 2011 est.
 El Salvador 0.6 [1] 2011 est. 35,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,700 [3] 2011 est.
 Egypt <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 9,200 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Ecuador 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 26,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,400 [3] 2011 est.
 Dominican Republic 0.7 [1] 2011 est. 62,000 [2] 2011 est. 4,100 [3] 2011 est.
 Djibouti 1.4 [1] 2011 est. 16,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,100 [3] 2011 est.
 Denmark 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 4,800 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.2* [1] 2011 est. 1,100,000 [2] 2011 est. 100,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Czech Republic <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 1,500 [2] 2011 est. 10 [3] 2011 est.
 Cyprus <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 1,000 [2] 2011 est. [3] NA
 Cuba 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 6,200 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Croatia <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 200 [2] 2011 est. 10 [3] 2011 est.
 Cote d’Ivoire 3.0 [1] 2011 est. 450,000 [2] 2011 est. 38,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Costa Rica 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 9,700 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Comoros 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 500 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Colombia 0.5 [1] 2011 est. 170,000 [2] 2011 est. 9,800 [3] 2011 est.
 China [1] 2011 est. 740,000 [2] 2011 est. 26,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Chile 0.5 [1] 2011 est. 40,000 [2] 2011 est. [3] NA*
 Chad 3.1 [1] 2011 est. 210,000 [2] 2011 est. 11,100 [3] 2011 est.
 Central African Republic 4.6 [1] 2011 est. 160,000 [2] 2011 est. 11,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Cape Verde 1.0 [1] NA* 775 [2] NA* 225 [3] NA*
 Canada 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 73,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Cameroon 4.6 [1] 2011 est. 610,000 [2] 2011 est. 39,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Cambodia 0.6 [1] 2011 est. 75,000 [2] 2011 est. 6,900 [3] 2011 est.
 Burundi 1.3 [1] 2011 est. 110,000 [2] 2011 est. 11,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Burma 0.6 [1] 2011 est. 240,000 [2] 2011 est. 25,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Burkina Faso 1.6 [1] 2011 est. 130,000 [2] 2011 est. 9,200 [3] 2011 est.
 Bulgaria 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 3,800 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Brunei 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 200 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Brazil 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 600,000 [2] 2011 est. 15,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Botswana 23.4 [1] 2011 est. 320,000 [2] 2011 est. 11,000 [3] 2011 est.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 900 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Bolivia 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 8,100 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Bhutan 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 246 [5] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Bermuda 0.3 [1] 2011 163 [2] 2011 392 [3] 2011
 Benin 1.2 [1] 2011 est. 64,000 [2] 2011 est. 3,300 [3] 2011 est.
 Belize 2.3 [1] 2011 est. 4,800 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Belgium 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 15,000 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Belarus 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 13,000 [2] 2011 est. 1,100 [3] 2011 est.
 Barbados 0.9 [1] 2011 est. 2,200 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Bangladesh <0.1 [1] 2011 est. 12,000 [2] 2011 est. 500 [3] 2011 est.
 Bahrain 0.3 [1] 2011 est. 600 [2] 2011 est. 200 [3] 2011 est.
 Azerbaijan 0.1 [1] 2011 est. 7,800 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Austria 0.4 [1] 2011 est. 9,800 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Australia 0.2 [1] 2011 est. 20,000 [2] 2011 est. 100 [3] 2011 est.
 Argentina 0.5 [1] 2011 est. 110,000 [2] 2011 est. 2,900 [3] 2011 est.
 Afghanistan <0.01 [1] 2011 est. [2] NA [3] NA


HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic.[1] As of 2012, approximately 35.3 million people are living with HIV globally.[2] Of these, approximately 17.2 million are men, 16.8 million are women and 3.4 million are less than 15 years old.[3] There were about 1.8 million deaths from AIDS in 2010, down from 2.2 million in 2005.[3]

Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected. In 2010, an estimated 68% (22.9 million) of all HIV cases and 66% of all deaths (1.2 million) occurred in this region.[4] This means that about 5% of the adult population in this area is infected.[5] Here, in contrast to other regions, women compose nearly 60% of cases.[4] South Africa has the largest population of people with HIV of any country in the world, at 5.9 million.[4]

South & South East Asia (a region with about 2 billion people as of 2010, over 30% of the global population) has an estimated 4 million cases (12% of all people living with HIV), with about 250,000 deaths in 2010.[5] Approximately 2.5 million of these cases are in India, where however the prevalence is only about 0.3% (somewhat higher than that found in Western and Central Europe or Canada).[4] Prevalence is lowest in East Asia at 0.1%.[5]

In 2008 approximately 1.2 million people in the United States had HIV; 20% did not realize that they were infected.[6]Over the 10 year period from 1999-2008 it resulted in about 17,500 deaths per year.[6] In the United Kingdom, as of 2009, there were approximately 86,500 cases and 516 deaths.[7] In Australia, as of 2009, there were about 21,171 cases and around 23 deaths.[8] In Canada as of 2008 there were about 65,000 cases and 53 deaths.[9]

A reconstruction of its genetic history shows that the HIV pandemic almost certainly originated in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, around 1920.[10] AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and by 2009 had caused nearly 30 million deaths.[11]

By region[edit]

The pandemic is not homogeneous within regions, with some countries more afflicted than others. Even at the country level, there are wide variations in infection levels between different areas. The number of people infected with HIV continues to rise in most parts of the world, despite the implementation of prevention strategies, Sub-Saharan Africa being by far the worst-affected region, with an estimated 22.9 million at the end of 2010, 68% of the global total.[12]

South and South East Asia have an estimated 12% of the global total.[13] The rate of new infections has fallen slightly since 2005 after a more rapid decline between 1997 and 2005.[12] Annual AIDS deaths have been continually declining since 2005 as antiretroviral therapy has become more widely available.

World region[12] Estimated prevalence of HIV infection
(adults and children)
Estimated adult and child deaths during 2010 Adult prevalence (%)
Worldwide 31.6 million – 35.2 million 1.6 – 1.9 million 0.8%
Sub-Saharan Africa 21.6 million – 24.1 million 1.2 million 5.0%
South and South-East Asia 3.6 million – 4.5 million 250,000 0.3%
Eastern Europe and Central Asia 1.3 million – 1.7 million 90,000 0.9%
Latin America 1.2 million – 1.7 million 67,000 0.4%
North America 1.0 million – 1.9 million 20,000 0.6%
East Asia 580,000 – 1.1 million 56,000 0.1%
Western and Central Europe 770,000 – 930,000 9,900 0.2%

Sub-Saharan Africa[edit]

Estimated HIV infection in Africa in 2011.

Graphs of life expectancy at birth for some sub-Saharan countries showing the fall in the 1990s primarily due to the AIDS pandemic.[14]

Main article: HIV/AIDS in Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa remains the hardest-hit region. HIV infection is becoming endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to just over 12% of the world’s population but two-thirds of all people infected with HIV.[12] The adult HIV prevalence rate is 5.0% and between 21.6 million and 24.1 million total are affected.[12] However, the actual prevalence varies between regions. Presently, Southern Africa is the hardest hit region, with adult prevalence rates exceeding 20% in most countries in the region, and 30% in Swaziland and Botswana.

Eastern Africa also experiences relatively high levels of prevalence with estimates above 10% in some countries, although there are signs that the pandemic is declining in this region. West Africa on the other hand has been much less affected by the pandemic. Several countries reportedly have prevalence rates around 2 to 3%, and no country has rates above 10%. In Nigeria and Côte d’Ivoire, two of the region’s most populous countries, between 5 and 7% of adults are reported to carry the virus.

Across Sub-Saharan Africa, more women are infected with HIV than men, with 13 women infected for every 10 infected men. This gender gap continues to grow. Throughout the region, women are being infected with HIV at earlier ages than men. The differences in infection levels between women and men are most pronounced among young people (aged 15–24 years). In this age group, there are 36 women infected with HIV for every 10 men. The widespread prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, the practice of scarification, unsafe blood transfusions, and the poor state of hygiene and nutrition in some areas may all be facilitating factors in the transmission of HIV-1 (Bentwich et al., 1995).

Mother-to-child transmission is another contributing factor in the transmission of HIV-1 in developing nations. Due to a lack of testing, a shortage in antenatal therapies and through the feeding of contaminated breast milk, 590,000 infants born in developing countries are infected with HIV-1 per year. In 2000, the World Health Organization estimated that 25% of the units of blood transfused in Africa were not tested for HIV, and that 10% of HIV infections in Africa were transmitted via blood.

Poor economic conditions (leading to the use of dirty needles in healthcare clinics) and lack of sex education contribute to high rates of infection. In some African countries, 25% or more of the working adult population is HIV-positive. Poor economic conditions caused by slow onset-emergencies, such as drought, or rapid onset natural disasters and conflict can result in young women and girls being forced into using sex as a survival strategy.[15] Worse still, research indicates that as emergencies, such as drought, take their toll and the number of potential ‘clients’ decreases, women are forced by clients to accept greater risks, such as not using contraceptives.[15]

AIDS-denialist policies have impeded the creation of effective programs for distribution of antiretroviral drugs. Denialist policies by former South African President Thabo Mbeki‘s administration led to several hundred thousand unnecessary deaths.[16][17] UNAIDS estimates that in 2005 there were 5.5 million people in South Africa infected with HIV — 12.4% of the population. This was an increase of 200,000 people since 2003.

Although HIV infection rates are much lower in Nigeria than in other African countries, the size of Nigeria’s population meant that by the end of 2003, there were an estimated 3.6 million people infected. On the other hand, Uganda,Zambia, Senegal, and most recently Botswana have begun intervention and educational measures to slow the spread of HIV, and Uganda has succeeded in actually reducing its HIV infection rate.

Middle East and North Africa[edit]

Approximately 500 000 people are living with HIV in the MENA region. This number is estimated at 470 000 (350 000–570 000) without Afghanistan and Pakistan (which are not considered by UNAIDS geographic definition as part of MENA region), and reaches 580 000 (430 000–810 000) if Pakistan and Afghanistan are included[18]HIV/AIDS prevalence in the Middle East and North Africa is around 0.2% (0.1–0.7%), with between 230,000 and 1.4 million people infected. Among young people 15–24 years of age, 0.3% of women [0.1–0.8%] and 0.17% of men [0.1–0.3%] were living with HIV infection by the end of 2004.[citation needed]

Despite the low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the MENA region, there are epidemics among vulnerable groups. As of 2012, the prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men in Egypt is estimated to be 5.0%-9.9%.[19]

South and South-East Asia[edit]

Main article: HIV/AIDS in Asia

The HIV prevalence rate in South and South-East Asia is less than 0.35 percent, with total of 4.2 – 4.7 million adults and children infected. More AIDS deaths (480,000) occur in this region than in any other except sub-Saharan Africa. The geographical size and human diversity of South and South-East Asia have resulted in HIV epidemics differing across the region. The AIDS picture in South Asia is dominated by the epidemic in India.

In South and Southeast Asia, the HIV epidemic remains largely concentrated in injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, sex workers, and clients of sex workers and their immediate sexual partners.[20] In the Philippines, in particular, sexual contact between males comprise the majority of new infections. An HIV surveillance study conducted by Dr.Louie Mar Gangcuangco and colleagues from the University of the PhilippinesPhilippine General Hospital showed that out of 406 MSM tested for HIV in Metro Manila, HIV prevalence was 11.8% (95% confidence interval: 8.7- 15.0).[21][22]

Migrants, in particular, are vulnerable and 67% of those infected in Bangladesh and 41% in Nepal are migrants returning from India.[20] This is in part due to human trafficking and exploitation, but also because even those migrants who willingly go to India in search of work are often afraid to access state health services due to concerns over their immigration status.[20]

East Asia[edit]

The national HIV prevalence levels in East Asia is 0.1% in the adult (15–49) group. However, due to the large populations of many East Asian nations, this low national HIV prevalence still means that large numbers of people are infected with HIV. The picture in this region is dominated by China. Much of the current spread of HIV in China is through injecting drug use and paid sex. In China, the number was estimated at between 430,000 and 1.5 million by independent researchers, with some estimates going much higher.Main article: HIV/AIDS in Asia

In the rural areas of China, where large numbers of farmers, especially in Henan province, participated in unclean blood transfusions; estimates of those infected are in the tens of thousands. In Japan, just over half of HIV/AIDS cases are officially recorded as occurring amongst homosexual men, with the remainder occurring amongst heterosexuals and also via drug abuse, in the womb or unknown means.



The Caribbean is the second-most affected region in the world.[12] Among adults aged 15–44, AIDS has become the leading cause of death. The region’s adult prevalence rate is 0.9%.[12] with national rates ranging up to 2.7%.[23] HIV transmission occurs largely through heterosexual intercourse,[citation needed] with two-thirds of AIDS cases in this region attributed to this route. Sex between men is also a significant route of transmission, even though it is heavily stigmatised and illegal in many areas. HIV transmission through injecting drug use remains rare, except in Bermuda and Puerto Rico,.

Central and South America[edit]

In these regions of the American continent, only Guatemala and Honduras have national HIV prevalence of over 1%. In these countries, HIV-infected men outnumber HIV-infected women by roughly 3:1.Main article: HIV/AIDS in Latin America

United States and Canada[edit]

The adult prevalence rate in this region is 0.7% with over 1 million people currently infected with HIV. In the United States from 2001–2005, the highest transmission risk behaviors were sex between men (40–49% of new cases) and high risk heterosexual sex (32–35% of new cases).[24] Currently, rates of HIV infection in the US are highest in the eastern and southern regions, with the exception of California. Currently, 35,000–40,000 new infections occur in the USA every year. AIDS is one of the top three causes of death for African American men aged 25–54 and for African American women aged 35–44 years in the United States of America. In the United States, African Americans make up about 48% of the total HIV-positive population and make up more than half of new HIV cases, despite making up only 12% of the population. The main route of transmission for women is through unprotected heterosexual sex. African American women are 19 times more likely to contract HIV than other women.[25]

In the United States in particular, a new wave of infection is being blamed on the use of methamphetamine, known as crystal meth. Research presented at the 12th Annual Retrovirus Conference in Boston in February 2005 concluded that using crystal meth or cocaine is the biggest single risk factor for becoming HIV+ among US gay men, contributing 29% of the overall risk of becoming positive and 28% of the overall risk of being the receptive partner in anal sex.[26]

In addition, several renowned clinical psychologists now cite methamphetamine as the biggest problem facing gay men today, including Michael Majeski, who believes meth is the catalyst for at least 80% of seroconversions currently occurring across the United States, and Tony Zimbardi, who calls methamphetamine the number one cause of HIV transmission, and says that high rates of new HIV infection are not being found among non-crystal users. In addition, various HIV and STD clinics across the United States report anecdotal evidence that 75% of new HIV seroconversions they deal with are methamphetamine-related; indeed, in Los Angeles, methamphetamine is regarded as the main cause of HIV seroconversion among gay men in their late thirties.[26] The chemical “methamphetamine”, in and of itself, cannot infect someone with HIV.

Washington, D.C., the nation’s capital, also has the nation’s highest rate of infection, at 3%. This rate is comparable to what is seen in west Africa, and is considered a severe epidemic.[27]

In Canada, nearly 60,000 people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2005.[28] The HIV-positive population continues to increase in Canada, with the greatest increases amongst aboriginal Canadians.[29] As in Western Europe, the death rate from AIDS in North America fell sharply with the introduction of combination AIDS therapies (HAART).

In the United States, young African-American women are also at high risk for HIV infection.[30] African Americans make up 10% of the population but about half of the HIV/AIDS cases nationwide.[31] This is due in part to a lack of information about AIDS and a perception that they are not vulnerable, as well as to limited access to health-care resources and a higher likelihood of sexual contact with at-risk male sexual partners.[32] There are also geographic disparities in AIDS prevalence in the United States, where it is most common in the large metropolitan areas of the East Coast and California and in urban areas of the Deep South.[33] Rates are lower in Utah, Texas, and Northern Florida.[34]

Since 1985, the incidence of HIV infection among women has been steadily increasing. It is currently estimated that at least 27% of new HIV infections are in women.[35] There has been increasing concern for the concurrency of violence surrounding women infected with HIV. In 2012, a meta-analysis showed that the rates of psychological trauma, including Intimate Partner Violence and PTSD in HIV positive women were more than five times and twice the national averages, respectively.[36] In 2013, the White House commissioned an Interagency Federal Working Group to address the intersection of violence and women infected with HIV.[37]

A review of studies containing data regarding the prevalence of HIV in transgender women found that nearly 11.8% self-reported that they were infected with HIV.[38] In the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, 20.23% of black respondents reported being HIV-positive, with an additional 10% reporting that they were unaware of their status.[39]

Eastern Europe and Central Asia[edit]

There is growing concern about a rapidly growing epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where an estimated 1.23–3.7 million people were infected as of December 2011, though the adult (15–49) prevalence rate is low (1.1%). The rate of HIV infections began to grow rapidly from the mid-1990s, due to social and economic collapse, increased levels of intravenous drug use and increased numbers of prostitutes. By 2010 the number of reported cases in Russia was over 450,000 according to the World Health Organization, up from 15,000 in 1995 and 190,000 in 2002; some estimates claim the real number is up to eight times higher, well over 2 million. There are predictions that the infection rate in Russia will continue to rise quickly, since education there about AIDS is almost non-existent.[40]

Ukraine and Estonia also have growing numbers of infected people, with estimates of 650,000 and 4,400 respectively in 2011. The disease is now officially epidemic in this region, which means that prevention strategies may not be able to halt and reverse its spread. Also, transmission of HIV is increasing through sexual contact and drug use among the young (<30 years). Indeed, over 84% of current AIDS cases in this region occur in non-drug-using heterosexuals less than 26 years of age.

Western Europe[edit]

In most countries of Western Europe, AIDS cases have fallen to levels not seen since the original outbreak; many attribute this trend to aggressive educational campaigns, screening of blood transfusions and increased use of condoms. Also, the death rate from AIDS in Western Europe has fallen sharply, as new AIDS therapies have proven to be an effective (though expensive) means of suppressing HIV.

In this area, the routes of transmission of HIV is diverse, including paid sex, injecting drug use, mother to child, male with male sex and heterosexual sex.[citation needed] However, many new infections in this region occur through contact with HIV-infected individuals from other regions. The adult (15–49) prevalence in this region is 0.3% with between 570,000 and 890,000 people currently infected with HIV infection. Due to the availability of antiretroviral therapy, AIDS deaths have stayed low since the lows of the late 1990s. However, in some countries, a large share of HIV infections remain undiagnosed and there is worrying evidence of antiretroviral drug resistance among some newly HIV-infected individuals in this region.


There is a very large range of national situations regarding AIDS and HIV in this region. This is due, in part, to the large distances between the islands of Oceania. The wide range of development in the region also plays an important role. The prevalence is estimated at between 0.2% and 0.7%, with between 45,000 and 120,000 adults and children currently infected with HIV.

Papua New Guinea has one of the most serious AIDS epidemics in the region. According to UNAIDS, HIV cases in the country have been increasing at a rate of 30 percent annually since 1997, and the country’s HIV prevalence rate in late 2006 was 1.3%.[41]

AIDS and society[edit]

In June 2001, the United Nations held a Special General Assembly to intensify international action to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic as a global health issue, and to mobilize the resources needed towards this aim, labelling the situation a “global crisis”.[42]

Regarding the social effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, some sociologists suggest that AIDS has caused a “profound re-medicalization of sexuality“.[43][44]

Social factors also influence HIV/AIDS. A 2003 study states that HIV and AIDS are less prevalent in Muslim populations and speculates that this may be due to the effect of severalIslamic tenets, such as the avoidance of extramarital affairs and the “benefits arising from circumcision“.[45]

Leonard Horowitz speak on man made Ebola and HIV aids

Leonard George Horowitz, also known as Lenny Len Horowitz or Horowitz was born in 1962 . He is Doctor in Dentistry , and has postgraduates in their specialty and Public Health . He left his consulting dentist to get into the health industry and publish several books, pamphlets (both published by his own publishing house, Tetrahedron ), DVDs, CDs and articles on public health journals.


Among the known titles of Doctor Horowitz is Deadly Innocence: Solving the Greatest Murder Mystery in the History of American Medicine (1994) (Deadly Innocence: Solving the greatest mystery of the crime in the history of American medicine, not Castilian edition) where he states the dentist David J. Acer is a pedophile and mass murderer who used theHIV ( HIV , human immunodeficiency virus ) as a weapon; and Emerging Viruses: Aids & Ebola – Nature, Accident or Intentional (1996) (Emerging Viruses: AIDS and Ébola- ¿Nature, accident or intention, no edition in Castilian)? which presents the theory that both AIDS and the Ebola were created by the government of the United States as biological weapons for use on a plan of genocide . As an author, his songs have derived from public health to dental conspiracy theories related to health, opposition to vaccination therapies and New Age , with elements of numerology and Christian apocalyptic prophecies .

Dr. Horowitz is working with several companies selling online for health remedies from the Holistic Medicine . At the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ( SARS ,Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) in 2003 , he and several partners announced an “effective treatment” for the disease, a range of natural products known as “Urbani”. Dr.Urbani subsequently died from SARS was first reported to the World Health Organization ( WHO ) on this syndrome. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration), controlling agency for food and drugs in the United States, and the FTC (Fair Trade Commission), trade regulator warned of clear violations related to the product, but it seems that never stopped manufactured. Dr. Horowitz also opened a spa in Hawaii , called Steam Vent Inn, which was closed by the administration in 2006 .

Horowitz’s theories on viruses and dangers of vaccination have been well received in some quarters. In some girlfriends websites, Bo Gritz is quoted suggesting that deserves theNobel Prize . Nation of Islam (NOI, African American organization) warns parents of the dangers blacks having the vaccination for their children, apparently by inducing Horowitz .On 28 May 2008 , the Rev. Jeremiah Wright , former pastor of Sen. Barack Obama at the Unitarian Church of Christ Trinity ( Trinity United Church of Christ ), said Horowitz’s bookEmerging Viruses: AIDS and Ebola as support for their sermon, in which he spoke of how the government of the United States “lied about the creation of the AIDS virus as genocidal half of the black population.” Many qualify the findings of Horowitz and conspiracy theories , and he seems to identify with them, having participated in the Conspiracy Room ( Congress Conspiracy ) in 2001 , 2004 and 2007 .

Career as a researcher and dental public health 

Dr. Horowitz has published some twenty articles in scientific journals, including the Journal of the American Dental Association (Journal of the American Dental Association),General Dentistry (General Dentistry), and the Journal of School Health (Journal of School Health).

In the early nineties, the control of AIDS in dentistry and the fear that addressed patients about the risks of contracting it in the dentist’s office, became the main subjects of his books and articles. At the time these subjects were treated very thanks to the case of Kimberly Bergalis , she and five other patients claimed to have contracted AIDS in consultation with your dentist David J. Acer , turn with AIDS. Initial investigations concluded that all carried the same strain of the virus and that the most likely source of infection was Dr. Acer.

Late in the nineties, the thoughts and opinions of Dr. Horowitz stood outside the medical consensus, following the trend set by his ten years earlier publication, In Defense of Holistic Health (In defense of holistic medicine ). His personal research on Dr. Acer seems to be the starting point of his career as an author of books and other media defending theconspiracy theory health as it not only concluded that Acer had criminal intent, but the government of the United States had concealed evidence that AIDS was artificially created.

At the International AIDS Conference in Vancouver ( 1996 ) synopsis of a presentation in which Horowitz listed as principal investigator reads “genocidal theory of AIDS can not be ruled out”. In 1999 , Da Vid collaborator Horowitz cited in the presentation of the Vancouver conference, said about his conspiracy theories that he (Horowitz) he was “giving too much credit to people so well organized …. I told him directly that he believed should have been angry.”

His role in the controversy Kimberly Bergalis 

In 1994 , Horowitz published articles on the case of David J. Acer , a dentist in Florida , according to federal health authorities and the state of Florida, had infected six patients with the virus of AIDS . In his book Deadly Innocence: Solving the Greatest Murder Mystery in the History of American Medicine published his theory of the intentionality of Acer in the spread and this caught the attention of the press . Dr. Horowitz was not alone in concluding that the infection was deliberate, journalists quoting reputable sources saying that “it was a crime …. simply because we have eliminated every other possibility” and “whether or not scientifically valid, it is definite that this is the more frequent at least within the dental community “theory. The case aroused great public and professional concern that seemed to be the first time a contagion was not only HIV transmission from dentist to patient but from any professional in the medical field, and the number of infected by a single professional.

In previous investigations it was concluded that the contagion had errors of Procedure for Acer. However, the route of transmission was never identified, and errors were discovered in the analysis of the CDC ( Centers for Disease Control , Centers for Disease Control) and discrepancies in the reports of some infected patients. Public interest was high in June of1994 , when the program 60 minutes (60 minutes) devoted its space to the case. Stopped considered unreasonable to suggest that infected patients of Dr. Acer had simply lied about their sexual activity or use of . injected drugs, or that the similarity found between strains of the virus by the CDC analysis could be misleading However, months before the issuance of this program, on 2 April 1994 , Horowitz brought another theory: given unlikelihood of the apparent “accidental” dentist-to-patient transmission, only the “intent” of the professional group could explain the infection. In short, the position was that Horowitz had killed Bergalis Acer and other patients intentionally by infecting with the AIDS virus motivated by a political plan.

What distinguished Horowitz claims other at the time was that they were not limited to the intentionality of Acer, but also involving American agencies, federal and state government, on its cover. What he wrote in Deadly Innocence foreshadowed his writings in favor of conspiracy theories about AIDS later. According to Horowitz, “the CDC and Florida health officials have covered up all evidence incriminating Acer 36 serial murders investigated by the FBI ( Federal Bureau of Investigation , Federal Bureau of Investigation) … I was forced to conclude that the authorities had hidden the evidence to prevent the press, and then the public, investigate their background. “ Acer’s testimony in the court case said he believed he was dying from a virus created by the government. According to the testimony of Acer’s best friend, the thought that the purpose of releasing the virus was causing the genocideof the American gay community and the black community of the third world .

However, Edward Parsons , the “best friend” Acer said earlier, in his actual testimony under oath would have said only that “Acer was angry about his AIDS infection,” and specified that “Acer not told him to go on to infect patients intentionally “. Elsewhere Parsons is quoted as saying that Acer had mentioned hemophiliacs, drug users and homosexuals between the categories that seemed too marginal to the American government to act against AIDS. However, Parsons does not mention any racial, ethnic or national category, and nowhere is quoted as saying that Acer has mentioned that the AIDS virus was created by the American government, accidentally or intentionally, or has been released for some purpose of any government.

Reaction to the book Emerging Viruses: AIDS and Ebola [ edit ]

Estimated prevalence of AIDS cases worldwide among adults 15 to 49, 2008.

In 1996, Horowitz published Emerging Viruses: AIDS and Ebola – Nature, Accident or Intentional?. Its publication made ​​Horowitz was invited to speak in a channel of the cable and as a keynote speaker at a seminar on epidemics but, in general, at that time was quite unknown. Just drew attention among literary critics because it was published by his own publishing house and its contents supposedly “conspiranoico”.However, by May 2008 , Emerging Viruses had been located in the ranking above The Hot Zone: A Terrifying True Story by Richard Preston(Hot Zone, edition in Castilian) and The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance, by Laurie Garrett (The coming plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in an unbalanced world, Castilian edition) in the categories of “Infectious Diseases” and “communicable diseases” from Amazon . He also managed a global position in Amazon sales higher than these books, the printing date coincided with the Horowitz book and also enjoyed the support of major publishers and critics, unlike Emerging Viruses.

Adherents of the “conspiracy theories” consider the rejection of these by the mainstream as a test of its validity, sales of Emerging Virusesare perhaps a rough indicator of this trend.

Theories of the book on the contamination of the vaccines were observed with approval in AIDS in Africa: How the Poor are Dying (2006) (AIDS in Africa: How to die poor), in a passage that gave strong support to theories iatrogenic of AIDS . He was also quoted in summary form in the book Facing a Pandemic: The African Church and the Crisis of HIV / AIDS (Facing the Pandemic: The African Church and the Crisis of HIV / AIDS), a list of alternative theories and urban legends about the origins of the AIDS pandemic, as to the African origins. Horowitz’s book is also quoted in The Immunization Resource Guide (The Immunization Resource Guide: Where to find answers to all your questions about child vaccinations without editing Castilian) by Diane Rozario . Rozario is skeptical about Horowitz’s theories for the deliberate creation of the virus, but more receptive to his speculations on an iatrogenic accidental.

Emerging Viruses is cited and discussed in several books on conspiracy theories , with approval in most cases because its authors are conspiracy theorists; sort is interlaced at least for their theories. Among those who study conspiracy theories from the mainstream of social psychology , Horowitz seems to be adopted, with a few others of the genre who are endowed with a convincing legacy of the early career scientist and academic style within the major streams of research.

Claiming the treatment for SARS [ edit ]

Spread of SARS. On February 21, a Chinese doctor, after contact with patients from the province of Guangdong, agreed at the Metropole Hotel in Hong Kong with 12 people at 24 hours were infected and carried the disease to Singapore, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Ireland, Canada and the United States, directly or indirectly infecting more than 350 people. WHO believes more than 4,000 cases worldwide come from this source.

In a press release dated 6 May 2003 , Dr. Horowitz on his website (now fall) Healthy World Distributing , LLC, announced that together with its partner naturopath Joseph Puleo and others had developed the cure for SARS . The press mentioned both experimental evidence of the efficacy of a component of a remedy against cultured coronavirus , as the results of studies conducted by Puleo supposedly on patients infected with coronavirus. The theory of the cause of the SARS coronavirus was announced on 24 May 2002 . Thus, Healthy World Distributing claimed an “effective treatment” just six weeks after the initial identification of the virus, which caught the attention of the press. In early 2008 there is still no recognized treatment for SARS, other measures to reduce fever.

The aforementioned remedies had all the name “Urbani” in all its varieties. This name was an obvious reference where “recognize” Carlo Urbani , who first identified himself to the WHO ( World Health Organization ) and after SARS spread of a new, infectious and lethal diseaseChina to Vietnam . The same Urbani SARS died shortly afterwards, on 29 March 2003 . However, the press release does not mention the role of Urbani syndrome to identify as such. Rather, it is referred to as “one of the first victims” of SARS and physician who had been treating patients. In 2004 , the FDA sent a letter to Dr. Horowitz warning about its marketing of supposed remedies for SARS. In response to a notice from the FTC on 12 May 2003 , Horowitz replica [15] the same day, extensively in one of their pages now falls, CureforSARS.net (accessed 04-11-08, offers Viagra). After referring to the research that supported Horowitz as his remedy for SARS, wrote:

“We do not recognize the FDA, or” commission “in collaboration under this notice, rather than as an irresponsible authority, lost and maldirigida; … the insidious hidden economic motive behind his political ad is transparent to consumers and researchers cults and suppliers of natural products for health care. “
Such commercial interference, supposedly in defense of American consumers and public health , is rooted in the Codex Alimentarius , the global Anglo-American legislation that seeks to control all natural cures and treatments not covered by patents in favor of multinational pharmaceutical companies (better calls the petrochemical-pharmaceutical cartel global). “

Horowitz seems still proclaiming remedies for SARS are similar if not identical in composition to the formula of “Urbani”.

Racial Controversies 

Nation of Islam Flag

Horowitz has been cited as an influence in the decision to Nation of Islam to convene a boycott programs vaccination Americans:

Horowitz … reports on the genocidal inclination of governments and pharmaceutical companies have been adopted by Nation of Islam . As Horowitz has in the extended edition of Emerging Viruses, published in 1998 , was invited by Alim Muhammad , Minister of Health of Nation of Islam, to make a speech at a meeting led by Louis Farrakhan , honorable minister of the organization.

Convinced by Horowitz reports of hazardous contamination with viruses, possibly produced by man, vaccines, Nation of Islam boycott recommended mandatory vaccination program for children in the United States . In early 2004 , in a Nation of Islam publication of The Final Call (The last call), the following about Horowitz wrote:

In his book of 2001 titled Death in the Air: Globalism, Terrorism and Toxic Warfare (Death in the Air: globalization , terrorism and war toxic , no Castilian edition), Dr. Horowitz concludes that the preference of AIDS by African Americans and African is the most likely outcome of the successful policies ofnational security ordered during the administration of Richard M. Nixon and Jimmy Carter , leaving little room for argument that denies the intent to kill globally with blacks.
Dr. Horowitz said the national security documents reveal how intentional objective of their plans for population control African Americans and Africans, including depopulation, as has been carried out with the epidemic of AIDS today. He said all the socio-political and economic consequences secretly planned for black people in the Diaspora and the African continent by intelligence agencies during those two administrations have become reality.
In the early seventies, Dr. Horowitz wrote that the National Security Memorandum 200, promoted by Henry Kissinger , National Security Advisor to Nixon, summoning massive depopulation of the “third world” to sustain economic alignment of the superpowers .
Zbigniew Brezinski who replaced Kissinger in the Carter administration, promoted secretly among the heads of the Cabinet Memorandum 46 National Security, where he authorized the FBI and CIA (Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency) to initiate genocidal policies.
Horowitz said the security policies of Kissinger specifically affirmed the need to reduce the African population, and that the memorandum of Brezinski explained thatnationalism black a threat to American security and the economy.

The Rev. Jeremiah Wright

On 27 April 2008 , the Rev. Jeremiah Wright , former pastor of Barack Obama , asked the program’s host Q & A (from the cable network C-SPAN ) held at the National Press Club in relation to the controversy provoked for their opinions:

“In his sermon said the government had lied about the creation of HIV as weapon of genocide against the black population, so I wonder, do you honestly believe this statement of yours? “

In his response quoted Wright Horowitz’s book Emerging Viruses:

“The one who asks this question has read the book of Horowitz Emerging Viruses:. AIDS and Ebola I’ve read different things As I tell my parishioners, if you have not read you can not judge Views. Tuskegee experiment and what has them happened to Africans in this country, I believe our government is capable of doing anything. “

References in popular culture 

Has commented on the appearance of a copy of Emerging Viruses in the movie I am Legend ( I Am Legend ). The idea that the film is loosely based on the work of Dr. Horowitz has been pointed out in the comments of a popular blog [16] . However, these reports source seems to be mainly the same Horowitz. In a press release of 27 September 2006published in one of their websites, prominently carried the following statement:

“The Warner Brothers a copy of Emerging Viruses sought: AIDS & Ebola for the film I Am Legend, starring Will Smith “.

With the formulation of the title and text of the statement and omitting the actual plot of the movie, Horowitz could imply that it was based on his book. However, in the first paragraph of the title takes place where it points out that substituting for the title in a scene.

“The Warner Brothers has requested permission to film the book Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola-Nature, Accident or Intentional Leonard G. Horowitz for a scene from I Am Legend?”.

The continuous statement saying: “This nonfiction book complements this story and sci-fi thriller about a virus that has been released intentionally to decimate the population”, which can be read as a further contradiction to any idea that film was based on the book, and therefore as a correction of such an impression. However, the statement did not clearly explain that only a copy of the book appeared in the film, leaving uncertain whether this copy was only part of the props.

The film obviously plays the novel Richard Matheson ‘s Horowitz’s book, which is written as a personal report on the investigation of the AIDS and Ebola . No more references found on the internet to report having seen the book cover in the film. It seems, then, that Warner Brothers just bought a copy of the book for use as props , and, accordingly asked permission to Horowitz. The film makes no reference to Horowitz in the credits. In any case, the shooting had begun by mid October 2006 . While Horowitz speaks of a “deliberate release” of the virus in the film, this is not clear whether it was, or whether it had escaped of any laboratory or clinical trial ; is an artificially created virus but with the original purpose of preventing and curing cancer , not for biological warfare or genocide. The protagonist of the film, Will Smith, was quoted in 1999 in the magazine Vanity Fair saying “possibly AIDS arose from experiments for biological warfareas Horowitz says. However, it is unclear whether Will Smith will develop this thought after reading the book of Horowitz or who had anything to do with the appearance of the book in the film.

Ebola, AIDS Manufactured By Western Pharmaceuticals, US DoD?

Scientists allege deadly diseases such as Ebola and AIDS are bio weapons being tested on Africans. Other reports have linked the Ebola virus outbreak to an attempt to reduce Africa’s population. Liberia happens to be the continents’s fastest growing population.

Scientists Allege
By:  Dr. Cyril Broderick, Professor of Plant Pathology

Dear World Citizens:

I have read a number of articles from your Internet outreach as well as articles from other sources about the casualties in Liberia and other West African countries about the human devastation caused by the Ebola virus. About a week ago, I read an article published in the Internet news summary publication of the Friends of Liberia that said that there was an agreement that the initiation of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa was due to the contact of a two-year old child with bats that had flown in from the Congo. That report made me disconcerted with the reporting about Ebola, and it stimulated a response to the “Friends of Liberia,” saying that African people are not ignorant and gullible, as is being implicated. A response from Dr. Verlon Stone said that the article was not theirs, and that “Friends of Liberia” was simply providing a service. He then asked if he could publish my letter in their Internet forum. I gave my permission, but I have not seen it published. Because of the widespread loss of life, fear, physiological trauma, and despair among Liberians and other West African citizens, it is incumbent that I make a contribution to the resolution of this devastating situation, which may continue to recur, if it is not properly and adequately confronted. I will address the situation in five (5) points:
Horowitz (1998) was deliberate and unambiguous when he explained the threat of new diseases in his text, Emerging Viruses: AIDS and Ebola – Nature, Accident or Intentional. In his interview with Dr. Robert Strecker in Chapter 7, the discussion, in the early 1970s, made it obvious that the war was between countries that hosted the KGB and the CIA, and the ‘manufacture’ of ‘AIDS-Like Viruses’ was clearly directed at the other. In passing during the Interview, mention was made of Fort Detrick, “the Ebola Building,” and ‘a lot of problems with strange illnesses’ in “Frederick [Maryland].” By Chapter 12 in his text, he had confirmed the existence of an American Military-Medical-Industry that conducts biological weapons tests under the guise of administering vaccinations to control diseases and improve the health of “black Africans overseas.” The book is an excellent text, and all leaders plus anyone who has interest in science, health, people, and intrigue should study it. I am amazed that African leaders are making no acknowledgements or reference to these documents.
I am now reading The Hot Zone, a novel, by Richard Preston (copyrighted 1989 and 1994); it is heart-rending. The prolific and prominent writer, Steven King, is quoted as saying that the book is “One of the most horrifying things I have ever read. What a remarkable piece of work.” As a New York Times bestseller, The Hot Zone is presented as “A terrifying true story.” Terrifying, yes, because the pathological description of what was found in animals killed by the Ebola virus is what the virus has been doing to citizens of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia in its most recent outbreak: Ebola virus destroys peoples’ internal organs and the body deteriorates rapidly after death. It softens and the tissues turn into jelly, even if it is refrigerated to keep it cold. Spontaneous liquefaction is what happens to the body of people killed by the Ebola virus! The author noted in Point 1, Dr. Horowitz, chides The Hot Zone for writing to be politically correct; I understand because his book makes every effort to be very factual. The 1976 Ebola incident in Zaire, during President Mobutu Sese Seko, was the introduction of the GMO Ebola to Africa.
The World Health Organization (WHO) and several other UN Agencies have been implicated in selecting and enticing African countries to participate in the testing events, promoting vaccinations, but pursuing various testing regiments. The August 2, 2014 article, West Africa: What are US Biological Warfare Researchers Doing in the Ebola Zone? by Jon Rappoport of Global Research pinpoints the problem that is facing African governments.
Obvious in this and other reports are, among others:
(a) The US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), a well-known centre for bio-war research, located at Fort Detrick, Maryland;
(b) Tulane University, in New Orleans, USA, winner of research grants, including a grant of more than $7 million the National Institute of Health (NIH) to fund research with the Lassa viral hemorrhagic fever;
(c) the US Center for Disease Control (CDC);
(d) Doctors Without Borders (also known by its French name, Medicins Sans Frontiers);
(e) Tekmira, a Canadian pharmaceutical company;
(f) The UK’s GlaxoSmithKline; and
(g) the Kenema Government Hospital in Kenema, Sierra Leone.
Reports narrate stories of the US Department of Defense (DoD) funding Ebola trials on humans, trials which started just weeks before the Ebola outbreak in Guinea and Sierra Leone. The reports continue and state that the DoD gave a contract worth $140 million dollars to Tekmira, a Canadian pharmaceutical company, to conduct Ebola research. This research work involved injecting and infusing healthy humans with the deadly Ebola virus. Hence, the DoD is listed as a collaborator in a “First in Human” Ebola clinical trial (NCT02041715, which started in January 2014 shortly before an Ebola epidemic was declared in West Africa in March. Disturbingly, many reports also conclude that the US government has a viral fever bioterrorism research laboratory in Kenema, a town at the epicentre of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The only relevant positive and ethical olive-branch seen in all of my reading is that Theguardian.com reported, “The US government funding of Ebola trials on healthy humans comes amid warnings by top scientists in Harvard and Yale that such virus experiments risk triggering a worldwide pandemic.” That threat still persists.
The U. S., Canada, France, and the U. K. are all implicated in the detestable and devilish deeds that these Ebola tests are. There is the need to pursue criminal and civil redress for damages, and African countries and people should secure legal representation to seek damages from these countries, some corporations, and the United Nations. Evidence seems abundant against Tulane University, and suits should start there. Yoichi Shimatsu’s article, The Ebola Breakout Coincided with UN Vaccine Campaigns, as published on August 18, 2014, in the Liberty Beacon.
Africa must not relegate the Continent to become the locality for disposal and the deposition of hazardous chemicals, dangerous drugs, and chemical or biological agents of emerging diseases. There is urgent need for affirmative action in protecting the less affluent of poorer countries, especially African citizens, whose countries are not as scientifically and industrially endowed as the United States and most Western countries, sources of most viral or bacterial GMOs that are strategically designed as biological weapons. It is most disturbing that the U. S. Government has been operating a viral hemorrhagic fever bioterrorism research laboratory in Sierra Leone. Are there others? Wherever they exist, it is time to terminate them. If any other sites exist, it is advisable to follow the delayed but essential step: Sierra Leone closed the US bioweapons lab and stopped Tulane University for further testing.
The world must be alarmed. All Africans, Americans, Europeans, Middle Easterners, Asians, and people from every conclave on Earth should be astonished. African people, notably citizens more particularly of Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone are victimized and are dying every day. Listen to the people who distrust the hospitals, who cannot shake hands, hug their relatives and friends. Innocent people are dying, and they need our help. The countries are poor and cannot afford the whole lot of personal protection equipment (PPE) that the situation requires. The threat is real, and it is larger than a few African countries. The challenge is global, and we request assistance from everywhere, including China, Japan, Australia, India, Germany, Italy, and even kind-hearted people in the U.S., France, the U.K., Russia, Korea, Saudi Arabia, and anywhere else whose desire is to help. The situation is bleaker than we on the outside can imagine, and we must provide assistance however we can. To ensure a future that has less of this kind of drama, it is important that we now demand that our leaders and governments be honest, transparent, fair, and productively engaged. They must answer to the people. Please stand up to stop Ebola testing and the spread of this dastardly disease.
Thank you very much.
Dr. Cyril E. Broderick, Sr.

U.S. Government Caught Using Humanitarian HIV Program As Front To Foster Cuban Dissent  

 by Tyler Durden

Submitted by Mike Krieger of Liberty Blitzkrieg blog,

Regular readers of Liberty Blitzkrieg will recall that earlier this year I highlighted how the U.S. government covertly created a “Cuban Twitter” called ZunZuneo in a failed attempt to overthrow the island nation’s regime. The elaborate plot was implemented under the umbrella of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), which is responsible for overseeing billions of dollars in U.S. humanitarian aid. If you need a refresher, check out the post: Conspiracy Fact – How the U.S. Government Covertly Invented a “Cuban Twitter” to Create Revolution.

Well we now know that USAID went a lot further than that. Another scheme to unseat the Cuban government has now been revealed. This time with even more immoral foundations, and which could disrupt genuine humanitarian relief efforts the world over.

Incredibly, the U.S. government used an HIV program as a front to foster dissent amongst Cuba’s youth. The HIV-prevention workshop was even referred to as the “perfect excuse to recruit political activists.” Despicable.

From the Washington Post:

WASHINGTON — Fernando Murillo was typical of the young Latin Americans deployed to Cuba by a U.S. agency to work undercover. He had little training in the dangers of clandestine operations — or how to evade one of the world’s most sophisticated counter-intelligence services.


Their assignment was to recruit young Cubans to anti-government activism, which they did under the guise of civic programs, including an HIV prevention workshop. Murillo was instructed to check in every 48 hours and was provided with a set of security codes. “I have a headache,” for instance, meant the Costa Rican thought the Cubans were watching him and the mission should be suspended.


Over at least two years, the U.S. Agency for International Development — best known for overseeing billions of dollars in U.S. humanitarian aid — sent nearly a dozen neophytes from Venezuela, Costa Rica and Peru to gin up opposition in Cuba. The danger was apparent to USAID, if not to the young operatives: A USAID contractor, American Alan Gross, had just been hauled away to a Cuban jail for smuggling in sensitive technology. He remains there still.


USAID hired Creative Associates International, a Washington-based company, as part of a civil society program against Cuba’s communist government. The same company was central to the creation of a “Cuban Twitter” — a messaging network revealed in April by The Associated Press, designed to reach hundreds of thousands of Cubans.


According to internal documents obtained by the AP and interviews in six countries, USAID’s young operatives posed as tourists, visited college campuses and used a ruse that could undermine USAID’s credibility in critical health work around the world: An HIV-prevention workshop one called the “perfect excuse” to recruit political activists, according to a report by Murillo’s group. For all the risks, some travelers were paid as little as $5.41 an hour.


Staging a workshop as a front to subvert a foreign government risked casting suspicion on USAID’s legitimate public health mission, including a more than $3 billion annual HIV program that the agency says has helped some 50 million people in nearly 100 countries.


“These programs are in desperate need of adult supervision,” said Sen. Jeff Flake, a Republican from Arizona and longtime critic of USAID’s Cuba programs. “If you are using an AIDS workshop as a front for something else, that’s … I don’t know what to say … it’s just wrong.”

Of course, this isn’t the first time the U.S. government has used humanitarian missions as fronts to carry out intelligence work. For example, we know for a fact that the CIA set up a fake vaccination program in Pakistan in an attempt to gather intelligence on Osama bin Laden. Once the CIA was caught, it “promised to never do it again.” I guess spying on Congress wasn’t covered under that promise.

So for all the horrific crimes of the CIA at home and abroad, how many intelligence employees are behind bars? Well one in particular comes to mind. John Kiriakou, the ex-spook who heroically blew the whistle on CIA torture has been imprisoned. The torturers themselves? Not so much.